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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.

122–135 (2009)

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPROVEMENT


IN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
S-SHAPED RECTANGULAR DIFFUSER BY MOMENTUM
INJECTION USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
S. N. Singh*, V. Seshadri, Sunil Chandel and Mahendra Gaikwad

Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016, India
* E-Mail: sidhnathsingh@hotmail.com (Corresponding Author)

ABSTRACT: The present study reports the effect of momentum injection at the inlet on the performance of
an S-shaped rectangular diffuser having an aspect ratio of 6 at inlet. A cylinder of diameter 3 cm was placed at the
inflexion plane across the width of the diffuser and rotated at different speeds to inject momentum to the
decelerating flow as a result of boundary layer separation. It was found that pressure recovery and flow distribution
improved significantly. Improvement in coefficient of pressure recovery was about 24% for duct having an area ratio
of 2 and nearly 22% for duct with an area ratio of 3. Simultaneously the values of the coefficient of total pressure
loss decreased by 32% and 51% for ducts with area ratio of 2 and 3 respectively.
Keywords: S-shaped rectangular diffuser, rotating cylinder, momentum injection, boundary layer, CFD, pressure
recovery coefficient

1. INTRODUCTION the separation region reduced and the diffuser


performance improved on proper selection of
A diffuser is a fluid mechanical device which location and geometrical parameters of the vortex
recovers the pressure energy from the flowing generator. Modi, Fernando and Yokomizo (1991)
fluid. Diffusers are of many types namely axial, assessed the effectiveness of the concept of
radial and curved depending on the geometry and injection of momentum through moving surfaces
find very common use in turbo-machinery. In and concluded that the flow separation was
aircraft applications, curved diffusers are used due delayed considerably. Nishi et al. (1997) have
to space constraints and design compatibility. shown the applicability of vortex generator jets
Study of flow characteristics within these ducts (VGT) for the control of flow separation in a
has been of fundamental interest to researchers in conical diffuser. They positioned the vortex
the area of fluid mechanics for the last few generator jets at different orientations in a 2.56
decades. S-shaped diffuser is one of the important area ratio conical diffuser and concluded that the
types of curved diffuser. The flow in these ducts separation was almost suppressed and the
is prone to separation at the inflexion plane due to pressure recovery coefficient increased from 0.63
high flow divergence as a result of steep curvature to 0.68 for a velocity ratio of 1.9. Sullery and
in the flow direction, resulting in degradation of Pradeep (2004) experimentally investigated the
its performance. Different methods like suction, effectiveness of vortex generator jets in
blowing and vortex generators have been controlling secondary flows in two dimensional
proposed by researchers to control the boundary S-shaped diffusers for both uniform and distorted
layer separation and thereby improve the inlet conditions. They concluded that for uniform
performance of the diffuser. flow, the use of vortex generator jets results in
Yoshimasa et al. (1970) achieved remarkable reduction by 30% in total pressure loss and flow
improvement in the performance of rectangular distortion coefficient whereas for distorted flow at
cross-sectional diffuser (AR = 4) having higher inlet, a reduction of 25% in total pressure loss and
diffusion angle by using suction to control the flow distortion coefficient was achieved. Anand,
boundary layer separation. Chen and He (1991) Rai and Singh (2003) have studied the effect of
have reported the experimental results in terms of turning angle on the flow and performance
flow characteristics for a high aspect ratio and characteristics of long S-shaped circular diffusers.
highly curved S-shaped subsonic diffuser with They found that the overall static pressure
and without the separation control in the form of recovery increases for swirl flow at inlet
submerged vortex generator. They concluded that

