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122–135 (2009)

IN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF

S-SHAPED RECTANGULAR DIFFUSER BY MOMENTUM

INJECTION USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

S. N. Singh*, V. Seshadri, Sunil Chandel and Mahendra Gaikwad

Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016, India

* E-Mail: sidhnathsingh@hotmail.com (Corresponding Author)

ABSTRACT: The present study reports the effect of momentum injection at the inlet on the performance of

an S-shaped rectangular diffuser having an aspect ratio of 6 at inlet. A cylinder of diameter 3 cm was placed at the

inflexion plane across the width of the diffuser and rotated at different speeds to inject momentum to the

decelerating flow as a result of boundary layer separation. It was found that pressure recovery and flow distribution

improved significantly. Improvement in coefficient of pressure recovery was about 24% for duct having an area ratio

of 2 and nearly 22% for duct with an area ratio of 3. Simultaneously the values of the coefficient of total pressure

loss decreased by 32% and 51% for ducts with area ratio of 2 and 3 respectively.

Keywords: S-shaped rectangular diffuser, rotating cylinder, momentum injection, boundary layer, CFD, pressure

recovery coefficient

performance improved on proper selection of

A diffuser is a fluid mechanical device which location and geometrical parameters of the vortex

recovers the pressure energy from the flowing generator. Modi, Fernando and Yokomizo (1991)

fluid. Diffusers are of many types namely axial, assessed the effectiveness of the concept of

radial and curved depending on the geometry and injection of momentum through moving surfaces

find very common use in turbo-machinery. In and concluded that the flow separation was

aircraft applications, curved diffusers are used due delayed considerably. Nishi et al. (1997) have

to space constraints and design compatibility. shown the applicability of vortex generator jets

Study of flow characteristics within these ducts (VGT) for the control of flow separation in a

has been of fundamental interest to researchers in conical diffuser. They positioned the vortex

the area of fluid mechanics for the last few generator jets at different orientations in a 2.56

decades. S-shaped diffuser is one of the important area ratio conical diffuser and concluded that the

types of curved diffuser. The flow in these ducts separation was almost suppressed and the

is prone to separation at the inflexion plane due to pressure recovery coefficient increased from 0.63

high flow divergence as a result of steep curvature to 0.68 for a velocity ratio of 1.9. Sullery and

in the flow direction, resulting in degradation of Pradeep (2004) experimentally investigated the

its performance. Different methods like suction, effectiveness of vortex generator jets in

blowing and vortex generators have been controlling secondary flows in two dimensional

proposed by researchers to control the boundary S-shaped diffusers for both uniform and distorted

layer separation and thereby improve the inlet conditions. They concluded that for uniform

performance of the diffuser. flow, the use of vortex generator jets results in

Yoshimasa et al. (1970) achieved remarkable reduction by 30% in total pressure loss and flow

improvement in the performance of rectangular distortion coefficient whereas for distorted flow at

cross-sectional diffuser (AR = 4) having higher inlet, a reduction of 25% in total pressure loss and

diffusion angle by using suction to control the flow distortion coefficient was achieved. Anand,

boundary layer separation. Chen and He (1991) Rai and Singh (2003) have studied the effect of

have reported the experimental results in terms of turning angle on the flow and performance

flow characteristics for a high aspect ratio and characteristics of long S-shaped circular diffusers.

highly curved S-shaped subsonic diffuser with They found that the overall static pressure

and without the separation control in the form of recovery increases for swirl flow at inlet

submerged vortex generator. They concluded that

122

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

irrespective of direction of swirl (clockwise or These equations are of the same general form as

anti-clockwise) and the increase was around 40%. the original equations except for some additional

The loss coefficient also increases for flows with terms. The additional terms are the Reynolds

swirl. stresses and these need to be modeled for closure

The concept of boundary layer control by moving solution. To compute the Reynolds stresses with

surfaces has been proposed by many researchers. the k-ε model, an extended Boussinesq

Singh et al. (2002) have shown through their relationship is used as follows:

experimental investigation of the NACA 8420

⎛ ∂u ∂u j ⎞ 2⎛ ⎞

aerofoil using a rotating cylinder at the leading − ρu i' u 'j = μ t ⎜ i + ⎟ − ⎜ ρk + μ t ∂u i ⎟⎟δ ij (3)

⎜ ∂x ⎟ 3⎜

edge that a significant increase in the coefficient ⎝ j ∂xi ⎠ ⎝ ∂xi ⎠

of lift can be obtained. Singh et al. (2005) have

also investigated the effect on aerodynamic drag where k is the turbulent kinetic energy, δij is the

for a model truck by using moving wall concept. Kronecker delta and μ t is the eddy viscosity.

