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WESTERN

BALKANS
SECURITY
OBSERVER
No. 2 • SEPTEMBER–OCTOBER 2006

BELGRADE
WESTERN
BALKANS
DPOUFOUT
SECURITY
OBSERVER Editor’s note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Journal of the
Belgrade School for SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR
Security Studies Serbian Army Professionalization . . . . . . . 2
No. 2
MEETING POINT
SEPTEMBER–OCTOBER
2006 Strategy for Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Publisher: THREATS, RISKS AND CHALLENGES


Centre for Civil- SALW – Grave problem in Serbia . . . . . . 11
Military Relations
If Guns Were Silent...
Editor: Failure of the struggle against
Jasmina Gli{i} SALW proliferation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Proofreading: SECURITY CATCH
Milorad Timoti}
Women in the army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Computer typesetting: Ecological threats to security . . . . . . . . . . 20
^aslav Bjelica
Balkan “fields of death” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Printed by: A Chance to Boost Security Cooperation. . . 21
GORAGRAF, Beograd
Anti-terrorism dilemmas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Circulation:
ATLANTIC SHORES
200 copies
Taboos, security and democracy . . . . . . . 22
Belgrade School of NATO – Policy of “exceptions” . . . . . . . . 25
Security Studies owes BALKAN TOPICS
its beginnings to the
assistance of the Military finances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Kingdom of Norway.
Double price of military security . . . . . . . 36
Its operation is also
supported by the For in the hands of brave Vuk Mandusic...
Balkan Fund for Security in the proposed Constitution
Democracy. of Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
PEOPLE AND EVENTS
Unknown deadline for the
enlargement of the Schengen zone
to include new EU members . . . . . . . . . . 46
This journal is Army to sell airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
financed by NATO.
A powder keg in the neighbourhood . . . 48
Fejups’t!opuf
illing in a war in Caesar’s time was
K rather inexpensive – just 75 cents per
man. The price rose to around three thou-
to control even the last milliliter of liquid
that a passenger may take on board the
plane. Sometimes, however, even the
sand dollars “per enemy’s head” during fashion style of a passenger is subject to
the Napoleonic wars. In the American restrictions! As one can read in our col-
Civil War the amount was five thousand, umn, “Security Catch”, security officers at
while in the World War I the price the New York airport forced a person to
amounted to as much as $21,000. By stat- change his T-shirt so as not to upset other
ing these facts on the eve of the World passengers. The inscription written on this
War II, the U.S. senator Homer Bone did T-shirt sounds like a deliberative democ-
not explain how he came up with this cal- racy exclamation – “We will not be
culation. A politician does not find it im- silent”. Yet, it was written not only in
portant to show what methodological ac- English but in Arabic as well.
robatics can be used to express military By refusing to keep silent about the
costs of the ancient Rome in the U.S. cur- results of their latest analysis, Mearsheimer
rency. Politicians care more about attract- and Walt provoked strong reactions in the
ing public attention and pointing to the academic world. Their essay on the influ-
consequences of certain security policy. ence of the Israeli lobby on U.S. foreign
The researchers of the Belgrade policy was published on the eve of the lat-
School for Security Studies have tried to est conflicts in the Middle East. An article
achieve the same goal, duly respecting in our column “Atlantic Shores” explains
strict academic standards. This issue of the how important this opening of a taboo is
“Western Balkans Security Observer” and what lesson Serbia can learn from this
brings several texts inspired by this very case. The need for a public debate is par-
statement of Senator Bone, only that our ticularly pointed out in an article on the
researchers’ questions were not so mor- professionalization of the Army of Serbia
bid – we were not interested in the price in our long-standing column “Security
of killing a man, but rather wanted to Sector Reform”.
know how much money has to be invest- Unfortunately, this autumn Serbia did
ed in protection of people’ lives. not see any public debate on the most im-
The price of security is increasing but portant legal document of the country.
modern security threats are not getting However, the Belgrade School is offering
weaker. This issue analyzes the conse- to the public an insight into the
quences of only one particular threat – the Constitutional provisions dealing with the
proliferation of small arms and light security sector. This issue of our journal al-
weapons. In Serbia, where a wedding
feast may end up with shooting down a so brings an overview of the National
plane by a weapon of that kind, the pro- Security Strategy of Montenegro.
liferation is not even mentioned in strate- The second article in the column
gic documents as a security threat. A glob- “Atlantic Shores” estimates the chances of
al failure of the struggle against this kind Serbia to join the Partnership for Peace
of proliferation is being discussed in the Programme at the forthcoming NATO
column “Challenges, Risks and Threats”, Summit in Riga. So, the researchers of the
in an article explaining that the conse- Belgrade School have dared not only to
quences of the proliferation are not meas- offer their analyses and “diagnoses”, but
ured only in death toll. also certain prognoses. There is an open
Too expensive, yet ever fragile securi- invitation for all our colleagues dealing
ty is not something that only the Western with security studies to join in these efforts
Balkans is troubled with, as the region in the following issues.
now has to pay out its “war dividends”. In
an attempt to protect itself from the “Next
Attack”, the Anglo-Saxon world is trying
5 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR

Tfscjbo!Bsnz!Qspgfttjpobmj{bujpo
Ekpsekf!Qpqpwj~

ow that all Montenegrins can “take gal framework for defense system re-
N employment, continue education or
apply themselves to some more useful
forms until the year 2015. This document
anticipates that by 2010 Serbia will have
things” instead of doing their military 21,000 professional soldiers. In the first
service, as president Filip Vujanovi} put stage, until 2007, the current number of
it, Serbia remained the only country in 45,000 Serbian army members will be re-
the Western Balkans with a general mili- duced to 34,000. Until that time the
tary obligation. General Staff will be reorganized in line
Army professionalization is a process with NATO standards. This means that it
that elicits debate for several reasons. In will have a joint operational command,
the first place, the ways the army has so
far used to fill its ranks proved to be en-
tirely unfunctional, since most young Qsjnf!Njojtufs!ibt
people do not wish to serve it. In addi-
tion, the state does not have the funds re-
opuijoh!up!tbz
quired to support a conscript, and more- According to the media
over so numerous, an army. And, finally, archive of the Centre for Civil-
Military Relations, the president
professionalization may contribute to the of the Democratic Party of Serbia
overall security sector reform. In the sec- Vojislav Ko{tunica did not make a
ond, only sporadically actualized, line of single statement related to the
public debate, the citizens were seldom army ever since he become the
republic’s prime minister, and
asked to state their views, while those of- consequently, said nothing about
fered by the politicians were neither well its professionalization. The for-
developed nor appropriately argument- mal explanation could be found
ed. in the fact that the Army was
The purpose of this text is to review within the competence of the
State Union of Serbia and
the debate on army professionalization Montenegro before its disintegra-
in Serbia by analyzing the official military tion. That, however is not of ma-
documents, statements of politicians and jor importance, since 95 per cent
the professional as well as general pub- of army appropriations came
lic. from the Serbian republic budget.

Xibu!bsf!uif!Bsnz’t!qmbot@
and a branch-based army organization,
The Serbian Army should have no while the new organizational structure
more dilemmas. Professionalization will on the tactical level will comprise
be implemented at a pace anticipated by brigades, bases and independent units.
the Strategic Defense Review. The new personnel structure of our
The Strategic Defense Review was armed forces will include about 15 per
adopted in early June, by the defense cent of officers, 25 per cent NCOs, 45 per
minister’s collegium and provides the le- cent soldiers and about 15 per cent civil-
SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR 6

ians working in the army. The review as well as Pono{. The document was
also states that in 2015 the peace also placed on the MoD website and
strength of the army will account for thus made available to the general
between 0.2 and 0.4 per cent of the public.
population, or three times as much in
wartime, depending on the develop- Xibu!uif!qpmjujdbm
ments in the surroundings, security qbsujft!ibwf!up!tbz@
challenges, risks and threats, as well as
Serbia’s demographic and material re- The politicians, surprisingly, did not
sources. The main precondition for the interfere in the adoption of the Strategic
attainment of this vision is the appro- Defense Review. Party programs provide
scant guidelines for security/defense pol-
priation for the defense system
icy, and judging by the statements of
amounting to 2.4 per cent of the GDP.
their leaders they do not have particular-
In addition to providing a detailed
ly developed or well-argumented views
projection of Serbian Army reforms,
on the subject.
the Review was presented to the pub-
Members of the governing coalition -
lic in a way that represents a novelty
G17 Plus and the Serbian Renewal
on the Serbian political scene. In June
Movement advocate army professional-
2006, a week after it had been adopted
ization. The objective of the former is to
by the defense minister’s collegium,
“build a highly professional army, well
the minister’s assistant Sne`ana
provided with knowledge, weapons and
Samard`i}-Markovi} and Acting Chief equipment to cope with the new tasks
of General Staff general Zdravko and challenges”. The latter argues for a
Pono{ introduced the Review to the professional army “organized pursuant
SCG-NATO Defense Reform Group. to the standards of leading democratic
The very next day, its presentation in countries, to protect the state borders”.
‘’Bora Markovi}’’ barracks was attend- The Democratic Party of Serbia’s pro-
ed by the defense minister Zoran gram only notes that the country’s de-
Stankovi} and the Serbian president fense is the “exclusive task of the armed
Boris Tadi} in person, which ensured forces” that have to be beyond any polit-
it substantial publicity and space in all ical or ideological influence. This docu-
important Serbian media. A month lat- ment makes no reference to the army’s
er, the Review was laid out to the pres- professionalization and merely states that
ident and vice president of the its operations will be the responsibility of
National Assembly, as well as repre- the MoD, and under the parliamentary
sentatives of parliamentary caucuses. control. The program of the Democratic
The MoD also arranged a presentation Party, whose leader used to be the de-
for those in academic and NGO sec- fense minister, does not mention the
tors concerned with security issues, Army at all.
acting in cooperation with the The opposition parties display even
Belgrade Fund for Political Excellence. mutual opposition on the issue of the po-
All these activities were accompanied tential army professionalization.
by a series of statements for the media According to the Socialist Party of
and authorial articles signed by minis- Serbia’s 1992 program, the proclaimed
ter Stankovi}, his assistants Sne`ana general military obligation is based on
Samard`i}-Markovi} and Zoran Jefti}, “the right and duty of all citizens of the
7 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR

FR of Yugoslavia to defend the freedom Their negative attitudes are illustrated


and independence of their country”. We by statements that, e.g., the reduction of
may assume that this document has be- the number of soldiers to 21,000 is
come obsolete, but the public is unaware “ridiculous”, as the former defense min-
of any up-dated views of this party. By ister’s adviser Veljko Kadijevi} said in
contrast, the Serbian Radical Party’s pro- August this year. At the time when he
gram stresses that the army “should be held that function “the Americans and
urgently and thoroughly reformed and the British recommended downsizing to
professionalized and relieved of political 50,000”. Kadijevi} questions the pro-
activities”. posed solution to give smaller units the
However, the leader of this Party role once played by corps. He finds it
Tomislav Nikoli} relativized this orienta- “impossible for four brigades to defend
tion somewhat by saying that army pro- the whole country”, saying that “there is
fessionalization “should be undertaken no army between Belgrade and Novi
with great caution”. He even warns (June Pazar”, with “one brigade defending
2004) of “the danger that we may be left Vojvodina, and even two brigades on the
without any army in the barracks”. His border of the Ground Security Zone”.
argument that the “Army is, in a way, a
place where young people come of age”
recalls the traditional view that “he who
Uif!nptu!ijhimz
was not fit for the army, is not fit for life ipopsfe!dbmmjoh
either” and speaks more in favor of the “We no longer have any rea-
general military obligation than army son to stick to the ideological the-
professionalization. sis that the military calling is the
most honorable. Why should it
be the most honorable? Any oth-
Xibu!ep!uif!fyqfsut!tbz@ er calling is just as honorable,
The most dynamic public debate on any profession is honorable if
this issue in Serbia developed among practiced properly...” Ljubodrag
Stojadinovi}
military analysts, ranging from retired
generals to former and ongoing security
advisors. Unfortunately, despite their di- According to an entirely unfounded, cal-
verse education and experience, the par- culation offered by retired general
ticipants of the debate focused on mere- Milomir Miladinovi}, Serbia should have
ly two topics: numerical reduction of the between 60 and 70 thousand soldiers.
army and the ability of the state to pay The former commander of Novi Sad
for this exercise. corps believes that “in line with NATO
The first topic is addressed in the var- standards, soldiers should account for 1
ious renditions of the “who-will-defend- per cent of the population”. Miladinovi}
this country” complaint. Although both warns that “under the present conditions
the concept and process of professional- the Army should act as a deterrent
ization go far beyond the announced re- against possible aggression on our terri-
duction of military personnel, the fact tory” and wonders “who are we going to
that the number of soldiers in Serbia will deter with 20 thousand men”. Pointing
be halved seems to be almost the only that “Kosovo Protection Corps alone
thing the analysts talk about. numbers 55 thousand troops”, he an-
SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR 8

nounces “impending instability in this thousand dollars per soldier (Radi{a


area”, “regardless of the decision on the \or|evi}, Ministry of Finance’s defense
final status of Kosovo”. budget adviser at that time). The price of
A positive view about the an- a professional soldier ranges between
nounced numerical reduction of the 30-50 thousand dollars per year accord-
army has been offered by analyst ing to an assessment made by the
Aleksandar Radi}, who considers it the Serbian president Boris Tadi} two years
only possible solution. “The numerical ago, or 30-100 thousand dollars which, a
size is no longer the crucial factor for the retired general Milen Simi} says, is the
assessment of combat readiness. It amount paid per one soldier by EU
would have been important if we lived in countries with army organization and
the 1960s. But, it is hardly a prime con- rank-filling system similar to our own. He
cern in the era of information-based war- notes that certain European countries
fare.” He points out that reorganization with professional armies have annual ex-
with army downsizing is only normal penses of 150 to 200 thousand dollars
and expected, but stresses that it does per soldier.
not amount to reform. Moreover, he The public hears controversial state-
points out that the substitution of one
term for the other actually speaks of the
simulation of reforms, resulting from a
Pme!boe!mftt
compromise between the “old forces” fevdbufe!pqqptfe!up
who would change nothing and those qspgfttjpobmj{bujpo
for whom the need for reforms is obvi- According to a survey of the
ous. Incidentally, the topic of army pro- Centre for Civil-Military Relations
fessionalization was for the first time army professionalization has the
broached in the public debate by gener- fewest supporters among older
al Blagoje Grahovac way back in 2002 respondents of 60 years or more
– 16 per cent in October 2003, 18
(in the FR of Yugoslavia). Grahovac, cur- per cent in February 2004, 21 per
rent adviser to the Montenegrin cent in September 2004 and, fi-
Parliament speaker, claimed that the nally, 13 per cent in April 2005. It
army was too cumbersome and unfunc- is also characteristic that respon-
tional and suggested that “Serbia and dents with a higher education
Montenegro do not need more than 25 level offer greater support for the
abolishment of the general mili-
thousand soldiers”. tary obligation.
The other main line of the public de-
bate on professionalization dwells on the
costs it implies and political assessments ments concerning Serbia’s ability to fi-
of the state’s ability to support a profes- nance a professional army. According to
sional army. The participants in this de- what president Tadi} said two years ago,
bate invariably failed to explain the that is the “privilege of a rich society”,
methods or calculations they used to ar- and “our economy cannot produce that
rive at the specified amounts. It is known kind of money”. Analyst Veljko Kadijevi}
that Serbia’s 2004 budget could sustain in April 2005 also claimed that we could
about 50,000 soldiers (including both hardly sustain full professionalization
professionals and conscripts), if the ap- and advocated partial instead. “I remind
propriation amounted to just over 12 you that economically much more pow-
9 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR

erful states, such as the USA, do not have growing trend of support to the abolish-
a fully professional army,” Kadijevi} ment of general military obligation the
pointed out. number of respondents who chose this
But, the existing solution in Serbia is option has never exceeded a third of the
considered to be the “most costly and total (October 2003 – 28.1 per cent;
least efficient” (military analyst Ljubodrag February 2004 - 31.7 per cent; September
Stojadinovi}, July 2006). Stojadinovi} 2004 – 32.2 per cent; April 2005 – 28.8
says that “this army no longer fits either per cent). A large number of citizens be-
the Strategic Defense Review, or to the lieves that “our country does not have
adopted Strategy, or even the Doctrine sufficient economic strength to sustain a
that was adopted and applied for only professional army” (October 2003 - 46
one day, and only in Serbia, before it was per cent; February 2004 – 47.2 per cent;
cancelled”. Acting Chief of the General September 2004 – 48.6 per cent; April
Staff Zdravko Pono{ in May this year said 2005 – 50.4 per cent). Despite these
that the “existing system of training and views, professionalization ranked high
the length of the military service are but a on the list of army reform priorities, sec-
waste of funds” which is why it was nec- ond only to modernization of weapons
essary to professionalize the army as and equipment and, moreover, held this
soon as possible. Another official confir- high place throughout the research peri-
mation of the state’s financial abilities od. The citizens, paradoxically, although
came from the finance minister Mla|an predominantly opposed to professional-
Dinki} in May this year. “The Ministry of ization, also consider it a priority for fur-
Finance is prepared to support army pro- ther army reforms. It is obvious that the
fessionalization. This means that by 2010
population was not clear as to what army
we will complete the preparations to
professionalization actually meant. That
cancel the military obligation and give
is why we would be right to believe that
Serbia a professional army. This also
their views were based on emotions. The
means that 2.4 per cent of the GDP will
quality of the public debate in a demo-
be appropriated for the military each
cratic society is ensured if it not only
year, which is far more compared with
strengthens the emotional component of
last year’s plans”, Dinki} said.
the citizens’ attitudes but also comple-
ments and reinforces their cognitive ba-
Tfscjbo!qvcmjd;!tdbou sis.
lopxmfehf-!bcvoebou!fnpujpo That is why it is not good that the
This review of the public debate on subject of professionalization is raised
army professionalization in Serbia shows only when a scandalous affair in the
that it has been reduced to few topics army breaks out. Firstly, this approach
and reveals diametrically opposed views. only heats up the emotion-based views
It is therefore hardly surprising that ordi- of the public. Secondly, it is wrong to as-
nary citizens have confuse ideas about sume that this system of army organiza-
this issue, as confirmed by the findings of tion is the “only salvation” since profes-
a public opinion survey made between sional armies, too, have their share of sui-
2003 and 2005 by the Centre for Civil- cides, financial affairs and various abus-
Military Relations. Namely, despite the es. What is certain is the fact that these
SECURITY SECTOR REFORM MONITOR :

would be far less frequent if only the sys- demonstrating its readiness to submit
tem of control was stricter and the army its development strategy to public criti-
more orderly. cism, the Serbian army has made the
Almost just as important for the first step in that direction. The profes-
public is that the debate on army pro- sional as well as the general public
fessionalization in Serbia is not reduced should have both greater interest and
to sensationalist speeches of politicians more information in order to compe-
on the eve of elections, or interest of tently partake of that debate.
the media aroused by an army-related
tragedy. What is required is a substan- The author works as research
tive and all-comprising professional dis- fellow in the Belgrade School of
course on this complex process. By Security Studies

Tipvme!xf!sfubjo!uif!hfofsbm!njmjubsz!pcmjhbujpo!ps!jouspevdf!
b!qspgfttjpobm!)qbje*!bsnz@

Pvs!dpvousz’t!fdpopnz!jt!opu!tvggjdjfoumz!tuspoh!up!tvtubjo!b!qspgfttjpobm!bsnz/
21 MEETING POINT

Tusbufhz!gps!Qbsuofstijq
Kfmfob!Sbepnbo

ontenegrin soldiers may soon continue to make the success of indi-


M join the UN or NATO peace
troops whereby the youngest
vidual countries dependent on the cor-
responding achievement of all others.
European state would add its contribu- The relevant documents show that
tion to the global antiterrorist coalition. the countries of this region (Albania,
The issue has recently been discussed Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,
in Podgorica by the Montenegrin Macedonia and Montenegro) have
Prime Minister Milo \ukanovi} and changed their understanding and ex-
the US Defense Secretary Donald panded the security concept. Security
Rumsfeld. A move of this kind would strategies or doctrines of the region’s
be fully in line with the National countries, whatever they are called,
Security Strategy adopted by the address security not only, or even pri-
Montenegrin government on 12 June marily, from the military angle, but
this year, merely a few weeks after the they also deal with its political, eco-
country’s independence. The strategy nomic, social and ecological consider-
defines the national interests of ations. The Montenegrin National
Montenegro, its strategic objectives, Security Strategy explicitly defines “se-
challenges, risks and threats to the se- curity” and “national security” as a
curity of the state and its citizens, as “situation wherein the citizens of
Montenegro live in peace and stability
well as the possible state reactions. It
without any visible or projected chal-
also reflects the commitment of strate-
lenges, risks of threats to their well-be-
gy makers to make Montenegro a part
ing or the stability of their political,
of regional and global security systems
economic, technological and ecologi-
and ensure its proper contribution.
cal system and without any clear
The document reaffirms that the strate-
threats to the political existence or ter-
gic objective of Montenegro is its EU
ritorial integrity of the state of
and NATO membership. Euro-Atlantic
Montenegro”. National security there-
integrations are the shared goal in the
by includes the political, economic,
Western Balkans and judging by the
military, information and ecological
Montenegrin National Security Strategy
stability.
the new state in the region will not dif-
fer in its perception of regional securi-
Tfdvsjuz!pckfdujwft-!dibmmfohft-
ty and its security objectives either. It
sjtlt!boe!uisfbut
remains to be seen whether
Montenegro will prove more success- This understanding of security has
ful and faster than its neighbors in at- been translated into a wide range of
taining these objectives, or whether objectives declared as national inter-
the common regional problems will ests. The countries of the region
MEETING POINT 22

“share” many of these objectives and, integrity of the state of Montenegro, al-
while some of them figure as national so refer to the resoluteness of this state
interests of all countries of the world, to fully contribute to the global strug-
others derive from the specific security gle against terrorism and organized
situation in Western Balkans. The for- crime, while legal objectives focus on
mer certainly include the protection of ensuring the division between the ex-
sovereignty and territorial integrity, ecutive, legislative and judicial branch-
human rights and liberties, rule of law es, their independence and autonomy.
and personal property. The specific se- All national security and defense
curity context accounts for such na- strategies in the region still consider a
tional objectives as the development possibility of an armed conflict a
of the free market, social justice, fight- threat, albeit of a lower intensity.
ing organized crime, membership of Montenegrin political decision makers
international organizations and region- believe that the number of conven-
al cooperation. National objectives tional military threats has been re-
suggest that the proponents of political duced and their direct military influ-
power in the region still predominant- ence limited to relatively small areas.
ly find the democratic institutions in- However, they point out that the risk
sufficiently stable and the rule of law of geographic escalation of an armed
inadequate and in need of further sup- conflict, or a crisis in the region that
port. That is why the political objec- will not bypass Montenegro, should
tives of Montenegrin strategy makers not be discarded altogether. Global
assign priority to the “preservation of terrorism is the next important chal-
the multiparty, multiethnic, multicul- lenge to the security of Montenegro.
tural and multiconfessional democratic Although they fail to explain how ex-
system of power and further promo- actly the existence and activity of ter-
tion of democratic institutions, along rorist groups on the global level threat-
with the increased openness and en Montenegro, the strategy makers
transparency of the public sector, con- stress the country’s readiness to fully
tinuance and strengthening of the rule contribute to the fight against terrorism
of law, protection of human and mi- and organized crime. This contribution
nority rights, and preservation of the will be provided through participation
constitutional order”, as well as peace in antiterrorist coalitions and will in-
and security in Montenegro and its im- clude the possibility to use the
mediate and strategically relevant Montenegrin land, sea and air space in
European environment. Protection of support of UN, EU, OEBS and NATO
property and economic welfare of the missions. Engagement of peace troops
citizens and economic resources of would confirm this commitment and
Montenegro are the economic objec- would simultaneously be a good mar-
tives set forth by the strategy. Defense keting move of the new state.
objectives, in addition to defending All forms of organized crime, as
the sovereignty, unity and territorial well as economic, social and political
23 MEETING POINT

difficulties accompanying the transi- Political statements of Montenegrin


tion process may, according to the officials manifest their readiness for
strategy, grow into highly serious fast changes and reforms in
threats to the society, the state and its Montenegro and their optimism that it
economy. In addition, threats may also will soon be incorporated into Euro-
be seen in natural, ecological, techni- Atlantic security systems. The first in a
cal and technological disasters, and series of events confirming the deter-
man-induced accidents or epidemics. mination of Montenegrin decision
These security challenges, risks and makers to launch a speedy and sub-
threats have obviously been taken stantive reform of the security sector
over from the Defense Strategy of the was the decision to discontinue con-
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro,
scription and abolish compulsory mil-
of November 2004. However, most of
itary service in Montenegro pro-
these are referred to in the strategies of
claimed by the President Filip
all other countries in Western Balkans.
Vujanovi} on August 30. The future
Montenegrin army will number about
Sfgpsn!boe!fyqfdubujpot
2.500 professional soldiers, which - the
The National Security Strategy is a adviser for security issues says - corre-
document that ought to serve as a ba- sponds to the needs and possibilities
sis for the security sector reform in or- of the country. Thus demonstrating
der to build a stable, functional, and their resoluteness to seriously apply
reliable security system. It does not in- themselves to security sector reforms
clude the agenda for this reform or a the Montenegrin authorities have ap-
plan to establish a Montenegrin army proached the international community
but announces the adoption of other with an official request for admission
documents addressing security issues. to the Partnership for Peace on
Thus the security policy, defense strat- September 13. They expect a positive
egy, military doctrine and strategy of answer either on the eve of or during
internal security will be in line with the
NATO’s Riga summit on November
Strategy. Once the laws on defense
28-29. Future will tell us how realistic
and the army are adopted, the legal
the ambitious efforts of the
framework will be rounded off thus
Montenegrin citizens and political
ensuring the basic conditions for the
elites are to prove that they are part of
development of the security system.
the Euro-Atlantic security system and
The purpose is to build a security sys-
capable of contributing to the security
tem that will be adjusted to the
changed trends in this sphere, capable and stability of the region in so short a
of providing an appropriate response time.
to the different security challenges, The author works as research
risks and threats and subjected to fellow in the Belgrade School of
democratic civil control. Security Studies
CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS 24

TBMX – Hsbwf!qspcmfn!jo!Tfscjb
Kfmfob!Vojkbu

he downing of a small aircraft flying review of the data is still more alarming.
T over a village in central Serbia in
2003, by celebratory salvos of a wedding
Civilians in Serbia have more firearms in
their hands than the army and the police
party, was publicized by the media as the put together. The SEESAC report esti-
first of the kind. This tragicomic event is mates that over two million weapons are
only the most bizarre in a series of inci- in the hands of private persons, com-
dents caused by irresponsible and care- pared with about 850,000 of the state.
less handling of light and personal arms. Furthermore, almost 950 thousand
These weapons increasingly referred to weapons in private ownership are illicit –
as SALW (small arms and light weapons) unregistered and of unknown origin.
by security circles, create a problem as- Legal persons, including private security
signed high priority by most govern- companies (which, incidentally, still op-
ments in the world today. The White erate without appropriate legal regula-
Book of Defence of the State Union of tions) have 47,000 handguns and rifles –
Serbia and Montenegro does not list a figure that falls short of the armed “ca-
these weapons among security chal- pacities” of the Ministry of the Interior by
lenges, risks and threats, which is in a mere 6 thousand. This figure refers on-
sharp contrast with the fact that Serbia is ly to arms in actual use, since the police
the most heavily armed country in the re- have about 9,000 weapons in reserve. In
gion. numerical terms, the Ministry of Defence
According to the calculations of the has less “firepower” than the illicit arms
South East Europe Small Arms Control owners, bearing in mind that arms in op-
Centre (SEESAC), the total quantity of erational use amount to about 200 thou-
arms circulating through Serbia reaches sand compared with almost 590 thou-
almost three million pieces. The detailed sand in the hands of former reservists.
25 CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS

South East Europe is the main flects the security dilemma, although not
hotbed of proliferation on the continent. on a state level – as defined by security
We will here mention only a few of studies – but rather on the level of indi-
SEESAC findings for this year. In viduals. The justifiability of this parallel is
Romania, 1.25 million SALW await de- confirmed by the fact that a large quanti-
struction. Albania has, for a long time, ty of arms in private hands only argu-
carried the “black label” due to the plun- ments overall insecurity of the society,
der of its military stockpiles in 1997, although an armed civilian may indeed
when about 550,000 weapons were tak- feel emboldened.
en. Still, the inglorious record of Serbia Unfortunately, the first victims of the
has no contender even in Croatia were weapons owners may easily include
600,000 citizens reportedly have illegal some of their closes family members.
arms, and still less in Bulgaria where the Namely, research work shows that the
most pessimistic calculation reaches very presence of arms in a household in-
about 260 thousand unlicensed creases the possibility for a fatal outcome
weapons. Despite these disturbing quan- of violence in the family. For instance, in
titative indicators, only a review of total the 1993-2003 period Serbia registered
consequences can reveal the serious na- 614 homicides in the family, 35 per cent
ture of the problem of proliferation in of which were committed with firearms.
Serbia. The effects are so complex and Psychologists explain that these acts are
mutually interlinked that even an attempt committed impulsively using the
at their classification appears as a futile weapon at hand. Being widely spread
exercise. Still, for the purposes of this text and easily available firearms are increas-
we shall divide them into psychical, eco- ingly used in involuntary or premeditat-
nomic and political consequences of ed crimes. The real picture of the poten-
SALW proliferation that should be ur- tial consequences is revealed by the fact
gently suppressed by the post-conflict that 20 per cent of Serbian households
and post-authoritarian Serbia. (about half a million) hold 750,000
weapons. According to an UNCRI sur-
Qtzdijdbm!dpotfrvfodft vey, until the 1990s usually a month or
two would pass from the acquisition of
Characteristic for the citizens of
firearms until they were used to commit
Serbia is their remarkable lack of trust in a crime. This period has today been re-
the institutions of the system. According duced to several days. In addition, the
to a survey carried out by the Centre for number of accidents resulting from care-
Civil-Military Relations in April 2005, less handling of weapons keeps grow-
merely 23.9 per cent of the population ing. Even actions to collect illegal arms
said they trusted the police, compared may increase this risk. Thus, for example,
with 13.5 per cent who trusted the judi- during the police operation “Sabre”
ciary. The SEESAC report notes that mounted in the state of emergency pro-
many citizens own firearms precisely be- claimed in 2003, panic-struck citizens left
cause they wish to protect themselves, hand grenades, ammunition and hand-
their property and families. We could say guns in public places, instead of turning
that this striving for self-protection re- them in to the competent state bodies.
CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS 26