Received: 31 May 2008; Revised: 19 Aug. 2008; Accepted: 22 Sep. 2008

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

irrespective of direction of swirl (clockwise or These equations are of the same general form as
anti-clockwise) and the increase was around 40%. the original equations except for some additional
The loss coefficient also increases for flows with terms. The additional terms are the Reynolds
swirl. stresses and these need to be modeled for closure
The concept of boundary layer control by moving solution. To compute the Reynolds stresses with
surfaces has been proposed by many researchers. the k-ε model, an extended Boussinesq
Singh et al. (2002) have shown through their relationship is used as follows:
experimental investigation of the NACA 8420
⎛ ∂u ∂u j ⎞ 2⎛ ⎞
aerofoil using a rotating cylinder at the leading − ρu i' u 'j = μ t ⎜ i + ⎟ − ⎜ ρk + μ t ∂u i ⎟⎟δ ij (3)
⎜ ∂x ⎟ 3⎜
edge that a significant increase in the coefficient ⎝ j ∂xi ⎠ ⎝ ∂xi ⎠
of lift can be obtained. Singh et al. (2005) have
also investigated the effect on aerodynamic drag where k is the turbulent kinetic energy, δij is the
for a model truck by using moving wall concept. Kronecker delta and μ t is the eddy viscosity.
The results show that the coefficient of drag In the present investigation, the two-equation
reduces by approximately 32% for the model standard k-ε turbulence model (Launder and
truck for a cylinder with a radius of 1 cm and a Spalding, 1974) has been used in which two
rotational speed of 4000 rpm. Singhal et al. (2006) additional transport equations, one for the
investigated the effect of injecting momentum turbulent kinetic energy (k) and the other for the
through a moving surface to control the boundary turbulence dissipation rate (ε) are solved to
layer separation for a two dimensional rectangular evaluate μ t , which is computed as
diffuser and found an overall improvement in
pressure recovery of 28% along with μ t = ρC μ k 2 ε (4)
improvement in flow distortion in the core region.
The study also concluded that an increase in where Cμ is a constant.
moving surface speed improves the pressure The additional equations for k and ε for steady
recovery only marginally. incompressible flow in simplified form are
The available literature on boundary layer flow ∂k ∂ ⎡⎛ μt ⎞ ∂k ⎤
separation control using moving walls only ρu i = ⎢⎜⎜ μ + ⎟⎟ ⎥ + G k − ρε + YM (5)
∂x i ∂ x i ⎣⎝ σk ⎠ ∂x i ⎦
includes straight diffusers, aerofoils, automobiles,
etc. In the present study, investigation of the
∂ε ∂ ⎡⎛ μt ⎞ ∂ε ⎤
effect of momentum injection by a moving wall ρu i = ⎢⎜⎜ μ + ⎟⎟ ⎥
on S-shaped rectangular diffusers with area ratios ∂xi ∂xi ⎣⎝ σε ⎠ ∂xi ⎦
of 2 and 3 has been carried out to assess the ε ε2
improvement in the diffuser performance. The + C1ε G k − C 2ε ρ (6)
k K
speed of the moving wall was varied by changing
the rotational speed of the cylinder. Gk represents the production of turbulent kinetic
energy and is evaluated as
2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Gk = μ t S 2 (7)
A commercially available CFD code where S is the modules of mean rate of strain
“FLUENT 6.1” (Fluent Inc., 2003) has been used tensor defined as
for the analysis of turbulent flows. Details of the
mathematical model are given in the manual of S = 2S ij S ij (8)
the code. Only a brief discussion of the model is
given here. The governing equations for mean with mean strain rate Sij given by
flow in reduced form for steady incompressible
flows are: 1 ⎡ ∂u i ∂u j ⎤ (9)
S ij = ⎢ + ⎥
2 ⎣⎢ ∂x j ∂xi ⎥⎦

(ρui ) = S m (1)
∂xi The dilatation dissipation term (YM) for
incompressible flow has been neglected.
∂ui ⎡ ⎛ ∂u ∂u j ⎞ 2 ⎤
ρu j =−
∂p
+