The results show that the coefficient of drag In the present investigation, the two-equation

reduces by approximately 32% for the model standard k-ε turbulence model (Launder and

truck for a cylinder with a radius of 1 cm and a Spalding, 1974) has been used in which two

rotational speed of 4000 rpm. Singhal et al. (2006) additional transport equations, one for the

investigated the effect of injecting momentum turbulent kinetic energy (k) and the other for the

through a moving surface to control the boundary turbulence dissipation rate (ε) are solved to

layer separation for a two dimensional rectangular evaluate μ t , which is computed as

diffuser and found an overall improvement in

pressure recovery of 28% along with μ t = ρC μ k 2 ε (4)

improvement in flow distortion in the core region.

The study also concluded that an increase in where Cμ is a constant.

moving surface speed improves the pressure The additional equations for k and ε for steady

recovery only marginally. incompressible flow in simplified form are

The available literature on boundary layer flow ∂k ∂ ⎡⎛ μt ⎞ ∂k ⎤

separation control using moving walls only ρu i = ⎢⎜⎜ μ + ⎟⎟ ⎥ + G k − ρε + YM (5)

∂x i ∂ x i ⎣⎝ σk ⎠ ∂x i ⎦

includes straight diffusers, aerofoils, automobiles,

etc. In the present study, investigation of the

∂ε ∂ ⎡⎛ μt ⎞ ∂ε ⎤

effect of momentum injection by a moving wall ρu i = ⎢⎜⎜ μ + ⎟⎟ ⎥

on S-shaped rectangular diffusers with area ratios ∂xi ∂xi ⎣⎝ σε ⎠ ∂xi ⎦

of 2 and 3 has been carried out to assess the ε ε2

improvement in the diffuser performance. The + C1ε G k − C 2ε ρ (6)

k K

speed of the moving wall was varied by changing

the rotational speed of the cylinder. Gk represents the production of turbulent kinetic

energy and is evaluated as

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Gk = μ t S 2 (7)

A commercially available CFD code where S is the modules of mean rate of strain

“FLUENT 6.1” (Fluent Inc., 2003) has been used tensor defined as

for the analysis of turbulent flows. Details of the

mathematical model are given in the manual of S = 2S ij S ij (8)

the code. Only a brief discussion of the model is

given here. The governing equations for mean with mean strain rate Sij given by

flow in reduced form for steady incompressible

flows are: 1 ⎡ ∂u i ∂u j ⎤ (9)

S ij = ⎢ + ⎥

2 ⎣⎢ ∂x j ∂xi ⎥⎦

∂

(ρui ) = S m (1)

∂xi The dilatation dissipation term (YM) for

incompressible flow has been neglected.

∂ui ⎡ ⎛ ∂u ∂u j ⎞ 2 ⎤

ρu j =−

∂p

+

∂

⎢μ ⎜ i + ⎟ − μδ ij ∂ui ⎥ The value of the empirical constants used are

∂x j ∂xi ∂x j ⎢⎣ ⎜⎝ ∂x j ∂xi ⎟ 3

⎠ ∂xi ⎥⎦ C1ε = 1.44, C2ε = 1.92, Cμ = 0.09, σk = 1.0 and

σε = 1.3. These values have been found to work

+

∂

∂x j

(

− ρui' u 'j ) (2) fairly well for a wide range of wall bounded and

free shear flows.

