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E

ste Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero (INEGEI) presenta

Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero 1990-2002


información de las emisiones de las seis fuentes y sumideros y los seis gases de efecto
invernadero incluidos en el Anexo A del Protocolo de Kioto. En esta edición se estiman
por primera vez las emisiones de los gases fluorados (halocarbonos y hexafluoruro de
azufre) de la categoría de emisión de procesos industriales y las emisiones de la categoría
de solventes, lo que lo convierte en el reporte más completo preparado a la fecha.
Este inventario se estimó en concordancia con las Directrices del Panel Intergubernamental de
Expertos sobre el Cambio Climático (PICC) en su versión revisada de 1996 y con la Orientación del
PICC sobre las Buenas Prácticas y la Gestión de la Incertidumbre en los inventarios nacionales de GEI
publicada en el 2000.
La preparación del INEGEI es un esfuerzo por cumplir con los compromisos adquiridos al firmar
(1992) y posteriormente ratificar (1993) la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio
Climático, misma que entró en vigor para nuestro país el 21 de marzo de 1994.
National Greenhouse
Gas Inventory
1990-2002
Report of Mexico

Executive Summary

Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Consulte las publicaciones


Instituto Nacional de Ecología del INE en: www.ine.gob.mx
José Luis Luege Tamargo
Secretary of the Environment and Natural Resources

Dr. Adrián Fernández Bremauntz


President of the National Institute of Ecology

Julia Martínez Fernández


Coordinator of the Climate Change Program

Luis Conde Alvarez


Head of the Department of Mitigation Methods and Studies
in the Area of the Preparation of Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Periférico Sur 5000, 5° piso, Col. Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Del. Coyoacán,


Mexico City, C.P. 04530
Tel.: 54-24-64-18 and 19, Fax: 54-24-54-85
http://www.ine.gob.mx
http://cambio_climatico.ine.gob.mx
Summary

This publication presents the National This inventory was estimated according to
Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI) for the the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
period 1990-2002. Mexico's emissions in Change, the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines,
carbon dioxide equivalents were 643,183 and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and
Gg in 2002, (with a preliminary figure of Uncertainty Management in National GHG
Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry, Inventories, published in the year 2000.
LULUCF).
The preparation of the NGHGI is an effort
The 2002 NGHGI reports on emissions of by Mexico to fulfill its commitments ac-
the 6 sources and sinks and the 6 green- quired by signing (1992) and later ratifying
house gases included in the Appendix A of (1993) the United Nations Framework Con-
the Kyoto Protocol. In this edition, fluorated vention on Climate Change, which went
gas (halocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride) into effect on March 21, 1994.
emissions are estimated for the first time in
the category of Industrial Process emis- Keywords: 2002 National Greenhouse
sions and emissions in the Solvents cate- Gas Inventory NGHGI
gory, which makes it the most complete In-
ventory prepared by Mexico to date.

The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions


from 1990 to 1998 that were reported in the
First and Second National Communication
to the United Nations Framework Conven-
tion on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were
recalculated in the present inventory, taking
into consideration more up-to-date informa-
tion than was used at that time, and apply-
ing emission factors that are more appropri-
ate for the national situation. Thus the 2002
NGHGI figures are meant to replace the
previously calculated values.

iii
Acknowledgments

The National Institute of Ecology, as the The revision and preparation of the final
government office responsible for drawing version of each section of the document
up the 2002 National Greenhouse Gas In- was enriched by the timely, objective col-
ventory, extends its deepest gratitude to the laboration of the Department of Agriculture,
organizations and individuals who contrib- Stock Raising,
uted to the preparation and revision of this Rural Development, Fisheries and Food
document. (SAGARPA), Department of Communica-
tions and Transports (SCT), Department of
The work of compiling data was facilitated Social Development (SEDESOL), Depart-
thanks to the collaboration of the Federal ment of the Economy (SE), Department of
Electrical Commission (CFE), the National Energy (SENER), and the Department of
Water Commission (CNA), the National the Environment and Natural Resources
Forestry Commission (CONAFOR), the Na- (SEMARNAT).
tional Institute of Statistics, Geography and
Computing (INEGI), Mexican Petroleum The 2002 NGHGI was prepared with the
(PEMEX), the Department of Social Devel- economic support of the United States En-
opment (SEDESOL), the Department of the vironmental Protection Agency (US-EPA),
Economy (SE), the Department of Energy and of the Global Environment Fund (GEF),
(SENER), the Department of the Environ- through the United Nations Development
ment and Natural Resources Program (UNDP), as well as with funds
(SEMARNAT), the companies Arkema, Du- from the National Institute of Ecology (INE).
Pont, and Quimobásicos, as well as of the
Mexican Automobile Association (AMIA), The National Institute of Ecology would es-
the National Chamber of Cement pecially like to thank Juan Carlos Arre-
(CANACEM), the National Chamber of In- dondo and Dick Cuatecontzi for their contri-
dustry of Transformation (CANACINTRA), butions and help in drawing up this docu-
the National Chamber of the Sugar and Al- ment.
cohol Industries (CNIAA), and the National
Auto Parts Industry (INA). We would be grateful for your valuable
comments on this document.
The emissions estimates and later inclusion
of reports on each emissions category was
possible thanks to the dedicated work of
specialists at the Center for Ecosystems
Research (CIECO-UNAM), the National
Center for Research and Technological De-
velopment (CENIDET), Southern Frontier
College (ECOSUR), School of Postgradu-
ates (COLPOS), Institute of Engineering
(UNAM), the Institute of Electrical Research
(IIE), Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP),
National Forest, Agricultural and Stock-
raising Research Institute (INIFAP) and the
National Institute of Ecology (INE).
iv
Table of Contents

Summary...................................................................................................................................... iii

Acknowledgments..................................................................................................................... iv

Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................v

List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. vi

List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... vii

Glossary..................................................................................................................................... viii