Arms proliferation is also encour- to the security of the society, since the
aged by the aggressive model of social sphere of their work has not been legal-
behaviour formed in Serbia in the 1990s. ly regulated as yet. The adoption of the
During the war and times of public pop- relevant law is awaited since 2003. It is
ularisation of organized crime, the belief thus possible to have a group of men, al-
that it is normal to use violence in order most as numerous as the Serbian police
to solve conflicts among people became forces, to work carrying arms without
quite widespread, as did the attitude that previously undergoing any security
violence pays out. Perhaps the gravest check. Among them are former and cur-
social consequences the spreading of rent policemen as well as soldiers, but al-
this kind of life “philosophy” can have so people from the criminal milieu.
are revealed in the behaviour of juvenile The most dangerous psychical con-
delinquents. While during the war years sequences of SALW proliferation are fear
minors were most often condemned for and tension prevailing among ethnic
property crimes, from 2000 onwards groups in certain parts of Serbia. A char-
they are found among perpetrators of acteristic example is the southern part of
crimes involving bodily harm or loss of the country where the perception of se-
life with increasing frequency. Leniency curity threats completely differs depend-
of domestic courts towards first offenders ing on ethnic belonging. According to
charged with illicit firearms possession SEESAC 2004 survey the Albanian popu-
(possibility to defend themselves while lation fears the members of the gen-
free or to be given a conditional sen- darmerie, army and police the most,
tence) seem to act as encouragement for while the Serbs are afraid of crime, cor-
the use of firearms. Teenagers are most ruption and overall insecurity in the re-
often the victims because of the very fact gion. Due to the disorderly relations and
that they are witnesses to violence or increased risk of open conflicts people
abuse of arms, as illustrated by the state- are not prepared to give up their arms.
ments of the youngest respondents in During the 2003 amnesty the population
the SEESAC 2005 survey focus group. For of southern Serbian municipalities sur-
instance, a girl said that she was “walk- rendered less than 20 light weapons, out
ing along the Danube, when a mobster of the total number of the collected
was killed” and she “saw the body”, 47,853 and just over 2,2 million pieces of
while a young men “knew a fellow who ammunition. The security dilemma of
staged the robbery of his own apartment the individual on the Serbian south grew
so he could steal his father’s hand gun into a security dilemma of the collective.
(his father was a police inspector)”.
Another important social conse- Fdpopnjd!dpotfrvfodft!
quence of mistrust of the security institu-
tions is the sudden multiplication of pri- The collection of SALW is a fairly ex-
vate security agencies. According to pensive exercise, and the cost of their
rough estimates there are about 3.200 disposal amounts to about 5 US dollars
such companies in Serbia today, employ- per unit. Since 1999 Serbia declared
ing over 32 thousand people. One could amnesty on three separate occasions, to
hardly say that these agencies contribute collect between 60 and 70 thousand ille-
27 CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS

gally held weapons. The arms so collect- case with the scandalous affairs caused
ed are, along with the surplus of the po- by deals with countries under the arms
lice and the army, destroyed in Serbian embargo. In the case of Serbia business
steel plants, but Serbia cannot afford to “arrangements” of this kind amount to
bear the related costs alone. That is why yet another in a series of difficult political
campaigns of this kind are financed by consequences of SALW proliferation.
international donors. Between 2001 and
2004 over 100,000 weapons were de- Qpmjujdbm!dpotfrvfodft!
stroyed along with 2 million pieces of To the best of our knowledge a com-
ammunition, followed by another 14,936 prehensive study of all the factors that
SALW during 2005 and 2006. contributed to the inferior image of
Serbia is also dependent on interna- Serbia in international public over the
tional financial assistance in its demining past few decades does not exist.
and mine destruction actions. Having However, it is difficult to believe that the
signed and ratified the Ottawa data known to the public were not suffi-
Convention on the Prohibition of the ciently important, e.g. the fact that the
Use, Stockpiling, Production and Yugoslav People’s Army distributing ob-
Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines, the solete arms intended for smelting in the
state is obliged to destroy all its stocks. Nik{i} steel plant without any receipts or
The destruction of 1.3 million such mines records. Notwithstanding the fact that the
in the SCG Army depots started in entire Western Balkans was arms deal-
August 2005 and the millionth mine was ers’ heaven throughout the wars of the
destroyed on September 14 this year in 1990s the job of shedding the inherited
Kragujevac Technical-Repair Institute. negative image in the world was obvi-
The remainder of the mines is expected ously the hardest for Serbia, not least be-
to be destroyed by mid next year. The cause illicit arms export affairs continued
work is mainly financed by NATO’s SEE even after the October 5 change of pow-
Trust Fund and the whole project is val- er.
ued at 1.69 million euros. But, the de- Thus the two major incidents of this
struction of mines on army stockpiles kind registered in 2002 prompted the
does not solve the whole problem. There British foreign minister Jack Straw to
still remains the border area with Croatia, mention the possibility of reinstating
which is the most densely mined territo- sanctions (to the FRY). The two affairs
ry in the region. The removal of 8,500 had to do with illegal transfer of 200 tons
mines in this belt will cost between 4.5 of infantry weapons to Libya and the
and 6.5 million euros. smuggling of diverse ordnance (includ-
Although the costs caused by the ing SALW) to Iraq. Pressured by the inter-
SALW proliferation are very high, it is still national community the authorities in
possible to make some profit, which may Belgrade promised to mount an investi-
be interpreted as a potential positive eco- gation and criminally prosecute the cul-
nomic effect. However, the possible prits. However, the whole thing ended in
abuses in foreign trade with arms may the withdrawal of export licenses to the
cause great political damage that cannot companies involved, and the sentencing
be financially offset. That is precisely the of the main agent – Jugoimport-SDPR di-
CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS 28

rector Jovan ^ekovi} to two-year impris- In view of the different nature of the
onment, albeit on different charges. Ivan above-mentioned consequences of
\oki}, removed from office in 2002 as SALW proliferation we may conclude
the objectively responsible person was in that the struggle to mitigate them cannot
2003 promoted and became Assistant to be waged on one front alone. The con-
the Chief of the General Staff in charge of clusion of this text will therefore leave
logistics. aside all the social, cultural, political and
In March this year Podgorica police psychological means to be used in that
seized over 1,000 automatic rifles and ex- struggle and will focus on its legal aspect.
plosive devices of domestic production One of the laws partly related to this
transported without any accompanying problem is the Law on Foreign Trade in
documentation in a truck owned by its Weapons, Military Equipment and Dual-
driver. In addition to this, also unclari- Use Goods of February 2005, which in-
fied, case the image of Serbia in the troduced stricter rules for issuing of ex-
world was marred by the fact that the port licences. This made the abuse more
south of the state is considered to be the difficult and established civilian control
area of the most frequent illicit arms trade of the executive branch over exports of
all types of ordnance including SALW.
in the SEE region. The administrative line
However, the state should systematically
with Kosovo and Metohija is internation-
apply itself to the problem of prolifera-
ally categorized as the most suitable loca-
tion and the first step in that direction
tion for almost all forms of illegal traffick-
should be the adoption of the National
ing, including arms.
Strategy for the Control of Small Arms
and Light Weapons. This document was
Mfhbm!“sfnfez” up!cfhjo!xjui adopted at the level of the State Union in
The consequences described here December 2004, but not yet by Serbia (as
have assumed the proportions that re- opposed to Montenegro). The set of the
quire urgent campaign for the suppres- essential legal regulations also includes
the relevant law governing the work of
sion of SALW proliferation. The urgency
private security agencies. Finally, we be-
of the situation is emphasized by the ob-
lieve that the arguments presented here
vious possibility for the quantity of sur-
are sufficient to place the proliferation of
plus SALW to increase still further after
SALW on the list of security challenges,
the planned downsizing and moderniza-
risks and threats in Serbia’s future White
tion of the army called for by its profes-
Book on Defence.
sionalization. That will substantially add
to the existing surplus of 477.514 units, a The author works as research
part of which may be sold or used in the fellow in the Belgrade School of
separation balance of the former Security Studies
Yugoslavia. The remaining obsolete
weapons will be destroyed in a costly
Useful sources:
procedure, and the direct security threat
Living with the Legacy – SALW Survey,
is seen in the possibility for a part of this Republic of Serbia, UNDP, Belgrade, 2005.
surplus to find the way to the black mar- South Eastern Europe SALW Monitor 2006,
ket. SEESAC, Belgrade, 2006.
29 CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS

Jg!Hvot!Xfsf!Tjmfou///
Gbjmvsf!pg!uif!tusvhhmf!bhbjotu!TBMX!qspmjgfsbujpo
Nbslp!Tbwlpwj~
very year the world production turns quences caused by SALW proliferation.
E out seven million pieces of weapons
“that can be carried by an individual
After that, we will analyse the phenome-
non of “brokering” in illicit SALW trans-
combatant or a light vehicle, that also fers and demonstrate their complexity.
does not require a substantial logistic and And., finally, we will review the failure of
maintenance capability”, as small arms the international community and states
and light weapons have been defined by to regulate the problem of SALW prolif-
the South Eastern and Eastern Europe eration.
Clearinghouse for the Control of Small
and Light Weapons (SEESAC). A quarter Qspmjgfsbujpo!boe
of this number, valued at one billion dol- jut!dpotfrvfodft
lars, ends up in illegal transfers.
The UN Programme of Action adopt- Proliferation of light and small arms
ed five years ago politically obliged its has disastrous consequences which, al-
member states to find better solutions though of diverse nature, are still mutual-
regulating this sphere. The research of ly interlinked. Every day 847 children,
the “Biting the Bullet team”, presented women and men are killed by SALW
below, shows that the results of the solu- somewhere in the world. The number of
tions offered by the Programme of victims of weapons imported on the ba-
Action are not satisfactory. Furthermore, sis of false declarations, in crates without
the international community’s struggle the producer’s name or serial number,
against SALW proliferation has, this sum- will reach 300 thousand by the end of
mer, experienced another setback. the year. Since 1994, in Congo alone, be-
Under the UN auspices a tween three and four million people died
“Conference to Review progress Made in either as victims of direct violence or
the Implementation of the Programme of from disease and hunger that accompa-
Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate ny armed conflicts. SALW proliferation
the Illicit trade in SALW” was held from increases the possibility of a fatal out-
June 26 until July 7 this year. The confer- come of violence against children and
ence that analysed the (un)achieved women. In Chicago, for example, the
progress in the Program implementation rate of gun deaths, although it generally
did not end in the adoption of a resolu- displays a downward trend, has in-
tion. According to Rebecca Peters, direc- creased during the seventies by 131 per
tor of IANSA (International Action cent for minors . Also, three quarters of
Network on Small Arms) this means that rapes in the Dadaab refugee camp in
“the best opportunity ever to reduce the north Kenya were done by armed
annual toll of lives lost to small arms” has raiders.
been squandered. Proliferation is the most intensive in
In the following paragraphs, we shall the war-stricken undeveloped parts of
first focus on the problem of conse- the world – in places where a
CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS 2:

“Kalashnikov” for instance is a thing of from the territory of a third country that
value that can be turned into money or serve to enable the transfer of arms be-
exchanged for food and clothing. tween persons in different countries rep-
Furthermore, arms that remain after a resent brokering.
specific conflict soon spill over into an- According to the “Biting the Bullet”
other conflict zone, where everybody research done by the representatives of
buys them, from fathers who wish to International Alert, Saferworld, IANSA
protect their families against the cruel and the Centre for International
surroundings of a “ruined state” to indi- Cooperation and Security of the Bradford
viduals seeking “arguments” in a politi- University, brokering is sanctioned in on-
cal struggle. Representatives of the UK ly 37 out of the total of 184 surveyed
Government’s Department for countries.
International Development in their 2003 The consequences of illicit brokering
report entitled “Tackling Poverty by for the first time drew the attention of the
Reducing Armed Violence” say that public in 1995 owing to a report drafted
these weapons are “rarely the root cause by the UN International Commission of
of conflict” but “their wide availability Inquiry charged with finding the evi-
acts as a ‘multiplier of violence’ making dence of “sale and delivery of weapons
conflict more lethal”. and material to the former forces of the
Reports of specialized organizations Ugandan government” in violation of
increasingly analyse the consequences of several Security Council’s resolutions.
proliferation for preservation of peace, Participating in a panel discussion of the
exploitation of a country’s natural re- Geneva Forum in December 1998 a for-
sources, and even individual branches of mer Commission member Erick Brennan
economy. In the autumn of 2005 groups admitted that the Commission had scant
of men armed with SALW forced a major
success in uncovering individual cases of
part of 11,000 humanitarians to withdraw
arms deals, but nevertheless established
from Darfur. The “Revolutionary United
certain trends. Firstly, the weapons were,
Front” of Sierra Leone earned dozens of
as a rule, surpluses from Eastern Europe.
millions of dollars by mining diamonds,
Secondly, they were transferred by ob-
which it later invested in the purchase of
scure firms such as the Bulgarian
arms and ammunition on the black mar-
“Kintex”. And, lastly, the end users of the
ket. Receipts of African countries’ tourist
weapons were paramilitaries similar to
industries affected by the conflict were
the Ugandan “Lord’s Resistance Army”.
halved during the 1990s.
But, it was the case of Leonid
Efimovich Minin that really showed the
Csplfsjoh complexity of the brokering problem.
According to the fourth edition of the Minin became rich selling Ukrainian
SEESAC’s “Glossary of SALW Terms and army surplus ordnance following the
Abbreviations” a broker introduces the end of the Cold War. After he had been
seller and the buyer in exchange for a fi- arrested in August 2000 on charges of vi-
nancial compensation or a service, ac- olating peace and order, his modus
quires SALW and, finally, organizes its operandi was revealed. Looking into the
transfer. As a person with experience documents they got hold of, the UN in-
and right connections, he mediates in il- vestigators saw the complex infrastruc-
legal trade. Activities a broker undertakes ture created by their detainee. Several in-
31 CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS

dividuals, including officials of state ad- ly binding standards that could be ap-
ministrations, actual or bogus compa- plied in all countries with a view to pre-
nies, formed parts of the infrastructure venting illicit arms transfers.
necessary to complete illicit transfer of
arms. Brokers use legal loopholes and Tubuft!boe!joufsobujpobm
skilfully evade the jurisdictions of various dpnnvojuz’t!gbjmvsf
states. For instance, if the seat of the firm
is in one country, the financial transac- Those states that should be the main
tion will be made in another and the force in the struggle against SALW prolif-
weapons purchased in the third, to be fi- eration are not doing enough. For exam-
ple, as many as 65 countries out of 184
nally sold to the fourth country. That is
covered by the “Biting the Bullet” re-
why it took the Italian prosecutors a
search project, do not define arms trade
whole year to find the legal grounds to
as a criminal offence. Project authors
keep Minin behind bars. In the end, the warn of other important omissions of
Italian parliament passed an act declaring state authorities. National strategies that
the violation of the UN embargo on im- represent a precondition for a consistent
ports of arms a criminal offence. An in- struggle against proliferation exist in only
ternational obligation, accepted by the 20 states. It is remarkable that from the
Italian state, was applied. For the first adoption of the “Action Program” in 2001
time, the grounds for criminal prosecu- only one state found it fitting to submit
tion did not have to be found in the na- annual reports to the UN Department for
tional legislation. Disarmament Affairs on the results of the
Still, this example should be taken “Program’s” implementation.
with a grain of salt. The Italian Parliament In the days preceding the “Review
would not have adopted the above-men- Conference” representatives of the civil
tioned act if an appropriate law regulat- society and UN specialized agencies de-
manded the agreement on universal stan-
ing arms trade actually existed. The
dards applicable to both legal and illegal
Italian “Arms Control Act” of 1990 was
arms trade. The request was based on the
an example of a law suitable for the bro- argument that the legal market was actu-
kers’ activities. It differentiated between ally the original source of illicit arms traf-
“military” ordnance, including heavy ficking. However, the Internet presenta-
weaponry such as tanks, artillery or air- tion of the Review Conference states that
craft, and “civilian” weapons, implying the purpose of the Action Program is not
SALW. And while export of the latter cat- to reduce legal trade in SALW but to help
egory of arms was treated in the same reduce and eliminate illicit trade. It goes
way as, e.g. that of agricultural products, on that it is the prerogative of each state
to legally regulate the right of its citizens
export of “military” ordnance required a
to carry arms.
special application. It stated the type and
During the two weeks of the
value of the weapon, the amount to be Conference, delegates from only three
paid to the broker, and the names of the UN member countries submitted initia-
broker and end user. tives that, in a way, represented a novel-
We believe that the inadequate treat- ty compared with the solutions offered by
ment of brokering is only a manifestation the Programme of Action. The British
of a larger problem. At this point of time “Transfer Control Initiative”, was based
there are no universally accepted, legal- on the awareness that closer cooperation
CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS 32

of states was necessary when transfer clear whether the possession of SALW is
control is concerned. This initiative also covered by the resolution. A very impor-
raised the question of export licences, tant formulation stating that the states
obliging the states to apply stricter nation- sought to “avoid the diversion of legally
al regulations and create a more efficient purchased SALW to the illicit market” was
system of broker licensing. Kenyan pro- dropped from the draft and replaced with
posal dealt with the finalization of the a lukewarm recommendation to “encour-
“Nairobi Initiative” supported in April this age states to adopt adequate laws [...] to
year by the representatives of eleven regulate the possession of light and small
countries, including the UK. Unfolding in calibre weapons”. Finally, the attempt of
three chapters, it specified the criteria to the chairman to weave the “previously
be taken into account in the cases of arms agreed global principles” through the res-
export. The main precondition is formu- olution was dismissed. The delegates said
lated as follows: “We will authorize it was nonsensical to speak of global
SALW transfers only with the official ap- principles if there was no agreement
proval of all States directly concerned (in- even on a basic thing like the receipt of
cluding the exporting, importing, transit the end user, stating the destination of ex-
and trans-shipment States), in accordance ported arms.
with relevant and adequate national law.”
Instead of having meetings in two-year ///!mfbwft!b!cjuufs!ubtuf
intervals Canada proposed the establish-
ment of working groups. They would be Just how destructive SALW prolifera-
permanently in session and address such tion can be is evidenced by a World Bank
matters as the overall situation with re- and WHO study, stating that until 2020
spect to measures anticipated by the more people will suffer from injuries
Programme of Action, stockpiling and caused by conflicts than by malaria and
destruction of arms, regulations and pro- small pox put together. Unfortunately,
cedures as well as cooperation. another opportunity for the states to
The chairman, Sri Lankan ambassa- agree about the treatment of the causes
dor Prasad Kariyawasam, submitted to and consequences of this global problem
the delegates of the participating coun- has been wasted this summer.
tries the draft of the final resolution first The issue of brokering will be on the
on June 27 and then again on July 3. The agenda of the next meeting of the Group
fact that the conference ended without of Government Experts in November,
adopting the resolution was due to the
which will be held under the auspices of
principle of consensus. The why is re-
the United Nations. What has become of
vealed in the “Compilation of Proposals
Leonid Minin? He was released from de-
and Amendments to the President’s
Working Paper”, available in the internet tention in September 2002, pursuant to a
presentation of the conference. We must decision of the Italian Supreme Court,
however note that the Compilation does due to the lack of grounds for criminal
not identify the authors of amendments. prosecution. Nevertheless, he had to pay
In the first place, every opportunity a fine of over 50 thousand euros for the
was used to soften the language of the possession of smuggled diamonds.
resolution. Instead of saying that the
states were “resolute” to take activities The author works as research
the amendment suggested they “agreed fellow in the Belgrade School of
to consider” them. Then, it remained un- Security Studies
33 SECURITY CATCH