123

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

W1

RANGE OF PARAMETERS CC

100

INVESTIGATED

The geometric details of the S-shaped diffuser, CV

used in the present study, are shown in Fig. 1(a)

and it has a turn of 90°/90°. The radius of W2

curvature at the centerline for both upper and CC

lower limbs is 191 mm and the area ratio of the Moving wall 500

diffuser is 2. Straight ducts of 100 mm long were

All dimensions are in mm

provided at both the inlet and outlet. For the S-

shaped diffuser with an area ratio of 3.0, these W1 = 50 mm, W2 = 150 mm L = 600 mm, breadth (b) = 300 mm

lengths were 100 mm for the inlet and 500 mm AR = W2 / W1 = 3 AS = b / W1 = 6.0, L / W1 = 12.0

for the outlet. (Fig. 1(b)). For controlling the

separation of boundary layer a single cylinder

Fig. 1(b) Geometry of S-diffuser having AR=3

having 3 cm diameter is placed at a distance of showing rotating cylinder at the inflexion

x = 0.5L (inflexion plane) and rotated at different plane.

speeds in the range of 4,000–10,000 rad/s for S

duct with an area ratio of 2 whereas for S duct 3.2 Performance parameters

with an area ratio of 3, the cylinder is placed at a

distance of x = 0.333L and rotated at different The important performance parameters evaluated

speeds in the range of 4,000–12,000 rad/s. to compare the performance of the ducts with and

Approximately, 115° sector of cylinder surface is without the rotating cylinder are coefficient of

in touch with the flow inside the duct. pressure recovery (CP) and coefficient of total

pressure loss (CL). They are defined as

(a) CP = (PSo – PSi) / (1/2 ρUavi2)

(b) CL = (PTi – PTo) / (1/2 ρUavi2)

30°

W1 CC where Pso and Psi are the average value of the

100

60°

static pressure at the outlet and inlet respectively

and PTo and PTi are the average value of the total

CV pressure at the outlet and inlet respectively. Here

Uavi is mass average inlet velocity and ρ is the

density of fluid.

CV

90°/30° 3.3 Description of geometric model and

computational methodology used

CC

W2 Geometric models of the diffusers were created

90°/60°

using “GAMBIT” modeling software with

All dimensions are in mm 100

dimensions shown in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b).

After developing the model, the flow domain was

W1 = 50 mm, W2 = 100 mm L = 600 mm, breadth (b) = 300 mm

meshed into two parts. Near the walls, boundary

AR = W2 / W1 = 2 AS = b / W1 = 6.0, L / W1 = 12.0 layer meshing was used to take care of steep

velocity gradients and the remaining portion was

meshed using hexahedral map meshing scheme.

Fig. 1(a) Geometry of S-diffuser having AR=2

showing rotating cylinder at the inflexion

Grid independency test was also performed by

plane (CC–Concave Plane, CV–Convex carrying out flow simulations using three mesh

Plane). sizes (302,803, 569,664 and 1,071,712 cells). It

was found that increase in the mesh size beyond

569,664 did not change the solution by more than

1% and hence this value was chosen for further

parametric investigations.

Flow analysis was carried out using the CFD code

“FLUENT 6.1” which uses finite volume

approach. The Reynolds number was fixed as

124

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

2.34 × 105 with uniform velocity of 40 m/s at inlet hydraulic diameter of 85.7 mm were also

and air as working fluid (μ = 1.789 × 10-5 Kg/m-s). specified at the inlet to initialize the values of k−ε

Outlet boundary condition was specified as for the turbulence model used for closure solution.

pressure outlet with zero gauge pressure. Steady flow solutions are performed using

Roughness height of 0.2 mm and roughness implicit scheme with segregated solver. Second

constant of 0.5 were specified at the walls of the order upwinding method was used for getting

diffuser to account for the wall finish of the more accurate results. Pressure-velocity coupling

diffuser model used for validation purpose. has been carried out using SIMPLE algorithm.

Further, predictions done with rough walls Scarborough condition was satisfied using under

showed that a roughness height of 0.2 mm relaxation factors for all equations. The residuals

showed improved matching with the experimental of all parameters were kept in the order of 10-6 in

results. Turbulence intensity of around 4% and the converged solution.

50 40

40

30

30

U(m/s)

U(m/s)

20

20

10

10

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

r* r*

40 40

30 30

U(m/s)

U(m/s)

20 20

10 10

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

r* r*

40

40

30 30

U(m/s)

U(m/s)

20 20

10

10

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

r*

r*

Fig. 2 Comparison between calculated and experimental velocity profiles at mid-plane of the S-shaped diffuser

without cylinder at different measuring locations.