Definitions ................................................................................................................................... ix

RE.1. Executive Summary .....................................................................................................1

RE.1.1. Background of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Climate


Change ........................................................................................................................................1

RE.1.2. Summary of national tendencies with respect to emissions and sinks .....2

RE.1.3. Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends.....5
RE.1.3.1. Overview of source and sink category emission .................................................5
RE.1.3.2. Energy [1] ..................................................................................................................7
RE.1.3.3. Industrial Processes [2] .........................................................................................12
RE.1.3.4. Solvents [3]..............................................................................................................14
RE.1.3.5. Agriculture [4]..........................................................................................................15
RE.1.3.6. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry [5] (LULUCF) (Preliminary) .......16
RE.1.3.7. Waste [6]..................................................................................................................17

v
List of Tables

Table RE.1 IPCC emissions categories............................................................................... 1

Table RE.2 Global Warming Potential of greenhouse gases............................................... 2

Table RE.3 Emissions in Gg of CO2 equivalent for the period 1990-2002........................... 2

Table RE.4 Subcategories of Energy................................................................................... 7

Table RE.5 GHG emissions in the Energy category (Gg).................................................... 7

Table RE.6 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas .................................... 7

Table RE.7 Subcategories of Industrial Processes............................................................ 13

Table RE.8 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period
1990 – 2002, Gg.......................................................................................................... 14
Table RE.9 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period
1990 – 2002, Gg of CO2 equivalent............................................................................. 14

Table RE.10 MDVOC emissions by sector in the Solvents category for the period
1990-2002, Gg ............................................................................................................ 15
Table RE.11 Subcategories of Agriculture......................................................................... 15

Table RE.12 Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in the Agriculture
category, Gg of CO2 equivalent................................................................................... 16

TableRE.13 Subcategories of LULUCF ............................................................................. 16

Table RE.14 Subcategories of Waste................................................................................ 17

vi
List of Figures

Figure RE.1 Contribution by emissions category for the period 1990-2002 .........................4

Figure RE.2 Emissions by type of gas for the period 1990-2002 .........................................4

Figure RE.3 Diagram of GHG emissions for Mexico ............................................................6

Figure RE.4 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas ....................................8

Figure RE.5 Change in annual percentage of GHG emissions in the Energy category with
respect to the previous year................ ..........................................................................8

Figure RE.6 Absolute annual change in GHG emissions in the Energy category with re-
spect to 1990................................................................................................................ 9

Figure RE.7 Mexico’s energy intensity for the period 1990-2002 .......................................10

Figure RE.8 Mexico’s emissions intensity for the period 1990-2002 ..................................10

Figure RE.9 Emissions in the Energy category by type of fuel consumed in this country in
subcategories 1A1, 1A2 y 1A4. ........................................................................11

Figure RE.10 Percent of contribution by sector to GHG emissions in the Energy category
for 1990 and 2002 ........................................................................11

Figure RE.11 Percent of contribution by sector to CO2 emissions in the Industrial Proc-
esses category for 1990 and 2002 ........................................................................13

Figure RE.12 Waste emissions from 1990 to 2002 ............................................................17

vi
Glossary

QA/QC – Quality Assurance/Quality Control,


ANFACAL - Asociación Nacional de Fabri-
activities proposed to ensure quality and its
cantes de Cal, A.C.
control, consisting in the reviewing and com-
ANIQ - Asociación Nacional de la Industria parison of emission factors, methodologies and
Química [National Association of the Chemical information on the activities
Industry]
SEDESOL – Secretaría de Desarrollo Social
BIE – Banco de Información Electrónica [Bank [Department of Social Development]
of Electronic Information]
SEMARNAT – Secretaría de Medio Ambiente
CANACEM - Cámara Nacional del Cemento y Recursos Naturales [Department of the Envi-
[National Centre for Cement] ronment and Natural Resources]
CANACINTRA – Cámara Nacional de la Indus- SENER – Secretaría de Energía [Department
tria de la Trasformación [National Centre for the of Energy]
Processing Industry]
SIAVI – Sistema de Información Arancelaria
CINASA - Compañía Nacional de Abrasivos, Vía Internet [System of Tariff Information
S.A. de C.V. Via Internet]
CFE – Comisión Federal de Electricidad UNFCCC – United Nations Framework Con-
[Federal Electrical Commission] vention on Climatic Change
CICC – Comisión Intersecretarial de Cambio USGS – United States Geological Survey
Climático [Interdepartmental Commission on
USW – Urban solid waste
Climate Change]
CNA – Comisión Nacional del Agua [National
Water Commission]
CONAFOR – Comisión Nacional Forestal
[National Forestry Commission]
COREMI - Consejo de Recursos Minerales
[Mineral Resources Council]
GDP – Gross Domestic Product
GHG – Greenhouse gas
HL – hectolitres (100 litres)
IMC - Industrial Minera Comercial, S.A. de C.V.
INEGI – Instituto Nacional de Estadística,
Geografía e Informática [National Statistics,
Geography and Computing Institute]
IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change
MMTCE – Millions of metric tons of carbon
equivalent
NMVOC –Non-methane volatile organic com-
pound

