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"#3& )( ;4 " #(( & ' <" + %&*% + (&*) "&' *#&' 5' )&
(''#' ":#(' & #4%&' 3 ( "#6 #(& )(&%"* #:(*& ' " '#%"33
1"43&3*3%3""#*#&3"'4"&+"1(*#&)&(,)&(2((%>'
& ' 14($ 4 )&& 3 *&,*#&- "" 4 *&*#&  ;4 " '#(#12 ' <
'#%" + )( (3' *&,*#&' &,#,&'- (3&' H// ,' *' 3
,)&( ;4  " '& &(*"- ;4 <%(9 ;4 ,4( ()3*# + #(( 5& #(#( 3
"*("&)(,&",("&"4()&'#(&(*#6

%3&  " #('*'2 3 "&(- 3 "&'
 O 3   3 4 3)2'#& ' ,)&(
4&'K///OS39-;4<+;4,&",("4(-)4'-4;44)(#)&3(94#"$(')(
(("#(33)(")"#-<+;4#()('#;4"'#4("'4*$"
+ ' ,)&( *' "&' &*)&#' ,&"#"'- )&( "& ;4 ' & ' ,4",  "4( )43
('4"#()#%""*%&3&*)&'2"(&)"$&5"&'3)2'#&'3#*)&(3'
""  ,(& )( ,"( " ,"" 3 " 3*3 '#," & " )& 3" &'4*& 
,(&6



APLICACIONES INDUSTRIALES DE LA REFRIGERACION

&*& (" ("- "' )"&' 34'#("' '& *' (3'  #*?& ;4 "'
)"&' &*("' "4' )"&' 34'#("' #9)' '& )"#' 3 <"&-
)"#'*)3&('3"*#&-(,(9'-)"#'34'#("'#"'&*&(1(9'3
)#(2"&-)"#';49*'-)"#'<4"('-#

K En motores t rmicos

 "&' *&#&(' #:(*&' *)"3&'  4#&*&2- " (1((2 ' 74'#1- )&( "
'333,4(""&('&%(#-(3&"'&*%4'#&'-;4&'3'#
)(&34(#(%7&"(((*&#($-'9&*&""&((3&)&("(&$*#&#("&'
"*#&' *2,"' &,4('3<&"&(-"#*)(#4(3"&'*'*&''",(9
)"(&'*#- )(&,&3& 4 3"#2 8',- ;4 )&3(9 &(( " ((&#*#&
)&(14'2-*'&&3&&*&()7

'4,$"&;4#*%:'%4''*#("#*)(#4(3"*&#&(3#(&34&'
*('-"&';4"(3*#&'*8*&-+&&((("('&33#(&(("')(#'
*2,"'3"*'*&


Ë Tipos de sistemas de refrigeración

Ë.Ë Refrigeración por aire. 


 &''#,4("8'&3"&(3(#*#"#*2'1(-#(,:'3"(
;4'#&##&&"*&#&(


  3')&  '4 "(33&( 4 '( 3 "#' ;4 (*# " '4)(1 3
&##&&"(-)('94*#("3')23"&(   



#7 3 " (1((2 )&( ( '#(%  '4 '""$- "4'&- 3#(& 3 4&'
*('-'41%"33

',#7'E(43&'&'+"#'*'&'&#*#'

Ë Ë Ë 


 '")(&)*(<3",<94"&";4("&((#3(


 (&%"*'  (4"2 "# & #*)& "4(&'&- + 3 8',& )(&3& 3
"#*#&#*)&1(9&-)&("&;4-("-<;4"*&#&(14&*'
#*)&3"3'3&14(3'4#*)(#4(3#(%7&


  *)"  "&*&#&(' %'&' & *&#&"#' 3 '#:# "' 54'#&*-
O36

Ë Ë 
   


 &((#3(;4(4"#(,:'3"'"#'-'*)4"'3)&(4,#"3&(-
'4(3&' " )(' 3 " *'*-  3)3$3& " (1((2- 3 "'
&3&'3*(<3",<94"&


 '# ''#* )' ' 4#"$3&  "@ 4#&*2," "4&' *&#&(' 34'#("'
4#"$'##)&3(1((2-)4'""&'<3)(*("1%"33)&(*
3"(3*#&

Ë.2 Refrigeración liquida. 


  3')& 4 '( 3 &34#&'- 3 ";43& (1((# "(33&( 3 "&'
"*#&'(1(((-)(;4'#&'3""&("";43&(1((#-+'#'4
,$"&3"#*2'1(4(33&(&3')3&(


 (*#"*&#&(#(%7(4*(3#*)(#4(*4+'#(<&"&;41,&(
4*7&((3*#&+*+&(,3@#"


 8"#'"*#&@'#&-*&#,3&)&(")('3"'*('34

 ',#7'E)('34(#&*#*#&+(#'):(33'3)&#)&("
&*#&3"%&*%34

Ë  Ë      


 " ";43& (4" )&( " 31( 3 3'33 ;4 8)(*# " ,(( '4
#*)(#4(


 '#*3'4'&-3%3&"%713%3&"1"#3,"&33"&;4"3
%7&'(3*#&'

Ë            


 3')&4%&*%53&*3346)(*)4"'(""9;43&(1((#)&(
"(4#&-&""&''4("43"'41#)((#$("(1((23"
*&#&(


 '"''#*3*+&((3*#&)&("&;4'"4#"$3&"#4"33

Ë.3. Refrigeración mixta.