125

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

large as only 3 hole probe which can only

The CFD code used in this study has been

measure 2-dimensional plane velocity has been

validated with the experimental results obtained

by Majumdar (1994). Geometry details of the S- used. The second reason could be that the k−ε

shaped diffuser used for validation purpose is turbulence model has its limitation in resolving

shown in Fig. 1(a) (without cylinder). Velocity the flow in the region of steep velocity gradient.

The mean velocity distribution at the exit plane

profiles obtained computationally at 30°, 60°, 90°,

also shows good matching between both

90°/30°, 90°/60° and 90°/90° planes match fairly

computational and experimental results (Fig. 3).

well with experimental data (Fig. 2). The

Fig. 4 shows the comparison of pressure recovery

comparison shown for midplane velocities shows

coefficient. The matching as far as trends are

that the agreement for the first four planes is very

concerned is quite good. The overall pressure

good except close to the walls. The deviations at

recovery predicted shows a deviation of around

the last two planes increase significantly not only

9% with experimental pressure recovery. The

close to the wall but also in the core region.

deviations in the region at the inflexion plane are

Attempt to reduce these deviations was made by

slightly large and can be attributed to the same

increasing the meshing intensity close to the walls

reasons as stated above. Based on these

to resolve the lower y+ values and also by doing

comparisons, it can be concluded that the CFD

grid independency tests in the core regions where

code is validated and can be used for carrying out

velocity gradients were large. The deviations

further investigations.

could not be resolved, which can be attributed to

the fact that the flow is highly 3D and the

CC CV

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

U/Uavi

Fig. 3 Comparison between calculated and experimental mean velocity distribution at the exit cross sectional

plane of S-diffuser for validation purpose.

experimental computational

60

50.2

50 47.23

46

40 37.1 35.38

36 38.96

Cp (%)

30

19.1 26.57 27.71

25.92

20

14.0217

10

Fig. 4 Comparison between computed and

0 0 experimental mass averaged pressure

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 recovery coefficients.

x/L

126

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

5 0.55 0.65

0 .6 0.75 0.75

0.85 0.85

0.85 0.90

0.9 0 0.9 0

0.95

0.9 5 0.95

0.95

0.60 0.55

0 0.650

0.7 0.75

.75

0.8

5

0.80 0

0 .7

0.80

0.85

0 .8 0

0.85 .80

0.65 0.650

0.45 0.70 0.05 0.40

0.05

0 .7 0

0 .7 0.65 0.65

0.70 0 .8 0

0.75

0.80

0.80 0.80

0

0.80 0 .8

0.80

0 .7 0

0 .7 0 0.65

0.4 0 0.75 0 .4 0

0.1 0 0.65 0.15

0.45

0 .6 0 0.10 0.25 0.10

0 .4

5

0 .8 5 0 .8

0.85

0.85 0.85

0.85 0.80

0

5

0.75 5 0 .7

0 0.80 0 .7 0.

0 .6 3 5 0 65

0 . 20 0 .7

0 .5

0. 0.65 0.1 5

0 .2 5

0

0 .1 0

0 . 6

0

0.50

0.40 0.35

0.10 0.20 0.10

0.05 0.10 0.10 0 .0 5

0.70 0.75

0 .7 5 0.7 5

0.70 0.75 0.70

0.60

0.75 0.50

0.50

0 .4 0 0.4 0

0.70

0 .3 0

0.60 0 0.30

0.40 0 .5

0.30 0.40 0. 0.40

0 .40 0.25 0.25

0 .3 0 2

0.20 0.15 0.250

0 .2 0 0.50 0.15 0 .2 0

0.25 0.30

0 .5 5 0.40 0.50

55 0 .5 0 0.60

0.

0 .6

60

0.4 5

0.

0

50

0.65

0.

0.40 0 .4

0

0 .4 5

5

0 .4

0 .4

0.60

5

0.55

0

0 .4

0.50

5 0 .4 0

0 .5 0

0

0 .3

5

0 .4

0 .4

0.30 0.25

127

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

CC 0.6 0.75

30° 0.9

0.95

CV 0.95

CC 0.60 0.50

0 .6

0.60

0

0.75

75

0.