viii
Definitions

Activity Data – Numerical value or magnitude take into consideration the radiative efficiency
of a socioeconomic activity (production, con- of each gas as well as its decay rate in the at-
sumption, processing, etc.) with which a possi- mosphere.
ble greenhouse gas emission is associated
Greenhouse Gas – This refers to any gaseous
Anthropogenic – Generated by human activi- component of the atmosphere that has the ca-
ties pacity to absorb and re-emit infrared radiation.
These gases can be classified as either natu-
Clinker – Basic component of cement rally generated or emitted as a result of human
socio-economic activities.
Decision Tree – Flow Chart proposed by the
Good Practice Guidance as a first step in deter- Hazardous wastes – Any waste in any physi-
mining the methodology to be applied in esti- cal state that, due to its corrosive, reactive, ex-
mating greenhouse gas emissions plosive, toxic, inflammable or biologically infec-
tious (CRETIB) characteristics, represents a
Emission Factor – This corresponds to the hazard to the ecological equilibrium or the at-
conversion unit for estimating emissions based mosphere. All containers, recipients, and pack-
on activity data; the emission factor is ex- aging that have been in contact with this waste
pressed in units of quantity of emissions per are included.
unit mass of the activity or source that gener-
ates greenhouse gases. Industrial Wastewater – Water that is contami-
nated through its use in industrial processes, or
Emissions Category – This refers to that in energy generation
group of sectors or economic activities (set of
emissions sources), of the same type, in which IPCC Guidelines – This refers to the manuals
some greenhouse gas is released into the at- of the Guidelines of the Intergovernmental
mosphere. According to IPCC classification, the Panel on Climatic Change, 1996 revised ver-
emissions categories are: Energy; Industrial sion, which are: the work manual, the reference
Processes; Solvents, Agriculture; Land Use, manual and the instructions for the inventory
Land-Use Change and Forestry; and Waste. report.

Emissions Source – Process or mechanism IPCC Software – Calculation program in Excel


that releases some greenhouse gas provided by the IPCC to systematize and facili-
tate the estimating of emissions for each emis-
Gg – Unit of measurement of mass equivalent sions category during the preparation of GHG
to 109 grams, used for GHG emissions. One inventories
gigagram is equal to 1000 metric tons.

Good Practice Guidance – This refers to the


manual of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance
and Uncertainty Management in the National
Greenhouse Gas Inventories published in 2002.

Global Warming Potential (GWP) - This is a


relative scale used to compare the impact on
global warming of the emission of one kilo of a
greenhouse gas compared with the emission of
a kilo of carbon dioxide. The values of the index

ix
Municipal Solid Waste – Mixed solid waste Sink – Process or mechanism that absorbs
from human activities in a home, in public and/or retains greenhouse gases
places and services, demolitions, construc-
tions, commercial and service establishments. Trona – Mineral base for obtaining sodium
carbonate by the natural process
Municipal Wastewater – Water that is con-
taminated through its use in human settle-
ments, centres of population or, in general, in
homes, businesses and urban services.

Abbreviations of chemical compounds

CO2 Carbon Dioxide


CH4 Methane
N2O Nitrous Oxide
CO Carbon Monoxide
NOx Nitrogen Oxides
NMVOC Non-methane volatile organic compound
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide
HFC Hydrofluorocarbons
PFC Perfluorocarbons
SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride
CF4 Perfluoromethane
C2F6 Perfluoroethane

x
Executive Summary

analyses or comparison with other emis-


RE.1.1 Background of the sions categories in this document.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Table RE.1 IPCC emissions categories
Inventory and Climate Change
1 Energy
The present National Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Inventory (NGHGI) comprises 1A Consumption of fossil fuels
the estimates of emissions according to 1B Fugitive methane emissions
source and sink for the period from 1990 to 2 Industrial Processes
2002.
3 Solvents
It was drawn up according to the indications 4 Agriculture
in articles 4 and 12 of the United Nations 5 Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry
Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC), and the National Communica- 6 Waste

tion Guidelines for Non-Annex I Parties of


the UNFCCC adopted in decision 17/CP.8, In accordance with IPCC Guidelines,
which indicate that Non-Annex I Parties NGHGI estimates were made using level 1
should include information of a national in- methodologies, by default, and wherever
ventory of anthropogenic emissions by possible, level 2 methodologies were used.
sources and anthropogenic absorption by Calculations were made using data for spe-
sinks of all greenhouse gases not con- cific activities in the country, gathered with
trolled by the Montreal Protocol, as far as the support of the corresponding organiza-
possible, prepared using the comparable tions in each emissions category; similarly,
methodologies promoted and approved by emissions factors were used by default, ex-
the Conference of the Parties1. cept for the subcategory of transport emis-
sions, where an emission factor was ob-
national inventory of anthropogenic emis- tained that was appropriate for national cir-
sions by sources and anthropogenic ab- cumstances.
sorption by sinks of all greenhouse gases
not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, as Estimates of anthropogenic emissions are
far as possible, prepared using the compa- reported in itemized form by gas and emis-
rable methodologies promoted and ap- sions categories. For the report on aggre-
proved by the Conference of the Parties, gated emissions, CO2 equivalent units are
there are only preliminary estimates for the given, using the global warming potentials
year 2002 for Land-Use, Land-Use Change provided by the IPCC in its Second Assess-
and Forestry [5] (LULUCF) emissions, so ment Report, based on the GHG effects
that their figures are only considered in the over a 100-year time horizon (see Table
section of the General Panorama of the Ex- RE.2).
ecutive Summary of this document; LU-
LUCF emissions are not included in the

1. UNFCCC. (2004). “UNFCCCReporting on Climate Change. User manual for the guidelines on national com-
munications from Non-Annex I Parties”. Climate Change Secretariat, Germany, p. 1.

1
Table RE.2 Global Warming Potential of greenhouse gases2

Type Chemical Formula Global Warming Potential


Carbon Dioxide CO2 1
Methane CH4 21
Nitrous Oxide N2O 310
HFC-23 CHF3 11,700
HFC-32 CH2F2 650
HFC-125 C2HF5 2,800
HFC-134 C2H2F4 1,000
HFC-134a CH2FCF3 1,300
HFC-152a C2H4F2 140
HFC-143a C2H3F3 3,800
Sulfur Hexafluoride SF6 23,900
Perfluoromethane CF4 6,500
Perfluoroethane C2F6 9,200
*Includes only those greenhouse gases whose emissions were estimated in 2002 NGHGI

RE. 1.2 Summary of national


tendencies with re-
spect to emissions
and sinks
The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions These emissions include the six main
in 2002 (without LULUCF) were 553,329 greenhouse gases contemplated by the
Gg in CO2 equivalent, which represents an Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH2, N2O, HFCs,
increase of 30% with respect to 1990. PFCs and SF6) in the four emissions cate-
gories shown in Table RE.3.