Ë  Ë  


 &''#  (1((( )&( ( " "3(& 3(#*#- ' (4"2 1&($3 3"
*'*&- + " 4"# )&( ";43&- ("*# )&( #(*&'12- + 3&#3& #*%:  "
*'*3"#'3')3&('3"&(


  *)"%  "@ *&3"& 3 *&#&"# "( 4+& 4'& '#% )(28*&  "
&*)#2

Ë    


 '# 3&#3&' 3 "#' 3')3&(' + 3*' ' )&# " 142 (1((# 3"
(4#&3"4%(2-4*#3&&#%"*#'443"-'9&*&"#*?&3"
(33&(


 '#*;4<93&3'4'&-)&(&&1(("*'*1;4"(1((2
"9;43

2 Elementos de un circuito de refrigeración


V V

V
V

 V    V    V


V V  V      V
 V    V   V    V  V
V V VV VV   !  V  V "  V
V V  V #     V
 V    V     V
V #    V     V
 V $ !% ! V  V   V
V    V  V&     V
 V '      V
V V
  V $  !    V

2.Ë. Líquido refrigerante.

 Ë Ë        


 (,#("1&(*23283&'+'"'"('-;4)(&,&3'*423"'
&#(' 4"33' ;4 < 3 )&'(- &#(%4+3&  1&(*( 3)2'#&' 3 "&3&- ;4
3'*4+ " '2 3" (4#&- )433& ""(  )(&,&( (,' &%'#(4&'-
;4&((94()3&'&%("#*#&3"*&#&(

 Ë      


 P 3 ,#( " &"2 3" "9;43& ;4 &"", 4 4*#& 3 ,&"4* ;4
)43""(&'&(1'4('"(33&(&-)&(4-"%"&;4

 Ë     

<3,#()&(##&-;4"";43&(1((##(%4""2-)4'"&'4#
1&(*23%4(%47'#(&'&44*#&3")('2-;4)43&(("(&#4(3
"&' "*#&' *' 1("' 3" (4#& '*'*&  )43 3( "4( " 12*& 3 "
,#2


  1 3 3<' )33'- 3)3 3" (3& 3 &#(2 3"
(1((#

( )33#&"#-"&<&"3&*3&#""&"50/Q6

( &*&<%3&(3"&((&'2'*)""%2(8-)('##&(&4AQ-
?3:3&'#')4*#+&"&(#)(&)&(&',(%"'

( &3& ""& *$"3& 4 3'#"3  )(&)&(&' 3,(''-  142 3"
(3&3&#(2
2.2. Radiador.


 (&34 " '2 3" "&( '&%(#  " #*2'1( #43&  " )(# 3"#(-
<)'(""9;43&(1((#)&(4&'&34#&'-(&33&34(@*(&3
"#' & "*""'- (*#3&' )&( ##& " 1  " (1((2 &'
(33&(' '# 1&(*3&' )&( 3&' 3)2'#&'> " '4)(&(- )&( " ;4 ' )(&34 "
#(33""9;43&"#)(&3#3"*&#&(-+"1(&(-";4'3')&"
'"33""9;43&-+1(3&<"*&#&(


 " *#(" *' 4#"$3&  " 1%(2 3 (33&('- ' " )"'#& )( "&'
3)2'#&'- + " "4*& )( "' "#' & "*""'- '3& "&' &34#&' '*)(
*#"&' ,<94"&'3)&(#,&''4#"$"4*&#&3&''4'&*)&#')&(
'4*+&()3333')23"&(

2.3. Bomba.


 '"(33*)4"'(""9;43&(1((#"&"(&3"(4#&4#"$
"' 3 14&*#& #(914& %'3'  4 (&#&( & )"#' &3& )&( "
T?"#(,:'3"&((3'&(&'&"&((3"3'#(%42


 c E%&*%'":#(&)('9)&3('(&%(3')&("#("#3'#2
3"*&#&(-343&'4,"&33+)&(##&'443""&3&'3*(<
3",<94"&

2.4. Termostato.


 4*'2'"((")(&'&3"#*#&3"*&#&(-*)33&"(4"2
3" "9;43& (1((# < " (33&(  ,$ ;4 '# < "$3& '4
#*)(#4(314&*#&-"#(*&'##&3('%(-373&;4""9;43&
""4"(33&()('41(*#&


  3')&  " '"3 3 "9;43& 3" *&#&( < " (33&(- )( '9 &#(&"( "
)'&3"*'*& '#1&(*3&)&(4,",4"-&3)&(4)'4"(""3
4*#("*4+''%""#*)(#4(-"4""3"#('&&#(('-142
3"#*)(#4(3"(1((#-%(&(("#3,",4"


 3#(*&'##&3%'#(3)#3&"*&#&(;4,*&#3&#*)(#4(3
((3%'#(M&H/J)&(3%7&3"3)(#4(-)('9,#("'&#4'
)(#4('+((';4',(9'&*#3&)&("'&3&'3*(<
2.5. Vaso de expansión.


 *'23",'&38)'2'%'&(%("&'(*#&'3,&"4*3"";43&
(1((#-"&73&"8'&3"9;43&-43&"#*)(#4(3"*'*&'*4+
"#-+3,&",:3&"&"(4#&43&:'#'1(9


   " #4"33- )&( " ,'& 3 8)'2 ' < )'( 4 )(# 3" "9;43&
(1((#-4#"$3&'&*&3''13&(+-*4<&''&'-&*&()#3
""3&-"4%('"#)23""3&"*'*&

2.6. Ventilador.


 (3& 3 (( " &((# 3 ( ;4 )(*# " '2 3 "&( )&(
4";4(3"&'*:#&3&'8'##'

  Ë     


 ",#"3&(3')&34)&"-";4'4%4&((;4"#('*#"
*&,*#&3'3"T?"