⎢μ ⎜ i + ⎟ − μδ ij ∂ui ⎥ The value of the empirical constants used are
∂x j ∂xi ∂x j ⎢⎣ ⎜⎝ ∂x j ∂xi ⎟ 3
⎠ ∂xi ⎥⎦ C1ε = 1.44, C2ε = 1.92, Cμ = 0.09, σk = 1.0 and
σε = 1.3. These values have been found to work
+

∂x j
(
− ρui' u 'j ) (2) fairly well for a wide range of wall bounded and
free shear flows.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

3. DESCRIPTION OF GEOMETRY AND


W1
RANGE OF PARAMETERS CC
100
INVESTIGATED

3.1 Geometrical parameters CV


The geometric details of the S-shaped diffuser, CV
used in the present study, are shown in Fig. 1(a)
and it has a turn of 90°/90°. The radius of W2
curvature at the centerline for both upper and CC
lower limbs is 191 mm and the area ratio of the Moving wall 500
diffuser is 2. Straight ducts of 100 mm long were
All dimensions are in mm
provided at both the inlet and outlet. For the S-
shaped diffuser with an area ratio of 3.0, these W1 = 50 mm, W2 = 150 mm L = 600 mm, breadth (b) = 300 mm
lengths were 100 mm for the inlet and 500 mm AR = W2 / W1 = 3 AS = b / W1 = 6.0, L / W1 = 12.0
for the outlet. (Fig. 1(b)). For controlling the
separation of boundary layer a single cylinder
Fig. 1(b) Geometry of S-diffuser having AR=3
having 3 cm diameter is placed at a distance of showing rotating cylinder at the inflexion
x = 0.5L (inflexion plane) and rotated at different plane.
speeds in the range of 4,000–10,000 rad/s for S
duct with an area ratio of 2 whereas for S duct 3.2 Performance parameters
with an area ratio of 3, the cylinder is placed at a
distance of x = 0.333L and rotated at different The important performance parameters evaluated
speeds in the range of 4,000–12,000 rad/s. to compare the performance of the ducts with and
Approximately, 115° sector of cylinder surface is without the rotating cylinder are coefficient of
in touch with the flow inside the duct. pressure recovery (CP) and coefficient of total
pressure loss (CL). They are defined as
(a) CP = (PSo – PSi) / (1/2 ρUavi2)
(b) CL = (PTi – PTo) / (1/2 ρUavi2)
30°
W1 CC where Pso and Psi are the average value of the
100
60°
static pressure at the outlet and inlet respectively
and PTo and PTi are the average value of the total
CV pressure at the outlet and inlet respectively. Here
Uavi is mass average inlet velocity and ρ is the
density of fluid.
CV
90°/30° 3.3 Description of geometric model and
computational methodology used
CC
W2 Geometric models of the diffusers were created
90°/60°
using “GAMBIT” modeling software with
All dimensions are in mm 100
dimensions shown in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b).
After developing the model, the flow domain was
W1 = 50 mm, W2 = 100 mm L = 600 mm, breadth (b) = 300 mm
meshed into two parts. Near the walls, boundary
AR = W2 / W1 = 2 AS = b / W1 = 6.0, L / W1 = 12.0 layer meshing was used to take care of steep
velocity gradients and the remaining portion was
meshed using hexahedral map meshing scheme.
Fig. 1(a) Geometry of S-diffuser having AR=2
showing rotating cylinder at the inflexion
Grid independency test was also performed by
plane (CC–Concave Plane, CV–Convex carrying out flow simulations using three mesh
Plane). sizes (302,803, 569,664 and 1,071,712 cells). It
was found that increase in the mesh size beyond
569,664 did not change the solution by more than
1% and hence this value was chosen for further
parametric investigations.
Flow analysis was carried out using the CFD code
“FLUENT 6.1” which uses finite volume
approach. The Reynolds number was fixed as