Table RE.3 Emissions in Gg CO2 equivalent for the period 1990-2002


Emissions Category 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
1 Energy 312,027.2 321,835.9 342,899.6 349,430.6 394,128.8 398,627.3 389,496.7
1A Consumption of Fossil Fuels 279,863.7 291,045.5 308,931.8 311,197.1 351,760.2 356,796.3 350,414.3
1B Fugitive Emissions 32,163.5 30,790.4 33,967.8 38,233.4 42,368.7 41,831.0 39,082.3
2 Industrial Processes 32,456.4 32,878.3 39,247.8 42,744.0 50,973.1 55,851.2 52,102.2
4 Agriculture 47,427.5 46,049.6 45,503.9 44,076.6 45,444.9 45,527.0 46,146.2
6 Waste 33,357.2 36,935.4 46,862.6 52,894.9 62,655.9 63,219.8 65,584.4
Total 425,268.2 437,699.1 474,513.8 489,146.1 553,202.8 563,225.2 553,329.4

2. Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change: Summary for Policymakers and Technical Summary
of the Working Group I Report, p. 26.

2
Although its contribution with respect to the
The greatest contribution to total emissions
total diminished by 4% during this period,
comes from the Energy category [1], which
the Energy category [1] increased its emis-
contributes an average of 72% of the total
sions by 25% between 1990 and 2002, due
emissions annually for the period between
mainly to a greater consumption of fossil
1990 and 2002; in particular, in this emis-
fuels in this country; this situation can be
sions category, the consumption of fossil
explained by the natural growth of the
fuels is the main source of GHG emissions
country's economy during those years,
in this country since it contributes an aver-
which generated an increase in energy de-
age of 64% of total emissions every year.
mand, and by the small variation in the type
The relative importance of each category of fossil fuels used in this country, both for
with respect to total emissions varied be- transport and for generating electrical
tween 1990 and 2002; towards 2002, a power. In spite of the increase in emissions,
greater participation is observed in the the lower contribution by the Energy cate-
emissions in the Waste [6] and Industrial gory to the total is explained by an improve-
Processes [2] categories, while the contri- ment in the country's energy intensity, and
bution to the total tends to fall in the Energy by the greater relative participation in the
[1] and Agriculture categories [4]. The con- categories of Waste and Industrial Proc-
tribution of fugitive emissions [1B] within the esses.
energy category remains stable, with an
With regard to the Agriculture category [4],
average of 7.4% of total emissions every
it showed a decrease of 3% to 2002 with
year.
respect to 1990, attributable to a possible
In terms of their contribution to the total stagnation in the stock-raising sector, as
(Figure RE.1), the most marked change is well as an increase in imports and a lower
shown in the category of Waste, whose national production of basic grains such as
emissions increased 97% between 1990 rice.
and 2002 as a result of the increase in the
With regard to the gases considered, the
disposal of solid waste in sanitary landfill
main GHG is CO2, which showed an in-
and because of the impetus given over the
last decade to the treatment of industrial crease of 28% with respect to 1990, due
and municipal wastewater. A large part of mainly to the consumption of fuels in the
this increase occurred between 1990 and sectors of transport and the electricity-
1996, when emissions rose by 59%; in the generating industry; followed by CH4, which
years following, from 1996 to 2002, the rate underwent a 34% increase with respect to
of growth fell and tended to become stable, 1990, with fugitive emissions from petro-
showing an annual increase of between 1 leum and natural gas, enteric fermentation,
and 4%. sanitary landfill and wastewater being those
that contributed to the emissions of this
Another significant change occurred in the gas; finally, N2O showed a 16% increase
category of Industrial Processes [2], since it with respect to 1990, with the main contri-
shows an increase of 60% in its GHG emis- bution for this gas being emissions from
sions to 2002 with respect to 1990; the in- farmlands.
crease in emissions is due to a greater use
of limestone and dolomite, mainly caused
by the growth of the construction industry
during this last decade and by a greater
production of raw materials, products and
derivatives of iron and steel.
3
Figure RE.1 Contribution by emissions category for the period 1990-2002

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

En- Industrial Processes Agriculture Waste

Figure RE.2 Emissions by type of gas for the period 1990-2002

60

50
millions of CO 2 equiv.

40

30

20

10

0
199 199 199 199 199 200 200

CO2 CH4 N2O HFCs PFCs SF

to an increase in the consumption of HFCs


Regarding HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, these in refrigeration and air conditioning equip-
have a participation of 1% in the GHG in- ment; however, PFCs showed a decrease
ventory. The potential emissions of these of 42% from 1990 to 2002 as a result of the
gases altogether have increased by a fac- decrease in aluminum production in this
tor of 16 with respect to 1992, due mainly country.
4
RE. 1.3. Overview of source RE.1.3.1. Overview of source
and sink category emission and sink category emission
estimates and trends
GHG emissions for 2002 in CO2 equivalent
In the present report, an inventory is re- units, and with preliminary figures for the
ported for the first time on the estimates of category Land Use, Land Use Change, and
emissions in the Solvents category as well Forestry (LULUCF), were estimated at
as the emissions of fluorated gases in the 643,183 Gg, taking into account the six
category of Industrial Processes. gases stated in Annex A of the Kyoto Proto-
col.
Similarly, emissions for the categories of The diagram in Figure RE.3 summarizes
Industrial Processes, Solvents and Waste the contribution by emissions category (left
were calculated for the period 1990 to side) and by gas (right side).
1998, based on new information available.
Fixed-source and area emissions were also
re-calculated, and emissions for automotive The contribution of GHG emissions in dif-
transport because there were more appro- ferent categories in terms of CO2 equivalent
priate emissions factors that took into ac- in 2002 is the following: the Energy cate-
count technological aspects considered to gory represented 61% of the emissions with
be the most representative ones for Mex- 389,497 Gg; next are the LULUCF catego-
ico. In addition, for emissions estimates in ries with 14% of the total emissions (89,854
Agriculture, emissions factors were applied Gg), Waste with 10% (65,584 Gg), Indus-
by default, corrected, and published by the trial Processes with 8% (52,102 Gg) and
IPCC in 2001. Agriculture with 7% (46,146 Gg).