 && 4#"$3& <&+  39- + ;4 " ,#"3&( ( '*)( ;4 " *&#&( '# 
*(<-%'&(%3&)&#3"*&#&(&'##*#

       


 ' &&3& &*& "#(&,#"3&(- " ,#"3&( ' &3& )&( 4 *&#&(
":#(& 3 &((# &#4- ;4 4#"$ " (9 )(&3# 3 " %#(9 4
&*#& '# &%(3& )&( " #(*&&##& " 4" "& & 43& '
"$4#*)(#4(3#(*3


   " #4"33- ' #3  *&#( 3&' "#(&,#"3&(' 3 &*#&
31(3&- &#3&' )(*(& 4& 3 ""&'- +- 3 '4( '33& "
#*)(#4(- #(  &#42  14&*#& " '43&  "&' *&3"&' 3
@"#* (2- ' 3')& 4 "#(&,#"3&( 3 ,"&33 ,(%"- &%(3&
)&("#("#3'#23"*&#&(


 '"''#**'*)"3&+;4)'%'&(%)&#3"*&#&(


 "31#&3;4'&19'414&*#&"#(*&&##&

        


 " ,#"3&( )&' 4 &*#& '*"( " 3(#&- *3# &((- )(& &"
)(#4"(333#("(4*%(4,'&'&-%'3'"&'

 4 14&*#& '# %'3&  " ''%"33 3 " '"&  " #*)(#4(- "
4" #3  '&"31(' + #4( &*& #('*'&( 3 *&,*#&- 43& :'#
4*#


 '#''#*&1():(33'3)&#(3')&("(('#(3",#"3&(


 '*4+4'3&#4('*&'3"'"#+,<94"&'#&3&F#((&-)&(""#&(3&3
1%"33;4&1(

      


 *%(43(('#(-3&*#&"#(&*:#&


 3')&4'%&%'-;4"'(#(,'3')&("&((#-(4*)&
*:#&-;4)(&,&"&*#&3"*%(4


  "*#2 ' &#(&"3 )&( 4 #(*&&##&- '*"( " *)"3&  "
&*#&3""#(&,#"3&(

2.7. Termocontacto.


 ' 4 #((4)#&( ":#(&- &3&  142 3 " #*)(#4( 3" "9;43&
(1((#- & " ;4 '#  &##&- " 4" &%( " &*#& 3"
"#(&,#"3&(


  4#"$ 4 *#(" *4+ ''%"  " #*)(#4(- ("*# 4 "*
%*#"- " 4"- " 3"#( )&( 1#& 3 " *'*- (( " #3& #((4)#&(-
74#3&"&'&##&'3"*'*&


 c E " #("# 3 '#2 3" *&#&( '( " ;4 &%( " "#(&,#"3&(
*&313&'4,"&33-")"(3,('&')(*#(&'3#(3)('4)4'#
14&*#&

2.8. aanguitos y purgadores.


 &' *4#&' '& "&' &34#&' 8#(&('-  #(,:' 3 "&' 4"' " "9;43& '
3')"$34"*#&&#(&


 &'#(4+("*#%'34<&5"'#336-#(&(&'##43)&(4
#($3&%'3+"&5(&%4'#$6


 #(&''&'"*+&()(#3"*4#&'(93-&'#(4+:3&'%'3
&
"4*&- '3& 1"8%"  "&' 8#(*&'- )( "&' 4"' ' ,4",  (4((( "
4<&

 &')4(3&('-'3')&)(,4(")&'%"(8'##"(4#&


 4%"&')4#&'3*+&("#4(3"(4#&

2.9. Radiador de la calefacción


 '#1&(*3&)&(4(33&((&((3&)&(""9;43&(1((#-"4""3)(#
3'4"&(


  3&'12 3" "&( " <%#4"&- ' &%( *3# 4 '( 3 #(*)""'
'#43'"&'&34#&'-"'4"''&&%(3''4,$)&("&34#&(3'3
" <%#4"&- % *4"*#- %  #(,:' 3 4 "*#$3&( 3 '#2
"#(2

3 Elementos adicionales al sistema de refrigeración

3.Ë. Termosumergido.


 &#7 3 4' (''#' ":#('- 3')4'#'  " #(&( 3" (4#& 3
(1((2- "' 4"'- "( " "#*#& 3" "9;43& (1((# )(
&'4("#*)(#4(2)#*314&*#&*'()3*#


 <'(''#'(%"&*%( 3 #(*&'4*(3&' + '& "*#3' )&("
#("# 3 '#2 3" *&#&(  142- '&%( #&3&- 3 " #*)(#4( 3"
(1((#

3.2. Intercambiador agua ± aceite.


 (73&34#&'1&(*3'()#9


 4 *'2 ' #('*#( "&( " "4%(# 34(# " )(&3& 3 "#*#& 3"
*&#&( + %'&(%:3&"& 3" *'*&- 43& " #*)(#4( ' '4)(&(  " 3"
(1((#

3.3. Calefactores de admisión. 


 &34#&' ;4 < (4"( 4 )(# 3" (1((#- )&( " %' 3" &"#&( 3
3*'2 & " %' 3" (%4(3&(- )( '9 "#( 3<&' "*#&' + ,#(
)(&%"*' 3 &3'2 3 &*%4'#%"  '4' )(3' & ""& ' *7&( "
,)&($23"'&"


 &( " &#((&-  "&' ''#*' &**&F("- " &*%4'#%" < 3 '( (1((3&-
33'"'"#')('&';4'&)&(#-)&("&;4'3')&3')3&('3"&(
3.4. Refrigeradores de combustible.


