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Engineering Procedures

for
Micro Hydropower Systems

EBARA Hatakeyama Memorial Fund


Tokyo, Japan
Micro Hydro Unit beside Irrigation Weir
A
B
Irrigation Weir C

A Intake
- whenever a weir imposes an excess head relatively to
B Lateral By-pass Canal
the downstream delivery flow, a micro unit can be
C HeadTank envisaged in order to replace a dissipation structure.
E GeneratingUnit
- along an irrigation canal system, significant difference
F Tailrace
topographic level can be used and diversion scheme can
G Transmission/Distribution Line be implemented out of irrigation period.
“Run of River” type Micro Hydro Generation
System
A Intake
B Lateral By-pass Canal
B A C Head Tank
D Penstock Pipe
C E Generating Unit
G Transmission/Distribution Line

D
G

In order to take the advantage of a local significant difference


topographic level created by a weir or a small dam, only a part of
stream flow is used to generate power.
Micro Hydro Selection Chart

Features :
-Irrigation Pump as Turbine type generating unit
-Low head range from 2(m) to 12(m) is applicable for Micro Hydro Generating Unit.
To be given
Q, Hg, L
Flow Chart of Micro Hydro
Turbine Selection
Predetermination of penstock dia.,
configuration of intake and trash rack

Calculation of Head Losses Hι


other penstock diameter

Determination of Unit Number


Calculation of Net Head He
to be installed
Selection of

Finding Unit Output from Investigation of necessity for


“SELECTION CHART” by using He and Q step-up transformer

Can Max. Unit Output get from


No Q, Hg, and L given ?

Yes
An Example of Flow Duration Curve

Hydrograph :
Hydrograph shows how flow varies
through the year and how many
months in a year that a certain flow
is exceeded.

Flow Duration Curve (FDC):


FDC can be produced by ordering
the recorded water flows from
maximum to minimum flow as
shown in this figure.
Turbine Design Flow(Qt)
Qt = Qr - Qc
Qt : Turbine Design Flow
Qr : River Flow
Qc : Compensation Flow

River Flow Duration Curve : Qr

Turbine Design Flow


Qt

Qc

Design Flow for Stand-alone System :


The design flow should be the flow that is available 95% of the time or more.
An Example of Case Study

Gross Head Hg=4.3(m)


Hydrograph at the site :
Flow (m3/s)
Spill Way at Kampong Tuol
Photo at the end of dry season
There is no spill water from Spillway.

Photo at the end of rainy season

Since the rainfall volume is


quite different at the rainy
season and dry season, the
micro hydro hybrid system with
solar and/or biomass will be
suitable for this area.

View from downstream side


Proposed location of Micro Hydro Unit

Pump Station

Irrigation Gates

Proposed Location for Micro Hydro Unit

About 100 households are located around


this bridge. Only few rich houses are
connected to private power supplier, the View from downstream side of irrigation gates
unit cost of electricity is US$0.56/kWh .
Head Losses Calculation
Existing Gates Facility

Penstock Length :
Φ450mm = 3.5m, Φ350mm = 25m

Existing Right Bank Bridge for National Siphon Intake


Power House Road No.3 Facility

Elbow②
Intake
Turbine
Screen
Generator Unit Φ350 mm Elbow③
Elbow④ H.W.L.
L.W.L.
Φ450 mm
Penstock
Hg=4.3(m)
Inlet ①

T.W.L. Reservoir

Downstream
One Unit Stand-alone System
Turbine Design Flow
Hydrograph

0.25(m3/s)

0.9
0.8
Flow Duration Curve
River Flow (m 3 /s)

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3 Turbine Design Flow(=0.25m3/s)
0.2
0.1 River Compensation Flow(=0.2m3/s)
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Days
Head Loss in the Penstock
HL1=HLp x L
where, HL1 : Head loss in the penstock(m)
HLp : Head loss per 1 m of penstock(m)
L : Total Length of Penstock(m)

0.025

D(m) L(m) HLp HL(m)


0.0072
0.45 3.5 0.0072 0.025
0.35 25.0 0.025 0.625
HLp

ΣHL1 0.650
Siphon Inlet Head Loss(HL11)