This work is the result of the collaboration In particular, the sectors of the Energy cate-
between academe and the public sector, as gory, as a main source of emissions, con-
was the NGHGI presented previously. tributed in the following way: energy gen-
Unlike previous inventories, a work system eration represented 24% of the country's
was developed on this occasion that would total emissions, transport contributed with
guide and facilitate the preparation of the 18%, the consumption of fossil fuels in
NGHGI and at the same time make it possi- manufacturing and the construction industry
ble to record the experience acquired in its contributed 8%, and their consumption in
preparation. the residential, commercial and agricultural
sectors was 5%, while fugitive methane
As part of this process, a computing system emissions contributed with 6% of total
funded by tax funds was developed in emissions. On the whole, fixed-source and
2005, taking the work sheets of the IPCC area emissions (which include energy gen-
guidelines as a model, in order to facilitate eration, the manufacturing industry and
the capture of information and to resolve construction and other energy sectors, not
some problems presented with IPCC soft- counting transport) represented 37% of the
ware. total inventory.

GHG emissions by gas are the following:


480,409 Gg (74%) correspond to CO2,
145,586 Gg (23%) to CH4, 12,343 Gg (2%)
correspond to N2O, and the remaining 1%
is made up of 4,425 Gg of HFCs, 405 Gg of
PFCs and 15 Gg of SF6.

5
Figure RE.3 Diagram illustrating GHG emissions for Mexico

3. Information on Mexico based on the diagram designed by the World Resources Institute, WRI. WRI. (2005).
“Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse gases and international climate change agreements”, p. 4.

6
RE.1.3.2. Energy [1]
The Energy category is one of the main Greenhouse gas emissions expressed in
emitters of GHG in the national inventories CO2 equivalent units, in the Energy cate-
of greenhouse gases. This category is sub- gory showed an increase of 25% to 2002,
divided into consumption of fossil fuels and with respect to the base year (1990), rising
in fugitive emissions of methane. (See Ta- from 312,027 Gg to 389,497 Gg; however,
ble RE.4). their contribution to the total volume of
emissions fell by 4% over the same period
Greenhouse gas emissions expressed in (see Table RE.5).
CO2 equivalent units, in the Energy cate-
gory showed an increase of 25% to 2002, By type of gas, in 2002, CO2 contributed
with respect to the base year (1990), rising with 89%, CH4 with 10% and N2O with the
from 312,027 Gg to 389,497 Gg; however, remaining 1% of greenhouse gas emissions
their contribution to the total volume of in the Energy category (see Table RE.6
emissions fell by 4% over the same period and Figure RE.4).
(see Table RE.5).

Table RE.4 Subcategories of energy


1A1 Generation of energy
1A Consumption of fossil fuels 1A2 Manufacturing and the construction industry
1A3 Transport
1A4 Others (Commercial, residential and agricultural)
1B1 From coal mining and management
1B Fugitive methane emissions 1B2 From petroleum and natural gas activities

Table RE.5 GHG emissions in the Energy category (Gg)


Category and subcategories 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
1 Energy 312,027 321,836 342,900 349,431 394,129 398,627 389,497
1A Consumption of fossil fuels 279,864 291,045 308,932 311,197 351,760 356,796 350,414
1B Fugitive emissions of fuels 32,163 30,790 33,968 38,233 42,369 41,831 39,082

Table RE.6 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas


Gas 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
CO2 276,490 287,518 305,152 307,889 349,233 353,868 346,361
CH4 34,371 33,086 36,280 39,964 43,005 42,605 40,634
N2O 1,166 1,232 1,467 1,578 1891.20607 2,155 2,501
TOTAL 312,027 321,836 342,900 349,431 394,129 398,627 389,497

7
Figure RE.4 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas

400,000

350,000

300,000

250,000
Gg CO 2 Eq.

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

CO2 CH4 N2O

Figures RE.5 and RE.6 illustrate the annual percent change of greenhouse gas emissions
in the Energy category, and the absolute change in emissions with respect to 1990, re-
spectively.

Figure RE.5 Annual percent change in GHG emissions in the Energy category with respect to the pre-
vious year

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
10%

8% 7.45%
7.00% 6.90%

6% 5.52%
4.91%

4%
2.76%

2%
0.38%
0%
-0.42%
-0.78%
-2% -1.52%

-4% -3.59%

-5.16%
-6%

8
Figure RE.6 Absolute annual change in GHG emissions in the Energy category with respect to 1990

90,000 86,600
82,102 80,531
80,000 77,469

67,947
70,000

60,000 56,676
Gg CO 2 Eq.

