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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

“In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful”

Lab 02: Heat Convection


BMM 3531 Engineering Thermodynamics Lab

Lab Instructors

Muhamad Zuhairi Sulaiman


Idris Bin Mat Sahat
Prof. Dr. K. V. Sharma
Amir Bin Abdul Razak
Mohd Razali Bin Hanipah

Lab Location
Thermodynamics Laboratory, FKM
Lab Outcomes

By the end of the semester, student should be able to:

1. Define and explain the boundary layer concept


2. Distinguish between free and forced convective mechanisms and the non-
dimensional numbers/parameters representing them.
3. Identify equations applicable for the estimation of free/force convective heat
transfer coefficient for different geometries and flow conditions (laminar and
turbulent).
4. Apply the concept and theoretical analysis of fins (for rectangular cross-section)
5. Distinguish between the mechanism of heat flow from a single fin and a fin
array
6. Evaluate the heat transfer coefficients for different fin arrays under free and
forced convection.
Group Members Student ID Section

100
Due Date: Delivered Date:
1.0 Introduction to Convection

Convection is a mode of heat transfer which takes place between a surface and a fluid.
Convective process is accomplished by the transfer of heat from a solid (at a higher
temperature) to a fluid (at a lower temperature) adjacent to the surface. The energy
transfer by convection due to temperature difference can be due to random molecular motion
(diffusion) and macroscopic or bulk motion of fluid. Bulk flow of fluid occurs when the flow is
due to external means, such as by a fan, a pump or atmospheric winds and called as Forced
convection. The flow induced by buoyancy forces which arise from density differences caused
by temperature variations in a fluid is natural or free convection. The quantity of heat flow
by convection is evaluated using the Newton's law of cooling given by
Q  hAs T1  T2 
where the proportionality constant h is the heat transfer coefficient. The theoretical
estimation of convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained by solving the equations of
continuity, momentum and energy with the concept of boundary layer. Hence the properties
of the fluid such as thermal conductivity and viscosity play an important role in the transfer
of energy by convection.

2.0 Unit Design

Legend
A = Fan
B = Air duct
C, D , H = Temperature points (H = T1, D = T2, C = T3)
E = Anemometer point
F = Finned plate heater
G = Flat plate heater
Q = Cylindrical plate heater
I = Power regulator
J = Digital power meter
K = ON/OFF switch
L = Fan speed regulator
M = Fan ON/OFF switch
N = Digital handheld temperature probe and meter
O = Digital handheld anemometer Figure 1: Picture of the apparatus
P = Plate heater placement

Figure 2: Test section a) Vertical plate b) Finned Plate

Figure 3: Staggered arrangement of tube bundle

Figure 4: In line arrangement of tube bundle


3.0 Theory

Student need to address the following points with figs wherever necessary.

1. Define and explain the boundary layer concept


2. Distinguish between free and forced convective mechanisms and the non-dimensional
numbers/parameters representing them.
3. Identify equations applicable for the estimation of free/force convective heat transfer
coefficient for different geometries and flow conditions (laminar and turbulent).
4. Apply the concept and theoretical analysis of fins (for rectangular cross-section)
5. Distinguish between the mechanism of heat flow from a single fin and a fin array
6. Evaluate the heat transfer coefficients for different fin arrays under free and forced
convection.
Students may also explain any other term or equation relevant to convective phenomenon

4.0 Operational guidelines

1. Place the LS-17004-FFC Free and forced convection apparatus on a level table. Adjust the
adjustable levelling foot is necessary.

2. Plug the 3 pin plug to the 240VAC main power supply. Turn ON the power supply.

3. Switch ON the power supply unit (K) in front of the control panel.

4. Select the desired test specimen (i.e F, G, Q). Take the dimensions of the test specimen
from the operation manual.

5. Place the test specimen to the plate heater placement (P). Lock it with the wing nuts
provided.

6. Connect the test specimen heater cable to the heater socket which is located at the back
of the control panel.

7. Take the digital handheld temperature probe and meter, measure the initial temperature
(Ti) in the air duct by putting the temperature probe into temperature point E. (Ensure
the fan is OFF).

8. After read the temperature at point E, place the temperature probe to point D.
For free convection

9. Regulate the power supplied to 50W by turning the power regulator (I). Keep an eye on
the digital power meter (J).

10. For every five minute elapsed, measure the temperature (Ts,2) at point D and record it
into a table.

11. Continue the experiment until steady state achieved (where the temperature reading at
point D became constant).

12. Repeat the experiment at other values of input power and test specimen.

For forced convection


9. Switch ON the fan switche (M). Place the anemometer to the point E. Set the fan speed to
0.2m/s.
10. Regulate the power supplied to 100W by turning the power regulator (I). Keep an eye on
the digital power meter (J).
11. For every one minute elapsed, measure the temperature (Ts,2) at point D and record it
into a table.

12. Continue the experiment until steady state achieved (where the temperature reading at
point D became constant).
13. Repeat the experiment at other values of input power and test specimen.
14. Repeat the experiment with different type of test specimen. (Ensure the previous heat
plate is properly cooled before removing it).

Safety / Precaution
1. Do not touch the heat plate or air duct when conducting the experiment.
2. Do not touch the fan when conducting the experiment.
3. Ensure the heat plate is cooled down before remove away from the air duct.
4. Be careful when using the handheld digital anemometer. Keep it away once the air
velocity is measured.
5. Be careful when connecting the heat socket to the power source.
6. Do not attempt to change the setting of the digital power meter.
7. Ensure the fan is switched OFF when conducting the free convection experiment.
Pre-experiment procedure
1. Read the safety instruction given before conducting the experiment.
2. Read and understand the theory for free convection before lab session.
3. Prepare the accessories needed for the experiment.
Accessories
1. LS-17004-FFC Free and Forced Convection Apparatus
2. Handheld temperature probe and meter
3. Vertical plate heater
4. Cylindrical plate heater
5. Finned plate heater

5.0 Observations

Present your experimental data in the form of tables

6.0 Discussion of Results

List the results in the form of statements and numerical values. Show details of the
analysis and numerical calculation involved. Appropriate graph might be used for
results demonstration and elaboration.

7.0 Conclusions

Give your conclusions based on the experimental results

8.0 Questions

1. Briefly state and explain the error that might be occurs in the experiment?

2. Give 3 examples and briefly explain of the heat convection application including
but not limit to industrial and environment.

9.0 References

State any references used.

Acknowledgement

Thanks to the following staffs for their contributions in preparing the laboratory sheet:

i. K.V.Sharma - kvsharma@ump.edu.my
ii. Mohd Yusof Taib - myusof@ump.edu.my