Xpnfo!jo!uif!bsnz
wo international high-level conferences European Union national authorities decide
T recently held in Serbia and Bulgaria re-
vealed important differences in the status of
on the participation of women in combat
units. Differences do exist and thus in
women in the armies of the two countries. Norway and Denmark all units are open to
The Serbian Army employs 181 women in women, while Polish and Greek armies
active service, or 0.3% of its total personnel legally prohibit any combat function of their
strength compared with 2858, or 9.5% in female members.
Bulgaria, 37 of whom are engaged in peace Consistent incorporation of women in-
missions. The share of women in the active to the armies of the Western Balkans is in
military personnel of the Serbian Army will, the initial stage and the data on the pres-
in the future, certainly change since the ed- ence of women in the security sectors of
ucation of the first class of female officers at these countries are not collected systemati-
the Military Academy will start in the school cally. The need for greater participation of
year 2007/2008. women in the armed forces originates not
People tend to forget that women are only from the fact that they account for a
present in the armed forces of almost all substantial percentage of the population,
countries of the world, even as guerrilla but also the knowledge that the qualities re-
fighters and suicide terrorists. The share of quired by all military specialties – integrity,
women in the armies of NATO members is fortitude and resoluteness, are not sexually
about 10 per cent on the average. In the determined.

Fdpmphjdbm!uisfbut!up!tfdvsjuz!
cological threats to security result from
Enatural
ignorance and/or poor management of
resources, a deliberate action or a
cludes both crude and fuel oil, it is possible
that two polluters were at fault.
The Bulgarian foreign ministry sent
combination of natural and human factors. diplomatic notes and a request for official
They may produce serious consequences investigation to the members of the Danube
as almost happened this October when a Commission – Austria, Bosnia and
140-km long and 150-meter wide oil spill Herzegovina, the Czech Republic,
appeared in the Bulgarian part of the Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Romania,
Danube. The greatest danger was the possi- Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine, but
bility that the spill might affect the Kozloduy the membership of this organization is not
nuclear power plant in Bulgaria. Soon after binding with respect to procedure in the
a 200-meter wide oil spill appeared on the event of ecological accidents. It is obvious
Danube in Romania. that the mechanisms for the establishment
The competent authorities in Serbia of responsibility for ecological accidents
stated that the Serbian Oil Industry facilities should be defined as soon as possible in or-
in Prahovo discharged the pollutant into the der to encourage a more responsible atti-
Danube due to a breakdown. However, as tude of the states and thus prevent ecologi-
it has been established that the slick in- cal disasters.

Cbmlbo!“gjfmet!pg!efbui”
his year, in mid-October, four workers
T of the Forestry Estate Vrbanja blundered
into an unmarked minefield on the territory
Herzegovina, compared with 1779 in
Croatia and 68 in Macedonia. There are no
systematically kept data on Serbia and
of Kotor Varo{. Two were killed on the spot Montenegro, but it is known that about
and the other two ended up injured. During 1500 victims of mines that remained after
the past month seven people in Bosnia and the war live in these states. Along with the
Herzegovina lost their lives in this way. risk of civilian casualties, the fact that cul-
The relevant data indicate that mine-lit- tivable land, forests and water flows have
tered areas are a serious problem in the re- been polluted and additionally endanger
gion: from the early 1990s 4895 such acci- the security of citizens is also as source of
dents have been registered in Bosnia and grave concern.
SECURITY CATCH 34

B!Dibodf!up!Cpptu!Tfdvsjuz!Dppqfsbujpo
n September this year Serbia was, for ties in the region through cooperation
I the first time, admitted to a Euro-
Atlantic initiative and thus made a step
and good neighbourly relations. During
its ten-year existence the SEDM devel-
forward on road to Euro-Atlantic inte- oped programs in several areas such as
grations. At the Southeast Europe the prevention of proliferation of arms
Defence Ministerial (SEDM) conference for mass destruction, cooperation of mil-
held in late October in Tirana Serbia, itary industries, research, satellite links
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia and between military hospitals, etc.
Montenegro obtained the status of ob- Furthermore, within the SEDM initiative
servers in this security initiative. The a joint brigade was formed and trained
SEDM initiative gathers eleven states, in- for conflict prevention and other peace
cluding seven NATO member countries operations under the UN or OSCE man-
(USA, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Slovenia, date. The brigade is NATO or EU lead
Romania and Bulgaria), four PfP mem- and was already engaged in the ISAF
bers (Croatia, Albanian, Ukraine and (Afghanistan) from February until July
Macedonia), and another observer this year. Participation in the SEDM ac-
(Moldova). tivities shall provide an additional incen-
This regional initiative has a specific tive to the newly admitted observers in
purpose – to strengthen security capaci- their respective security sector reforms.

Bouj.ufsspsjtn!ejmfnnbt
passenger at New York’s Kennedy allowed to board a plane only if they carry
A airport experienced an unpleasant
surprise this September when the police
less than 100 millilitres of liquid – a quan-
tity insufficient to cause an explosion. The
asked him to remove his T-shirt before struggle against terrorism was in early
boarding the plane! They explained that September this year joined by the UN
the script on it would disturb other passen- General Assembly adopting a strategy that,
gers. It spelled “We Will Not Be Silent” in among other things, anticipates the estab-
Arabic and English. The passenger was of lishment of a database on accidents caused
Middle Eastern origin. by biological material.
Terrorist attacks of September 11, However, some more concrete moves
2001, resulted in a changed concept of se- in this struggle give rise to new ambigui-
curity. The unpredictability of such acts ties. That is for instance the case with the
and the powerful emotional reaction of the recently adopted US Military Commissions
public obviously deepened the dilemma Act allowing the interrogation of suspects
concerning what may constitute a security using techniques bordering on torture.
problem and the best ways to react to it. Efficiency in combating terrorism is cer-
Thus in August this year, it turned out tainly more desirable than ever. However,
that even liquids, gas or aerosol carried by the problem of the possible abuse of these
air passengers in their hand luggage may measures, thus violating the dignity of per-
constitute a threat. That is why the passen- sons guaranteed by the Geneva
gers in the EU and the USA are at present Convention, remains unsolved.

Prepared by: Zorana Atanasovi}


35 ATLANTIC SHORES

Ubcppt-!tfdvsjuz!boe!efnpdsbdz
Gjmjq!Fkevt

ow far public discourse on matters ademic mainstream. This prospect put


H of importance for the survival, secu-
rity, national interest and sovereignty of a
paid to any further debate. However, two
prominent professors of international pol-
political community may be permitted to itics, John Mearsheimer from the
unfold? The question is which particular University of Chicago and Stephen Walt
point marks the limit of the citizens’ rights from Harvard have recently wedged into
to freely discuss these things, which then the “last American taboo”, as late Edward
become forbidden, to be addressed only Said put it.
by the “legitimate” interpreters of nation- In their article “Israel Lobby”, pub-
al interests and “authorized” defenders of lished this March in the London Review of
national security. Books, after the American publisher re-
In an authoritarian society, the pun- fused to print it, these two prominent rep-
ishment of those who violate this limit is resentatives of the realistic school of
a matter for the apparatus of state repres- thought problematized the US backing of
sion. Generally speaking, no one in a Israel. The starting assumption of their ar-
democratic society ought to be sanc- gument is that the outstanding American
tioned because of the way they think or support to this country cannot be under-
talk about public affairs. However, stood from the point of view of the
democracy, too, has its taboos, the only American national interest any more than
difference being that the principal it can be justified from a moral point of
method of censorship is not state- but view. In the first place, it facilitates the en-
rather self-imposed. Fearing what primi- emies of the USA and the Islamic funda-
tive peoples consider a “grave disease” mentalists to obtain wide popular sup-
and modern societies social marginaliza- port against American global domination.
tion, citizens avoid breaking taboos and Furthermore, this kind of foreign policy
disclosing in public what they think in alienates and destabilizes the states the
private. US depends on for its oil supplies, includ-
The main argument of this text is that ing the moderate regimes in the Middle
this kind of auto censorship is detrimental East, which are the most important US al-
not only for democracy, but also for the lies in its global war on terrorism.
understanding and protection of the se- Mearsheimer and Walt also claim that the
curity of the state and individual. A pre- 2003 invasion on Iraq and increasingly in-
condition for the achievement and tensive pressures on Iran because of its
preservation of security is a free and dem- nuclear programme were for the benefit
ocratic discourse about it. of Israel’s security and at the expense of
American interests. In addition, the au-
Jtsbfm!ubcpp!jo!uif!VTB thors criticize the US for tolerating the
Israeli nuclear arsenal, since that encour-
For the American public the issue of ages nuclear proliferation in the region
Israel remained a taboo of this kind for and impairs the global credibility of the
quite some time. Even Israel itself offered US foreign policy. Finally, the moral argu-
greater freedom to polemicize on the po- ment for an exceptional assistance to
litical, economic and military support the Israel to the disadvantage of the
Jewish state received from the USA. Palestinians loses its strength in the light
Anyone who dared criticize this support of the long history of Israeli crimes, say
was first condemned as an anti-Semite these two authors who, incidentally, call
and then ousted from the political, i.e. ac- themselves philo-Semites.
ATLANTIC SHORES 36

Mearsheimer and Walt focus on the ow of doubt from the Israeli lobby is to
activities of the Israel lobby as the key address its activities in a transparent,
to understand this foreign policy depar- free and critical debate.
ture from the national interest. They
claim the lobby, the main part of which Uif!ubcpp!pg!Lptpwp!boe!Nfupijkb
is the American Israeli Public Affairs jo!Tfscjb
Committee (AIPAC), uses two strategies
to attain its objectives. One is the influ- Serbia, too, has a series of important
ence on decision making centres, as in social problems that are tabooized. They
the case of the US invasion on Iraq. The cannot be discussed freely, since that im-
other strategy tends to control the US plies the risk of public marginalization
public discourse on Israel and provide and even physical danger. The list of
the pro-Israeli American foreign policy these problems is long and mainly in-
with immunity from any criticism cludes sensitive topics of Serbia’s respon-
whatsoever. The means the lobby uses sibility and war heritage. However, the
for this purpose range from media ma- taboo that by far exceeds all others in
nipulation to labelling as anti-Semites terms of its importance and lack of open
all who disagree with this policy and debate is the issue of Kosovo and
even financial support to their com- Metohija (KaM). This author does not in-
petitors. tend to draw a proper parallel between
As the authors themselves envis- this issue and the problem of American
aged the article elicited stormy reac- support to Israel. KaM is formally a com-
tions. Thus certain circles denounced ponent part of Serbia and is central to the
the text as anti-semitic, uncivilized, po- Serbian national identity, while Israel has
litically inflammable and irresponsible. no such status in the USA. Still there are
In addition, it was also condemned as considerable similarities in the public
inadmissibly monocausal, since the un- treatment of these sensitive issues.
derstanding of the US foreign policy to- In the first place, there is no rational
wards Israel hinges on more than one debate on Serbian national interest in re-
factor - in this case the influence of the lation to KaM in Serbia. If anything elicits
Israel lobby. Furthermore, the critics the agreement of the elites on the entire
claim that this policy is also backed by political spectrum, it is the fact that
the US strategic and structural econom- Kosovo represents an inalienable part of
ic interest, struggle for the profit of oil the Republic of Serbia. At the same time,
companies and the military industry, as they unanimously refuse to publicly tell
well as the historical-cultural links of the their citizens what the international com-
two countries. munity has been largely suggesting,
However (un)founded this criticism namely that, in one way or another,
may be, the article by Mearsheimer and Kosovo will be an internationally recog-
Walt is crucial since it broached the de- nized, undivided and independent state.
bate on an issue that was considered a However, dreading the outcome of the
taboo for quite some time, and one of negotiations the Serbian authorities are al-
great importance not only for the US na- ready preparing the grounds to indefi-
tional interests but also for the global se- nitely continue their struggle against real-
curity. The article was written very mod- ity. Thus Article 114 of the proposed draft
erately and offers ample proof for the of the new Constitution anticipates that
arguments it presents. Therefore, the ac- the president of the republic, taking his
cusations that it emulates the style of an- oath, should pledge to “devote all his
ti-semitic theories that allegedly disclose powers to the preservation of the sover-
the cabalistic “conspiracy of the elders eignty and entirety of the territory of the
of Zion” do not stand to reason. On the Republic of Serbia including KaM as its
contrary, probably the best way to stop component part”. It is not clear whether
the mystification and remove this shad- the Serbian politicians deliberately sacri-
37 ATLANTIC SHORES

fice realism of their foreign policy in or- and balance of power for the purpose of
der to remain in power or genuinely be- promoting one’s own interests has al-
lieve that Kosovo will one day return to ready sent Milo{evi} to The Hague tribu-
Serbian control. nal and the Serbian people to the bottom
Secondly, similar to what happens of the post-cold war history.
with those who criticise the pro-Israeli If it will not recognize independence
policy of the USA, anyone who publicly and does not intend to go to war, are
raises an issue of this kind in Serbia is la- there any political means Serbia has left
belled as traitor and banished from the to defend its own territory? Will the non-
political mainstream. Let us recall the recognition and economic isolation of
symbolical public lynch and ostracism KaM increase the security of Kosovo
Goran Svilanovic was exposed to in April Serbs? Is it in the interest of Serbia to have
2005 when he signed the report of the KaM as an abortive state emitting organ-
International Commission for the Balkans ized crime and terrorism to Europe across
anticipating gradual independence for the Serbian territory, or as a stable, part-
KaM. In the aggressive, albeit expected, ner and democratic state? Finally, the
response of the “patriotic bloc” the question is how the continuing presence
largest refinement was demonstrated by of the Kosovo mantra will influence the
the Force of Serbia Movement pasting the democratic processes in Serbia. It certain-
city in posters featuring a photomontage ly suits the nationalistic forces, which thus
permanently polarize the political life, in
of Svilanovi} sporting an Albanian skull
“patriotic” rather than social-economic
cap. He was not spared even by the par-
terms, and find it easy to emotionally ma-
ty on the list of which he had been elect- nipulate the voters.
ed to the republic parliament in 2003.
President Boris Tadi}, fearing the possi-
bility that Svilanovic may communicate Csfbljoh!ubcppt
the “grave disease” to him and the entire Henry Miller said that whenever a
Democratic Party, amicably advised him taboo is broken, something good hap-
to leave the democratic caucus. After that, pens, something vitalizing. That is why
no one dared to publicly accept the inde- it is good that Mearsheimer and Walt’s
pendence of KaM, barring several politi- article has seriously dented the taboo of
cians whose parties are struggling to Israel in the USA. It is now only a mat-
reach the parliamentary threshold. In ter of time to see it positively reflected
brief, as Teofil Pan~i} rightly observed, if in the US policy towards the Middle
you wish to be a respected member of East. Unfortunately, with its new consti-
the community in Serbia, and especially if tution Serbia turns the inviolability of
you engage in politics, it is not enough to the Kosovo taboo into the constitution-
ignore the reality of Kosovo, but you also al obligation of its citizens. This ritual in-
have to ritually deny it. stitutionalization of collective self-delu-
Silence on the issue of KaM prevails sion may have disastrous consequences
in Serbia, as if time works in its favour. for the national interest of Serbia and
However, the Westphalian principles of the security of all citizens and states in
sovereign equality and inviolability of the region. The current political elite is
state sovereignty at the basis of the inter- thus wasting another opportunity to
national law are undergoing a severe cri- awaken Serbia from the Kosovo hypno-
sis that will hardly be resolved to the ad- sis, helping it to redefine its identity and
vantage of the nation state. The outcome at long last exit from the long-drawn-out
in particular cannot benefit a small and Balkanic 20th century.
until recently authoritarian rogue state
that could not protect all its citizens such The author works as research
as Serbia. Furthermore, the geopolitical fellow in the Belgrade School of
gambling on the card of global stability Security Studies
ATLANTIC SHORES 38