50,000

40,000 37,403

30,872
30,000

20,000
13,163
8,600 9,809 8,453
10,000

0
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Greenhouse gas emissions in this category sions intensity is also affected; in that same
present an average annual growth rate of period a change takes place in the selec-
2% between 1990 and 2002, which is less tion of fossil fuels burned in the country, as
than the average annual growth rate of the shown in Figure RE.9; the change meant
GDP, which was 3.1% in the same period. an increase in emissions due to the con-
Figures RE.7 and RE.8 show the behaviour sumption of diesel, non-associated natural
of energy intensity (consumption of fossil gas and fuel oil; the intensity of emissions
fuels per unit of the gross domestic product improves from 1999 onward, this being the
at constant prices in 1993) and emissions year in which the consumption of fuel oil
intensity (greenhouse gas emissions per decreases, and the consumption of non-
consumption of fossil fuels per unit of the associated gas and diesel is established.
GDP at constant prices in 1993) for the pe-
riod from 1990 to 2002. In these graphs Within the Energy subcategories, emissions
one can observe a tendency toward im- produced in 2002 from the burning of fossil
provement in both intensities, in terms of a fuels in fixed and area sources (energy
lower consumption of fossil fuels and a generation [1A1], manufacturing and con-
smaller quantity of GHG emissions per unit struction industry [1A2], other sectors
of gross domestic product generated in this [1A4]) are equal to 61% of the emissions in
country. this category (236,028 Gg) while emissions
for the transport sector [1A3] represented
The only change in the tendency toward only 29% (114,385 Gg), and fugitive emis-
improvement of the energy intensity is ob- sions 10% (39,082 Gg).
served in the period from 1996 to 1998,
which shows a setback due to an increase
in the consumption of fossil fuels, in an at-
tempt for the economy to recover its growth
after the crisis of 1995. Related to this, the
tendency toward improvement in the emis-

9
Figure RE.7 Mexico’s energy intensity in the period 1990-2002

4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
MJ/$produced

4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Source: Own preparation using data from the National Energy Balance 2005.

Figure RE.8 Mexico’s emissions intensity for the period 1990-2002

0.28
0.28
kgGEI/peso produced

0.27
0.27
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Emissions in the subcategory of consump- Greenhouse gas emissions from the con-
tion of fossil fuels show a variation in their sumption of fossil fuels show an increase to
contribution with respect to 1990. For exam- 350,414 Gg of CO2 equivalent in 2002, 25%
ple, the contribution of the energy generat- higher than that registered for the base year
ing industry increases from 34% to 40%, 1990.
while the participation of the emissions from
manufacturing and the construction industry
and that of other sectors decreases (Figure
RE.10).

10
Figure RE.9 Emissions in the Energy category by type of fuel consumed in this country in
subcategories 1A1, 1A2 y 1A4.

period of change in
of fuel
45,00
2
Gg of CO

Die-
40,00

35,00

Liquefied
30,00
Natural

25,00

20,00

15,00 Fuel

10,00

Unassociated dry
5,00

0
199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200

Natural gas Fuel Diesel Liquefied gas Unassociated dry gas

Figure RE.10 Percentage contribution by sector to GHG emissions in the Energy category
for 1990 and 2002

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
1990 2002

Energy-generating industry Manufacturing and construction industry


Transport Other sectors
Fugitive emissions

11
In 2002, the contribution of the different Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ni-
sectors that form part of the subcategory of trous oxide (N2O), halocarbons (HFC, PFC)
consumption of fossil fuels [1A], with re- and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are the GHGs
spect to fixed and area sources, is as fol- estimated within this category. In addition,
lows: other secondary gases such as carbon
monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitro-
• 65% of the total greenhouse gas gen oxides (NOx), and non-methane vola-
emissions generated by fixed tile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are con-
sources of combustion belong to the sidered.
energy industries [1A1].
In general terms, the main gas emitted in
• 22% is generated by the sectors of the category of Industrial Processes is CO2,
manufacturing and construction in- which represented 90% of emissions in this
dustry [1A2], and category in 2002 with 47,069 Gg.. CO2
emissions increased 51% with respect to
• the remaining 14% is produced by the base year 1990 due to greater cement
the residential, commercial and farm- production, a greater use of limestone and
ing sectors [1A4]. dolomite, and to an increase in the produc-
tion of raw materials, products and deriva-
In that same year, the total emissions of
tives of steel and iron in this country.
greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalent units
from the transport sector [1A3] were Fluorated gas emissions show a substantial
114,385 Gg and are broken down in the fol- increase in the period from 1992 to 2002,
lowing way: automobile transport [1A3b] representing 1% of the total inventory when
contributed with 91%, air transport [1A3a] taken all together; this increase mainly re-
with 6%, maritime transport [1A3d] with 2%, flects a greater use of HFCs in refrigerators
and rail transport [1A3c] with the remaining and air conditioners in industry, homes and
1%. automobiles; this family of gases has re-
placed some of the chlorofluorocarbons
Fugitive methane emissions [1B] for 2002 controlled by the Montreal Protocol whose
in CO2 equivalent came to 39,082 Gg, 96% use is restricted all over the world.
of which was comprised of emissions from SF6 emissions, although they represent a
the production of petroleum and natural gas smaller portion than HFCs within the
[1B2] in this category and the remaining 4% fluorated gas emissions, increased by a
from the coal mining and management factor of five between 1990 and 2002. How-
process [1B1a]. ever, the data obtained for the estimate of
SF6 emissions show only the acquisitions of
RE.1.3.3. Industrial Proc- electrical equipment by the Federal Electri-
esses [2] cal Commission for the period 1990-2002,
but fail to take into account the equipment
The Industrial Processes category consid- that was acquired before 1990, and do not
ers the emissions generated in the produc- specify the units that are retired from the
tion and use of minerals, the production of system every year.
metals, the chemical industry, some proc-
esses such as the production of paper,
foods and drinks, and, finally, in the produc-
tion and consumption of halocarbons and
sulfur hexafluoride (see Table RE.7).