  "&' ''#*' 3 "*#2 *)"3&'  "&' *&#&(' '"- #"' &*& "
&**&F("&"+#&(%&*%-33'"'",3')('&';4','&*#3&
" &*%4'#%"- )(28*'  "4&' '&'  "&' ./// %('- " #*)(#4( 3"
&*%4'#%" & '&"& ' , 4*#3 '& ;4 '# '&*#3 (3' ,(&'
3%3&"'"#')('&'


 <' ,(&' 3 #*)(#4( 1"4+ 3',*#  " 3&'12- )&(
4#&',"#(3"3'333"'&"

&( &#( )(#- " (*#& 3 #*)(#4( 3" &*%4'#%" & '2"& #
&'4' #,'  " 3&'12- + ;4 #*%: (*# )"(&'*# "
#*)(#4(3"3)2'#&-4'3"(#&(&3"'&%(#<"*'*& '#'&#(& 3
"&' *&#,&' ;4 74'#1 " )(' 3" (1((3&( 3 &*%4'#%"- 4 '*)"
#(*%3&(3"&(

K Desarrollos en los motores stirling

43&<%"*&'3*&#&(#("-'#*&'&*#3&4((&(('(&((#&'
3%(9*&'<%"(3;4'3"&3#("-+;4"*+&(93'#'*;4'&
'&"& )43 #(%7( &*& *&#&( #( 3&' 1&&'  3'## #*)(#4(- '& ;4 #*%:
&*&%&*%3"&(#('1(3&"&(3"1&&1(9&""#3*;4'#'*)(
3'?3)(&%#("*+&((3*#&)&'%")(;4""142)(";4'32-
)&( "& 4" & '*)( ' )&'%" 4#"$( 4 *;4 #(" 3'?3 &*& *&#&( )(
(1((24#"$23""&3#(")((1((2'4)&'%"33*'
)&3(9 3'?( *;4' ;4 14&(  *%&' '#3&' )( "*#$( ,,3' &
"&"'- #43& &*& 4 %&*% 3 "&(  ,(& + &*& ( &3&3& 
,(& c'4"# 4(&'& ;4 4& 3 "&' 4'&' & *+&( &''# &*(" <+ '3&
)('*#  (1((2 (&:- 4 43& ' 3'?( "*# &*&
*;4)()(&34(#(%7&


 " "& 3 #(" #4"*# & ' &*)##,& & "&' "&' <%#4"' 
(1((2-'*%(&43&"8'3#*)(#4('&%#(3'3)&(
3%7& 3 "&' B/J %7& (& 5.AAJC6 )(&8*3*#- #&' # 4 ,%"33
3*&'#(3&*("*#


 "&'?&'M/<")'3'((&""&4(1((3&(%'3&""&3#(")("
)(&342 3 ( ;43& " && 3 (&: 3 <")' ' 3'((&""& <'# ;4 '
3)3$2 3 " ' *#($  " ?& H00/- &'##4+:3&' &*& " *)(' #("
(+&'Uc1((#&
-(33P&"3
K En el campo dom stico

" *)& 3 " (1((2 3&*'# '# "*#3& )()"*#  (1((3&(' +
&"3&(''(&'

'433'3&*'#'("*#'&3#*?&);4?&#:3&')33'3
)&#;41"4#@#(HS./+HS.<)+'&3"#)&3'""3&<(*:#&

K En el campo comercial.

 (1((2 &*(" ' (1( " 3'?&- '#"2 + *#*#& 3 433' 3
(1((23"#)&;4'#'#%"*#&'&*("'-('#4(#'-<&#"'
'##4&' ;4 ' 33 " "**#& & 3'#(%42 3 (#94"&' 3 &*(&
)4#('%"'3#&3&'#)&'


CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS FÁBRICAS DE HIELO



 @1&(*'""3"'1("'31(#'1%('3<"&'3'(%3&"
#)&3<"&;4)(&34>#*&'-)4'-"<"&%"&;4'-'*'-)"'&
#4%&'- " <"& 143#- # #( '4% "'12 )43 %'('  " <<& 3 ;4
)(&34$ <"& '& '4% 1(3& & <"& <@*3& &( "& ("- " )(*(& ' )(&34
*3# 4 )(&'& 3 3')(3*#& *& 3" <"& 3 4 '4)(1 3
1(*#&

'#&3'"'1%('3<"&'*''&7*)"&'3'##)&&(&#()(#-
" <"& <@*3& ' 1%( &(*"*# & *;4' ;4 *)" 4 )(&3*#& 3
3''(<3&)(3')(3("<"& "3''(<3&3((#)("*#"<"&;4
'#  &##& & " '4)(1 3 1(*#& +-  *&' ;4 " #*)(#4( ' <+
(343& %'## )&( 3%7& 3 /V 5& '- ;4 " <"& ' '4% 1(96- "' '4)(1'
)(*<@*3'>"&'''#*'3<"&#4%&'+)"''&7*)"&'3'##)&


  "4' *;4'- " <"& ' 1&(* + 8#( " *'*& #*)&- )(&34:3&' "&
;4 ' 3&*  ,' <"& 143#- )&(;4 &# *4< *' 4 & &"3
;4&#('1&(*'3<"&<@*3&8#(93'*3#")(&3*#&33'&"2


TIPOS DE aÁQUINAS DE HACER HIELO.

Hielo en bloques.


  *;4 3 <"&  %"&;4' #(3&" 1%( " <"&  *&"3' ;4 '
'4*(  4 #;4 & '"*4( 3 "&(4(& '23& & "&  (4"2 '
3*'&'3"&'*&"3'+"#*)(#4(3"'"*4(''"&<%#4"*#3
*( ;4 " )(9&3& 3 &"2 34(#( L + .B <&('  &"23*'3&
()3)(&34<"&;4%(3$&

