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UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI`I AT MĀNOA

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
MASTERS PROGRAM

321 COUNTDOWN
ANALYSIS RECOMMENDATIONS
REPORT

Prepared by
Dain A. Shimabuku

for
Central Curriculum Office for the State Department of Education

Maui, Hawaii December 2009


Memorandum

The Central Curriculum office for the State Department of Education is currently

developing a professional development program for teachers who work in remote regions

in the state. The purpose is to help teachers lean how to use 321 Countdown, a tool for

assessing math K-6. Teachers at these rural schools find it difficult to attend professional

development activities due to their location. At this time the goal is to pilot the program

in a few schools with the overall intention to implement statewide. Don Garthon, an

instructional design instructor at a local university and Susan Harper, a recent graduate

student are developing professional development activities to assist in implementing the

321 Countdown program.


Table of Contents

Needs Assessment……………………………………………………….. pg. 1


Gap Analysis…………………………………………………….. pg. 1

Task Analysis……………………………………………………………. pg. 2

Learner and Context Analysis…………………………………………… pg. 3


Learner Analysis………………………………………………… pg. 3
Performance Context……………………………………………. pg. 4
Learning Context………………………………………………... pg. 4

Social Factors……………………………………………………………. pg. 6


Adoption Analysis………………………………………………. pg. 6
Identifying Adopters…………………………………….. pg. 6

Implementation………………………………………………………….. pg. 10

References……………………………………………………………….. pg. 11
Needs Assessment
According to Rouda and Kusy (1995), “A Needs Assessment is a systematic

exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These “things” are usually

associated with organizational and/or individual performance.” Needs assessment is the

first step that must be done prior to analyzing and implementation. A gap analysis is

performed in a needs assessment

a. Gap Analysis
According to Rouda and Kusy (1995), “The difference the “gap” between current

and necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.” A gap analysis identifies

the current situation and the desired situation. The outcome of the analysis reveals

strengths, problems or deficits, opportunities, and impending changes.

Identifying the gap before implementing 321 Countdown will reveal where the

program will help teachers in assessment. It will reveal strengths and areas of where

improvement is important. Performing the gap analysis will display future concerns and it

provides a general timeline for addressing the concerns.

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Task Analysis:
The purpose of a task analysis is to determine what you expect the learner is

going to learn and how they are going to apply what is learned. As Jonnassen et al.

(1999) stated, “Task Analysis for instructional design is a process of analyzing and

articulating the kind of learning that you expect the learners to know how to perform”

(p.3). A task analysis determines instructional goals, objectives, tasks, learning outcomes,

order of tasks, and assesses ones learning and media environment. Performing a task

analysis may reveal the necessary tools for this project to be successful. A task analysis

may disclose hidden challenges as well as recommend various alternatives to what the

end users need.

The end users in this situation are the teachers who will use the 321 Countdown

program. According to Hodell (2006), “Four levels of detail exist in a task analysis: job,

task, skill, and subskill.” Identifying the tasks of the teachers who will learn and utilize

the program is valuable to implementing the program. Consider the following example:

Job: Math Teacher


Task: Utilize 321 Countdown to assess addition and subtraction through counting
by ones.
Skills: Monitoring students in addition and subtraction
Subskill: Monitor one student and assist in addition and subtraction when needed

Often overlooked in instructional design is the importance of communication with

end users. Tosca is quoted as saying, “effective communication among all individuals is

an essential skill that is becoming more important as we move to a wider base of workers

and businesses.” (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007 p. 115). Communicating with end users on

what is effective and inefficient will reveal what needs to be improved to be successful.

Understanding how end users learn may assist in a successful implementation of the 321

Countdown state wide.

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Learner and Context Analysis:
a. Learner Analysis
Performing an analysis on learners provides how they learn and how to improve

individual learning environments. Factors such as motivation, entry behaviors, prior

knowledge, learning preference, attitudes toward trainers, and group characteristics may

influence the outcome of the project. Motivated learners will determine the success of

the project. If one is determine and engaged in the content being provided they will be

motivated to learn. Entry behaviors and prior knowledge allows the designer to determine

the level of mastery that the learners acquire. Lecture, web-based, workshops, or web

instruction determines ones learning preference. Attitude towards trainers determines the

type of personalities you will be interacting with. Group characteristics determine they

type of population you are working with.