0.

60°

75

0.80

0 .7 5 0.75

0.7 5

CV

CC 0.70

0.76

0.77

0.77

90°

0.76

0.70 0.70

0.76

CV

CV 0.75

0 .7 5

0.75

0.75

90°/30°

0 .65 0 .5

0.65

0.65

55

0.55

5

0.

0.45 33 0.45

0 .3 1 3 6 0.313633 0 .4 5

0.313633

CC 0.313633

CV 0.7

0 .7

0.

7 0 .7

0.7

0.65

0 .6 5

90°/60° 0.55 0.65

0 .5 5

0.45

0.55 0.

0.35 45

0.45

0.35 0.3 5

0.25

0.25 0.25

CC

CV 0 .3 5 0.35

0.50 0.55

0.60 0.60 0.60

0.60 0.45

0 .5 0

0 .3 5 0.55 0 .3 5

0.35 0.35

0.45

0.35

CC 0.26 0.10

CV 0.30

0 .5 0 0.40

0.50 0 .5 0

0.55 0.5 5

5

0 .5

Outlet 0.50

0

0 .5

0 .5 0.59 0.4 5

59

9

0.

0.50

0.45 0.55 0 .4 0

0.50

CC 0.40

Fig. 6 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-shaped rectangular

diffuser (AR=2) for single cylinder at 10000 rad/s.

128

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

S-shaped rectangular diffuser for the highest

The validated CFD code is used to analyze flow cylinder speed is presented in Fig. 6. Further

characteristics of S-shaped rectangular diffusers increase in cylinder speed did not show any

(Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b)) with a single rotating significant changes. The flow distribution in the

cylinder. The work has been divided into two second bend shows higher and lower velocities

parts. Firstly, an S-shaped rectangular diffuser near convex and concave walls respectively, at

having an area ratio of 2 is analyzed, followed by both 60° and 90° planes. A uniform velocity

one having an area ratio of 3. distribution is seen across the exit cross-section.

Secondary flow distribution shows the presence

4.1 S-shaped diffuser with area ratio 2 of very weak vortices close to the inner corner of

A single cylinder of 3 cm diameter is placed at a parallel walls of the diffuser in the first bend of

distance of x = 0.5L at the inflexion plane and the diffuser. The flow breaks into two pairs of

rotated at different speeds in the range of 4,000– counter rotating vortices in the second bend of the

10,000 rad/s to control the boundary layer diffuser due to imposition of centrifugal forces

separation by imparting momentum to the and flow diffusion. The magnitude of these

retarding fluid close to the wall at the inflexion vortices increases further till exit, but one pair

plane. Approximately, 115° section of cylinder remains smaller than the other. Secondary flow

surface is in contact with the flow inside the duct. distribution in vector form is presented in Fig. 7

Longitudinal velocity distribution shows increase for the extreme cylinder speed.

The vital parameter for evaluation of performance

in velocity near the convex wall at 30°, 60° and

of any diffuser is the coefficient of pressure

90° planes due to momentum injection. This is

recovery and coefficient of total pressure loss.

because of inward suction of the low velocity

Figs. 8 and 9 show comparative study of these

fluid by the moving cylinder, thereby delaying

parameters for extreme cylinder speed. Figures

separation which otherwise takes place at

show 23.8% increase in pressure recovery

x = 0.45L close to the inflexion plane in normal

coefficient and 32% fall in total pressure loss due

operation, i.e. without cylinder (Fig. 5). For the

to momentum injection by the rotating cylinder at

highest cylinder speed, this point vanishes

its extreme speed.

CV

CC

CV CC

30° 90°/30°

CV

CC

CV CC

60° 90°/60°

CV

CC

CV CC

90° 90°/90°

Fig. 7 Normalized cross flow velocity vector plots at different sections along the S-shaped rectangular diffuser with

cylinder rotating at the speed of 10000 rad/s.