OBUP!!Qpmjdz!pg!“fydfqujpot”
Kfmfob!Qfuspwj~

erbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and of its members and have not been de-
S Herzegovina might be conditionally
admitted to the Partnership for Peace
fined in a single document. Ad hoc con-
ditions are determined for each of the as-
program,” the BiH ambassador to NATO pirant states, and generally hinge on the
Sven Alkalaj stated for “Dnevni avaz” in strategic assessment of its importance for
August 2006. He believes that the formal NATO. The strategic assessment, on its
admission of these countries could take part, rests on the cost-benefit analysis of
place already at the summit of NATO the importance that the strategic position
heads of states or governments to be of a specific state might have for NATO,
held in Riga on November 28 and 29 this as well as the possibility of that state to
year. Alkalaj thinks that conditional part- contribute to the Alliance’s missions.
nership may take the form of limited or There is no formal obligation between
full participation. The only difference NATO and its partner states concerning
would be revealed in giving or withhold- the defence of their domestic territories
ing the voting right to a “conditional” (although a state may request NATO as-
member, which would be given a certain sistance, there is no guarantee that it will
deadline to fulfil the specified political actually be given). The most frequent
conditions (the arrest and extradition of form of military cooperation of partner
Ratko Mladi} in the case of Serbia). Non- states and NATO is the participation in
compliance with the deadline would the so-called power projection missions,
probably result in the exclusion from the and the usefulness of prospective
Partnership. Program members is also judged from
Admission without previously ful- that point of view. By entering NATO in-
filled requirements will not create a dividual states undertake to sustain a
precedent in NATO’s policy of partner- democratic order and freedom and to re-
ship, anymore than in the Alliance’s spect the principles of international law.
overall policy on enlargement. The nov- That is most often at the base of the re-
elty will only be the inauguration of a quest for the aspirant states to reach a
new form – conditional cooperation certain level of democracy and the rule
within the PfP program. of law before being admitted to the
Namely, in the process of deciding Partnership (although, as we will see be-
on the admission of new states into the low, that is not a rule either). However,
membership of NATO or the PfP, the no state has been conditionally admitted
strategic rationale appears to have to the PfP so far.
greater significance than the fulfilment of
preconditions. Along with arguments in Xifo!boe!xiz!ibt!OBUP!
support of this claim we shall attempt to tubsufe!“uvsojoh!b!cmjoe!fzf”@
present the possible scenaria and conse-
quences this kind of NATO decision- Every European state may be invited
making could have for Serbia. to become a member subject to a unani-
Ever since the establishment of the mous decision by NATO members in
Program in 1994, the admission criteria line with Article 10 of the Washington
have depended on the political decision Treaty. The conditions for full member-
39 ATLANTIC SHORES

ship of the Alliance were formulated by the only one among fulfilling that condi-
the 1995 Study on NATO enlargement. tion (2.3%), the Czech Republic was
The economic condition for NATO somewhat under the threshold (1.8%),
membership is a functional market econ- while Hungary, with defence spendings
omy, while the military requirement fo- amounting to a mere 1.1% of the GDP,
cuses on the potential contribution to was well into the free-rider zone.
NATO. In order to fulfil the political pre- NATO also evaluates the strategic im-
condition, a candidate state must have a portance a specific state could have for
functional democratic political system the Alliance, based on two important cri-
and democratically regulated civil-mili- teria: its armed forces and strategic posi-
tary relations, while its relation towards tion. In terms of the former it judges the
the minorities must conform to OSCE quality and quantity of the armed forces,
standards. while in the case of the latter it looks at
As concerning political precondi- the bottom line of establishing new NA-
tions, according to a Freedom House sur- TO borders, the risks that a new member
vey of political and civil rights, all NATO might bring into the Alliance and the cost
countries (except Turkey) have the high- of its admission and adjustment. Another
est scores (1+1 or 1+2) and are rated as important thing is the geographic posi-
“free”. Candidate states, without excep- tion of the aspiring state in relation to the
tion, managed to obtain this rating prior main areas of NATO’s military engage-
to admission to membership. However, ment. A similar assessment is also made
candidate countries should also have a in considering a state’s candidacy for PfP
real GDP per capita matching the lowest membership.
corresponding indicator in a NATO In the debate on Hungary’s admis-
member country. In the most recent en- sion to NATO the argument of its geo-
largement round, when Bulgaria,
graphic position and willingness to open
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,
its airspace to NATO aircraft during oper-
Slovakia and Slovenia were admitted to
ation “Allied Force” in the FR of
the Alliance, the lowest real GDP per
Yugoslavia prevailed over the fact that it
capita was registered in Turkey (3.328$,
failed to fulfil the required preconditions.
according to the US Economic Research
Service data for 2004). Both Romania RAND corporation experts believe that
and Bulgaria fell short of this figure in NATO engagement in the Balkans will
terms of their respective GDP per capita continue for at least another ten years,
numbers (2.021$ and 2.098$). This crite- which gives the local states strategic ad-
rion is important because NATO judges vantage as candidates. The instability in
the possibility for a military contribution Kosovo, sensitive security situation in
of a potential member in terms of the Macedonia and tensions in Bosnia and
GDP share of defence expenditures and Herzegovina guarantee the Balkans a
the size and equipment of its armed high rating on the list of NATO priorities.
forces. The floor a candidate country This rationale was decisive for the vote
must reach in order to become the mem- on the admission of Bulgaria and
ber is 2% of the GDP. Namely, a state ex- Romania in 2004, although both states
pending less than 1.5% on its defence formally failed to fulfil the economic cri-
could “free ride” on the Alliance. terion, and the quality of civil control
Hungary, the Check Republic and over the armed forces was frequently
Poland were admitted to NATO in 1999. questioned (RAND’s NATO enlargement
According to the SIPRI data Poland was study, 2000-2015).
ATLANTIC SHORES 3:

Bearing in mind that the PFP pro- sion on admission to PfP) qualified as re-
gram is not an organization but a form of flecting a “democratic change” in the fi-
cooperation between NATO and individ- nal communiqué of the North Atlantic
ual states, and does not imply the obliga- Council ministerial meeting in Florence
tion to defend the territory of partner in May 2000.
states, it is not unusual to have coopera- The absence of firm criteria is also in-
tion although the previously established dicated by the fact that Tajikistan and
formal criteria have not been met. In Uzbekistan, admitted to the Partnership
1994, when the Program was estab- in 1994 and 2002 respectively, still do not
lished, all states that had participated in fulfil the democratic political system re-
the work of the North Atlantic quirement (according to Freedom House
Cooperation Council (set up in 1991) data both countries were designated as
were issued an unconditional invitation “not free” in the past decade). However,
to join the Program. the main argument in favour of
Croatia submitted its candidacy for Uzbekistan’s admission was its geo-
admission to the Partnership way back in graphic proximity to Russia (the only
1994, but was not admitted until six years state NATO perceives as its possible con-
later. The most important conditions set ventional enemy, according to the RAND
for Croatia included the implementation study). Furthermore, this state creates a
of the Dayton Accords (in the first place, firm block of cooperating countries with
discontinuance of military assistance to Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, both of
Croats in BiH), return of refugees and co- which joined the Partnership in that
operation with The Hague Tribunal. The same year. In this way NATO is geo-
UN Commission on Human Rights sub- graphically approaching Russia, on one
mitted to the General Assembly a report side, and Iran, on the other (two states
on the situation of human rights in that have high security importance for
Croatia at the end of 1999. The report ex- NATO). Tajikistan entered the
pressed the dissatisfaction of the Partnership in 2002. The fact that this
Commission with the number and speed country borders on Afghanistan – a state
of the refugees return and stressed the subjected to the US air strike campaign
responsibility of the Croatian govern- that same year (after the terrorist attacks
ment for this situation, referring to its dis- of September 11, 2001) outweighed the
criminatory laws, indifference and ab- criterion of democracy of its political
sence of judicial protection. The position system. It is also probable that the states
of minorities (especially the Serbian na- of the Middle Eastern partnership block
tional minority) was found unsatisfacto- themselves were not indifferent to the
ry, while the process of cooperation with fact that they were surrounded by
The Hague Tribunal and trials for war Russia, China, India and Pakistan (nu-
crimes were characterized as inadequate, clear powers).
unjustifiably slow and based on the de-
laying tactics. Still Croatia was admitted Tfscjbo!“fydfqujpo”
to the PfP on May 25, 2000... The deci-
sion on the admission was taken a year Serbia fulfils the most frequent infor-
after the bombing of the FRY when mal precondition for admission to the
Croatia’s geostrategic importance in- Partnership, namely it has a democratic
creased, and the results of presidential political system (according to Freedom
and parliamentary elections held in House it belongs to the category of free
February (three months before the deci- states since 2002). Security sector reforms
41 ATLANTIC SHORES

(especially of the armed forces) are un- and formalized, may bring about diverse
der way, and develop with NATO assis- changes in Serbia’s public opinion as
tance through a specially formed de- well as its political elite. The Serbian pub-
fence reform group. In addition, along lic, already frustrated by the EU and NA-
with Bosnia and Herzegovina and TO policy of conditioning, could be
Montenegro, Serbia is the only state in somewhat mollified by this conciliatory
the Balkans that has not established for- concession. On the other hand, if NATO
mal cooperation with NATO through the decides to make this “exception” in the
PfP program. In view of its strategic po- case of Serbia the possibility exists that
sition (in central Balkans), the proximity the Serbian public and its political elites
of “tectonic” zones (Kosovo, Macedonia, could interpret this as inconsistency or
BiH), experience of previous armed con- relaxation of its attitude, and thus addi-
flicts and will to cooperate with NATO, it tionally compromise the principle of po-
makes a good candidate for the litical responsibility. It would certainly be
Partnership. However, insufficient coop- better for Serbia to accept the possible
eration with the Hague Tribunal remains conditional admission to the Partnership
the formal obstacle for its admission. as an incentive for further efforts on a dif-
New initiatives within NATO, partly ficult road towards Euro-Atlantic integra-
presented to the public by Bosnian am- tions. The possibility for the Serbian rep-
bassador Alkalaj, suggest that the idea of resentatives to sit in the Euro-Atlantic
another “exception” is still an option and Partnership Council would mean the ad-
is being considered. The only question is vent of modern trends, easier exchange
whether the admission into conditional of views and information and relative
membership would entail new require- equality with other participating states.
ments. It is interesting that the initiative Furthermore, by formalizing its relations
was made before the finalization of ne- with NATO Serbia would facilitate its
gotiations on the future status of Kosovo, transition processes as well as its securi-
which causes concern that the calcula- ty sector reforms.
tion in this case could be somewhat at The chance for this “exception” does
the expense of Serbia. The “price” of exist despite the recent statement of NA-
Serbia’s admission to the Partnership TO secretary general Jaap de Hoop
may well go beyond full cooperation Scheffer that Serbia will not be admitted
with the Hague, i.e. the arrest and extra- to the PFP unless it previously extradites
dition of Ratko Mladi}, and include a Ratko Mladi}. Namely, the policy of “ex-
changed attitude of the Serbian ceptions” has become NATO’s “rule” in
Government towards the final solution of the past decade. Not only has Serbia
the Kosovo status. made certain progress that ought to be
The unsolved status of Kosovo could awarded, but its geostrategic position
turn out to be a major obstacle in the re- and apparently unfavourable political sit-
lations between Serbia and NATO. If uation (unsolved status of Kosovo) also
Kosovo declares independence against work in its favour. Should this initiative
the will of the Serbian authorities (and ever grow into a formal offer, it would
obtains NATO’s support) a new aggrava- give Serbia a chance that should not be
tion of relations between Serbia and the wasted.
Alliance will not be inconceivable.
The switch in NATO’s political The author works as research
course, if the initiative on the conditional fellow in the Belgrade School of
admission to the Partnership is accepted Security Studies
BALKAN TOPICS 42

Njmjubsz!gjobodft
Nbslp!Njmp|fwj~
oor teeth and such a large appetite,” business and other trips, maintenance of
P that’s how Bismarck once defined
Italy. This definition may be applied to
buildings and facilities, electricity and
public utility services, cost of communi-
the Serbian Army today. The conse- cations, organizational change in com-
quences of the SFRY disintegration, eco- mands, units and institutions, lease of
nomic sanctions, absence of military in- buildings and other property.
vestments and the 1999 war all brought The third category includes invest-
the army into a desperate situation. It has ment costs. These are related to the mod-
enough to pay for food and salaries, but ernization of the existing, development
not for other things, which is why appro- and purchase of new arms and military
priations for the maintenance of arms equipment, as well as building of various
and military equipment are inadequate. facilities and infrastructure.
While paint peels off the aircraft and pi- The structure of these costs has so far
lots are wary climbing into their cockpits been approximately 75%-20%-5% for
(although feeling lucky for the opportu- personnel, operational and investment
nity to fly at all), and soldiers dig using costs respectively. This distribution of
spades left over from WW II, two thirds funds keeps the army inert – personnel
of army employees are homeless. costs are covered, but not enough is left
The Defence Strategy defined the for investments. That is why a redistribu-
army’s missions, and the Government tion of funds in the military budget is
determined the size of its budget. The planned. By the year 2010 personnel
question is where is this money being costs will be reduced to 60% from their
used and is it sufficient? present share of 75%, while operational
costs will increase to 28% in this same
Njmjubsz!cvehfu! period. As for investments, the relevant
appropriations will amount to 10% in
The costs of the projected defence 2007 and 12% in 2010 to reach 20% in
system structure for 2007-2010 were fore- 2015. The military budget is not small,
cast using a model with three categories but it is badly structured.
of expenses. Funds for the army come from the
The first category comprises person- budget of the Republic of Serbia, as well
nel expenditures, i.e. salaries and pen- as from donations, sale of military prop-
sions, transport allowances, severance erty and other sources. Military budget
pay due to redundancy or retirement, al- amounts to about 550 million euros (ap-
lowances for those living away from their prox. 46,504,000,000 dinars), increased
families or for increased housing costs, by 2,856,000,000 dinars after the budget
special service allowances and awards. review in September 2006. This July the
The second category covers opera- defence minister Zoran Stankovi} said
tional costs including the costs of train- the army was about 7.2 billion dinars
ing, fuel and lubricants, maintenance of short.
arms and military equipment, food, ac- According to the Strategic Defence
commodation, clothing and footwear, Review one may conclude that military
43 BALKAN TOPICS

pensions should from now on be paid pays military pensioners out of the mili-
from the Pension and Disability tary budget. The Ministry of the Interior
Insurance Fund, rather than from the does not have the pension item in its
personnel costs of the military budget, budget and pensions are paid from the
which would be a relief. The military Fund for Pension and Disability
budget amounts to 2.5% of the GDP, and Insurance. Since the police budget
the total share of pensions in it amounts amounts to 2% of the GDP compared
to 0.65 percent of the GDP. Pensions and with that of the Army amounting to 2.5%,
allowances use up about 25% of the mil- if we subtract the pensions’ share of
itary budget. The Serbian Army at this 0.65% of the GDP, it appears that the re-
point of time has 17 active and over 700 al budget of the army is smaller than the
retired generals. The number of 33,000 one of the police.
employed in the defence system is The current army budget of 2.5%
matched by 51,000 beneficiaries of mili- GDP should be reduced to 2.4% in 2009,
tary pensions. According to the Law on in which case it will amount to 74 billion
the Army, military pensions are fully ad- dinars in 2010, based on the anticipated
justed to the growth of military salaries. A economic growth rate of 6%. The salaries
recent increase in salaries of the military fund should remain the same, but the
by 20% put the army into an awkward numerical reduction of army members
position. The money for the salaries has will enable increase in salaries.
been provided by the budget review, but
the legally prescribed growth of military Fyusb.cvehfubsz!gvoet
pensions has to be covered by the army
from its own funds, at the expense of The Strategic Defence Review – a
other expenditures. Increase in salaries document that has not been adopted yet
in Serbia is accompanied by a linear – states that there are no funds for mod-
growth of pensions by 25% of the in- ernization or the purchase of new arms.
crease. Serbia is one of the few countries The recently inaugurated National
in the region (along with Romania) that Investment Plan enabled the overhauling

