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ACEE 434

Environmental Systems Design

Week 11
November 11,
11 2009

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 1


Secondary Clarifier

Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-34


Circular settling tank (Center feed by pipe
under tank bottom)

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 2


Settling Activated Sludge

MetCalf and Eddy Figure 8-8


Field test for determining sludge volume index (SVI) Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-20
Settling of a concentrated suspension

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 3


Settling
g in a Secondary
y
Clarifier

C0

Cu

Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-21


Settling in a final clarifier for the activated sludge

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 4


Solid Flux

GS

GS = CtVt

Vt

C
Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-22 Reynolds andt Richards Figure 9-23
Zone or hindered settling velocity versus Solids flux versus solid concentration
solid concentration

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 5


Solid Flux
Gs = CtVt
where Gs = solids flux by gravity
Ct = solids concentration
Vt = hindered settling velocity

Gb = CtVb Qu
Vb =
where Gb = bulk flux A
Vb = bulk velocity where Qu = flowrate of the underflow
A = plan area of the tank

Gt = Gs + Gb = CtVt + CtVb
where Gt = total flux

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 6


Solid Flux
M t = Q0C0 = Qu Cu Assumption: effluent solids concentration is negligible

where M t = rate of solids settling


Q 0 = influent flowrate to the tank (= Q + Q r )
C0 = influent solids concentration

M t Q0C0 Limiting condition: ????


A= =
GL GL
where GL = limiting (critical) flux

Mt
Qu =
Cu
Qu M G
Vb = = t = L
A Cu A Cu

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 7


Solid Flux

Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-24


Solid flux versus solid concentration

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 8


Example
Design a secondary clarifier
Reynolds and Richards Example 9-2
Final clarifier

Batch settling test have been performed using an acclimated activated sludge
to give the data in the following Table. The design mixed liquor flow to the
secondary clarifier is 160 L/s
L/s, the MLSS is 2500 mg/L
mg/L, and the underflow
concentration is 12,000 mg/L. Determine the diameter of the final clarifier.

Test C (mg/L) V (m/h) G = CV (kg/h/m2)


1 12,460 0.125 1.56
2 9,930
, 0.249 2.47
3 7,450 0.465 3.46
4 5,220 1 5.22
5 3 140
3,140 2 94
2.94 9 24
9.24
6 1,580 4.18 6.6

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 9


Example
Design a secondary clarifier

GL = 8.90 /h/ 2
8 90 kkg/h/m

Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-27 Reynolds and Richards Figure 9-28
Cu = 12,000 mg/L

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 10


Example
Design a secondary clarifier

1. Determine mass rate of solids settling (Mt)


M t = Q0C0 = (160 L / s)(3600s / hr )(kg / 1000 g ) = 1,440 kg / hr

2. Determine limiting flux (GL)


from the solid flux curve GL = 8.9 kg/h/m2
applying a scale-up factor of 1.5 GL = 8.9/1.5 = 5.93 kg/h/m2

3. Determine the diameter of the secondary clarifier (D)


Mt 1440 kg / hr
A= = 2
= 242.8 m 2
GL 5.93 kg / hr / m

1/ 2
⎡4 ⎤
D = ⎢ (242.8 m 2 )⎥ = 17.6 m
⎣π ⎦

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 11


Summary
1. Solid flux theory
2. Determine a secondary clarifier based on the theory

ACEE 434 Fall 2009 HDP 12