129

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

AR-2 with cylinder without cylinder AR-2 With cylinder without cylinder

70 18

16.9

61.9

16

60

53.72 14

14

47.45

50

50.2 12

38.1 47.23 10.3

38.29 11.48

40 10

CL(%)

Cp(%)

10.24

7.6

36 37.1 35.38 8.85

30 8

20.65 5.2

6

20 19.1 5.85

4 3

4

10 2.94

2

0 0 0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

x/L x/L

recovery along the length of S-diffuser loss along the length of S-diffuser (AR=2)

(AR= 2) with and without cylinder rotation. with and without cylinder rotation.

0 .7 0

0.70 0.70

0 .8

0.85 5

0.90

0.90 5

0.90 0 .8

CV 0.45 0.85 0.45 0.45

CC 0.35 0.35

0 .3 0 .5

0.35

5

0 .5

0.5

0.6 0.6

60° 0.

7

0.7

0.6

0.7 0.741492

6 0.741492 0.

0 . 0 .5 0.7

6

0.05 0.5

0.

CV 0.35 0.05

5

0.65

0.70 0.7 0

0.73

0 .7 0

0.73

90° 0 .7 0

0 .6 5

0.70

0 .4 5

0.

0.6 5

55

0

0 .3

0.

0.5 5

30

5 0.4 5

0 .0

0 .0 0 .0 5

0.30 0 .0 5 5

0.05 0.05

CV 0.05

Fig. 10 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-Diffuser (AR=3) without

cylinder rotation.

130

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

0.80

0.

80

0.80 0.75

75

0.75

0.70

0.

0.7 0 0.7 0

0.55 0.75

0.

90°/30° 0.40 0.40 5

0.70 0. 5

0.25 55

40

0.1 5

0. 0 .1 5 0.55

0.

0.05 0.05 40

0.05 0.25 0 .0 5

CC

CV 0.45 0.45

0.65 0.70 0.7 0 0 .7 0

0 .7 0.70 0.65 0 .7 0

0 0.65 0 .7 0 0.7 0

0 0.45 0.4 5 0 .6

0 .6 0.

0

0.65 45

90°/60° 0.2 0 0 .2 0

45

0.65

0.

0.10 0.10

0.30

0.45

0

0 .3

0.10

0.10

0.45 0.

20

20

0.

0.3 0

05 0.15

0.10 0.05 0.15 0.

CC 0.05 0.05

CV 0 .1 0.10

0.1 0 0.10

30

0 .2 5 0 0 .1 0

0.

0.10 0 .4

0.4 5 0.16 0.1 6 5 0 .5

0 .5 5 0.30 0.5 5 5

0 .5 5

0.4 5

0 .5

0 .4 5

5

55 55

0. 0.60 0.

0 .3 0

90°/90°

0 .2 5

0.

1

0 .6

45

0 .4

5

0 .4

0.16

5

0 .2

5

0 .3

0 .6 0 0

0 .1 6

0.

16

0. 0.

10 10

0 .2 5

CV 0.30 0.30

0.34 0.24

0.26 0 .3 2 0.34

0 .2 8

0 .3 4 0.34

0.3 0

0 .3 0

0 .3 0

Outlet 0.32

0.3 2

0 .3 2 0.32

0.32

0 .3 0 .3 4

4 0.34

0.36

0.38

0 .3 6 0 .3 6

0.40

0.42

0.

32 32

CC 0.3 6 0.42 0 .3 6 0.

Fig. 10 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-Diffuser (AR=3)

without cylinder rotation. (continued)

131

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

4.2 S-shaped rectangular diffuser with area takes place at x = 0.36L close to the inflexion

ratio 3 plane in normal operation, i.e. without cylinder

(Fig. 10). For extreme cylinder speed, this point

A single cylinder of 3 cm diameter is placed at a

vanishes completely in this case also. The flow

distance of x = 0.333L close to the inflexion plane

development in the S-shaped rectangular diffuser

and rotated at different speeds in the range of

for extreme cylinder speed is presented in Fig. 11.