Ubcmf!2;!Tusvduvsf!pg!Dptut!– Tfscjbo!Bsnz!3117.3121
BALKAN TOPICS 44

of a number of aircraft and helicopters, The Strategic Defence Review also


as well as construction of housing units states some reservations as to the imple-
for the defence system employees, all of mentation of reforms for the lack of fi-
which lacked sufficient budgetary funds nance: “The stability of defence system
Some funds are secured from military financing may be adversely affected by
revenues based on the sale of surplus the additional costs stemming from the
arms and military equipment, lease of ca- lawsuits instituted by defence system
pacities and services. These military re- members due to the army’s failure to pay
ceipts amount to a few hundred million their salaries and pensions in accordance
dinars per year, but a good part of them with the law”. Salaries in the army are 1.2
is still in the contracting stage, or else times higher than average wages in
awaits payment. Serbia and the current law prescribes that
Peace operations should be financed military salaries have to be three times
by extra-budgetary funds. At this point of the average, which is why a substantial
time we have a number of observers in number of military persons sue the army
several missions and one medical team, for incomplete payment.
and their costs are not a major item in the The army resembles a large food
Serbian budget. Engagement under the store with a small refrigerator. It has to
UN flag is partly paid by this organiza- set its priorities – what to put in the
tion, and moreover, it is not unusual that fridge (use the money), what to sell and
less developed countries participating in what to leave to rot since the fridge is
these operations receive material assis- not large enough and, moreover, we
tance from their more developed part- have old supplies that have little use life
ners. In this way, the army has so far left. The transformation of the socio-
been given a field hospital for its medical economic system and the change of the
team. security environment imposed the need
Donations are another source of in- for army reform. Adjusting to the new
come. However, since their inflow is not situation, the army is downsizing,
steady they do not allow for long term changing its missions and professional-
planning, but only attainment of short- izing its members. Acting Chief of the
term objectives through the implementa- General Staff, Major General Zdravko
tion of specific projects. Donations are Pono{ believes that the army objective
not always of financial nature and may is transformation from a social care to a
take the form of equipment grants. Two desirable institution.That requires quite
of the three largest donations to the army a lot of work and a radical cut is impos-
include half a million dollars worth of sible to make. The army is burdened by
computer equipment from China in debts from the past, and a part of funds,
March and 1.2 million dollars from the which could otherwise be invested,
USA for civil protection received this have to be used for their repayment.
August. Southeast Europe Clearinghouse Transition priorities include the acquisi-
donor conference in June this year en- tion of new arms and military equip-
sured additional 4.5 million dollars, in- ment, aircraft overhaul, investments in-
vested in different projects including, im- to modernization, professionalization
portantly, the “Prisma” project for the re- of personnel and transition from con-
training of military redundancies. script to contract soldiers, as well as
45 BALKAN TOPICS

participation in peace missions. These of the six brigades planned by the


items could be called transition expen- Strategic Defence Review.
ditures and represent investments into The Review within its “vision of the
army reform. army in 2015” stressed the need for pro-
tective equipment for soldiers, wheel
Usbotjujpo!dptut combat vehicles, modernization of self-
propelled artillery and development of
Trying to fall in step with NATO our new types of ammunition, as well as pro-
army seeks to apply the standards of this motion of atomic-biological-chemical
organization in order to facilitate its inte- (ABH) protection. As for the air force and
gration into the collective security sys- anti-aircraft defence, new transport and
tem. A model of the “soldier for the 21st fighter planes are foreseen as well as the
century” has been developed, implying development of a centre for the control of
new uniforms, protective equipment and air space and a SAM (surface-to-air mis-
personal arms in line with NATO stan- siles) battalion. The review states that the
dards. New uniforms were designed by a anticipated funds are not sufficient to pur-
local firm and are still being tested in chase new aircraft, rocket systems, motor
army units. The “flack jacket affair” in- vehicles, arms and military equipment, or
volving a damaging contract for the army to finance the costs of peace operations.
concerning the purchase of too large a The National Investment Plan ear-
quantity of protective equipment threw marked 30 million euros for the army
some light on the financial malversations outside the budget, which will be used
in military circles. Precisely the same for the overhaul of planes and helicop-
thing that happened in the society, pri- ters. This enables the air force to restore
marily the so-called crony privatisation to airworthy condition its five MIG-29 in-
and false tenders, also befell the army. terceptors expected to guard the sover-
The question is when the reaction to this eignty of the country’s airspace. They are
abuse would have come had not there all it has left out of 16 such aircraft pur-
been internal party interests that created chased in the late 1980s. In addition to
a scandal resulting in the deposing of the these planes, currently the most modern
defence minister Prvoslav Davini}. The in our air force, the army also has MIG-21
contract anticipated the purchase of aircraft, which are substantially older and
63,000 flack jackets, 59,000 helmets and cannot appropriately answer to the pres-
500 pilot jackets that would have cost the ent tasks. Only recently the wear and tear
Army a sum of 175 million euro. The caused the cockpit of one of these planes
deal was indeed suspicious since the to crack in flight, but fortunately, there
present contingent is twice smaller and were no casualties. In addition to MIGs
tends to decrease still further. Personal the plan also anticipates the overhauling
arms should comply with NATO stan- and modernization of 2 Mi-24 helicopters
dard of 5.56 mm, and “Zastava” arms fac- purchased during the 1990s. These craft
tory has already developed a weapon of are intended for antitank action and are
this kind, but it takes additional financing the only two of the type that can do this
to equip the army with it. The priority in job successfully. Namely the helicopters
the acquisition of military equipment and are fitted with armour that protects them
arms should be given to the newly from anti-aircraft fire from the ground.
formed special brigade. This unit is first Gazelle helicopters have so far been
BALKAN TOPICS 46

used for this purpose, although they 2010 with 21 thousand members. The
have no armour and are extremely vul- data given in the Strategic Defence
nerable to ground fire. Review indicate that it employs 7,449 of-
The balance of funds provided by ficers; 9,378 NCOs; 5,317 contract sol-
the Plan should be used for the repair of diers and 11,041 conscripts as well as
an AN-26 transport plane and 5 transport 11,994 civilians. By 2010, when the con-
Mi-8 and Mi-17 helicopters. In addition to scription is to be abolished, we should
their military purpose, these aircraft have 4,000 officers, 6,600 NCOs and
would also be used for civilian needs. 10,600 contract soldiers plus 5,300 civil-
One of the Army’s missions is to assist ians. The trend of reduction of officer
the civilian authorities in the event of nat- and NCO personnel is obvious, as is the
ural disasters, industrial and other inci- trend of increasing the number of con-
dents and epidemics. That is where tract soldiers. The studies of the army so
transport airplanes and helicopters can far reveal a disproportionately high share
be used. Civilian authorities lack the ca- of colonels and lt. colonels, and an insuf-
pacities to oversee road traffic and the ficient number of lower officer ranks. It is
experience of the neighbouring Croatia assumed that this “functional surplus” of
may be taken as an example for the use cadre will be retired while lower ranks
of military helicopters to monitor the will be filled by Military Academy gradu-
roads as well as forest fires. ates. The share of salaries will not be
Army professionalization is an issue substantially changed and one may even
that will be resolved until the year 2010. see some economy in all this, since the
By that time the share of the conscripts pay of a second lieutenant to be em-
will be reduced to zero and the conscrip- ployed is lower than the one of a colonel
tion entirely abolished. This change will to be retired. Naturally, we must bear in
not substantially influence the army’s mind that in this period the military
costs. The army shows a tendency of re- budget will make appropriations for the
ducing its numerical size aiming to enter severance pay of its retired personnel.

Ubcmf!3;!Dptut!pg!pwfsibvm!pg!qmboft!boe!ifmjdpqufst!)jo!uipvtboe!fvspt*
47 BALKAN TOPICS

The Strategic Defense Review also of its members live as subtenants, while
anticipates the overhaul of self-propelled others have inadequate housing and oth-
artillery, but the funds for that purpose ers still live in military facilities. During
are currently unavailable. The acquisition the past five years the army distributed
of new wheel armoured vehicles will re- 396 apartments per year. At this rate the
main a dead letter. The army budget housing problems will be solved in 62
lacks the funds to finance it and the ex- years. In addition to the budgetary funds,
tra-budgetary funds cannot be tapped for the National Investment Plan will cover
this purpose. 10% of the total construction of apart-
ments which will make approximately
Tpdjbm!dptut – bsnzt!ipnfmftt 350-400 appartments This extra-budget-
ary contribution equals a year’s result in
The next category of existing costs in redressing the housing shortage. Along
the army could be defined as social costs. with budgetary funds and those appro-
In order for the army to grow from a so- priated from the National Investment
cial care to a professional and challeng- Plan, the army could also use the pro-
ing institution, it is necessary to solve the ceeds from the sale of military real estate.
existential problems of its members, The MoD plans to sell 447 military facili-
which are related to the real estate and ties to help finance the construction of
housing policy. The present composition apartments for 15,210 “homeless army
of the army, excluding conscripts serving members”. This course was made possi-
their military service, numbers 34,139 ble by the adoption of the Master Plan,
members. According to the data of the which identifies the real estate to be sold.
MoD Housing Department 23,703 army The estimated value of these facilities is
members have applied to have their not precise, but a figure of a billion dol-
housing problems solved. The Army lars is mentioned, which is value-wise
housing demand is diverse, since some close to one and a half military budget.

Ubcmf!4;!Sfevdujpo!pg!bsnz!fnqmpzfft!voujm!3121<!pggjdfst-!ODPt-!
dpousbdu!tpmejfst-!djw/!– djwjmjbot-!dpot/!- dpotdsjqut
BALKAN TOPICS 48

However, there are doubts that this esti- cific feature of the military profession
mate will be confirmed at the market, when it comes to housing. Military serv-
since the property is to be sold on a ten- ice is extraterritorial and implies frequent
der. While the title to this property is held movement of entire families to different
by the Property Directorate of the places. As things stand, there is barely
Republic of Serbia, the privatisation pro- enough to sustain the army while its re-
ceeds are intended for the army as its forms are referred to extra-budgetary
user. These receipts will be used to solve sources. Under these conditions, no seri-
the housing problems of the army staff, ous transformation can be planned since
modernization of arms and military there are no financial expenditures to be
equipment and investment into military taken into account, or regular time inter-
infrastructure. vals to implement a strategy. A glimmer
The army plans to transfer to a new of hope is seen in the anticipated redistri-
scheme of apartment distribution. bution of costs in the army budget, but
Namely, the practice it has had so far this concept has been presented in the
proved inadequate, since it accumulated Defence Strategy Review, a document
housing problems and thereby tied the that has yet to be endorsed by the
military budget to the related social costs. Parliament. Bearing in mind that after the
The budget could not sustain this kind of new Constitution’s confirmation at the
a housing policy, and that accounts for referendum, parliamentary elections
the present situation. One of the possible should follow and the constitution of the
solutions would be to encourage military new Parliament, the adoption of this and
personnel to take soft housing loans and, other strategic documents necessary to
with some incentives, deal with their regulate the situation in the army could
problems on the market. take some time. Until then the army will
have to fend for itself as best it can, and
How far has the army advanced on
so will the citizens.
road of its reform? The army is cumber-
What is the sum of annual expendi-
some and costs a lot to sustain, and
tures of the Army? It is difficult to calcu-
moreover, there is no need to have so
late due to the type of costs, schedule of
large a force. Transformation into a slim-
payment and donations of money and
mer, more mobile and capable army
equipment. According to our collocutors
cannot be made over night and there are
from the MoD, the budget, National
some inherited problems primarily with
Investment Plan, some donations and
respect to real estate and distribution of
military receipts could, put together,
personnel costs. In order to respond to
reach the sum of 750,000.000 US dollars.
these needs a lot more funds should be
The hope remains that the reform mo-
appropriated for this purpose, which this mentum will result in a more rational dis-
country can ill afford. Why should the tribution of these, definitely not insub-
army pay only for the apartments for the stantial funds, so that the army’s only
military, rather than invest in armament concern would not be the social security
and military equipment? The issue of re- of its employees, but rather the security
al estate derives from the concept of the of its country.
army and the citizens do not pay taxes
for housing problems of soldiers but for The author works as research
the security of their country. On the oth- fellow in the Belgrade School of
er hand, we should point out to the spe- Security Studies
49 BALKAN TOPICS

Epvcmf!qsjdf!pg!njmjubsz!tfdvsjuz
Qsfesbh!Qfuspwj~

e keep hearing that the army costs It is known that “old” democracies,
W a lot. The only concrete fact sub-
stantiating such complaints is the GDP
too, reform their security sectors and that
their taxpayers are painfully aware of
percentage appropriated for military pur- that fact. However, they also collect the
poses. However, it would be entirely jus- “peace dividends”, i.e. they enjoy the
tified to ask whether this spells the total benefits of development they invested
“price” of military security in the states of into throughout the past decades. The
the Western Balkans (Balkans, here- Balkan countries, on the other hand, are
inafter). faced with paying the diverse kinds of
In the past few years budgetary ex- “war interest”, only one of which has to
penditures were clearly insufficient to fi- do with weapons and mines scattered all
nance new security needs of the states in over their territories, which they now
the region, such as army professionaliza- have to collect and for the most part de-
tion and downsizing. The impoverished stroy. Their large armies have to be re-
states are still less capable of paying to duced to a socially acceptable size.
“erase the traces” of their previous securi- Although this article cannot draw the ac-
ty policies. Namely, during the 1990s they tual bottom line, it can at least attempt to
invested billions of dollars into the pur- reveal the deceptiveness of presenting
chase of already obsolete ordnance the the price of military security by means of
destruction of which they are financing a single percentage (GDP). This price
today. The citizens of the region are thus should, if anything, include the funds
paying a “double price” of security addi- used to deal with the problem of small
tionally disguised by the fact that funds arms and light weapons (SALW), demi-
are drawn from the budget as well as out ning and reduction of military person-
of it. In addition, the inflow of foreign do- nel. The data about the spendings on
nations for this purpose is increasing. these three items in the countries
That is why it is very difficult to cal- analysed here - Albania, Bosnia-
culate the costs of removing the conse- Herzegovina, Croatia and Macedonia -
quences of the Balkan politics marked are extremely difficult to obtain.
by the security dilemma at the end of the Although this text will not be complete
last century. In contrast with most post- in this respect either, I hope that it will
communist states, which after the Cold offer strong arguments in favour of a dif-
War redefined the relation between their ferent approach to and calculation of
societies and armed forces to the advan- military-security expenses in other post-
tage of social development, the security conflict countries, too. In any case, what
concept in the Balkans for a long time re- follows is a more precisely itemized
mained the same – focused on armed “price list” for the Western Balkans.
defence of territories. However, it turned
out that the money spent for obsolete Cvehfubsz!njmjubsz!dptut
weapons and mines was wasted, and the
security sector reform in these countries Military expenditures most often de-
started with a ten-year or even longer de- note the funds appropriated for defence
lay. in a country’s budget. They do not in-
BALKAN TOPICS 4:

clude only the armed forces in the tradi- tual military costs that may also be hid-
tional meaning of the word (air force, den in non-military budgetary items or fi-
navy and army), as commonly present- nanced completely outside the govern-
ed, but also para-military forces if trained, ment budget. An important problem lim-
equipped and ready for military actions. iting the analysts to a restricted calcula-
This term does not refer to illegal para- tion of this kind is insufficient availability
armies such as operated in the battle- and reliability of official data. We believe
fields of the Balkans, but to legal, most that it is important to present at least the
often special, police units. According to obtainable information. Once we com-
the definition used by the Stockholm pare additional funds set aside by the cit-
International Peace Research Institute izens of the region and the various dona-
(SIPRI) military costs ought to include the tions with budgetary military expendi-
expenditures for: (a) the armed forces; tures, it will become obvious that these
(b) defence ministry and other govern- should certainly be calculated in the
ment agencies engaged in defence proj- overall price of military security.
ects; (c) paramilitary forces considered
trained and equipped for military opera- “Mfqf{b” boe “Tqfdusb”
tions; (d) military space activities. To
these we should add the spendings for An obvious consequence of the pol-
“(a) military and civil personnel includ- icy determined by the security dilemma
ing pensions and social benefits; (b) and intensified by the announced securi-
maintenance; (c) procurement; (d) mili- ty sector reform are military redundan-
tary research and development and (e) cies. While Central and East European
military aid”. countries radically reduced their military
According to the analysis of military personnel during the 1990s, most Balkan
budgets (see table) the Balkan states states, due to war conflicts, either re-
have been showing a gradual decrease tained or even increased the number of
in military expenditures ever since the their troops, large as they already were.
end of the conflicts, and especially the Keeping a standing army is a costly affair,
year 2000. The single exception is but its reduction is no less expensive.
Macedonia, which registered an abrupt Every professional soldier has to be giv-
growth of military spendings in 2001 en severance pay and a chance to retrain
(6.6% GDP), primarily due to internal so he could become successfully inte-
armed conflicts in that particular year. grated into the civil society. But, that
Next year, however, they dropped again takes both finances and time. From the
to 2.8 percent of the GDP. The progress security point of view, money and time
revealed by this trend in the Balkans, expended in the last decide of the 20th
compared with the 1990s, is obvious in century were both wasted.
the Croatian example. Croatian appropri- Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH),
ations for the army in the 1992-1997 peri- where the conflicts had been the fiercest,
od came close to nine billion dollars was the first to tackle the problem of mil-
(8,900 million dollars) - almost three itary redundancies. Let us recall that in
times more compared with 3.6 billion in 1995, BiH had between 175,000 and
the 2000-2005 period. Thus the Balkan 210,000 soldiers (International Institute of
region has a downward trend of military Strategic Studies), while some estimates
expenditures. (e.g. Geneva Centre for the Democratic
SIPRI, however, warns that official Control of Armed Forces) refer to over
data in many states cover but a part of ac- 400,000 members of armed forces. Since
51 BALKAN TOPICS