V1 2 1.572
HL11 = ζ = 0.3x 2 x 9.8 =0.038(m)
2g
ζ=0.3 Q=0.25(m3/s)
Q
V1= (π/4・D 2)
1

= 0.25 2
=1.57(m/s)
(0.785 x 0.45 )
Bend Pipe Head Losses
(HL2-4)

V2
HL= ζ
2g

D(m) V(m/s) Θ(deg) R/D ζ HL(m)


Bend② 0.45 1.57 135 0.169 0.022
Bend③ 45 2.5 0.097 0.033
0.35 2.60
Bend④ 90 0.138 0.048
ΣHL2-4 0.103
Draft Tube Outlet Head Losses(HLd)
Type : 350SZT
D1=350(mm)
D2=550(mm)

Vd 2 1.052
HLd= = =0.056(m)
2g 2 x 9.8
Q
Vd= (π/4)xD 2 =1.05(m/s)
2
Turbine Net Head (He)

He=Hg-HL=4.3-0.847=3.45(m) Say He=3.4(m)


Hg =4.3(m) : Gross Head
HL=HL11 + ΣHL1 + ΣHL2-4 + HLd
=0.038 + 0.650 + 0.103 + 0.056=0.847(m)
Rough Net Head Calculation
The Net Head(He) can calculate roughly by “Table 1” and Fig.4

He=Hg – (ΣHL2-4 + Hι2)=4.3 -(0.650 + 0.17)=3.48(m)


Fig.4 Table 2 ≒3.45(m)
Table 1 Head Losses in Unit Conduit System
Bore Diameter
200 250 300 350
(mm)

Turbine Speed
1000 750 600 500 1000 750 600 500 750 600 500 429 750 600 500 429
(rpm)

Generator
1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500
Speed (rpm)

Generator
6 3 1.75 1 12 10 5 3 22 12 7 5 33 25 15 8
Output (kW)

Head Losses
0.23 0.17 0.10 0.07 0.30 0.22 0.17 0.12 0.31 0.24 0.15 0.11 0.35 0.31 0.24 0.17
Hι2 (m)

(Note)The Head Losses(HL2) includes Siphon Intake and Draft Tube Outlet.
Micro Hydro Selection Chart

He=3.4(m)

Qt=0.25(m3/s)
Select Turbine Type : 350SZ
Turbine Speed : 429(rpm)
Turbine Performance Curves

Q – H Curve Q – ηt Curve
8.00 85.0

Bore Dia.=350(mm) ηt=80.5(%)


7.00
80.0
Turbine Speed=429(rpm)
6.00
75.0

Turbine Efficiency (%)


5.00
Net Head (m)

70.0

4.00
He=3.4(m) 65.0
3.00

60.0
2.00

55.0
1.00

Q=0.25(m3/s)
0.00 50.0
0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
3 3
Turbine Flow (m /s) Turbine Flow (m /s)

Turbine Expected Output PT =9.8 x Q x He x ηt


=9.8 x 3.4 x 0.25 x 0.805=6.7(kW)
Recommended Turbine Operating Range
Q – ηt Curve Q – H Curve
85.0 8.00

7.00
80.0

6.00
75.0
Turbine Efficiency (%)

5.00 He=5.0(m)

Net Head (m)


70.0

4.00

65.0
3.00 He=2.7(m)
60.0
Recommended Operating Range 2.00

55.0
1.00
Recommended Operating Range
50.0 0.00
0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
3 3
Turbine Flow (m /s) Turbine Flow (m /s)

Range of Turbine Output =4.8~11.0(kW)


Expected Annual Energy Output
Expected Generator Output Pg :
Pg=PT x ηb x ηg
=6.7 x 0.9 x 0.9=5.4(kW)
PT : Turbine Output (=6.7kW)
ηb : V belt pulley transmission efficiency (≒90%)
ηg : Generator Efficiency(≒90%)

Annual Energy Output E :


E=Pg x Day x 24
=5.4 x 295 x 24=38,232(kWh)
Pg : Generator Output(=5.4kW)
Day : Available running day number
Two Units System
Turbine Design Flow

0.15(m3/s)

0.15(m3/s)
Micro Hydro Selection Chart

He=3.4(m)

