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# Appendix I

Summary of
stability formulae*
Form coefficients
Area of waterplane  L  B  Cw
Area of amidships  B  d  Cm
Volume of displacement  L  B  d  Cb
Cb  Cm  C p

Drafts
When displacement is constant (for box shapes):

## New draft Old density


Old draft New density
When draft is constant:

## New displacement New density


Old displacement Old density
WPA
TPCSW 
97.56
W
FWA 
4  TPCSW
FWA (1025   DW )
Change of draft or dock water allowance 
25
Homogeneous log:

## Draft Relative density of log


Depth Relative density of water

## * See Note at end of the Appendix

486 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

## Variable immersion hydrometer:

My
Density 
 M y  M x 
M y  x  
 L 

Trim
W  GM L
MCTC 
100  L
Trimming moment
Change of trim  or
MCTC
W  (LCB foap  LCG foap )
MCTC
l
Change of draft aft   Change of trim
L
Change of draft forward  Change of trim  Change of draft aft

## Effect of trim on tank soundings:


Length of tank Length of ship

Correction Trim

FY Length

## To keep the draft aft constant:

MCTC  L
d
TPC  l

To find GML:

GM L L

GG1 t

Simpson’s rules
1st rule:

Area ⫽ h/3 (a ⫹ 4b ⫹ 2c ⫹ 4d ⫹ e) or 1
3
 CI  兺1
Summary of stability formulae 487

2nd rule:

Area ⫽ 3h/8 (a ⫹ 3b ⫹ 3c ⫹ 2d ⫹ 3e ⫹ 3f ⫹ g) or 3
8
 CI  兺2

3rd rule:

## Area ⫽ h/12 (5a ⫹ 8b  c) or 1

12
 CI  兺3

KB and BM

Transverse stability
For rectangular waterplanes:

LB 3
I⫽
12
BM ⫽ I/V

BM ⫽ B 2/12d
KB ⫽ d/2
KM min ⫽ B/ 6

## For triangular prisms:

BM  B 2/6d
KB  2d/3
Depth of centre of buoyancy 1 d V
  ⫹ 

below the waterline 32 A 

Longitudinal stability
For rectangular waterplanes:

BL3
IL 
12
I
BM L  L
V

## For box shapes:

L2
BM L 
12d
488 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

L2
BM L 
6d

## Transverse statical stability

Moment of statical stability  W  GZ
At small angles of heel:
GZ  GM  sin 

By wall-sided formula:
1
GZ  (GM  2
BM tan 2 ) sin 

By Attwood’s formula:

v  hh1
GZ   BG sin 
V
Stability curves:

## New GZ  Old GZ  GG1 sin heel or

New GZ  KN  KG sin heel
Dynamical stability  W  Area under stability curve
 v(gh  g1 h1 ) 
 W  BG(1  cos ) 
 V 

## Total VHM Total VHM

lo  l40  lo  0.8 Actual HM 
SF  W SF
Actual HM
Approx angle of heel   12°
Maximum permissible HM
Approx angle of  due to grain shift
Reduction in GZ  (GG H  cos )  (GG V  sin )

## W  ship displacement in tonnes

GG H  horiz movement of ‘G’
GG V  vert movement of ‘G’
lo  righting arm @   0° (if upright ship)
l40  righting arm @   40°
HM  heeling moment
SF  stowage factor
VHM  volumetric heeling moment
Summary of stability formulae 489

List
Final moment
Final KG 
Final displacement
wd
GG1 
Final W
GG1
tan list 
GM

## Increase in draft due to list:

New draft  1  b  sin   (d) cos  . . . Rise of floor is zero put ‘r’ in if
2
rise of floor exists. (measured at full Br. Mld)

Inclining experiment:
GM Length of plumbline

GG1 Deflection

## Effect of free surface

lb3  1
Virtual loss of GM    2
12 W n

## Drydocking and grounding

Upthrust at stern:
MCTC  t
P⫽
l
or
P ⫽ Old ⫺ New displacement

P  KM
Virtual loss of GM 
W
P  KG
or 
WP

Pressure of liquids
Pressure (P)  Dwg
Thrust  P  Area
I WL
Depth of centre of pressure 
AZ
490 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

## Bilging and permeability

S
Permeability   100 per cent
SF
v
Increase in draft 
A  a

Strength of ships
Stress 
Area
Change in length y
Strain  
Original length R

Young’s modulus:
Stress
E
Strain
Bending moment:

E
M I
R
I
Section modulus 
Y
Shearing stress:

F y
q
It
Stress:

E
f  y
R

Freeboard marks
1
Distance Summer LL to Winter LL  48
 Summer draft

## Distance Summer LL to Tropical LL  418  Summer draft

Ship squat
bT
Blockage factor 
BH
C  S 0.81  Vk2.08
max  b
20
Summary of stability formulae 491

yo ⫽ H ⫺ T
y 2 ⫽ y o ⫺ ␦max
As  b  T
Ac  B  H

In open water:

C b  Vk2
max 
100
In confined channel:

C b  Vk2
max 
50
Width of influence ⫽ 7.7 ⫹ 20 (1  C b)2

Miscellaneous
Angle of loll:

2  GM
tan loll 
BM T
2  initial GM
GM 
cos loll

v 2  BG
tan heel 
g  r  GM

Rolling period:

k 2k
T  2  approx
g  GM GM

Zero GM:

2wd
tan list ⫽ 3
W  BM

## Theorem of parallel axes:

I CG ⫽ I OZ ⫺ Ay 2
492 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

or

I NA  I xx  Ay 2

Permeability (␮)

BS 
Permeability   100 per cent Increase in draft 
SF A  a
Volume available for water
Permeability ( )   100
Volume available for cargo
SF of cargo  solid factor
Permeability ( )   100
SF of cargo
1
Solid factor  Effective length  l 
RD
Volume of bilged compartment 
Sinkage 
Intact waterplane area
BB H
Tan  
GM bilged

## Drafts and trim considerations

l1
Correction to observed drafts   Trim
L1

d FP  (6  d m )  d AP
Midships draft corrected for deflection 
8

## Correction of midships draft

Distance of LCF from midships  Trim
to true mean draft when 
LCF is not at amidships LBP

## Second trim correction for position of LCF, if trimmed

hydrostatics are not supplied a (form correction)
True trim  (MCTC2  MCTC1 )

2  TPC  LBP

## 50  (True trim )2  (MCTC2  MCTC1 )

Alternative form correction 
LBP
Summary of stability formulae 493

Note
These formulae and symbols are for guidance only and other formulae
which give equally valid results are acceptable.

Mass

Volume
substance
RD 
FW

 (L  B  d)  Cb
 
DWT    light
AW  (L  B)  CW
AW
TPC  
100

W
Sinkage/rise 
TPC
Summer
FWA 
4  TPCSW
(1025  dock )
DWA   FWA
25
MSS    GZ
GZ  GM  sin 
GZ  [GM  1–2 BM tan2 ]sin 
GZ  KN  (KG  sin )
Dynamic stability  Area under GZ curve  
1
Area under curve (SR1)   h  (y1  4y 2  y 3 )
3
3
Area under curve (SR2)   h  (y1  3y 2  3y 3  y 4 )
8
Total VHM
lo 
SF  
l40  lo  0.8

Total VHM
Actual HM 
SF
494 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Actual HM
Approx angle of heel   12°
Max permissible HM

## Reduction in GZ  (GGH  cos )  (GGv  sin )

2 K K2
Rolling period T (sec)  or 2
g  GM gGM T
K2
or 2 seconds
GM T

ws
GG H/V 


i
FSC   T


l  b3
FSC   T
12  

FSM
FSC 


GG H
tan  
GM

KG 

GG H 

w  s  length
GM 
  deflection

2  GM
tan angle of loll 
BM T

2  initial GM
GM at angle of loll 
cos 

2ws
tan   3
  BM T
Summary of stability formulae 495

## Draft when heeled  (Upright draft  cos )  ( 12  beam  sin )

Position of the metacentre KM T  KB  BM T
lT
BM T 

L  B3
BM T ( box) 
12  ∇

1
Distance Summer LL to Winter LL   Summer draft
48
1
Distance Summer LL to Tropical LL   Summer draft
488

KM L ⫽ KB ⫹ BM L
IL
BM L ⫽

L3  B
BM L ( box) ⫽
12  ∇

  GM L
MCTC 
100  LBP

CoT 
MCTC

LCF
Change of trim aft  Change of trim 
LBP
LBP  LCF
Change of trim fwd  Change of trim 
LBP
 LCF 
Turn mean draft ⫽ Draft aft ⫾  trim  
 LBP 

  (LCG ⬃ LCB)
Trim 
MCTC

Trim  MCTC
P
LCF
P  Reduction in TMD  TPC

P  KM T P  KG
Loss of GM  or
 P
496 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

v 2  BG
tan  
g  R  GM

## Volume available for water

Permeability ( )   100
Volume available for cargo

1
Solid factor 
RD
SF of cargo  solid factor
Permeability ( )   100
SF of cargo

Effective length  l 

## Volume of bilged compartment  permea bility ( )

Sinkage 
Intact water plane area

## I parallel axis  I centroidal axis  As 2

BB H
Tan  
GM bilged

l1
Correction to observed drafts   Trim
L1

d FP  (6  d M )  d AP
Midships draft corrected for deflection 
8

## Correction of midships draft to true

mean drraft when CF not midships
Distance of CF from midships  trim (true trim at perp’s)

LBP
Second trim correction for position of CF iff trimmed
hydrostatics are not supplied (form correction)
True trim  (MCTC2  MCTC1 )

2  TPC  LBP

50  true trim 2  (M
MCTC2  MCTC1 )
Alternative form correction 
LBP

Summary
Always write your formula first in letters. If you then make a mathematical
error you will at least obtain some marks for a correct formula.