")'&3"%"&;4)43&'"(#(H.+HM/O-&(("&"''33'>'
&'3( ;4 " %"&;4 3 HM/ O ' " *+&( ;4 4 <&*%( )43 *)4"(
343*#4#&*'(4'&'"%"&;43<"&-##&*'"(&'("#*)&
3&"2&'%"&;4'3*&'3HM/**3')'&('(&*)&1"33-+'
)(1(%" 4 ')'&( 3 HM/  HI/ ** )( ,#( ;4 ' ;4%( " #*?& ;4 <3
#("#;44(3("2&")(&3423((@(&3#",#41"3
*&"3'+"&'#(')&(#4#;433'&"2'#43&48#(*&3"#;43
&"2- 3&3 "&' '4*(  4 )( ;4 " <"& ' 3')(3 &' *&"3' '
,&"# )( ;4 '" "&' %"&;4'- ' "" 4,*# 3 4 34" + ' ,4", 
&"&("#;43'"*4()(44,&"&5H6 '##)&3)"#'4"8(
4 #2 &#4- )&( "& ;4 ' #(%7 & 4 ''#* 3 #4(&'> 4 )"# 3 H//
#S39 '# &(*"*# #( H/ + HM #(%73&(' ' 1%(' 3 <"&  %"&;4'
(;4(%43#')&+*&3&%()(*)4"("<"& '#@"#*&1#&( <
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Figura Ë.

aquina de hacer hielo en bloques.

Hielo en bloques de fabricación rpida.


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Figura 2.

aquina de hacer hielo en escama

Hielo en tubos.


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Figura 3.

aquina de hacer hielo en tubos.

Hielo en placas.

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3')(3 <3& (4"( 4 )&( " &#( ( )( 3' '(<("& #(&' ''#*'
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Figura 4.

aquina de hacer hielo en placas.

Hielo fundente.

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Otras mquinas de hacer hielo.

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SISTEaAS DE REFRIGERACIÓN DE LAS PLANTAS DE HIELO.



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CAPACIDAD DE LAS FÁBRICAS DE HIELO.



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Fabricación de hielo con agua de mar.


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Equipos de fabricación de hielo con energía solar.


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REFRIGERANTE

'4";4(4()&&'4'#;4#@&*&#31(*#&%'&(%3&
"&(3&#(&4()&&'4'#

&(')#&""&  ! "(1((#'"1"43&3#(%7&3""&


" 4" "#(#,*# ' ,)&($ + ' &3' %'&(%3& + 33& "&(-
(')#,*#

( ;4 4 (1((# ' )(&)3& + ' " )43 4'(  " "& #'
*&3&- 3% )&'( (#' )(&)33' 19''- ;49*' + #(*&3*' ;4 "&
<'4(&34(#'44'&
& 8'# 4 (1((# 3"   ;4 )43 '( 4,('"*# 3)#%"  #&3'
"' )"&' #&'- 4 (1((# ' )(&8*( " 3" - '&"&  ##& ;4 '4'
)(&)33''#'1"'&3&'+'33'3")"2)(";4,'(
4#"$3&

Propiedades

(#(4'&)(&)3&&*&(1((#-'%4';4"&'1"43&'4*)"&"
*+&(93"''4#'(#(9'#'E

Baja temperatura de ebulliciónï  )4#& 3 %4""2 )&( 3%7& 3 " #*)(#4(
*%#-)('2#*&'1:(5 ,)&(3&(6

Fcilmente manejable en estado líquido: " )4#& 3 %4""2 3% '( &#(&"%" &
1"333*&3&;4'4)333%'&(%("&('&#(&"%"#*%:

Alto calor latente de vaporización: 4#& *+&( ' " "&( "## 3 ,)&($2-
*+&('(""&(%'&(%3&)&(O"&(*&3(1((#(4"2

No inflamable, no explosivo, no tóxico. Químicamente estableE 13#&"((?&'3


()#3&'*%&'3'#3&

No corrosivo: ('4((;4"&'#(423"''#*)434'('*#("'
&*4'+""(,33#&3&'"&'&*)&#'

aoderadas presiones de trabajo: "' ",3' )('&' 3 &3'2 5*+&(  .MF
.LOS*6 (;4( 4 ;4)& 8#( )'3&  &)(2  ,9& 5*&(  /OS *6
#(&34")&'%"333)#(23("''#*

Fcil detección y localización de p rdidasE ' ):(33' )(&34 " 3'*42 3"
(1((#+"&#*23"''#*

Inocuo para los aceites lubricantesE 23"(1((#"&'#'"4%(#'&


3%"#(("23"4%(2

Bajo punto de congelación: #*)(#4(3&"2#;4'#(*4+)&(3%7&


34";4(#*)(#4("4")43&)((",)&(3&(

Alta temperatura crítica: ,)&(;4&'&3'#*)(#4(*+&(;4'4,"&(


(9#&- ' *)&(#( 4" ",3 ' " )('2  *+&(9 3 "&' (1((#' )&'
(9#''4)(&('"&'0AV
aoderado volumen específico de vapor: ((34("*9*&"#*?&3"&*)('&(

Bajo costo:  1 3 *#( " )(& 3" ;4)& 3#(& 3 "& ($&%" + '4(( "
'(,&343&43&''(&

P(*&'<):"'*'*)&(##')("'"23"(1((#343&
)( " )"2 3 ;4 ' #(# + " ;4)& 3')&%" &3&' "&' (1((#' '
3#1*3#4@*(&("*#(&

Las propiedades ms importantes del refrigerante que influyen en su capacidad y


eficiencia son:

K ""&("##3 ,)&(2
K ("23&*)('2
K ""&(')91&3"(1((###&'#3&"9;43&&*&3,)&(

8)#&)(''#*'*4+);4?&'-'3'%"#(4,"&("#&3"&("##
)(;4'*9*&")'&3"(1((#(4"3&)&(4333)3343&'
#4,"&("#&3""&("##+4,&"4*')91&%7&"&323,)&(-'
#3( 4 ( 4*#&  " )33 + 1 3" &*)('&(- "& ;4 3'*4+ "
&'4*& 3 )&# ! )(*# " 4'& 3 4 ;4)& );4?& + *' &*)#&  "&'
''#*' );4?&'- ' " ,"&( 3" "&("## 3" (1((# ' *4+ "#&- " #33 3
(1((#(4"2'('41#&*&)(#(4&#(&"8#&3""9;43&