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

2.34 × 105 with uniform velocity of 40 m/s at inlet hydraulic diameter of 85.7 mm were also
and air as working fluid (μ = 1.789 × 10-5 Kg/m-s). specified at the inlet to initialize the values of k−ε
Outlet boundary condition was specified as for the turbulence model used for closure solution.
pressure outlet with zero gauge pressure. Steady flow solutions are performed using
Roughness height of 0.2 mm and roughness implicit scheme with segregated solver. Second
constant of 0.5 were specified at the walls of the order upwinding method was used for getting
diffuser to account for the wall finish of the more accurate results. Pressure-velocity coupling
diffuser model used for validation purpose. has been carried out using SIMPLE algorithm.
Further, predictions done with rough walls Scarborough condition was satisfied using under
showed that a roughness height of 0.2 mm relaxation factors for all equations. The residuals
showed improved matching with the experimental of all parameters were kept in the order of 10-6 in
results. Turbulence intensity of around 4% and the converged solution.

(a) plane-30 degree ( b) plane-60 degree

50 40

40
30

30
U(m/s)

U(m/s)
20
20

10
10

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
r* r*

(c) plane-90 degree (d) plane-90/30 degree

40 40

30 30
U(m/s)
U(m/s)

20 20

10 10

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
r* r*

(e) plane-90/60 degree (f) plane-90/90 degree

40
40

30 30
U(m/s)

U(m/s)

20 20

10
10

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
r*
r*

Fig. 2 Comparison between calculated and experimental velocity profiles at mid-plane of the S-shaped diffuser
without cylinder at different measuring locations.

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3.4 Validation of CFD code uncertainty in the experimental values may be


large as only 3 hole probe which can only
The CFD code used in this study has been
measure 2-dimensional plane velocity has been
validated with the experimental results obtained
by Majumdar (1994). Geometry details of the S- used. The second reason could be that the k−ε
shaped diffuser used for validation purpose is turbulence model has its limitation in resolving
shown in Fig. 1(a) (without cylinder). Velocity the flow in the region of steep velocity gradient.
The mean velocity distribution at the exit plane
profiles obtained computationally at 30°, 60°, 90°,
also shows good matching between both
90°/30°, 90°/60° and 90°/90° planes match fairly
computational and experimental results (Fig. 3).
well with experimental data (Fig. 2). The
Fig. 4 shows the comparison of pressure recovery
comparison shown for midplane velocities shows
coefficient. The matching as far as trends are
that the agreement for the first four planes is very
concerned is quite good. The overall pressure
good except close to the walls. The deviations at
recovery predicted shows a deviation of around
the last two planes increase significantly not only
9% with experimental pressure recovery. The
close to the wall but also in the core region.
deviations in the region at the inflexion plane are
Attempt to reduce these deviations was made by
slightly large and can be attributed to the same
increasing the meshing intensity close to the walls
reasons as stated above. Based on these
to resolve the lower y+ values and also by doing
comparisons, it can be concluded that the CFD
grid independency tests in the core regions where
code is validated and can be used for carrying out
velocity gradients were large. The deviations
further investigations.
could not be resolved, which can be attributed to
the fact that the flow is highly 3D and the
CC CV

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
U/Uavi

Fig. 3 Comparison between calculated and experimental mean velocity distribution at the exit cross sectional
plane of S-diffuser for validation purpose.

experimental computational
60

50.2
50 47.23
46

40 37.1 35.38
36 38.96
Cp (%)

30
19.1 26.57 27.71
25.92

20

14.0217
10
Fig. 4 Comparison between computed and
0 0 experimental mass averaged pressure
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 recovery coefficients.
x/L

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5 0.55 0.65
0 .6 0.75 0.75
0.85 0.85
0.85 0.90
0.9 0 0.9 0
0.95
0.9 5 0.95
0.95