Collecting information on the rural teachers can be in the form of surveys or

questionnaires. According to Hodell (2006), “Open-ended questions lead to open-ended

answers, but for quantifiable data, designers must ask quantifiable questions and supply

specific ranges of answers” (p.32). When developing questions provide rating questions

that allows you to measure the answer provided by the teachers. You may want to ask

teachers this question:

How would you assess your ability to use computer technology?


(a) no problems, (b) minor problems, (c) many problems, (d) nothing but
problems.

Asking questions that are ratable allows you to view the strength and weakness of

the teacher’s technology skill level. You may want to ask questions on their learning

environment, internet connection, attitude, target population, and learning preference.

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b. Performance Context:
Performance Context is analyzing the end users work environment following the

completion of instruction. The work environment deals with managerial support, tools or

resources, social aspects, relevancy, and constraints. This allows the designer to consider

the areas where the end users work whether it’s social, relevant, or physical constraints. It

also allows the designer to take into account the tools or resources that are available or

necessary upon completion of the instruction.

The locations of the schools involved in the implementation of the program have

been the grounds for initializing this program. Understanding the resources that are

available and needed is essential to sustaining the program. According to Virginia Tech

Universities Instructional Technology program (2009), “Describe the context in which

the learners will use their new skills and knowledge after the instruction is completed.”

It’s important to determine how teachers will use the 321 Countdown program and

implement it in math assessment.

c. Learning Context:
According to Virginia Tech Universities Instructional Technology program

(2009), “The context in which learning will occur may affect the accomplishment of your

goal.” It’s important to identify the resources that are available at each site.

Each school across the state differs whether it’s the amount of teachers or the

technological resources that are available to them. The schools that are pilot schools

should represent the characteristics of schools that are going to utilize the program

statewide. When the implementation of 321 Countdown goes state wide it’s important to

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take in effect on how rural teachers are going to be trained. Since location and time is an

issue the evaluation of online training needs to be taken into consideration.

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Social Factors
It’s important to take in social factors when implementing a new program that

will change a task. According to Havelock (pg, 118), “It is impossible to understand how

individuals adopt without also considering the social relationships and group structures

which bind individuals together.” A group of people usually have common issues such as

interests, needs, and backgrounds. Identifying groups and their issues gives the designer

insight to utilize effective pathways in implementation.

a. Adoption Analysis
i. Identifying Adopters
According to Edmonds (1999), “When a technological innovation is

introduced into an organizational system, some individuals within the

organization are more open to adaptation than others.” Identifying the individuals

who are willing to accept new technology may be interested in the initial

implementation phase.

When choosing schools that are piloting the 321 Countdown programs it’s

important to ensure they are interested in change. According to Edmonds (1999),

“Faculty and staff development is a change process that must be carefully

planned, managed, and evaluated; it should not only improve instructional and

organizational processes, but also create an environment amenable to innovation

and change.” When adopting a new system people are categorized according to

their interests and personality. There are five categories innovators, early

adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards

a. Innovators
Innovators are willing to try new technology or new ideas.

According to Rogers (1995), “Their interest in new ideas leads them out of

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a local circle of peer networks and into more cosmopolite social

relationships.” If the adoption is proves to be ineffective the innovators

will not feel dejected.

When implementing the program into the pilot schools it is

important to identify the innovators. The innovators will take risks and

implement the system. Innovators will also provide feedback for areas of

strengths and weaknesses. If successful innovators could be the spokes

person for school wide and state wide implementation.

b. Early Adopters
“The early adopters have a high degree of opinion leadership.”

Rogers (1995). They set an example for others and provide confidence for

adopting innovation. Often time’s early adopters are highly respected and

considered to be successful by their peers.

