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Appendix I

Summary of
stability formulae*
Form coefficients
Area of waterplane  L  B  Cw
Area of amidships  B  d  Cm
Volume of displacement  L  B  d  Cb
Cb  Cm  C p

Drafts
When displacement is constant (for box shapes):

New draft Old density



Old draft New density
When draft is constant:

New displacement New density



Old displacement Old density
WPA
TPCSW 
97.56
W
FWA 
4  TPCSW
FWA (1025   DW )
Change of draft or dock water allowance 
25
Homogeneous log:

Draft Relative density of log



Depth Relative density of water

* See Note at end of the Appendix


486 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Variable immersion hydrometer:

My
Density 
 M y  M x 
M y  x  
 L 

Trim
W  GM L
MCTC 
100  L
Trimming moment
Change of trim  or
MCTC
W  (LCB foap  LCG foap )
MCTC
l
Change of draft aft   Change of trim
L
Change of draft forward  Change of trim  Change of draft aft

Effect of trim on tank soundings:

Head when full Trim



Length of tank Length of ship

True mean draft:

Correction Trim

FY Length

To keep the draft aft constant:

MCTC  L
d
TPC  l

To find GML:

GM L L

GG1 t

Simpson’s rules
1st rule:

Area ⫽ h/3 (a ⫹ 4b ⫹ 2c ⫹ 4d ⫹ e) or 1
3
 CI  兺1
Summary of stability formulae 487

2nd rule:

Area ⫽ 3h/8 (a ⫹ 3b ⫹ 3c ⫹ 2d ⫹ 3e ⫹ 3f ⫹ g) or 3
8
 CI  兺2

3rd rule:

Area ⫽ h/12 (5a ⫹ 8b  c) or 1


12
 CI  兺3

KB and BM

Transverse stability
For rectangular waterplanes:

LB 3
I⫽
12
BM ⫽ I/V

For box shapes:

BM ⫽ B 2/12d
KB ⫽ d/2
KM min ⫽ B/ 6

For triangular prisms:

BM  B 2/6d
KB  2d/3
Depth of centre of buoyancy 1 d V
  ⫹ 

below the waterline 32 A 

Longitudinal stability
For rectangular waterplanes:

BL3
IL 
12
I
BM L  L
V

For box shapes:

L2
BM L 
12d
488 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

For triangular prisms:


L2
BM L 
6d

Transverse statical stability


Moment of statical stability  W  GZ
At small angles of heel:
GZ  GM  sin 

By wall-sided formula:
1
GZ  (GM  2
BM tan 2 ) sin 

By Attwood’s formula:

v  hh1
GZ   BG sin 
V
Stability curves:

New GZ  Old GZ  GG1 sin heel or


New GZ  KN  KG sin heel
Dynamical stability  W  Area under stability curve
 v(gh  g1 h1 ) 
 W  BG(1  cos ) 
 V 

Total VHM Total VHM


lo  l40  lo  0.8 Actual HM 
SF  W SF
Actual HM
Approx angle of heel   12°
Maximum permissible HM
Approx angle of  due to grain shift
Reduction in GZ  (GG H  cos )  (GG V  sin )

W  ship displacement in tonnes


GG H  horiz movement of ‘G’
GG V  vert movement of ‘G’
lo  righting arm @   0° (if upright ship)
l40  righting arm @   40°
HM  heeling moment
SF  stowage factor
VHM  volumetric heeling moment
Summary of stability formulae 489

List
Final moment
Final KG 
Final displacement
wd
GG1 
Final W
GG1
tan list 
GM

Increase in draft due to list:

New draft  1  b  sin   (d) cos  . . . Rise of floor is zero put ‘r’ in if
2
rise of floor exists. (measured at full Br. Mld)

Inclining experiment:
GM Length of plumbline

GG1 Deflection

Effect of free surface


lb3  1
Virtual loss of GM    2
12 W n

Drydocking and grounding


Upthrust at stern:
MCTC  t
P⫽
l
or
P ⫽ Old ⫺ New displacement

P  KM
Virtual loss of GM 
W
P  KG
or 
WP

Pressure of liquids
Pressure (P)  Dwg
Thrust  P  Area
I WL
Depth of centre of pressure 
AZ
490 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Bilging and permeability



S
Permeability   100 per cent
SF
v
Increase in draft 
A  a

Strength of ships
Load
Stress 
Area
Change in length y
Strain  
Original length R

Young’s modulus:
Stress
E
Strain
Bending moment:

E
M I
R
I
Section modulus 
Y
Shearing stress:

F y
q
It
Stress:

E
f  y
R

Freeboard marks
1
Distance Summer LL to Winter LL  48
 Summer draft

Distance Summer LL to Tropical LL  418  Summer draft

Ship squat
bT
Blockage factor 
BH
C  S 0.81  Vk2.08
max  b
20
Summary of stability formulae 491

yo ⫽ H ⫺ T
y 2 ⫽ y o ⫺ ␦max
As  b  T
Ac  B  H

In open water:

C b  Vk2
max 
100
In confined channel:

C b  Vk2
max 
50
Width of influence ⫽ 7.7 ⫹ 20 (1  C b)2

Miscellaneous
Angle of loll:

2  GM
tan loll 
BM T
2  initial GM
GM 
cos loll

Heel due to turning:

v 2  BG
tan heel 
g  r  GM

Rolling period:

k 2k
T  2  approx
g  GM GM

Zero GM:

2wd
tan list ⫽ 3
W  BM

Theorem of parallel axes:

I CG ⫽ I OZ ⫺ Ay 2
492 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

or

I NA  I xx  Ay 2

Permeability (␮)

BS 
Permeability   100 per cent Increase in draft 
SF A  a
Volume available for water
Permeability ( )   100
Volume available for cargo
SF of cargo  solid factor
Permeability ( )   100
SF of cargo
1
Solid factor  Effective length  l 
RD
Volume of bilged compartment 
Sinkage 
Intact waterplane area
BB H
Tan  
GM bilged

Drafts and trim considerations


l1
Correction to observed drafts   Trim
L1

d FP  (6  d m )  d AP
Midships draft corrected for deflection 
8

Correction of midships draft


Distance of LCF from midships  Trim
to true mean draft when 
LCF is not at amidships LBP

Second trim correction for position of LCF, if trimmed


hydrostatics are not supplied a (form correction)
True trim  (MCTC2  MCTC1 )

2  TPC  LBP

50  (True trim )2  (MCTC2  MCTC1 )


Alternative form correction 
LBP
Summary of stability formulae 493

Note
These formulae and symbols are for guidance only and other formulae
which give equally valid results are acceptable.

Mass

Volume
substance
RD 
FW

 (L  B  d)  Cb
 
DWT    light
AW  (L  B)  CW
AW
TPC  
100

W
Sinkage/rise 
TPC
Summer
FWA 
4  TPCSW
(1025  dock )
DWA   FWA
25
MSS    GZ
GZ  GM  sin 
GZ  [GM  1–2 BM tan2 ]sin 
GZ  KN  (KG  sin )
Dynamic stability  Area under GZ curve  
1
Area under curve (SR1)   h  (y1  4y 2  y 3 )
3
3
Area under curve (SR2)   h  (y1  3y 2  3y 3  y 4 )
8
Total VHM
lo 
SF  
l40  lo  0.8

Total VHM
Actual HM 
SF
494 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Actual HM
Approx angle of heel   12°
Max permissible HM

Reduction in GZ  (GGH  cos )  (GGv  sin )

2 K K2
Rolling period T (sec)  or 2
g  GM gGM T
K2
or 2 seconds
GM T

ws
GG H/V 


i
FSC   T


l  b3
FSC   T
12  

FSM
FSC 


GG H
tan  
GM

兺 Moments
KG 
兺 Weights

兺 Moments
GG H 
兺 Weights

w  s  length
GM 
  deflection

2  GM
tan angle of loll 
BM T

2  initial GM
GM at angle of loll 
cos 

2ws
tan   3
  BM T
Summary of stability formulae 495

Draft when heeled  (Upright draft  cos )  ( 12  beam  sin )


Position of the metacentre KM T  KB  BM T
lT
BM T 

L  B3
BM T ( box) 
12  ∇

1
Distance Summer LL to Winter LL   Summer draft
48
1
Distance Summer LL to Tropical LL   Summer draft
488

KM L ⫽ KB ⫹ BM L
IL
BM L ⫽

L3  B
BM L ( box) ⫽
12  ∇

  GM L
MCTC 
100  LBP

兺 Trimming moment
CoT 
MCTC

LCF
Change of trim aft  Change of trim 
LBP
LBP  LCF
Change of trim fwd  Change of trim 
LBP
 LCF 
Turn mean draft ⫽ Draft aft ⫾  trim  
 LBP 

  (LCG ⬃ LCB)
Trim 
MCTC

Trim  MCTC
P
LCF
P  Reduction in TMD  TPC

P  KM T P  KG
Loss of GM  or
 P
496 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

v 2  BG
tan  
g  R  GM

Volume available for water


Permeability ( )   100
Volume available for cargo

1
Solid factor 
RD
SF of cargo  solid factor
Permeability ( )   100
SF of cargo

Effective length  l 

Volume of bilged compartment  permea bility ( )


Sinkage 
Intact water plane area

I parallel axis  I centroidal axis  As 2

BB H
Tan  
GM bilged

l1
Correction to observed drafts   Trim
L1

d FP  (6  d M )  d AP
Midships draft corrected for deflection 
8

Correction of midships draft to true


mean drraft when CF not midships
Distance of CF from midships  trim (true trim at perp’s)

LBP
Second trim correction for position of CF iff trimmed
hydrostatics are not supplied (form correction)
True trim  (MCTC2  MCTC1 )

2  TPC  LBP

50  true trim 2  (M
MCTC2  MCTC1 )
Alternative form correction 
LBP

Summary
Always write your formula first in letters. If you then make a mathematical
error you will at least obtain some marks for a correct formula.