0 .7 5 0.90 0.60 0.90 0.60 0.95 0 .8 0

0.55 0.40 0.45 0.45 0.45


0.60 0.55
0 0.650
0.7 0.75
.75
0.8
5

0.80 0
0 .7

0.80
0.85
0 .8 0

0.85 .80
0.65 0.650
0.45 0.70 0.05 0.40
0.05

0 .7 0
0 .7 0.65 0.65
0.70 0 .8 0
0.75
0.80

0.80 0.80
0
0.80 0 .8
0.80
0 .7 0
0 .7 0 0.65
0.4 0 0.75 0 .4 0
0.1 0 0.65 0.15
0.45
0 .6 0 0.10 0.25 0.10
0 .4
5

0.70 0.70 0.85


0 .8 5 0 .8

0.85
0.85 0.85
0.85 0.80
0

5
0.75 5 0 .7
0 0.80 0 .7 0.
0 .6 3 5 0 65
0 . 20 0 .7

0 .5
0. 0.65 0.1 5

0 .2 5
0
0 .1 0

0 . 6

0
0.50
0.40 0.35
0.10 0.20 0.10
0.05 0.10 0.10 0 .0 5

0.60 0.50 0.50 0 .5 0


0.70 0.75
0 .7 5 0.7 5
0.70 0.75 0.70
0.60
0.75 0.50
0.50
0 .4 0 0.4 0
0.70
0 .3 0
0.60 0 0.30
0.40 0 .5
0.30 0.40 0. 0.40
0 .40 0.25 0.25
0 .3 0 2
0.20 0.15 0.250

0 .2 0 0.50 0.15 0 .2 0
0.25 0.30
0 .5 5 0.40 0.50
55 0 .5 0 0.60
0.
0 .6
60

0.4 5
0.

0
50

0.65
0.

0.40 0 .4
0
0 .4 5
5
0 .4

0 .4

0.60
5

0.55
0
0 .4

0.50
5 0 .4 0
0 .5 0
0

0 .3
5
0 .4
0 .4

0.45 0.40 0.45 0.35


0.30 0.25

Fig. 5 Longitudinal velocity contours for diffuser (AR=2) without cylinder.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

CC 0.6 0.75

30° 0.9
0.95

CV 0.95

CC 0.60 0.50

0 .6
0.60

0
0.75
75

0.
0.

60°

75
0.80

0 .7 5 0.75
0.7 5
CV
CC 0.70
0.76
0.77

0.77
90°

0.76
0.70 0.70
0.76
CV
CV 0.75
0 .7 5

0.75

0.75
90°/30°
0 .65 0 .5

0.65
0.65

55
0.55
5

0.
0.45 33 0.45
0 .3 1 3 6 0.313633 0 .4 5
0.313633
CC 0.313633

CV 0.7
0 .7
0.
7 0 .7
0.7
0.65
0 .6 5
90°/60° 0.55 0.65
0 .5 5
0.45
0.55 0.
0.35 45
0.45
0.35 0.3 5
0.25
0.25 0.25
CC
CV 0 .3 5 0.35
0.50 0.55
0.60 0.60 0.60

90°/90° 0.55 0.55


0.60 0.45
0 .5 0
0 .3 5 0.55 0 .3 5

0.35 0.35
0.45
0.35
CC 0.26 0.10

CV 0.30
0 .5 0 0.40
0.50 0 .5 0
0.55 0.5 5
5
0 .5
Outlet 0.50
0
0 .5

0 .5 0.59 0.4 5
59

9
0.