Qt=0.15(m3/s)

Select Turbine Type : 300SZ x 500(rpm) or 250SZ x 600(rpm)


Turbine Selection Procedure
1. Select the bore diameter of Turbine from “Selection Chart” by
approx. Net Head and Turbine Flow.
2. Obtain the operating point on each bore diameter’s
performance curves(i.e., Q-H, Q-Eff. Curves) by changing
turbine speed.
3. Re-calculate the Net Head for one unit and two units operation
by using the turbine flow obtained from turbine performance
curves.
4. Re-check the operating point of turbine.
5. Calculate “Annual Energy Output” based on Flow Duration
Curve.
Similarity Law for PAT
Similarity Law can be applicable to PATs with similar flow shapes.

The performance of large scale PAT will be slightly improved by


“Dimensional Effect”.
Turbine Tu
Head and Flow at Different Speeds
rbin e Head an d Flow at Differe nt Spe eds

9.00

8.00
P u mp Bo r e Dia. : 2 5 0 (mm)
7.00 I mpe lle r Type : Mixe d Flo w t ype

6.00
He ad (m)

5.00 1 ,0 0 0 (r pm)

4.00

3.00
7 5 0 (r pm)
2.00
6 0 0 (r pm)
▲ me an s th e Be st Effic ie n c y P o in t fo r e ac h Tu r bin e
1.00
5 0 0 (r pm)
0.00
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
Tu r bin e Flo w (m 3 / s)
90.0

85.0
Q-Eff. Curves Turbine Performance Curves
600rpm

80.0
750rpm
at Speed Change
500rpm
75.0
Efficiency (%)

70.0
The speed of the turbine will vary
65.0
according to the load, and there is a
60.0
different head-flow curve for each speed.
55.0

50.0
Three such curves are shown in the left.
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 The middle curve, labeled 600rpm is for
Turbine Flow (m3 /s)
the normal operating speed. The curves
4.00 Q-H Curves labeled 750rpm and 500rpm are for
3.50 Site Curve speed higher and lower than normal
3.00 operating speed.
Site Curve : H=Hg – KQ2
2.50
Head (m )

2.00
750rpm
Note that for each speed, the operating
1.50
600rpm point is given by the intersection of the
1.00 turbine curve with the site curve.
0.50 500rpm

0.00
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14
3
Turbine Flow (m /s)
35.0

30.0
Output Control
Site Curve without valve control
25.0
Operating point
by Valve
20.0
Head (m)

Q-H Curve under bep


15.0
constant speed
10.0
Site Curve with valve control
5.0
Site Curve :
0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Gross Head – Friction losses in the conduit
Turbine Flow (m3 /s)

60.0

50.0

40.0
P1=37kW
Output (kW)

P2=32kW
30.0

20.0

Turbine Output Curve


10.0

0.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
Turbine Flow (m3/s)
300mm Bore Dia. Turbine
6.0

5.0
Turbine Speed : 550(rpm)
Gross Head Hg=4.3(m)
4.0
Head (m)
He=3.7(m)
3.0
He=2.95(m)
ve

ve
r
2.0
Cu

ur
C
-H Site Curve
1.0 -H Q
Q

0.0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
3
Flow (m /s)

85
80
75
Efficiency (%)

70 Two Units Running


65
One Unit Running
60
55
50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
3
Flow (m /s)
250mm Bore Dia. Turbine
6.0
Turbine Speed : 600(rpm)
5.0
Gross Head Hg=4.3(m)
4.0
He=4.0(m)

Head (m)
He=3.45(m)

ve
3.0

ur
Site Curve

C
-H
2.0

Q
1.0

0.0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
3
Flow (m /s)

85
80
75
Efficiency (%)

70
Two Units Running
65
One Unit Running
60
55
50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
3
Flow (m /s)
Expected Annual Energy Output
300SZT 250SZT

He(m) Q(m3/s) ηt(%) Pt(kW) Pg(kW) He(m) Q(m3/s) ηt(%) Pt(kW) Pg(kW)
 

At One Unit
3.70 0.180 81.0 5.29 4.28 4.00 0.133 77.5 4.04 3.27
Running

At Two Units
2.95 0.157 81.0 3.68 2.98 3.45 0.125 79.8 3.37 2.73
Running

Annual Energy
48,559 46,283
Output (kWh)