1996 three demobilisation programmes Norwegian Embassy. The programme


sponsored by the international commu- ought to cover 700 men per year, and
nity have been implemented: (1) EDPR Norway donated 251 thousand dollars
(Emergency Demobilization and for equipment purchase. Great Britain,
Reintegration Project) in the 1996-1999 Denmark and Sweden also pledged their
period and with investment of 8.5 million financial support to the project, but the
dollars; (2) PELRP (Pilot Emergency specific data on the project are not avail-
Labor Redeployment Project) in 2000- able. According to the estimates made in
2004 with 15-million dollars and (3) IOM early 2005, Macedonia should reduce the
TAFS (Transitional Assistance to Former number of its troops by about 5 thou-
Soldiers), which started in 2000 and, ac- sand, which suggest that it would need 4
cording to plans, should involve the million dollars for their integration into
spending of 11 million dollars. This, the civil society.
however, is not the full account. Namely, Albania reduced the number of its
the head of the BiH mission to NATO soldiers by 17 thousand in the 1992-2004
Sven Alkalaj in a statement published by period, but failed to provide them with
“Dnevni avaz” on 4 April 2006, an- severance pay or programs for their so-
nounced the establishment of a 13-mil- cial reintegration. It was only in mid-2005
lion euro fund for 11 thousand thus far that the Albanian parliament adopted a
demobbed soldiers. According to Alkalaj, law on additional social security of mem-
2,200 military staff let go after the de- bers of Albania’s armed forces, regulat-
fence reforms and enactment of new ing the so-called transition pay, as well as
laws this January will be taken care of early retirement or additional pensions.
this year. The projected annual costs for the en-
In October 2002 the Croatian forcement of this law amount to 729
Government adopted a project called thousand dollars and it is highly uncer-
SPECTRA, related to a radical reduction tain if the requested finances will actual-
of military personnel, their transition and ly be provided. The only scheme antici-
accommodation. According to the Bonn pating the reintegration of former sol-
International Centre for Conversion diers into the civil society was developed
(BICC), Croatian army at that time num- by the Albanian Atlantic Association, but
bered 40,714 soldiers while the Croatian the 3.5 million dollars required for this
Defence Strategy Review anticipated a four-year programme have gone miss-
16,000-men force as the “end result”. ing.
The largest obstacle to the implementa-
tion of this programme was naturally of Mbshf!qsjdf!pg!tnbmm!bsnt
financial nature. According to the project,
54% of the total budget (120 million dol- Armed conflicts in the Balkans at the
lars) should be financed externally. For end of the past century left the citizens in
the time being it is still unclear whether possession of a large quantity of small
the balance will be appropriated from arms and light weapons. Weapons hap-
the Croatian state budget or provided hazardly distributed from military depots
from extra-budgetary sources. are today difficult to collect and destroy,
Early this year, following the model and present a major security problem in
of the Croatian SPECTRA, the the region. The problem of dealing with
Macedonian Government, started a LEP- it efficiently does not have to do only
EZA project, based on a contract signed with the feeling of insecurity compound-
between the Macedonian MoD and the ed by the arms cult, but also the lack of
BALKAN TOPICS 52

finances for the collection and destruc- 162.5 million dollars would be expend-
tion of SALW. ed for the same purpose.
The most optimistic estimates refer to Mines infest 1.174 square kilometres
at least a million pieces of illegal arms in of Croatia’s territory. It is believed that
the countries addressed by this article. It the implementation of the National
is believed that their destruction would Demining Plan for the 2005-2009 period
cost about 5 dollars per piece, adding up would take 549 million dollars. The
to 5 million dollars in total. Pessimistic es- largest part of this plan’s financial burden
timates are somewhat more difficult to will be born by the Croatian government
address. Thus, for instance, some say that that will provide about 370 million dol-
Croatian citizens alone have close to lars, while the balance of the funds will
600,000 small arms and light weapons. be secured through donations. This re-
The UNDP Tirana office reckons that veals an important increase in the funds
about 550,000 SALW were plundered earmarked to deal with the problem of
from Albanian military depots, 200 thou- mines, viewed against the sum of 52 mil-
sand of which were returned, while lion dollars expended for demining in
150,000 ended up in the neighbouring 2004. Albania’s externally financed ex-
countries. The balance is still in the penses for demining in 2004 amounting
hands of Albanian citizens. Diverse esti- to 3.7 million dollars, account for a slight
mates suggest that the relevant illegal increase compared with 3.6 million in
SALW figures for Macedonia and BiH are 2003. Macedonia is the only country in
100,000 to 450,000 and 150,000 to the region that does not need substantial
500,000 respectively. The total “black funds to deal with this problem.
number” could be as high as 1,750,000
pieces of arms, requiring 8,750,000 dol- Bshvnfout!pg!njmmjpot!gps!b
lars to destroy. ofx!dbmdvmbujpo
A long-term mine destruction action
is under way in the Balkans, and Serbia Our attempt to make a final account
destroyed its millionth mine this of the previously analysed cost of mili-
September. Destruction of 1,320,620 tary security faces the same problem as
anti-personnel mines from the arsenal that referred to by the SIPRI, namely the
of the Yugoslav People’s Army, i.e. unavailability and unequal reliability of
Serbian and Montenegrin Army (cur- the official data. That is why we will fol-
rently Serbian Army) will, according to low the SIPRI example and make use of
plans, involve the spending of 2.13 mil- estimates. In doing that we will not make
lion dollars. According to UNDP data, arbitrary assumptions or rely on extrapo-
4.4 per cent of the BiH territory is lations, but only on empirical data. In
strewn with 650,000 mines and unex- line with this methodology, we will also
ploded ordnance. Domestic and inter- draw on primary and secondary sources,
national funds for demining BiH were and recall that even one and the same
increased from 17.46 million dollars in country does not uniformly apply the
2003 to 28.6 million dollars in 2004. Of same methodology and definitions,
this amount, 18.8 million dollars were which is why numerous expenditures
provided by foreign donors. According are calculated in a different manner from
to the action strategy to resolve the one year to the next.
problem of mines in the 2005-2009 pe- Taking into account the data so ob-
riod, adopted by the Council of tained, we estimate that the Balkan coun-
Ministers on 12 October 2004, another tries have inherited a surplus of at least
53 BALKAN TOPICS

90 thousand soldiers from the 1990s. By Put together these costs suggest that
way of illustration that is the number of a single instalment of the Balkans “war
man under arms Napoleon had with him interest” amounts to at least a billion dol-
at Moscow in 1812. That is also the num- lars. For comparison purposes the total
ber of men who surrendered to the budgetary military expenditures of the
Russians in Stalingrad in 1943, the num- Balkan countries amounted to 898 mil-
ber of North Korean troops that attacked lion dollars in 2004 (when the share of
South Korea in 1950, and of the size of these expenditures in their GDP was al-
the US contingent dispatched to Vietnam ready largely reduced compared with the
in 1965. Finally, 90 thousand soldiers 1990s). Even if we take into account
were demobbed in Mozambique in Eisenhower’s warning that “every gun
1992, after its 14-year civil war. that is fired, every warship launched,
According to present day estimates, the every rocket fired, signifies, in the final
Balkans would need at least 288 million sense, a theft from those who hunger
dollars to reintegrate this number of men
and are not fed, those who are cold and
into the civil society.
are not clothed” and that the total price
The price of dealing with the prob-
of wars in the Balkans paid in terms of
lem of SALW varies depending on the
curbed development will never be calcu-
optimism, i.e. pessimism with which we
approach these estimates and thus lated, we think that we have offered suf-
ranges from 5 to almost 9 million dollars. ficiently strong million-figure arguments
Speaking of anti-personnel mines and for different thinking about the costs of
unexploded ordnance, it would be military security.
methodologically most correct to take in-
to account only the projected cost in BiH The author works as research
and Croatia, referring to over 710 million fellow in the Belgrade School of
dollars required to destroy them. Security Studies

Cvehfubsz!njmjubsz!fyqfoejuvsft – Xftufso!Cbmlbo!tubuft

A: In millions of dollars
B: Percent of GDP
BALKAN TOPICS 54

Gps!jo!uif!iboet!pg!csbwf!Wvl!Nboevtjd///
Tfdvsjuz!jo!uif!qspqptfe!Dpotujuvujpo!pg!Tfscjb
Gjmjq!Fkevt-!Ekpsekf!Qpqpwjd-!Nbslp!Tbwlpwjd
he Constitution is the supreme legal Finally, paragraph 4 states that the
T document of a state, security being
one of its most important functions. The
Republic shall organize and provide for
“defense and security” both of the
following text in which we are going to Republic of Serbia and that “of its citi-
study how the Constitution makers of zens”. “Measures in case of the state of
Serbia have regulated the security sector emergency” have just been lightly
is a contribution to a non-existent public touched upon here, we believe because
debate on the proposed Constitution and Article 200 of the Constitution gives a
it has been drawn up in the spirit of the thorough definition of them.
most renowned Serbia tradition of hav- When we compare this proposed
ing one’s cloak made when it begins to Constitution to the 1990 Constitution, we
rain. We will make a brief comparison can see that competences related to the
between the present text of the defense and security are actually the
Constitution, the 1990 Constitution, the same. The competence of the Republic
constitutional practice in the region and “in exercising and the protection of free-
international standards. The text begins doms and rights of man and citizens” has
with the competences of Serbia and its been slightly extended by recognizing,
institutions in charge of security. We will but not accurately defining, the rights of
after that analyze how the Constitution the Republic to establish liability and pre-
makers regulated the status of the Army scribe penalties “for violation of free-
of Serbia (VS) and the state of emer- doms and rights of citizens”.
gency. Then, we point to the solutions The provision set out in Article 51 of
related to the right to conscientious ob- the 1990 Constitution according to which
jection and the right to security. Finally, the defense of the Republic of Serbia “is
the way in which Kosovo and Metohija the right and duty of every citizen” is not
(K/M) is treated by the Constitution does incorporated in the draft text of the re-
not make it the main topic of this text, cently proposed Constitution. But an
but, still, owing to its relevance to securi- identical provision can be found in the
ty, we will cast some light on that prob- Constitution of the Republic of
lem as well. Macedonia, Article 28, stating that the
“defense of the Republic of Macedonia is
Dpnqfufodft!pg!uif!Sfqvcmjd the right and duty of every citizens”,
pg!Tfscjb adding, however, that the exercise of that
right and duty will be regulated by law.
Article 97 of the proposed By omitting this provision from the
Constitution defines the competences of new Constitution of Serbia the
the Republic of Serbia. First of all, the Constitution makers intended (not) to in-
Republic of Serbia “shall organize and corporate in the Constitution the right to
provide for its sovereignty, independ- conscientious objection to be discussed
ence, territorial integrity and security”. later on in this text. The new Constitution
Paragraph 2 thereof at the same time also lacks the provision qualifying the act
says that the Republic “shall exercise and of signing capitulation and acceptance of
protect freedoms and rights of citizens”, occupation as treason. Let us remind you
that is, “constitutionality and legality”. that Slobodan Milosevic violated this
55 BALKAN TOPICS

Article of the Constitution by signing the promote and relieve officers of the Army
Kumanovo Agreement, after the NATO of Serbia”. Although it can make a differ-
intervention, thereby allowing for the ence whether the President commands,
presence of foreign troops in the territo- directs or manages the Army, we are of
ry of the Republic of Serbia at an unlim- the opinion that this wording is typical of
ited period of time. the semi-presidential system of govern-
ment. The Constitutions of Macedonia
Uif!Obujpobm!Bttfncmz and Croatia prescribe in a similar way
that the President is the supreme com-
Article 99, paragraph 5 prescribes mander of the armed forces. In addition,
that the National Assembly decides on the proposed Constitution of Serbia and
war and peace and declares state of war the Croatian Constitution are identical in
and emergency. Paragraph 6 of the same the sense that presidents in both states
Article stipulates that the National decide about appointments, promotions
Assembly supervises the work of securi- and relief of officers.
ty services. It is unclear as to why the The Constitution makers have failed
Constitution makers provided for the to give two answers in this field. First,
Assembly supervision only over security what is the relation between the
services, and not over other elements of President of the Republic and the
the security sector, for example, army, Defense Minister in terms of command-
police, private security sector etc. ing the Army of Serbia. Second, the re-
Besides, the Assembly should not just su- sponsibility of the President is explicitly
pervise, but also control all factors of this envisaged only in the event of violation
sector. Finally, Article 99, paragraph 9 of the Constitution. Who is the President
stipulates that the National Assembly of the Republic accountable to for “com-
adopt defense strategy. However, the manding the Army”?
Constitution has failed to mention anoth- Finally, the part of the proposed
er, more important document that Serbia Constitution related to the President has
needs most of all at the moment, which not included the National Security
is the National Security Strategy. That Council. Thereby, the Constitution mak-
document, from which the Defense ers have missed an opportunity to estab-
Strategy, military doctrine and other lish a body made up of all key civil and
strategic documents should derive, military decision makers. That body
would, among other things, also define would then integrate the entire security
security challenges, risks, threats, protect- community of Serbia and holistically co-
ed values and interests of the state. ordinate the entire security sector. For
Besides, the National Security Strategy example, Articles 86 and 87 of the
should contain not only provisions on Macedonian Constitution clearly provide
the Army, but also on other factors of the for the establishment, the composition
security sector. For example, Article 80 of and competences of this body. The pres-
the Croatian Constitution envisages that ent Serbian Government set up a similar
the Sabor (Parliament) adopt also the body by a decree. However, that body
National Security Strategy and the never started to work owing to the
National Defense Strategy. President of Serbia’s complaints against
the manner of its establishment.
Qsftjefou!pg!uif!Sfqvcmjd
Uif!Bsnz!pg!Tfscjb
According to Article 112 of the pro-
posed Constitution, the President of the The competences of the Army of
Republic shall, “in accordance with the Serbia, as envisaged by Article 139, are
Law, command the Army and appoint, broad-based. While the provision regard-
BALKAN TOPICS 56