Identifying the early adopters in pilot schools will increase the

probability of school wide innovation. Highly respected people are often

leaders in the school and senior teachers. If these teachers approve of the

321 Countdown program it allows other teachers and leaders to accept the

program.

c. Early Majority
Noted as cautious or vigilant to change the early majority need

some time to analyze innovation. According to Rogers (1995), “The early

majority may deliberate for some time before completely adopting a new

idea.” The early majority is often characterized as seldom leaders but is

willing to accept new ideas.

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Identifying early majority increases the likelihood of successful

adoptions. Teachers who are mentees are often identified as early majority

since their mentors usually hold leadership positions.

d. Late Majority
Late Majority often feels pressured by peers to change since they

make up one third of the system; the early majority is another third.

According to Rogers (1995), “Innovations are approached with a skeptical

and cautious air, and the late majority do not adopt until most others in

their system have already done so.” The majority of the system must favor

the innovation for the late majority to adopt change.

Identifying late majority in the school system infers that the

innovation has been adopted. The early and late majority make up two

thirds of the system which means the chances of the innovation being

adopted has increased.

e. Laggards
Last in the system of adoption are the laggards. According to

Edmonds (1999), “The Laggards’ adoption of innovations, technologies,

and programs lags behind their awareness and knowledge of innovation.”

They often have no leadership position and are suspicious of change.

When laggards’ accept change a new innovation may already have been

introduced and started by the innovators.

Laggards in a school system may be those whom are indirectly

affected by the change. These may include support staff, educational

assistants, as well as parents of the students. Once the 321 Countdown

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program is accepted by laggards the adoption of the innovation is

complete.

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Implementation
Often used in instructional design is the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is

referred to analysis, design, development, and evaluation. This report recommended steps

and rationale to completing an analysis for the Central Curriculum office for the State

Department of Education innovation of the 321 Countdown program for assessing math.

Upon completion of the analysis data should recommend the next two steps before

implementation, design and development.

When designing instruction the designer must consider all recommendations from

the analysis. In this stage objectives and content is written. Using the ABCD’s (Audience,

Behavior, Condition, and Degree) format to create objectives should be considered. An

outline is created with specifications to complete the project.

The development stage is where materials are produced and pilot testing begins.

Identifying innovators play an important role in the pilot testing. According to Hodell,

“The pilot testing process allows organizations to implement any necessary changes in

the project before the expenses associated with materials development are realized.” (pg.

13). If pilot testing is deemed successful the next step of implementation can occur.

The implementation stage is where the content is delivered to the learner. In this

stage it’s important to evaluate if objectives are being met. Assisting in the effectiveness

of the implementation process could be Kirkpatrick’s levels of evaluation.

It is recommended to do a complete analysis prior to moving on to the design,

development, and implementation stage. Performing a proper analysis may reveal the

necessary needs, tasks, learner’s ability, and how adoption occurs when a change or

innovation is introduced.

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References

Dabbagh, N. (2009). The Instructional Design Knowledge Base. Retrieved December, 9,


2009 from Nada Dabbagh's Homepage, George Mason University, Instructional
Technology Program. Website:
http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/index.htm

Ertmer., P.A., & Quinn, James. (2007). The Id Casebook Case Studies in Instructional
Design. Columbus, OH: Pearson .

Gerald S. Edmonds "Making Change Happen: Planning for Success" The Technology
Source, March 1999. Available online at
http://ts.mivu.org/default.asp?show=article&id=1034.

Havelock, R.G. (1973). Diagnosis: from pains to problems to objectives. The Change
Agent's Guide to Innovation in Education,

Havelock, R.G. (1973). Gaining Acceptance. The Change Agent's Guide to Innovation in
Education,

Hodell., C. (2006). ISD From The Ground up. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.

Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and
technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Rogers, E. (1995). Difference of innovations. New York, NY: The Free Press

Rouda, R. H., & Kusy Jr., M. E. (1995). Needs assessment the first step. Development of
Human Resources, 2. Retrieved from http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~rouda/T2_NA.html

Virginia Tech, Initials. (n.d.). Lesson 5- learner and context analysis. Retrieved from
http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/instrdes/lesson5.htm

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