' *7&(#(4"&(')91&%7&""9;43&+4,"&("#&",)&(##&
;4*%&'#34*#("1#&(1((#)&(4333)'&-")(*(&'"&(
4*#3& " 1#& 3 '4% 1(*#& + " @"#*& 3'*4+3& " 1#& 3
'&%("#*#& 43& ' 4*)" '#' &3&'  4 1"43& '*)"- ' "&((
*7&(("13"*%3&(3"&("9;43&F'42

& ("&' 3 &*)('2 %7' ' #3( 4 &'4*& *&( 3 )&# + "#
1,&"4*:#(-'3&'#&@"#*&*'*)&(##''#*');4?&'+;4'#&
)(*#(4'(&*)('&(');4?&'

& 4 &1# 3 &34# "#&- )43 *7&((' "' ("&' 3
#('1( 3 "&(- '&%( #&3&  '& 3 1(*#& 3 "9;43&' + 3 '# 1&(* '
)43 (34( " #*?& + " &'#& 3" ;4)& 3 #('1(  ("2 )('2F
#*)(#4( 3" (1((# 3% '( #" ;4 " )('2  " ,)&(3&( '*)( '#: )&(
((% 3 " #*&'1:(  " '& 3 #( 4 14  " "3& 3 *&( )('2 3"
''#*-'")('2'*&("#*&'1:(-'#(&34(4&'3(%"#333
( + <4*33  " ''#*- *#(' ;4 ' " )('2 ,)&($# ' *+&(  "
#*&'1:(- ' **$ " )&'%"33 3 #(&342 3 ( + <4*33 " ''#* "
#('414

 )('2 &3'# 3% '( ($&%"*# %7- + ;4 '#& )(*# 4'(
*#("'3)'&"(&"&'#(423";4)&)(&3'2-(34:3&''9
"#*?&+"&'#&

RELACIONES REFRIGERANTE -ACEITE

",&4')&'8)&'-"#'(&)(""4%(23"&*)('&(
' " &#3& 3" (#( 3" T?" 3" &*)('&( ;4 ' 3&3'# '47#& " &##&
&"(1((#

" 3283& 3 $41( + "&' <"&(%4(&' (&  (#& (3& & " #
"4%(#-("*#"(2'"(%7&&3&'3&)(2&(*"'

43&<+&#*#'"''#*#"'&*&(+<4*33-4#33
)(%"- ' 3'((&"" (&' ;49*' ,&"4(3&  "&' &#*#' + ##& "
(1((# &*& " # (1((# &*& " # "4%(# )43 #(( 
3'&*)&'2- 1&(*3&' 3&' &((&',&' + '3*#&'  '4)(1' 3 &%( +S&
&((&'2 "(  '4)(1' *#"' )4"3' ' #*)(#4(' "#'  "' 3'('-
)&("&(""('#&')(&'&'

&("#4("$3#*)(#4("#"3'(3"(1((#..-"3?&
"#"4%(#)(&34";4';4*"*&#&(-&'##4+'#&4)(&%"*'(&
"'433'*&#&(F&*)('&(;44#"$'#(1((#-'&%(#&3&43&'"'4#"$
&3'3&('1(3&'&(+&#4%(9'3'42(3'

"&'''#*';44'(1((#'<"&(%4(&'-'*4+&*@;4,(')(#'
3" &*)('&( ' 4#( &%($3'  4' 8# 3" &%($3& & < '3&
3#(*3  1&(* 31#,- )(& ' # (3' ,3' ;4 "&' 1#&(' ;4
&#(%4+'&'&"<4*33+")&%("333"#"4%(#

')"'3&%(&'*)""&'''#*'3*&9&

'3',#7'#'&*%(3'')&3((34("*9*&&"*('*3#
" 4'& 3 #' "4%(#' 3 "# "33 ;4 # )4#&' *4+ %7&' 3 1"43$ &
&"2  +S& 3 )()#2 - *#3& " ''#* ("#,*# "%( 3
&#*&'- #"' &*& ( + <4*33 + 3'?3& " ''#* 3 #" 1&(* ;4 "'
#*)(#4('"'3'(''("#,*#%7'

Refrigerantes del grupo Ë:

&"&'3#&8331"*%"333')(%"' ""&'-"&'(1((#'HH-HHA
+HHB'*)"&*)('&('#(914&'&'(1((#'H.-..-M//+M/.'4'
&(*"*#&*)('&('"#(#,&'+"&'#(914&'3",3)33

Refrigerantes del grupo 2:

&"&'#28&'&1"*%"'-&*%'&'' "(4)&"4+"*&9&-"&(4(&
3#"&-"&(4(&3*#"&+ 283&3$41(-)(&'&"&"*&9&5(FIHI6'4#"$@
(#&(3&

Refrigerantes del grupo 3:

'#&' (1((#' '& *4+ 1"*%"' + 8)"&',&'  4' 3 '4 %7& &'#& '
4#"$ 3&3 " )"(& '# '*)( )('# + '4 4'& & ( &#(& )"(&- &*& )&(
7*)"&-"')"#')#(&;49*'+"'(1(9'3)#(2"&

"(4)&"4+"4#&-(&)&-'&%4#&- #&- #"&-(&)"&+#&

'#&'(1((#'3%#(%7()('&'*+&(';4"#*&'1:()(,#(
;44*#")"(&38)"&'2')('&'*+&(';4"'#*&'1:('*)3"
)#(2 3 ( )&( ):(33' )&(;4 ' " *$" (F(1((# " ;4 ('4"#
)&#"*#)"(&'

