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You are on page 1of 12

Summary of

stability formulae*

Form coefficients

Area of waterplane L B Cw

Area of amidships B d Cm

Volume of displacement L B d Cb

Cb Cm C p

Drafts

When displacement is constant (for box shapes):

Old draft New density

When draft is constant:

Old displacement Old density

WPA

TPCSW

97.56

W

FWA

4 TPCSW

FWA (1025 DW )

Change of draft or dock water allowance

25

Homogeneous log:

Depth Relative density of water

486 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

My

Density

M y M x

M y x

L

Trim

W GM L

MCTC

100 L

Trimming moment

Change of trim or

MCTC

W (LCB foap LCG foap )

MCTC

l

Change of draft aft Change of trim

L

Change of draft forward Change of trim Change of draft aft

Length of tank Length of ship

Correction Trim

FY Length

MCTC L

d

TPC l

To find GML:

GM L L

GG1 t

Simpson’s rules

1st rule:

Area ⫽ h/3 (a ⫹ 4b ⫹ 2c ⫹ 4d ⫹ e) or 1

3

CI 兺1

Summary of stability formulae 487

2nd rule:

Area ⫽ 3h/8 (a ⫹ 3b ⫹ 3c ⫹ 2d ⫹ 3e ⫹ 3f ⫹ g) or 3

8

CI 兺2

3rd rule:

12

CI 兺3

KB and BM

Transverse stability

For rectangular waterplanes:

LB 3

I⫽

12

BM ⫽ I/V

BM ⫽ B 2/12d

KB ⫽ d/2

KM min ⫽ B/ 6

BM B 2/6d

KB 2d/3

Depth of centre of buoyancy 1 d V

⫹

⫽

below the waterline 32 A

Longitudinal stability

For rectangular waterplanes:

BL3

IL

12

I

BM L L

V

L2

BM L

12d

488 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

L2

BM L

6d

Moment of statical stability W GZ

At small angles of heel:

GZ GM sin

By wall-sided formula:

1

GZ (GM 2

BM tan 2 ) sin

By Attwood’s formula:

v hh1

GZ BG sin

V

Stability curves:

New GZ KN KG sin heel

Dynamical stability W Area under stability curve

v(gh g1 h1 )

W BG(1 cos )

V

lo l40 lo 0.8 Actual HM

SF W SF

Actual HM

Approx angle of heel 12°

Maximum permissible HM

Approx angle of due to grain shift

Reduction in GZ (GG H cos ) (GG V sin )

GG H horiz movement of ‘G’

GG V vert movement of ‘G’

lo righting arm @ 0° (if upright ship)

l40 righting arm @ 40°

HM heeling moment

SF stowage factor

VHM volumetric heeling moment

Summary of stability formulae 489

List

Final moment

Final KG

Final displacement

wd

GG1

Final W

GG1

tan list

GM

New draft 1 b sin (d) cos . . . Rise of floor is zero put ‘r’ in if

2

rise of floor exists. (measured at full Br. Mld)

Inclining experiment:

GM Length of plumbline

GG1 Deflection

lb3 1

Virtual loss of GM 2

12 W n

Upthrust at stern:

MCTC t

P⫽

l

or

P ⫽ Old ⫺ New displacement

P KM

Virtual loss of GM

W

P KG

or

WP

Pressure of liquids

Pressure (P) Dwg

Thrust P Area

I WL

Depth of centre of pressure

AZ

490 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

S

Permeability 100 per cent

SF

v

Increase in draft

A a

Strength of ships

Load

Stress

Area

Change in length y

Strain

Original length R

Young’s modulus:

Stress

E

Strain

Bending moment:

E

M I

R

I

Section modulus

Y

Shearing stress:

F y

q

It

Stress:

E

f y

R

Freeboard marks

1

Distance Summer LL to Winter LL 48

Summer draft

Ship squat

bT

Blockage factor

BH

C S 0.81 Vk2.08

max b

20

Summary of stability formulae 491

yo ⫽ H ⫺ T

y 2 ⫽ y o ⫺ ␦max

As b T

Ac B H

In open water:

C b Vk2

max

100

In confined channel:

C b Vk2

max

50

Width of influence ⫽ 7.7 ⫹ 20 (1 C b)2

Miscellaneous

Angle of loll:

2 GM

tan loll

BM T

2 initial GM

GM

cos loll

v 2 BG

tan heel

g r GM

Rolling period:

k 2k

T 2 approx

g GM GM

Zero GM:

2wd

tan list ⫽ 3

W BM

I CG ⫽ I OZ ⫺ Ay 2

492 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

or

I NA I xx Ay 2

Permeability ()

BS

Permeability 100 per cent Increase in draft

SF A a

Volume available for water

Permeability () 100

Volume available for cargo

SF of cargo solid factor

Permeability () 100

SF of cargo

1

Solid factor Effective length l

RD

Volume of bilged compartment

Sinkage

Intact waterplane area

BB H

Tan

GM bilged

l1

Correction to observed drafts Trim

L1

d FP (6 d m ) d AP

Midships draft corrected for deflection

8

Distance of LCF from midships Trim

to true mean draft when

LCF is not at amidships LBP

hydrostatics are not supplied a (form correction)

True trim (MCTC2 MCTC1 )

2 TPC LBP

Alternative form correction

LBP

Summary of stability formulae 493

Note

These formulae and symbols are for guidance only and other formulae

which give equally valid results are acceptable.

Mass

Volume

substance

RD

FW

(L B d) Cb

DWT light

AW (L B) CW

AW

TPC

100

W

Sinkage/rise

TPC

Summer

FWA

4 TPCSW

(1025 dock )

DWA FWA

25

MSS GZ

GZ GM sin

GZ [GM 1–2 BM tan2 ]sin

GZ KN (KG sin )

Dynamic stability Area under GZ curve

1

Area under curve (SR1) h (y1 4y 2 y 3 )

3

3

Area under curve (SR2) h (y1 3y 2 3y 3 y 4 )

8

Total VHM

lo

SF

l40 lo 0.8

Total VHM

Actual HM

SF

494 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Actual HM

Approx angle of heel 12°

Max permissible HM

2K K2

Rolling period T (sec) or 2

g GM gGM T

K2

or 2 seconds

GM T

ws

GG H/V

i

FSC T

l b3

FSC T

12

FSM

FSC

GG H

tan

GM

兺 Moments

KG

兺 Weights

兺 Moments

GG H

兺 Weights

w s length

GM

deflection

2 GM

tan angle of loll

BM T

2 initial GM

GM at angle of loll

cos

2ws

tan 3

BM T

Summary of stability formulae 495

Position of the metacentre KM T KB BM T

lT

BM T

∇

L B3

BM T ( box)

12 ∇

1

Distance Summer LL to Winter LL Summer draft

48

1

Distance Summer LL to Tropical LL Summer draft

488

KM L ⫽ KB ⫹ BM L

IL

BM L ⫽

∇

L3 B

BM L ( box) ⫽

12 ∇

GM L

MCTC

100 LBP

兺 Trimming moment

CoT

MCTC

LCF

Change of trim aft Change of trim

LBP

LBP LCF

Change of trim fwd Change of trim

LBP

LCF

Turn mean draft ⫽ Draft aft ⫾ trim

LBP

(LCG ⬃ LCB)

Trim

MCTC

Trim MCTC

P

LCF

P Reduction in TMD TPC

P KM T P KG

Loss of GM or

P

496 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

v 2 BG

tan

g R GM

Permeability () 100

Volume available for cargo

1

Solid factor

RD

SF of cargo solid factor

Permeability () 100

SF of cargo

Effective length l

Sinkage

Intact water plane area

BB H

Tan

GM bilged

l1

Correction to observed drafts Trim

L1

d FP (6 d M ) d AP

Midships draft corrected for deflection

8

mean drraft when CF not midships

Distance of CF from midships trim (true trim at perp’s)

LBP

Second trim correction for position of CF iff trimmed

hydrostatics are not supplied (form correction)

True trim (MCTC2 MCTC1 )

2 TPC LBP

50 true trim 2 (M

MCTC2 MCTC1 )

Alternative form correction

LBP

Summary

Always write your formula first in letters. If you then make a mathematical

error you will at least obtain some marks for a correct formula.

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