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Importance, area, and production:

Safflower was introduced as oilseed crop in Pakistan in 1960. It is mainly cultivated in
Sindh and Baluchistan Provinces. During 1997-98, total area under this crop was
1594 ha with production of 1129 tones. Safflower research work was started in 1976
at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Being drought tolerant crop it is
recommended for planting in rainfed areas. In Sindh it is cultivated on residual
moisture after rice. Safflower seed contains 26-37 % oil. Its oil is most popular for its
high quality.

Production Technology:
1. Land Selection and Preparation
Light clay to heavy clay land with good drainage system is most appropriate for this
crop. To get more production, at least one to two ploughings are sufficient. For deep
ploughing mold boald (MB) plough can be used. After this cultivator and planker are
used to make the land even and pulverized.

2. Sowing Time
a. Canal irrigated area October 20, to November 30

b. Barani area October 15, to November 15

3. Sowing Method
Like other Oilseed crops, it must be sown in lines. In barani areas, line to line distance
should be 60 centimeter (2 feet) and in irrigated areas, 45 centimeter (1.5 feet). In
proper moisture conditions, sowing may be done with hand or wheat drill.

4. Seed Rate
In barani areas the recommended seed rate varies from 6 to 7 kg and in irrigated
areas 8 to 9 kg. If the crop is cultivated by broad cost method then use 20 % more
seed (9-11 kg/ha).

5. Thinning
When the plants become 10 centimeter high, thinning may be done with hands. After
thinning plant to plant distance should be 10 to 15 centimeter so that the required
plant population may be maintained in the field. Plant population should be 167000
(60 cm x 10 cm) and 111,000 (60 cm x 15 cm) per hectare.
6. Hoeing
In the beginning, growth of safflower is slow so that the field should be clean from
weeds to have good plant establishment. In case of line sowing Rotary hoe may be
used once or twice before flower initiation.

7. Recommended Varieties
In Pakistan, the commercial varieties of safflower are Gilla, US-10, S-208 (spiny)
Thori-78 and Pawari-95 (spineless). These varieties are also recommended for dry
areas of Frontier Provence. Oilseeds Research Programme of PARC evaluated a large
number of varieties in National Uniform Yield Trials during last 3-4 years and results
show that the BI-9740 and BI-4059 are best in yield in Potohar Region.

8. Fertilization
Area Dose per acre Time of Application

DAP Urea

a. Canal irrigated One bag One bag at sowing and bed preparation

b. Barani One bag One bag at seed bed preparation

9. Irrigation
Due to its deep root zone, safflower crop can get moisture from the lower surface.
During season 2-3 irrigation are sufficient. First irrigation should be given 1-1/2 to 2
months after germination; second irrigation at flowering time and last irrigation
should be given at the seed development time.


Rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of oil in Pakistan.Rapeseed
and mustard seed is a rich source of oil and protein. The seed has oil as high as 46-
48 percent, Whole seed meal has 43.6 percent protein. Rapeseed meal is an
excellent feed for animals.

Production technology:
1. Climate:
Rapeseed is well adapted in temperate region and requires cool temperature for
vegetative and reproductive growth. The growth cycle of rapeseed may be as short
as 70 days or long as 380 days. Rapeseed and Mustard grow best under relatively
cool temperatures upto flowering. After flowering they can tolerate high temperature,
however, more heat and drought stress may result in a reduction of seed size, crop
yield and oil contents.

2. Soil:
Rapeseed-mustard can be grown on a wide range of soils including both light and
heavy type. Crop can tolerate a variable range of pH from 5.5 to 8.0. However, the
most suitable soils are those that are:

- Deep and free from hardpan, allow good taproot development, uniformly textured,
allow even establishment.

- Unlikely to crust after rain, so that the seedling can emerge easily.

- Not prompt to water logging, rapeseed will tolerate winter waterlogging. This
applies especially to B. campestris.

- Not Acidic with high aluminum and manganese levels.

3. Seedbed Preparation:
Brassica seed must be placed into a firm, moist warm aerated, well-structured
seedbed for rapid germination and seedling growth. A good seedbed for rape and
mustard should be reasonably levelled, well packed, slightly lumpy and moist within
2-5 cm of the surface. A loose seedbed with large lumps dries out quickly and affects
germination adversely. A very fine seedbed is also not suitable, as heavy rains
followed by drought may result in crust formation and impede emergence.

For optimum seed bed preparation one mould board plough 30-40 days before
planting is required to preserve moisture. At the time of planting 2-3 times cultivator
followed by planking is sufficient for seed bed preparation.

4. Sowing Time:
Timing will be influenced by soil, variety/hybrid, temperature and moisture level. The
planting schedule for different areas is as follows:

- NWFP: Mid-September to mid October

- Punjab: 1st October to 1st November

- South Punjab: Mid-October to mid November

- Sindh: Mid-October to mid November * * Balochistan: Mid-October to mid November

5. Seed Rate:
Yields are not affected significantly due to varied plant densities. Moderate
adjustments in seed rate have little effect on yield. Thin crop stand compensate by
extra branching. However, recommended seeding rates is 1.5 to 2.0 kg/acre.

- Lower than normal seed rate will help to reduce lodging and harvest.

- Seed rate above 2.5 kg/acre will result in tall spindly plants prone to lodging.

- Increased seed rate suppresses weed infestation. At NARC, it has been observed
that dense crop stand discourages too many branching and crop matures more
uniformly which facilitate combining.

6. Method of Planting:
For obtaining higher yield and better crop management, Rapeseed-mustard should
be grown in rows. Optimum row spacing is 30 to 45 cm through a grain box of
standard wheat sowing equipment by doing required adjustments for row spacing
and placement of seed at uniform depth.

Production and Area under

It is cultivated over an area of 307,000 hectares with annual production of 233,000
tonnes and contribute about 17% to the domestic production of edible oil.