DIFERENTES TIPOS DE REFRIGERANTES (CARACTERÍSTICAS

Amoníaco

4;4 " *&9& ' #28&- "& 1"*%" + 8)"&',& %7& (#' &3&'-
'4'8"#')(&)33'#:(*'"&<'(4(1((#3")(1%('3<"&-
)((3'"*'31(*#&-#-3&3'4#&"&''(,&'3)('&"
8)(*#3&+3&3'4#4("$#28'3)&&'4

" *&9& ' " (1((# ;4 # *' "#& 1#& (1((# )&( 433 3
)'&
" )4#& 3 %4""2 3" *&9& %7& " )('2 #*&'1:( '#3( ' 3 F
.-..V- "' )('&'  " ,)&(3&( + " &3'3&(  "' &3&' 3 #&"3
'#3( ' 3 HMV + A/V '& AB-.I "%(' )&( )4"3 43(3 + HK0-. "%(' )&(
)4"3 43(3- (')#,*#- )43 4'(' *#("' 3 )'& "(&  "
&'#(42 3" ;4)& (1((#  #*)(#4( 3%#  " 3'( '
("#,*#"#-'3&30L-L0V)("'&3&'3#&"3'#3(-)&("&4"
' 343& #( 1(*#&  " 4 ##&  " %$" &*&  " "3(& 3"
&*)('&(  " )(' 3 " <4*33 " *&9& ' ,4", &((&',& )( "&'
*#("'&1((&'&'

"*&9&&'*'%"&"#+)&("&*'*&&'3"4+&"#3"
(#( 3" T?" 3" &*)('&( %( 4'(' 4 ')(3&( 3 #  " #4%& 3
3'(3"&'''#*'3*&9& "*&9&'1"3&'4(+'"*'%(#&
3"&'(1((#'

4 '#%"33 ;49*- 133 )&( " 4+ &F*'%"33 &" #- < "
*&9&4(1((#3")('(4'3&''#*' *4+(3'3&3"#&833
&'41#&(*)&(##

Refrigerante 22

&&3& & " &*%( 3(2 ..- ' *)"  ''#*' 3 ( &3&3&
3&*:'#&'+''#*'3(1((2&*("'34'#("'"4+3&E*('3
&'(,2  '#"&' )( " )(&'3& 3 "*#&'E (1((2 + (
&3&3&%&(3&331(#'#(')&(#'>%&*%'3"&()("#((+4

 )43 4#"$(  &*)('&(' 3 )'#2- #(914& + 3 #&(""& "(1((# ..
5P6#4)4#&3%4""2")('2#*&'1:(3B/-LV

' #*)(#4('  " ,)&(3&( '& # %7' &*& LIV c'4"# 4 (
,#7""&(("#,*#);4?&3"3')"$*#&3"&*)('&(

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'&%("#3 " '42 3% &'(,('  '4 ,"&( *9*&- '&%( #&3& 43& '
4'433'<(*:#'*&#&(F&*)('&( )"&'3#*)(#4(%7-3&3"'
("&'3&*)('2"#'-'(&*3#(1(*#&&4"%$"+
"&' "3(&' 3" &*)('&( &' &3'3&(' 1(3&' )&( ( *)"3&' & "
(1((#..-3%'(3#*?&(&'&

4;4 " (1((# .. ' *'%" & #  " '2 3 &3'2 
*43& '4" ')(('" 3" #  " ,)&(3&( & ' < #3& 314"#3' "
(#&(&3#3')4:'3",)&(3&(43&'#"3'?&343&3"'()#9
3" ,)&(3&( + 3 " #4%(9 3 '42 3& 4 1"4&((%4(&- " (1((# .. ' 4
(1((#'4(&

 &*("$  "3(&'(#&(%"'5 6 3 MK-I C- "3(&' 3'<%"'3


..-KLO-"3(&'3'<%"'3HA-KHO+7'3H."#'3M-H/O34

Refrigerante Ë23

' 4 '4'##4#& ,%" )( " 1(2 HH &*& (1((# ' )(&)33'
#(*&3*' + 19'' 3" (1((# H.A  &74#& & '4'   (#(9'#' 3 &F
1"*%"33"&&,(#4(*)"$&1#3"(2HH<""('#(914&'

"(1((#H.A143'?3&)(#(%7(;4)&'4,&'8'##'43&
' &'3( 4 (&3&*#& )( (1((# H.A 3 4 ;4)& 8'##- 3%
&'3((' " "& 3 ,3 @#" 3" ;4)&- " 31( 3 &'#& 3 &)(2 +
*#*#&+"&'#&3(&3&*#&

&' ;4)&' 4,&' ;4 < '3& 3'?3&' )( #(%7( & " (1((# H.A
#*&(&'#&3&)(2&*)(3&"&';4)&'8'##'

%3&;4#4&"&(#",;4&')433##()&(*3&3"&"1#&'
'( 4 ,(12 1(4# 3 14' + " '#"2 3 3##&(' 3 14' )&(
('((3'4#"$3')&(")('&"&*("$#*%&('3.LA-MO-#*%&('
30/-I.O+#*%&('3BM-AKO4&*)&'2)'&'3H//QPFH.A

c1((#HABF "(1((#*(4,HAB-<'3&#(&343&)&( 4&#-


&*& (*)"$& 3 "&(&1"4&(&(%&&' 56  *4<' )"&'  )(&342 3
'(*)"$3)&("<3(&1"4&(4(%&&PFHABW

'# (1((# & &# "&(& + )43 '( 4'3&  *4<' )"&' ;4
#4"*# 4' FH.  *%(&  "4' &'&' ' (;4( *%&'  "
3'?&3";4)&)(&)#*$("3'*)?&3"4,HABW'#')"&'