4,000–12,000 rad/s to analyze the effect of

Flow behavior in the second bend and the

moving surface on the duct’s performance.

secondary flow distribution show similar trends as

Approximately, 115° section of cylinder is in

seen for the area ratio of 2 (Fig. 12).

touch with the flow inside the duct for this case as

For an area ratio of 3, Figs. 13 and 14 show

well. Longitudinal velocity distribution shows

comparative study of coefficient of pressure

increase in velocity near the convex wall at 30°, recovery and coefficient of total pressures loss for

60° and 90° planes due to momentum injection as extreme cylinder speed. Figures show 21.5%

noticed for the area ratio of 2. This is again due to increase in pressure recovery coefficient and 51%

the inward suction of retarding flow towards the fall in total pressure loss due to momentum

wall by the rotating cylinder at high velocity, injection for extreme speed of rotating cylinder.

thereby delaying separation which otherwise

CC 0.35

0.55 0.70

0.7 0 0.70

5 0 .7

0 .7 0.75 5

30°

0.80 0.80 0.80

0.85 0 .8 5

0 .8 5

CV 0 .7 5 0.80 0.80 0 .7 5

CC 0.40 0.40 0.4 0

0.50 0.40

0.50

0.62 0.62

60°

0.67

0.67

0.62 0.62

0.40 0.50

0.62 0 .4 0

CV

CC 0.5 5 0.50 0.55

0 .6 0 0.60

0.60

0.6 0 0.6 0

0.55

0.60

0.50

90°

0.50 0.55 0.55

0.55

50

0.

0.

0.45 0.45 0.45 40

0 .3 0 0.40 0.3 0

0.35

0 .2 5 0.35 0.25

0.40

CV 0.1 0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.1 0

CV 0.60

0 .6 0

0.65

60

0.60 0.

0.60

0 .5 5 0.5 5

0.5 0

0 .5 0

90°/30° 0.50

0.45 0 .4 0 0.40

0.40 0 .3 0

0 .3 0 0.40 0.40 0 .2

0.15 0.35 0 .3 0 0

0.30 0.30 0.30

0 .1 0 0 .1 0

0.25

0.25

0.05 0.30 0.25 0 .3 0 0.05

CC

Fig. 11 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-diffuser (AR=3) with

cylinder rotating at 12000 rad/s rotation.

132

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

0 .5 0 0.55 0.5 0

0.45 0 .4 5

0.50 0.40

0.35

90°/60° 0.45 0 .3

0

0.25 0.40 0.25

0.20 0.

0.35 20

0 .1 5

5 0.30 0 .1

0.25

0.

0.20 0.10

10

05

CC 0.15 0.

0.30 0.30

0 .4 0 0.35

0.40

0. 0 .4 0

45

0 .4 5 0.45

0.45

0 .4 0 0 .4 0

90°/90° 0 .3 5 0.45

0 .3 5

0.30

0.25

0 .2 5 0.25

0.40

0 .2 0 0.2 0

0.35

0.30

0 .1 5

0.25

0.2 0

0.20 0.15

0.15

CC 0.10 0 .1 0

CV 0.20 0.22

0.28 0 .2 6

0.32 0.26

0.28

30

0.3 0

0.

0.32

0 .2 4

0.34

0 .2

0.36

8

0 .3

0.38

0

0.32

0 .2 6

0.3 4

Outlet

0.

0.40

0 .3 6

28

0 .3 8

0.41

0 .3 6

0.40

0 .3

4

0 .3

0.38

2

0.30

0.28

0.36

0 .2 0.34 4

CC 4 0.30 0 .2

Fig. 11 Normalized longitudinal velocity contours at different sections along the length of S-diffuser (AR=3) with

cylinder rotating at 12000 rad/s rotation. (continued)

133

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

CV

CC

CV

CC

30° 90°/30°

CV

CC

CV

CC

60° 90°/60°

CV

CC

CV

CC

90° 90°/90°

CV

CC

Outlet

Fig. 12 Normalized secondary flow velocity vector plots at different sections along the length of the S-diffuser

(AR= 3) with cylinder rotating at the speed of 12000 rad/s.

AR-3

77.88

80

72.23 20

67.04 67.49

16.82

58.3

60 13.21

64.04 15

55.49

55.62

51.77 10.35

Cp (%)

CL (%)

40 44.87 10

37.42

7.13

8.27

4.41 7.36

20 5 2.85 6.45

5.32

3.67

2.27

0 0

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

x/L

x/L

recovery along the length of S-diffuser loss along the length of S-diffuser (AR=3)

(AR= 3) with and without cylinder rotation. with and without cylinder rotation.