- Equivalent CO2 Gas Reduction : approx. 34~36(t-CO2/year)


(GHG emission rate : 0.740kg CO2/kWh at the island of Java)
- Equivalent Capacity of Photovoltaic Generation : ≒58kWp
(Average Solar Radiation : 4.86kWh/m2/day)
Different Penstock Diameter
Turbine Bore Dia. : 300(mm)   Penstock
6.0
Turbine Speed : 550(rpm) Site Curve "A" 450mm Dia. X 3.5m, 350mm Dia x 25m

5.0 Site Curve "B" 450mm Dia. X 3.5m, 400mm Dia x 25m
Gross Head Hg=4.3(m)
4.0
Head (m)

3.0
Site Curve “B”

2.0

1.0
Site Curve “A”
0.0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
3
Flow (m /s)

85
80
75
Efficiency (%)

70
65
Two Units Running
60 One Unit Running
55
50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
3
Flow (m /s)
Generator for Micro Hydro Plant
Generator type Advantages Disadvantages

Synchronous ・available of isolated operation ・need for complex control


Generator ・adjustable of voltage,frequency and insulated rotor winding
& power factor
Induction ・simple construction ・to be get excitation from the
Generator ・simple control system grid
・parallel operation only

Items to be considered at Generator Selection :


★In case of isolated operation, Synchronous generator shall be applied.
★Rotor & bearing shall be designed to withstand the overspeed at load rejection
Estimated Overspeed : approx. 1.8 times of rated speed

Diesel Engine Generator can be applied by Siphon Intake System


Construction of Synchronous & Induction Generator

Synchronous Generator

Induction Generator
Turbine Runaway Speed
Net Head vs Runaway Speed Curve

2,500

2,000
Runaway Speed (rpm)

1,500

1,000

500

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Net Head (m)

If the turbine generator load is cut off under this running (on the other words,
turbine generator load rejection), the unit speed will be increased to approx.
1,500(rpm) without the closing of turbine inlet valve. If this speed is
continuing for a long hours, the turbine generator will be damaged by
extreme high temperature of bearings and etc
Siphon Intake System

The generator for diesel engine, available to purchase in the market, can be
connected to the turbine by applying Siphon Intake System.
Skeleton of Test Stand for SZ type Micro Hydro Generating
Unit without Vacuum Pump
Siphon Priming Tank(approx. 1m3)
Domestic use Water

Siphon Valve Operating Lever

Dummy Load Governor

ELC
Head Tank(approx.21m3)
Loads

250φSZ type
Micro Hydro Unit Dummy Load Resistance
Booster Pump
Approx. 3.0
M P ~3.2m
P M
Dummy Load Pump

Sump Pit Over Flow Pipe


Siphon Valve ⑤ Opened Position

View “A”

④ ⑥ Closed Position

“A”

Starting Procedure of Micro Generating Unit :



1. Keep the Siphon Valve Disc in “Closed Position”
by Valve Operating Lever & Locking Rod.
2. Prime the Siphon Pipe with the water of “Siphon
Prime Tank” .

3. Open the Turbine Inlet Valve and Siphon Valve
simultaneously, then the Unit will be started.
WL ⑦ 4. Lock the Valve Operating Lever in “Open Position”
by Valve Locking Rod”.

① Siphon Pipe
② Valve Disc
③ Operating Rod
② ④ Valve Yoke
⑤ Valve Operating Lever
⑥ Valve Locking Rod
⑦ Vortex Prevent Plate
Turbine Construction

Turbine Runner
Turbine Casing

Bore Dia. : 200~250mm Bore Dia. : 300~350mm


Single Line Diagram for Generator
Control Panel

#51 : Over Current Protection Relay


#52 : Circuit Breaker
#59 : Over Voltage Protection Relay
ELC : Electronic Load Controller
Generator Control Panel
(Dummy Load Governor)
Dummy Load Governor