' )(&)33' #(*&3*' + 19'' 3" 4, HABW + '4 %7 #&833 "&
&,(#4(*)"$&'4(&+*4+1#3"FH.*4<&''*#&'3"
(1((2 34'#(" *' &#%"*#  " ( &3&3& 4#&*&#($- ;4)&'
3&*:'#&'-;4)&'#&(&);4?&-;4)&3'4)(*(3&3*3#*)(#4(+
<""('-34'#("'+&*("' "4,HAB<*&'#(3&;4'&*%4'#%")('&'
# %7' &*& M-M )'  HIIV 43& ' *$" & (  &#(&'
("*# *+&(' " K/Q  ,&"4* 3 (  %7' #*)(#4(' ' (;4(
*+&(' )('&'   )( " &*%4'#%"33 & 3% '( *$"3&' & " ( )(
)(4%' 3 14  (" & ' 3% )(*#( ;4 '#: )('#' & "#'
&#(&' 3 ( ((% 3 " )('2 #*&'1:(  &*("$  "3(&'
(#&(%"' 5 6 3 MK-IO- "3(&' 3'<%"' 3 HA-KHO- + 7' 3 H. "#' 3
A-B/LO34*)(#4(3",)&(3&(FIVIV4&*)&'2)'&'3
H//QPFHABW

Refrigerante 407c/4Ë0 a

4&# "&' &*("$ & " &*%( 3 4, 0H// (')#,*# c*)"$ "
PF..  " ( &3&3& 3&*:'#&  )"&'  " "#*#& 3
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3"PF.."(&3&3& "4,0H//'(,'&"&)(;4)&'4,&'+'4
(*)"$& 3" (2 .. 3 *+&( )33  &*("$  "3(&' 3'<%"' 3
K-LO +  7' 3 H. "#' 3 A-B/LO 3 4 4 &*)&'2  )'& ' 3 K/Q
PF..-.AQPFHM.W+.IQPFH.B

Refrigerante 40Ë

&*("$3& )&( 4&# & " &*%( 3 4, A0 "4' )"&' 3
'#(1((#'&(1((3&('3&*:'#&'-&"3&('-;4)&'3(1((2)(
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8)33&('3%%3'

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MK-IO- "3(&' 3'<%"' 3 K-LO + 7' 3 H. "#' 3 A-B/LO 3 4 4
&*)&'2)'&'3K/QPF..-HAQPFHM.W+.IQPFH.B

Refrigerante 40Ë-b

&*("$3& )&( 4&# & " &*%( 3 4, KK- )(&, )33'
&*)(%"'"FH.''#*';4&)(#*)(#4(3,)&(23%7&3"&'
F.AV 5FH/V6- <:3&"& 343& )( " 4'&  ;4)&' 3 #(')&(# (1((3& + 
&"3&(' 3&*:'#&' + &*("' *%: )43 '( 4#"$3& )( (*)"$( 
;4)&';44'cFM//&*("$"3(&'(#&(%"'563IIHO-"3(&'
(#&(%"' 3 MK-IO + "3(&' 3'<%"' 3 HA-KHO 4' &*)&'2  )'&'3
K/QPF..-HAQPFHM.W+.IQPFH.B
Refrigerante 402

&*("$3& )&( 4&# & " &*%( 3 4, PL/- (*)"$ " cFM/. 
''#*'3*3+%7#*)(#4()"&'*4+,(3'"34'#(3"
(1((2 ' 4'3& *)"*#  )"&' 3 '4)(*(3&'- "**#& +
#(')&(#3"*#&'''#*'3'33#*)(#4( 1(%4)33+
1''41(("&'(*#&'3)('2+#*)(#4("3'(3"&*)('&(-
"& 4" ' '43 43& 4 ;4)& ' &,(#3& PF..  &*("$  "3(&'
(#&(%"'5 63B0-0O+"3(&'3'<%"'3HA.MO4&*)&'2)'&
'3K/QPF..-AL-MQPFH.M+.Q3)(&)&

Refrigerante 402b

&*("$3& )&( 4&# & " &*%( 3 4, PLH- #&3&' "&' (1((#'
3'3&'P14(&3'?3&')((*)"$("cFM/.''#*'3(1((23
#*)(#4( *3 + %7 '# 3'?3& )( " (&3&*#& 3 ;4)&' &*&
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#*)(#4(' 3 3'( 3 &*)('&(  4 (& 3 HBV 5.MV6  &*("$ 
"3(&'3'<%"'3M-0O4&*)&'2)'&'3K/QPF..-ALQPFH.M
+.Q3)(&)&

Hidrocarburos directos

&'<3(&(%4(&'3(#&''&4(4)&31"43&'&*)4'#&',(')(&)&(&'
3"&'3&'"*#&'<3(2&+(%&&"4&''&"#&-#&-%4#&-#"&
'&%4#& &3&' '& 8#(*3*# 1"*%"' + 8)"&',&' 4;4 4& 3 '#&'
&*)4'#&'%'&(%<4*331&(*&'3(%"-#&3&''&8#(*3*#*'%"'
 # )( #&3' "' &3&' 4 4'& &(3(*# '# "*#3&  )"&'
')"'3&3'(;4("&''(,&'3)('&"')"$3&

Agentes secantes de refrigeradores

"*3&' #*%: 3'#'- & 1(4 ' *)"  ''#*' 3
(1((2)("*("<4*333"(1((#43'(4*#(""#&'&3
'9" 53283& 3 '"&6- "@* #, 5283& 3 "4*&6 + 3((# 5'4"1#& 3 "&
<3(&'&6 "*#(""#&'&3'9"+""@*#,-'&3'#'3"#)&3
%'&(2+#1&(*(4"(3((#'43'#3"#)&3%'&(2+'"
&'41&(*(4"(&1&(*3%((',3'