0.50

0.45 0.55 0 .4 0

0.50

0.40 0.45 0.40


CC 0.40

Fig. 6 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-shaped rectangular
diffuser (AR=2) for single cylinder at 10000 rad/s.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION completely. The flow development in the


S-shaped rectangular diffuser for the highest
The validated CFD code is used to analyze flow cylinder speed is presented in Fig. 6. Further
characteristics of S-shaped rectangular diffusers increase in cylinder speed did not show any
(Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b)) with a single rotating significant changes. The flow distribution in the
cylinder. The work has been divided into two second bend shows higher and lower velocities
parts. Firstly, an S-shaped rectangular diffuser near convex and concave walls respectively, at
having an area ratio of 2 is analyzed, followed by both 60° and 90° planes. A uniform velocity
one having an area ratio of 3. distribution is seen across the exit cross-section.
Secondary flow distribution shows the presence
4.1 S-shaped diffuser with area ratio 2 of very weak vortices close to the inner corner of
A single cylinder of 3 cm diameter is placed at a parallel walls of the diffuser in the first bend of
distance of x = 0.5L at the inflexion plane and the diffuser. The flow breaks into two pairs of
rotated at different speeds in the range of 4,000– counter rotating vortices in the second bend of the
10,000 rad/s to control the boundary layer diffuser due to imposition of centrifugal forces
separation by imparting momentum to the and flow diffusion. The magnitude of these
retarding fluid close to the wall at the inflexion vortices increases further till exit, but one pair
plane. Approximately, 115° section of cylinder remains smaller than the other. Secondary flow
surface is in contact with the flow inside the duct. distribution in vector form is presented in Fig. 7
Longitudinal velocity distribution shows increase for the extreme cylinder speed.
The vital parameter for evaluation of performance
in velocity near the convex wall at 30°, 60° and
of any diffuser is the coefficient of pressure
90° planes due to momentum injection. This is
recovery and coefficient of total pressure loss.
because of inward suction of the low velocity
Figs. 8 and 9 show comparative study of these
fluid by the moving cylinder, thereby delaying
parameters for extreme cylinder speed. Figures
separation which otherwise takes place at
show 23.8% increase in pressure recovery
x = 0.45L close to the inflexion plane in normal
coefficient and 32% fall in total pressure loss due
operation, i.e. without cylinder (Fig. 5). For the
to momentum injection by the rotating cylinder at
highest cylinder speed, this point vanishes
its extreme speed.

CV
CC

CV CC

30° 90°/30°

CV
CC

CV CC

60° 90°/60°

CV
CC

CV CC

90° 90°/90°

Fig. 7 Normalized cross flow velocity vector plots at different sections along the S-shaped rectangular diffuser with
cylinder rotating at the speed of 10000 rad/s.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

AR-2 with cylinder without cylinder AR-2 With cylinder without cylinder

70 18
16.9
61.9
16
60
53.72 14
14
47.45
50
50.2 12
38.1 47.23 10.3
38.29 11.48
40 10

CL(%)
Cp(%)

10.24
7.6
36 37.1 35.38 8.85
30 8
20.65 5.2
6
20 19.1 5.85
4 3
4
10 2.94
2

0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x/L x/L

Fig. 8 Comparison of coefficients of pressure Fig. 9 Comparison of coefficients of total pressure


recovery along the length of S-diffuser loss along the length of S-diffuser (AR=2)
(AR= 2) with and without cylinder rotation. with and without cylinder rotation.

CC 0.45 0.45 0.45

0 .7 0
0.70 0.70

30° 0.79 0.79


0 .8
0.85 5
0.90

0.90 5
0.90 0 .8
CV 0.45 0.85 0.45 0.45

CC 0.35 0.35

0 .3 0 .5
0.35

5
0 .5

0.5
0.6 0.6

60° 0.
7
0.7
0.6

0.7 0.741492
6 0.741492 0.
0 . 0 .5 0.7
6
0.05 0.5
0.

CV 0.35 0.05
5

CC 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65


0.65
0.70 0.7 0

0.73
0 .7 0

0.73
90° 0 .7 0
0 .6 5
0.70
0 .4 5
0.

0.6 5
55

0
0 .3
0.