- It is necessary for the output of a micro-hydro power plant, which has


no back-up power generation source, to always exceed the demand.
- A dummy load governor is usually installed to control the load
(demand) fluctuation, on other words, to control the balancing of both
actual load and dummy load by thyristor (i.e., to keep the summation of
both actual and dummy load in constant for the same output of
generator.)
Principle of Light Dimmer by Thyristor
Thyristor

OFF ON

Thyristor

Bright Little Bright dark

Thyristor
Before adjusting Little adjusted adjusted
Light Dimmer by Thyristor
Thyristor Control Lamp Brightness
Features of each Dummy Load type Governor
Type of Governor Theory of Governor Control Features

・The same principle with Triac used in Light Brightness


adjusting
・Not available for Induction Generator System
Phase Angle
・Waveform distortion which produces increased heating in the
Control generator windings. To compensate for the waveform distortion,
the generator should be oversized.

・Prototype of Dummy Load Governor


・Waveform distortion is not produced and the ballast load is
resistive.
Binary Weighted ・Complexity resulting from requiring a number of ballast loads,
each with its connections, wires and switching device.
Loads
・Because the ballast load is only varied by fixed steps, the
voltage is only controlled within a range. →Poor voltage
control

The mark-space ratio controller, in its simplest form, requires


just a single ballast load. The ballast load is connected across
the rectified output of the generator and switched on and off by
means of a transistor.
Mark-space Ratio
・Good voltage regulation, simple connection of ballast loads
Controller and an effectively resistive ballast load.
・There is no phase balancing and there is increased waveform
distortion.
Effective use in the daytime electricity

To avoid the consuming of excess


electricity by dummy load due to
small demand in the day time, it is
preferable to plan the use of
excess power for local industries
such as rice mill, coffee mill and
etc. in the day time.
Transmission and Distribution Lines

If the voltage drop at the terminal of distribution line and/or transmission line is
over 5% of rated generator voltage, the using of large size power cable and/or
voltage step-up transformer is preferable.
Voltage Drop in Transmission Line
Existing Micro Hydro Unit
in Indonesia

Head Tank
Intake Screen(20mm Space x 5mm t)

“A”

Spillway Water Conduit from Intake


Penstock Weir(450~500mmdia)

Intake Screen View “A”


Overflow WL

Penstock

Outline Dimensions of Head Tank


Head tank
Functions of Head tank:
- Controls the variation of flow from the headrace and into the penstock cause by load
fluctuation.
- Finally remove the debris (sediments, leaves, driftwood, etc.) in flowing water.

(Source) Manual for Micro-Hydropower


Development(JICA))
Generator : Maker : Huafa
AC Synchronous Generator
5kW Cosφ 1.0 230V 21.8A 50Hz
1,500rpm 1 Phase
Excit Volt 49V Exciter Circuit 2.6A
Insulation Class B RAT S1

Turbine : Model 200SZ (EBARA)


Serial No. P0690-03
Date B-01
Bearing 93008ZZ 9309ZZ
100kW Micro Hydropower Plant
(installed for a tea estate in West Bengal, India)
Mini/Micro Hydro Development Cost
* The cost of micro hydro schemes installed by PLN range
from $1,000/kW to $2,900/kW. Low project development costs
for micro hydro systems have mostly been obtained by utilizing
electro-mechanical equipment of local manufacturers.

*For mini hydro development the range is roughly between


US$1,500 and US$2,500 depending on local conditions.
Economic analyses show that the schemes installed by PLN are
substantially less expensive than the conventional diesel option as
the electricity cost range from 2.5 to 6.9 cents USD/kWh.
Feasibility Studies for Micro
Hydropower Generation
Part 1:
1. “Walk the site” to understand the existing site layout
2. Take accurate measurement of all relevant levels across site
3. Identify the load connected to the Micro Hydropower
Generation
4. Discussion with client on site potential
Part 2:
1. Use long-term flow data(if available) to produce an estimated
flow duration curve for the site.
2. Specify most appropriate turbine type and size.
3. Discuss most suitable location for the hydro systems.
4. Outline civil engineering works required.
5. Specify distribution and generator type
6. Calculate expected power output, annual energy production
and value of electricity produced.
7. Estimate total project cost.
End

Micro Hydro Turbine Driven Pump

For further Questions, please contact to


hermoko@ebaraindonesia.com
or
ehmf@ebara.com