134

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009)

5. CONCLUSIONS Subscripts

momentum injection by rotating cylinder to

control the boundary layer separation in S-shaped REFERENCES

rectangular diffusers with different area ratios (2

& 3). The following conclusions have been drawn 1. Anand RB, Rai L, Singh SN (2003). Effect of

from the study: turning angle on the flow and performance

i. Momentum injection by rotating cylinder characteristics of long S-shaped circular

surface delays separation, which is diffusers. Proc. IMechE. Part G: J.

completely eliminated for extreme cylinder Aerospace Engineering 217:29–41.

speed for both cases. 2. Chen X, He W (1991). Flow characteristics

and flow control for high aspect ratio and

ii. Delay in separation results in improved highly curved S-bend diffuser. J. Prop. Tech.

pressure recovery and the total pressure loss 60:17–22.

coefficient reduces. Increase in coefficient of 3. Fluent Inc. (2003). FLUENT 6.1 User Guide,

pressure recovery are 23.8% and 21.5% for Vol. 1–4.

the ducts with area ratios of 2 and 3 4. Launder BE, Spalding DB (1974). The

respectively for extreme cylinder speeds and numerical computation of turbulent flow.

the corresponding fall in coefficient of total Comp. Methods App. Mech. Engineering

pressure loss are 32% and 51% respectively. 3:269–289.

iii. Effect of increase in rotating cylinder speeds 5. Majumdar B (1994). Flow Investigations in

beyond the value studied is only marginal for Curved Diffusers. Ph.D. Thesis, IIT Delhi.

both cases. The flow distribution also 6. Modi VJ, Fernando MSUK, Yokomizo T

improves significantly at the exit for both (1991). Moving surface boundary-layer

diffusers investigated. control as applied to two-dimensional and

three-dimensional bluff bodies. J. Wind Engg.

& Industrial Aerodynamics 38:83–92.

NOMENCLATURE 7. Nishi M, Shibata Y, Okamoto M, Nakamura

M (1997). Separation control in a conical

C1ε , C2ε , Turbulence model constants diffuser by vortex generator jets. JSME

Cμ , σk , σε 63:82–87.

Gk Generation term (kinetic energy) 8. Singhal T, Singh SN, Mathur S, Singh RK

k Turbulent kinetic energy (2006). Performance optimization for 2-

M Number of dependent variable dimensional rectangular diffuser by

I Turbulence intensity momentum injection using CFD. Proc.

L Centre line length of diffuser IMechE Vol. 220, Part C: J. Mechanical

P Static pressure Engineering Science 1775–1783.

Sm Mass added to the continuous phase 9. Singh SN, Veeravalli SV, Bhatnagar A,

τij Stress tensor Puneesh P (2002). Effect of boundary layer

Uavi Mass average inlet velocity, m/sec control using momentum injection on the lift

u Mean velocity, m/sec characteristics of a NACA airfoil. Proc. 2nd

u∞ Local centerline velocity, m/sec International and 29th National Conference

u′ Velocity perturbation on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, IIT

X Longitudinal coordinate Roorkee, 252–259.

ε Turbulence dissipation rate 10. Singh SN, Rai L, Puri P, Bhatnagar A (2005).

ρ Density of fluid Effect of moving surface on the aerodynamic

μ Dynamic viscosity drag of road vehicles. Proc. IMechE, Part D:

J. Automobile Engineering 219:127–134.

υt Turbulence viscosity (eddy viscosity)

11. Sullerey RK, Pradeep AM (2004). Secondary

ν Kinematic viscosity

flow control using vortex generator jet. J.

Cp Coefficient of pressure recovery

Fluids Engg. 126:650–665.

CL Coefficient total pressure loss

12. Yoshimasa F, Tesuo F, Eisho Y, Tsuzuki I,

rps Rotational speed (rad/sec)

Ichiro N (1970). Performance of the two-

AR Area Ratio

dimensional diffuser with suction at the

AS Aspect ratio

entrance. Bulletin of JSME 13:264–271.

135

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