ing the Army’s competence to “defend would have been better if the
the country from external armed threats” Constitution had provided for the Law
is clear, the remaining part thereof “and on Democratic Civil Control of the Army
perform other missions and tasks in ac- of Serbia to regulate this matter. Another
cordance with the Constitution, Law and thing that supports the idea of enacting
principles of international law regulating this law is the fact that the proposed
the use of force” leaves space to different Constitution does not stipulate as to who
interpretations. Why did the Constitution will exercise democratic and civil control
makers opted for a different solution of the Army. Besides, there is a question
from the one stated in the Strategic as to why should only the Army be sub-
Review of Defense which clearly outlines ject to democratic civil control. In addi-
three aims of the Army of Serbia: to de- tion to the Army, all those who are using
fend the Republic of Serbia from military force, including police, secret services,
challenges, risks and security threats, to parapolice and paramilitary organiza-
take part in building up and maintaining tions as well as private security and mili-
peace in the world and to support civil- tary companies should be subject to this
ian authorities and preclude non-military type of control.
security threats? We believe that this was
a justifiable intention of the Constitution Tubuf!pg!fnfshfodz
makers to approach the matter in a more boe!tubuf!pg!xbs
flexible way owing to possible changes
The Constitution makers have rather
in the perception of security threats and
vaguely formulated “public threat” in
challenges in the future.
Article 200 without defining its actual
Article 140 stipulates that the Army of
meaning. “Public threat” presupposes
Serbia may be used outside the borders
the existence of the concept of “private
of the Republic of Serbia only upon the
threat” which is unknown to the authors
decision of the National Assembly. That of this text. If the concept of “public
competence is not explicitly set out in threat” has already been adopted, the
Article 99 dealing with the competences law should regulate in detail the proce-
of the Assembly, but it partially derives dures and competences for establishing
from the Assembly’s competence to de- it. It might have been better if the solu-
cide about war and peace and declare a tion from the 1990 Constitution had been
state of war and emergency. It remains retained, stating that the state of emer-
unclear, however, as to when and under gency is declared if security of the
what circumstances can the Army be Republic of Serbia, freedoms and rights
sent outside the country. Is it only in the of man and citizen or the work of state
case of peace-keeping missions, under a agencies are threatened. A new depar-
UN mandate, or is there a possibility for ture of the proposed Constitution is a de-
using the Army for offensive purposes tailed regulation of the institution of the
outside the framework of the internation- state of emergency. However, the prob-
al law, as is the case with the “Coalitions lem arises in the case the National
of the willing”, for example? Assembly is not able to convene and the
Article 141 stipulates that the Army of Government has to decide on the state of
Serbia shall be subject to democratic and emergency, that is, on the derogation
civilian control and that will be regulated from human and minority rights. That
by the Law on the Army of Serbia. This decision then has to be verified by the
type of control is part of the civil-military National Assembly within 48 hours or at
relations and does not fall within the its first sitting. The problem may also
purview of the Army Law as the arise in the situation when the Assembly
Constitution makers have envisaged it. It can convene only after a long period of
57 BALKAN TOPICS

time. In that case this provision could be tion is in contravention with the rights to
abused by the Government. The same conscientious objection attained and
applies to the declaration of a state of with the practice of civilian service in
war. Serbia so far. This right was not explicit-
ly recognized by the 1990 Constitution.
Uif!sjhiu!up!dpotdjfoujpvt However, since the adoption of the
pckfdujpo Decree on Military Service in 2003, con-
scientious objectors were not referred to
The right to conscientious objection military institution to serve without
was not guaranteed by the 1990 weapons, but rather to civilian institu-
Constitution which in its Article 45 guar- tions that were, the truth to tell, selected
anteed only the freedom of conscience. by the Ministry of Defense. Finally, the
However, after the democratic changes restriction of the right to refuse carrying a
this right was guaranteed in a by-law, weapon is in contravention with the ex-
that is, a 2003 Decree on Military Service. isting practice in the region. For exam-
The draft of the new Constitution intro- ple, although Article 47 of the Croatian
duces this right in Article 45, but only im- Constitution defined this right as the right
plicitly, in a rather restrictive manner. to refuse participation in “performing
Paragraph 1 thereof states that “no per- military duties in armed forces”, in prac-
son shall be obliged to perform military tice, since 1995, the conscientious objec-
or any other service involving the use of tors had not been sent at all to perform
weapons if this opposes his religion or military service without carrying
beliefs”. It is certainly good that the weapons, but were rather referred to
Constitution makers stipulated in Article civilian institutions”.
202 that any derogation from this right
will not be permitted. However, Article Uif!sjhiu!up!tfdvsjuz
45, paragraph 2 states that “any person
pleading conscientious objection may be Article 27 states that “everyone has
called upon to fulfill military duty with- the right to personal freedom and securi-
out the obligation to carry weapons, in ty”. The remaining part of the text pre-
accordance with the Law”. scribes conditions under which a person
This limitation of the right to consci- can be deprived of liberty. But, the right
entious objection is in contravention with to security is not mentioned anywhere
international standards. One of the un- else. So, it remains unclear as to what the
derlying principles of these standards right to security actually implies, how
says that persons who for reason of con- that right can be violated and protected.
science refuse to perform armed service Finally, since the “right to security” has
must have the right to an alternative serv- remained undefined, the motive of the
ice, as has been provided by the resolu- Constitution makers to incorporate this
tion 337/1967 of the Parliamentary right in an article on the deprivation of
Assembly of the Council of Europe. liberty is unclear to us. This is why the
Besides, the alternative service must be authors of this text consider mentioning
entirely civilian in nature and the entire the right to security in this particular
process of applying for that service and Article as redundant.
the performance of the civilian service
should be in charge of a civilian ministry, Lptpwp!boe!Nfupijkb
excluding the Ministry of Defense, as is
prescribed by Article 9 of the Bandres The state-legal status of Kosovo and
Molet & Bindi Resolution of the Metohija is one of the major security
European Parliament. A restrictive defini- problems of Serbia. In response to an-
tion of the right to conscientious objec- nouncements coming from one part of
BALKAN TOPICS 58

the international community that K/M without the decision of the National
will get independence, the authors of the Assembly which, according to Article
Constitution decided to point out that 140, can only approve sending of these
this province is an integral part of the troops outside the territory of Serbia. It
Serbian territory. Should K/M actually be- means that the President of the Republic,
come independent, and the proposed in keeping with his powers stipulated by
Constitution is confirmed at the referen- the Constitution, could lead the state in-
dum, a gap will be created between the to an armed conflict, without an ap-
political reality and the legal system in proval of the Assembly.
Serbia. The question is as to what extent
the Constitution provides a possibility for Dpodmvtjpo!
bridging this gap.
K/M is being mentioned in the pre- Briefly, the proposed Constitution of
amble of the Constitution, the part of the Serbia regulates the security matter better
Constitution on the organization of gov- than the 1990 Constitution. The pro-
ernment and the part related to territorial posed Constitution incorporates institu-
organization. The preamble is declarative tions of democratic civilian control and
in nature and it cannot produce any legal the right to conscientious objection.
consequences. After it, the normative However, the authors of this text have
part of the Constitution related to the or- concluded that certain solutions have re-
ganization of government stipulates that mained vague, unclear or disputable.
the President at assuming his office shall The vague provisions are those related to
solemnly swear “that I will devote all my the competences of the army, unclear
efforts to preserve the sovereignty and are the terms public security and the
integrity of the territory of the Republic of right to security while the provision on
Serbia, including Kosovo and Metohija as the right to conscientious objection is dis-
its constituent part”. A rather complicat- putable, to say the least.
ed procedure, including holding of a ref- Another opportunity to finally regu-
erendum, is envisaged for amending this late the security sector properly by the
part of the Constitution. However, in or- Constitution and put it firmly under dem-
der to amend the part of the Constitution ocratic civil control has been missed. If
regulating territorial organization of gov- there had been more public debates
ernment, in which Kosovo and Metohija about the draft, these shortcomings
is mentioned as having substantial auton- might have never occurred.
omy within Serbia, a two third majority This way, as Prof. Vojin Dimitrijevc
in the Assembly would be sufficient. We said, “the new Constitution of Serbia can
believe that the authors of the
be a good Constitution if in the hands of
Constitution have thereby intentionally
good lawyers and liberal minded peo-
provided for a possibility to adapt the
ple”. But it will be the political will of the
Constitution to the new political circum-
Serbian citizens that will decide whether
stances and possible independence of
Kosovo in future. the Constitution will be in the hands of
However, if the political elites decide such people or not. “For in the hands of
not to adapt the Constitution to new cir- brave Vuk Mandusic, every rifle will be
cumstances, how do they intend to pro- right and deadly”. (Petar Petrovic Njegos:
tect the constitutional order then? One of ”The Mountain Wreath”).
possible ways is to send armed forces to
the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. The authors work as research
From a legal point of view, the President fellows in the Belgrade School of
of the Republic is empowered to do that Security Studies
59 PEOPLE AND EVENTS

Volopxo!efbemjof!gps!uif!fombshfnfou!pg!uif
Tdifohfo!{pof!up!jodmvef!ofx!FV!nfncfst
he new Central European EU cars while the SIS2 should include bio-
T member states are disappointed by
another postponement of their joining
metric data and should be used to store
and disseminate information on extra-
the Schengen zone, an EU club of dition, third-country nationals refused
countries that have abolished controls entry to the EU and individuals subject
along their internal borders. Unlike the to a European arrest warrant or under
previous EU enlargements, the one to surveillance for criminal activity.
the East in 2004 obliged all candidate After the European Commission re-
countries to adopt the Schengen legal cently stated that launching of the SIS2
framework and ensure its implementa- will begin only in 2008 due to unex-
tion on their territories as a prerequisite pected technical difficulties, the entry of
for the membership. This condition was the new EU member states from Central
not part of the EU’s legal tradition (ac- Europe into the Schengen zone was
quis communitaire) during the previ- postponed by at least another year,
ous enlargements, so that Great Britain, possibly even until 2010. The European
Ireland and Denmark chose to stay out Commissioner for Justice, Freedom
of the Schengen framework. An award and Security, Mr. Franco Frattini, stated
for meeting the complex legal, techni- that among the new EU member coun-
cal and organizational requirements for tries Slovenia is the only one ready for
the application of the Schengen regime the introduction of the new information
was supposed to be the abolishment of system. The statement was met by huge
borders with other EU countries signa- disapproval among the new members.
tories of the Schengen Agreement and At the annual meeting of the Visegrad
free movement of citizens, goods and Group on 16 September 2006, the
capital without internal border controls Presidents of Czech Republic, Slovakia,
within this zone. Poland and Hungary pointed out that
The abolition of border controls this issue is their common priority and
with the new EU member countries the President of the Czech Republic,
was initially scheduled for 2007 so as to Vaclav Klaus even added that “all four
leave them enough time to attain secu- presidents see entry into the Schengen
rity standards of the old member coun- zone as an absolute priority and would
tries and at the same time get prepared view it as discrimination if it were de-
for the introduction of a more state-of- layed.” (EurActiv, 19 September 2006).
the-art and advanced version of the The Czech ambassador with the EU,
common information system SIS2. The Jan Kohut, dismissed arguments of the
first shared information system-SIS1 in- European Commission on technical
cluded data on criminals on the run, problems as unjustifiable: “Schengen is
previous asylum applications, stolen a political project. Technical problems
PEOPLE AND EVENTS 5:

are secondary. Many of the old EU Portuguese proposal might cause com-
members simply lack the goodwill to plications owing to the simultaneous
solve the problem, and the newcomers implementation of two projects.
are receiving second-class treatment. Finland, the EU presiding country,
We have a kind of fortress Europe, with guaranteed that it would do its best to
a separate first floor for Schengen coun- implement the Schengen enlargement
tries, and a citadel for the countries in as soon as possible announcing full co-
monetary union.” (EurActiv, 28 operation with the European
September 2006) Commission which has already warned
Such strong reactions and the lob- EU countries that they will be able to
bying of new member states at the EU request additional financial support
institutions resulted in the decision of from Brussels for the launching of SIS2,
the EU ministers of home affairs (at while relying on their own resources
their regular informal meeting at for the launching of the temporary sys-
Tampere, 20-22 September) to accept tem SIS1Plus.
to study the compromised proposal of The legal basis for the introduction
Portugal to introduce system ‘SIS1 Plus’ of the SIS2 information system was
pending the launching of SIS2. The un- adopted at the European Parliament
derlying idea is to postpone the en- session on 25 October 2006 in order to
largement of the Schengen zone by enable the enlargement of the
merely “cloning” the old, still operating Schengen zone to include new mem-
information system and thereby enable bers of the EU and Switzerland. Further
the entry of the new EU member states debate on the pace of establishing SIS2
into the Schengen system pending the will continue at a meeting of the
establishment of the new information Council on 4 and 5 December where
system. This proposal was supported the German request to allow access to
by Slovenia, the Czech Republic, this system not only to police but also
Hungary, Slovak Republic and to intelligence services will also be dis-
Lithuania. Poland is worried that the cussed.

Bsnz!up!tfmm!bjsqpsut
erbian Defense Ministry an- are to be sold, namely, those in Nis,
S nounced the sale of eight com-
plete military airports and parts of an-
Pancevo, Sombor and Ponikve near
Uzice. The Kovin airport is the largest
other four. The airports to be sold among these, occupying around 508
are: Lisicji Jarak near Belgrade, hectares with 44 facilities on 17 000
Bojnik, Kovin, Leskovac, Sjenica, square meters. The Sjenica airport oc-
Glibovac near Smederevska Palanka, cupies around 151.5 hectares and has
Trstenik and Ecka near Zrenjanin. 26 facilities in 6 thousand square me-
Parts of the following four airports ters.
61 PEOPLE AND EVENTS

B!qpxefs!lfh!jo!uif!ofjhicpvsippe
ne thousand three hundred tons of munition was neglected”, and owing to
O mines, explosives and ammunition
exploded early in the morning on 20
the lack of space in the warehouses, a
large amount of ammunition was stored
October 2006 at a military warehouse in the open (Defense, 1 November 2006,
close to the town of Paracin. 23 persons p.18). At the moment there are 56 ware-
were lightly injured while houses, houses in Serbia in which various ammu-
schools and other essential facilities were nition and armaments belonging to the
damaged blocking off the nearby towns Army and the police are stored, while the
of Cuprija and Paracin for the next cou- total of 10,600 tons of ammunition is
ple of days. The Government of Serbia stored in the open. Most of these ware-
immediately provided funds for the re- houses were built up during the commu-
pair works in the affected municipalities nist time within safe distance from the
while the District Court of Nis and a populated areas, but owing to illegal con-
Military Commission launched an inves- struction during the nineties many settle-
tigation. Mr. Radomir Mladenovic, inves- ments have sprung up along the outskirts
tigating judge from the District Court of of the military facilities. “All we can do
Nis, in charge of the investigation, had to now is carry out frequent inspections of
postpone his first visit to the explosion these warehouses and tighten safety
spot until the beginning of the investiga- measures. At the moment there are 13 or
tion on 31 October waiting for the crime 14 warehouses that are close to the hous-
scene to be cleared up from a large es which were built only 50m away from
amount of unexploded ordinances. military barracks without any building
In response to the public criticism for plans or approval” said Stankovic ( B92, 3
storing up dangerous materials close to November 2006).
the people’s settlements, the Ministry of Stankovic has requested the
Defense submitted to the Government of Government to accelerate the sale of the
Serbia an analysis of the situation in mili- redundant ammunition and strengthen
tary warehouses. The Defense Minister, the capacities of the only institution ca-
Zoran Stankovic, underlined that the sur- pable of destroying live ammunition that
plus of ammunition is an inherited prob- is situated in Kragujevac. “The Ministry
lem that nobody has dealt with properly does not have the required technology
until now. The ammunition amassed dur- or money to destroy the ammunition” he
ing the cold war and the past decade was said. “It will take around 493 m dinars to
during the 1999 air raids transported to strengthen the capacities for delabora-
safer locations, but within 28 days after tion and destruction of ammunition. We
the bombing ended it was returned to the will need licenses for the relocation of
barracks that now had just 30% of their the warehouses, issued in accordance
previous storing capacities. According to with the Serbian development plan, so
lieutenant-colonel Rasim Cirkovic from that we can remove that ammunition”
the General Staff Logistics Administration, said he. “It will take between six months
the outcome of this emergency situation and a year to secure the necessary re-
was that, due to the fact that relocation of sources. The only thing that we can do at
ammunition had to be carried out within the moment is take preventive control
a short time: “the otherwise regular pro- measures to avoid any new blasts”
cedure of monitoring the quality of am- Stankovic said.

Prepared by: Sonja Stojanovic


Dbmm!gps!Dpousjcvujpot
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(Gunduli}ev venac 48) : Centre for Civil-
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