0.5 5
30

5 0.4 5
0 .0
0 .0 0 .0 5
0.30 0 .0 5 5
0.05 0.05
CV 0.05

Fig. 10 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-Diffuser (AR=3) without
cylinder rotation.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

CV 0.80 0.70 0.75 0.80


0.80

0.
80
0.80 0.75

75
0.75
0.70

0.
0.7 0 0.7 0
0.55 0.75
0.
90°/30° 0.40 0.40 5
0.70 0. 5
0.25 55

40
0.1 5
0. 0 .1 5 0.55
0.
0.05 0.05 40
0.05 0.25 0 .0 5

0.15 0.15 0.05 0.15 0.1 5


CC
CV 0.45 0.45
0.65 0.70 0.7 0 0 .7 0

0 .7 0.70 0.65 0 .7 0
0 0.65 0 .7 0 0.7 0

0 0.45 0.4 5 0 .6
0 .6 0.
0
0.65 45
90°/60° 0.2 0 0 .2 0
45

0.65
0.

0.10 0.10
0.30
0.45
0
0 .3

0.10
0.10
0.45 0.
20
20
0.

0.3 0
05 0.15
0.10 0.05 0.15 0.
CC 0.05 0.05

CV 0 .1 0.10
0.1 0 0.10

30
0 .2 5 0 0 .1 0

0.
0.10 0 .4
0.4 5 0.16 0.1 6 5 0 .5
0 .5 5 0.30 0.5 5 5
0 .5 5
0.4 5

0 .5
0 .4 5

5
55 55
0. 0.60 0.
0 .3 0
90°/90°
0 .2 5

0.
1
0 .6

45
0 .4

5
0 .4

0.16
5

0 .2
5
0 .3
0 .6 0 0
0 .1 6

0.
16

0. 0.
10 10
0 .2 5

CC 0.10 0.30 0.10

CV 0.30 0.30
0.34 0.24
0.26 0 .3 2 0.34

0 .2 8

0 .3 4 0.34
0.3 0
0 .3 0
0 .3 0

Outlet 0.32
0.3 2
0 .3 2 0.32
0.32
0 .3 0 .3 4
4 0.34
0.36
0.38
0 .3 6 0 .3 6
0.40
0.42
0.
32 32
CC 0.3 6 0.42 0 .3 6 0.

Fig. 10 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-Diffuser (AR=3)
without cylinder rotation. (continued)

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

4.2 S-shaped rectangular diffuser with area takes place at x = 0.36L close to the inflexion
ratio 3 plane in normal operation, i.e. without cylinder
(Fig. 10). For extreme cylinder speed, this point
A single cylinder of 3 cm diameter is placed at a
vanishes completely in this case also. The flow
distance of x = 0.333L close to the inflexion plane
development in the S-shaped rectangular diffuser
and rotated at different speeds in the range of
for extreme cylinder speed is presented in Fig. 11.
4,000–12,000 rad/s to analyze the effect of
Flow behavior in the second bend and the
moving surface on the duct’s performance.
secondary flow distribution show similar trends as
Approximately, 115° section of cylinder is in
seen for the area ratio of 2 (Fig. 12).
touch with the flow inside the duct for this case as
For an area ratio of 3, Figs. 13 and 14 show
well. Longitudinal velocity distribution shows
comparative study of coefficient of pressure
increase in velocity near the convex wall at 30°, recovery and coefficient of total pressures loss for
60° and 90° planes due to momentum injection as extreme cylinder speed. Figures show 21.5%
noticed for the area ratio of 2. This is again due to increase in pressure recovery coefficient and 51%
the inward suction of retarding flow towards the fall in total pressure loss due to momentum
wall by the rotating cylinder at high velocity, injection for extreme speed of rotating cylinder.
thereby delaying separation which otherwise

CC 0.35
0.55 0.70
0.7 0 0.70
5 0 .7
0 .7 0.75 5
30°
0.80 0.80 0.80
0.85 0 .8 5
0 .8 5
CV 0 .7 5 0.80 0.80 0 .7 5
CC 0.40 0.40 0.4 0
0.50 0.40
0.50
0.62 0.62
60°
0.67
0.67
0.62 0.62
0.40 0.50
0.62 0 .4 0
CV
CC 0.5 5 0.50 0.55
0 .6 0 0.60
0.60

0.6 0 0.6 0
0.55

0.60
0.50
90°
0.50 0.55 0.55
0.55
50
0.