12
Table RE.7 Subcategories of Industrial Processes
2A1 Cement production
2A Mineral products 2A2 Production of calcium oxide and hydroxide
2A3 Use of limestone and dolomite
2A4 Production and use of sodium carbonate
2A5 Bituminous waterproofing
2A6 Asphalt paving
2A7 Glass
2B1 Production of ammonium
2B Chemical industry 2B2 Production of nitric acid
2B3 Production of adipic acid
2B4 Production of carbides
2B5 Others
2C1 Production of iron and steel
2C Production of metals 2C2 Production of iron alloys
2C3 Production of aluminum
2C4 Use of SF6 in aluminum and magnesium foun-
dries
2D1 Pulp and paper
2D Other industrial processes 2D2 Food and beverages
2E1 Emissions as waste or by-products
2E Production of halocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride 2E2 Fugitive emissions
2F1 Refrigeration and air conditioning equipment
2F Consumption of halocarbons and sulfur 2F2 Foams
hexafluoride 2F3 Extinguishers
2F4 Aerosols
2F5 Solvents
2F6 Electric equipment and automatic switches

Figure RE.11 Percent contribution by sector to CO2 emissions in the Industrial Processes category in
1990 and 2002

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
1990 2002

Cement Production of lime


Use of limestone and dolomite Production and use of sodium carbonate
Production of ammonia Production of carbides
Production of iron and steel Production of iron alloys
Production of aluminum

13
Table RE.8 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period 1990 – 2002, Gg
GHG 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
CO2 31,142.88 32,168.76 38,001.77 39,519.71 44,016.44 50,442.14 47,069.14
COVDM 406.92 447.12 566.96 383.80 407.61 611.94 525.27

SO2 92.05 81.74 71.56 87.02 99.32 104.28 102.70

CO 67.23 43.84 32.24 67.36 63.57 56.55 42.13

CH4 5.13 4.68 4.40 4.79 4.70 4.61 3.62

NOx 5.10 3.93 2.81 10.24 8.49 5.50 4.17

N2O 1.62 1.00 0.14 3.26 2.29 0.82 0.36

Table RE.9 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period 1990 – 2002, Gg
CO2 equivalents
GHG 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
CO2 31,142.88 32,168.76 38,001.77 39,519.71 44,016.44 50,442.14 47,069.14
CH4 107.7 98.3 92.4 100.59 98.7 96.8 76

N2O 502.2 310 43.4 1010.6 709.9 254.2 111.6

HFC - 40.4 463.6 1469.8 2770.6 4414 4425.2

PFC 701.2 257.5 642.6 638.1 642.6 635.9 405.1

SF6 2.4 3.4 3.9 5.2 6.1 8.1 15.2

Total 32,456.38 32,878.36 39,247.67 42,744.00 48,244.34 55,851.14 52,102.24

In addition, the data correspond to the adhesives, varnishes, shellacs, and other
equipment acquired for the electric distribu- chemical products. NMVOCs play an im-
tion system, but fail to include the nearly portant part in the troposphere as precur-
3,700 units acquired for the transmission sors in the formation of ozone, which is an
system, or other units for the electrical gen- indirect greenhouse gas.
eration system, since the annual break-
down for the period involved is not avail- Emissions of non-methane volatile organic
able. SF6 estimates neglect to consider the compounds (NMVOCs) generated by the
possible destruction of the gas, leaks in the use of solvents were considered for the
equipment or its reuse in other equipment, years 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000
since these data are unknown. and 2002. Since the 1996 revised IPCC
Guidelines neglect to offer an estimate
On the other hand, PFCs show a decrease methodology, the methodologies proposed
of 42% from 1990 to 2002, due mainly to in the reports of United States and three
the decrease in the production of aluminum other countries were followed.
in this country.
The total NMVOC emissions for 2002 came
RE.1.3.4. Solvents [3] to 220.5 Gg, where the main source corre-
sponds to solvents; NMVOC emissions
The Solvents category contemplates the showed an increase of 84% in 2002 with
emissions of non-methane volatile organic respect to 1990.
compounds (NMVOCs) generated in the
use of the solvents in paints, printer inks,

14
Table RE.10 NMVOC emissions by sector in the Solvents category for the period 1990-2002, Gg

Years
Product
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
Enamels 29.6 33.4 42.1 37.5 42.7 50.9 45.4
Shellacs 4.9 5.9 7.0 6.6 7.3 10.3 10.5
Water soluble paints 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.2 4.8 5.6 5.3
(mineral-free)
Varnishes 3.5 4.4 6.3 5.1 5.6 7.3 6.6
Water soluble paints (with ND ND 2.5 2.2 2.7 2.7 2.2
minerals)
Paints with solvents 6.4 7.9 13.7 13.2 17.4 21.5 17.5
Sealants 3.0 3.9 6.4 5.3 6.4 7.1 6.5
Adhesives 7.1 7.6 12.9 16.7 23.6 29.3 23.3
Waterproofing 8.9 8.7 9.2 18.3 17.8 17.1 14.1
Printer inks ND ND 10 14.7 20.4 20.2 24.7
Solvents 52.8 51.7 67.8 57.5 61.6 73.8 64.4
Total, Gg 119.4 127.1 181.4 180.3 210.3 245.8 220.5

The main emissions in 2002 in the Solvents


This category was estimated taking into ac-
category come from solvents, with 29%;
count an updating in the values of emission
enamels, with 21%; printer inks, with 11%;
factors and of activity data or census data
and adhesives, with 10%. The rest of the
for the headings included under agricultural
emissions come from chemical products
and stock-raising activities in Mexico.
such as lacquers, varnishes, waterproofing,
sealants and paints. One can observe that, for the period from
1990 to 2002, the average methane (CH4)
RE.1.3.5. Agriculture [4] emissions represent 84% of the category
and those of nitrous oxide (N2O) the re-
The Agriculture category mainly comprises maining 16% (Table RE.10). A decrease
emissions from farming (crops and soil can also be appreciated in emissions in this
management) and stock-raising activities sector from 47,427 to 46,146 Gg, possibly
(enteric fermentation and manure manage- deriving from the importing of basic grains
ment). The main gases are methane (CH4) such as rice and the stagnation of the live-
and nitrous oxide (N2O). stock sector.

Table RE.11 Subcategories of Agriculture


4A Enteric fermentation Subdivided into 10 different types of animals
4B Manure management Subdivided into 10 different types of animals
4C Rice growing 4C1 Irrigated crops
4C2 Rain-fed crops
4C3 Swamp crops
4D Farmlands

4E Programmed burning of lands


4F In situ burning of agricultural waste

15
Table RE.12 Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in the Agriculture category, Gg
of CO2 equivalent

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

40,312.76 39,403.39 38,698.77 37,155.64 37,988.29 37,712.00 38,681.60


CH4
85% 86% 85% 84% 84% 83% 84%
7,114.81 6,646.09 6,805.10 6,921.06 7,456.43 7,814.76 7,464.49
N2O
15% 14% 15% 16% 16% 17% 16%
Total 47,427.57 46,049.48 45,503.87 44,076.70 45,444.72 45,526.76 46,146.09

RE.1.3.6. Land Use, Land Use


Change and Forestry [5]
(LULUCF) (Preliminary)
The category of LULUCF considers the oxide (N2O) emissions generated by land
emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) gener- use change [5B]. IPCC subcategories are
ated by the subcategories mentioned be- shown in the following table:
low, as well as methane (CH4) and nitrous

Table RE.13 Subcategories of LULUCF


5A Changes in the existence (inventory) of forests 5A1 Tropical rainforests
and other woody biomass 5A2 Temperate forests
5A3 Northern forests
5A4 Pastures, tropical savannas and tundra
5A5 Others
5B Land Use Change 5B1 Tropical rainforests
5B2 Temperate forests
5B3 Northern forests
5B4 Pastures, tropical savannas and tundra
5B5 Others
5C Capture due to the abandoning of lands 5C1 Tropical rainforests
5C2 Temperate forests
5C3 Northern forests
5C4 Pastures, tropical savannas and tundra
5C5 Others
5D Emissions and capture of CO2 from the soil

GHG emissions for 2002, measured in CO2 decomposition of air biomass associated
equivalent units, came to 89,854 Gg. Emis- with the processes of the conversion of for-
sions in this sector in terms of CO2 were the ests to other uses, 30,344 Gg CO2 for emis-
following: sions derived from mineral lands and agri-
cultural areas, 4,932 Gg CO2 from emis-
sions in managed forests and a capture of
The LULUCF category contributes a total in
12,883 Gg CO2 on abandoned lands. The
emissions of 86,877 Gg CO2. These emis-
capture of CO2 is discounted from total
sions are the result of the balance between
64,484 Gg CO2 from the combustion and emissions in this category.

16
RE.1.3.7. Waste [6] GHG emissions due to waste, measured in
CO2 equivalent, underwent an increase of
The category of waste contemplates the
96% from 1990 to 2002 as a result of the
methane emissions (CH4) generated from
increase in the disposal of solid waste in
municipal solid waste and municipal and
sanitary landfill and the impetus given over
industrial wastewater, as well as the emis-
the last decade to the treatment of indus-
sions of nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted by the
trial and municipal wastewater; within this
municipal wastewater, and the emissions of
percentage is also included the change re-
carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide
corded in the emissions by incineration of
(N2O) generated by the incineration of dan-
toxic waste whose value increased by a
gerous waste.
factor of 30 between 1990 and 2002, but
GHG emissions for 2002, measured in CO2 whose contribution to the total in this last
equivalent units, came to 65,584 Gg, com- year was less than 0.5%. Waste incinera-
pared with the 33,357Gg emitted in 1990. tion is a relatively new activity in this coun-
try.

Table RE.14 Subcategories of Waste


6A Disposal of solid waste in ground 6A1 Disposal of solid waste in sanitary landfills
6A2 Disposal of solid waste in open-air dumps
6A3 Others
6B Wastewater management and treatment 6B1 Industrial wastewater
6B2 Domestic and municipal wastewater
6B3 Others
6C Waste incineration

Figure RE.12 Waste emissions from 1990 to 2002

40,000

35,000
eq (Gg)

30,000

25,000
2

20,000
Emissions

15,000

10,000

5,000

0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
Disposal of solid
Wastewater management and treat-
Incineration of

17
Greenhouse gases that are naturally pre- the atmosphere at a level that would pre-
sent in the atmosphere are a key element vent dangerous levels of anthropogenic in-
in maintaining the earth's temperature by terference in the climate system. This level
holding in part of the energy from the Sun; should be achieved in a timeframe that
these include water vapour, carbon dioxide, would allow ecosystems to adapt naturally
methane and nitrous oxide. Their presence to climate change, in order to ensure that
and concentration remained stable for cen- food production is not threatened, and to
turies until the 19th century, at which time allow economic development to remain
the Industrial Revolution took place. Since sustainable.
that date, human activities have generated
greenhouse gases, thus causing an in- For this reason, the Mexican Government
crease in their concentrations in the atmos- reiterates its commitment to the UNFCCC
phere. As a result, the temperature of the by presenting, with figures to the year 2002,
planet tends to increase, thereby causing its third national inventory of anthropogenic
variations in the climate. According to the emissions by sources and sinks of all
Third Assessment Report of the Intergov- greenhouse gases not controlled by the
ernmental Panel on Climate Change Montreal Protocol. The result of this inven-
(2001), three quarters of the anthropogenic tory will make it possible to ascertain our
emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmos- country's contribution as a greenhouse gas
phere are due to the burning of fossil fuels. emitter in the world context, identify those
categories that contribute in different meas-
For this reason, the United Nations Frame- ures to these emissions, and establish na-
work Convention on Climate Change tional priorities regarding the mitigation of
(UNFCCC), in which 189 countries of the climate change.
planet are represented, aims at stabilizing
the concentrations of greenhouse gases in