0.45 0.5 0 0.50 0.50


0.
0.45 0.45 0.45 40
0 .3 0 0.40 0.3 0
0.35
0 .2 5 0.35 0.25
0.40
CV 0.1 0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.1 0

CV 0.60
0 .6 0

0.65
60
0.60 0.
0.60
0 .5 5 0.5 5
0.5 0
0 .5 0
90°/30° 0.50
0.45 0 .4 0 0.40
0.40 0 .3 0
0 .3 0 0.40 0.40 0 .2
0.15 0.35 0 .3 0 0
0.30 0.30 0.30
0 .1 0 0 .1 0
0.25
0.25
0.05 0.30 0.25 0 .3 0 0.05
CC

Fig. 11 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-diffuser (AR=3) with
cylinder rotating at 12000 rad/s rotation.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

CV 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.50 0.50

0 .5 0 0.55 0.5 0
0.45 0 .4 5
0.50 0.40
0.35
90°/60° 0.45 0 .3
0
0.25 0.40 0.25
0.20 0.
0.35 20
0 .1 5
5 0.30 0 .1
0.25
0.

0.20 0.10
10

0.05 0.20 0.2 0


05
CC 0.15 0.

CV 0.2 5 0.15 0.15 0.2 5


0.30 0.30
0 .4 0 0.35
0.40
0. 0 .4 0
45
0 .4 5 0.45
0.45

0 .4 0 0 .4 0
90°/90° 0 .3 5 0.45
0 .3 5
0.30
0.25
0 .2 5 0.25
0.40
0 .2 0 0.2 0
0.35

0.30
0 .1 5

0.25

0.2 0
0.20 0.15
0.15
CC 0.10 0 .1 0
CV 0.20 0.22
0.28 0 .2 6

0.32 0.26
0.28

30
0.3 0

0.
0.32

0 .2 4
0.34
0 .2

0.36
8

0 .3

0.38
0

0.32

0 .2 6
0.3 4

Outlet
0.

0.40
0 .3 6

28
0 .3 8

0.41
0 .3 6

0.40
0 .3
4

0 .3

0.38
2

0.30
0.28

0.36
0 .2 0.34 4
CC 4 0.30 0 .2

Fig. 11 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-diffuser (AR=3) with
cylinder rotating at 12000 rad/s rotation. (continued)

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

CV
CC

CV
CC

30° 90°/30°
CV
CC

CV
CC

60° 90°/60°
CV
CC

CV
CC

90° 90°/90°
CV

CC

Outlet

Fig. 12 Normalized secondary flow velocity vector plots at different sections along the length of the S-diffuser
(AR= 3) with cylinder rotating at the speed of 12000 rad/s.

AR-3 Without cylinder with cylinder without cylinder with cylinder


AR-3
77.88
80
72.23 20

67.04 67.49
16.82

58.3
60 13.21
64.04 15
55.49
55.62
51.77 10.35
Cp (%)

CL (%)

40 44.87 10
37.42
7.13

8.27
4.41 7.36
20 5 2.85 6.45
5.32

3.67
2.27

0 0
0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x/L
x/L

Fig. 13 Comparison of coefficient of pressure Fig. 14 Comparison of coefficient of total pressure


recovery along the length of S-diffuser loss along the length of S-diffuser (AR=3)
(AR= 3) with and without cylinder rotation. with and without cylinder rotation.

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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

5. CONCLUSIONS Subscripts

The present study presents the effect of i, j Indices of tensorial notation as 1, 2 , 3


momentum injection by rotating cylinder to
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