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The Debate

The fate of the Ninth


The curious disappearance of Legio VIIII Hispana

© Andrew Brozyna, ajbdesign.com


In 1954, Rosemary Sutcliff published a novel about Roman Britain. The last testimony of the presence of
the Ninth Legion in Britain. Dated to
It caught the imagination of an entire generation of readers with
AD 108, it testifies to a building project
its tale of the Ninth Legion, destroyed in the mists of Scotland. A undertaken by the legion.
BBC dramatisation captivated a fresh generation in 1977. And now
a new motion picture is set to revive interest in the fate of the Lost
Legion. But was it really destroyed in Britain during the reign of It was clearly a military building inscrip-
tion, dating from the time when Roman
Hadrian? Or have we fallen for a myth that should have been laid
builders were gradually refurbishing
to rest fifty years ago? the early turf-and-timber forts and
fortresses in Britain, and reconstructing
their defences in stone. The find-spot
By Duncan B Campbell survived, however, for scholars of the was close to the original location of
day to reconstruct the original text: the south-east gate into the legionary
On the morning of 7 October 1854, The fortress of Eburacum. So the inscription
York Herald and General Advertiser “The Emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan probably celebrated the construction of
carried a short report, tucked away in the Augustus, son of the deified Nerva, the gateway, built by the emperor per
bottom corner of an inside page. Under Conqueror of Germany, Conqueror legionem VIIII Hispanam (“through the
the headline “Antiquarian Discovery of Dacia, Chief Priest, in his twelfth agency of the Ninth Hispana Legion”).
in York”, it announced that workmen year of tribunician power [AD 108],
digging a drain in the English town acclaimed imperator six times, ... A very interesting stone
had unearthed a massive inscribed through the agency of the Ninth The newspaper’s correspondent,
slab. Measuring approximately a metre Hispana Legion.” commenting on “the very interesting
square, the slab was the mid-section of Roman stone”, wrote that “it is a
a monumental Roman inscription, both Roman Inscriptions of Britain § 665 valuable discovery, inasmuch as it
ends of which had broken off. Enough fixes a precise period when the ninth

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legion was in York”. With hindsight, his Dessau’s Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae had lighted upon an inscription from
assessment of the stone’s importance as ILS 1094 + 1100.) Minturno (Italy) on the Appian Way. It
was a huge understatement. The missing inscription detailed detailed the career of Lucius Barbuleius
Only a year earlier, the great German the career of Marcus Pontius Laelianus, Ligarianus (CIL X 6006 = ILS 1066).
scholar Theodor Mommsen had begun who rose to the consulship in AD 144, Ligarianus began his military
his Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum when he would have been aged in career as tribunus laticlavius legionis
(CIL) project to catalogue the surviving his early forties. Several years earlier, IX Hispanae (“senatorial tribune of
inscriptions from the Roman world. he had served as tribune of the Sixth the Ninth Hispana Legion”). Many
He planned to publish a transcript of Victrix Legion, cum qua ex Germania prospective senators served for a year
each one, and collect them together in Brittaniam transivit (“with which he or two as tribunus laticlavius. Some
in giant folio-sized volumes devoted crossed over from Germany to Britain”). even served in more than one legion,
to the various geographical regions of This event should have occurred in the biding their time until they qualified,
the empire. The job of collecting the early AD 120s, for legionary tribunes at the age of 24, to enter the Senate
Roman inscriptions of Britain fell to his were usually nineteen or twenty years as a quaestor. As he was consul in
colleague Emil Hübner, and the York of age. It seems more than coincidental AD 135, when we can assume that he
inscription duly appeared as item 241 in that a new governor, Aulus Platorius was aged around 40 (although men as
CIL volume VII (Inscriptiones Britanniae Nepos, had arrived in Britain from young as 32 could hold the consulship),
Latinae, Berlin 1873). Lower Germany during the summer of Ligarianus probably served with the
In Mommsen’s day, one of the classic AD 122, so he perhaps brought Pontius Ninth Hispana towards the end of
texts on Roman Britain was Britannia Laelianus and the Sixth Legion with Trajan’s reign, perhaps around AD 115.
Romana: The Roman Antiquities of him. Like Horsley, Borghesi was puzzled
Britain, written by the Northumberland As for the Ninth Legion, Horsley could by the fate of the Ninth Legion. He was
antiquarian John Horsley, and published find no trace of it. Last mentioned in AD aware of the fact that, shortly before
in 1732. Horsley would have welcomed 82 by the historian Tacitus (in Agricola AD 165, when a list of existing legions
the York inscription with open arms. 26.1), its ultimate fate perplexed the was drawn up at Rome (CIL VI 3492
He lamented the fact that, between Northumberland antiquarian: “it might = ILS 2288), the Ninth Legion was not
the departure of Agricola and the possibly be broke”, he wrote (meaning amongst them. He proposed that the
arrival of Hadrian, the history of Britain that the legion could have been Ninth Legion had been overwhelmed
was hidden in shadows: “the more so, destroyed), “or incorporated with the in a rebellion and had been replaced
because we cannot borrow any light or legio sexta victrix” (a rather desperate by the Sixth, a solution that seemed
assistance from any Roman inscriptions solution based on the misreading of a perfectly acceptable to his nineteenth
in Britain, there being none now extant, tile-stamp in which “this ninth legion century contemporaries. Mommsen,
which we can be certain are so ancient is called legio nona victrix, tho’ the title for example, was happy to lend his
as this”. of victrix belonged not to the ninth, but considerable authority to the theory:
to the sixth”).
The legions of Britain Unfortunately, there was no record “Under Hadrian, there was a terrible
Nevertheless, by diligent study, Horsley of a legion having been “broke”, as catastrophe here, apparently an
had identified the various legions of happened, for example, in AD 161, when attack on the fortress at Eburacum
the Roman army in Britain. He knew the Parthians, “completely surrounding and the annihilation of the legion
that, of the four original legions an entire Roman legion stationed stationed there, the very same Ninth
which garrisoned the province under under Severianus at Elegeia, a place in that had fought so unluckily in the
Claudius and Nero, legio XIV Gemina Armenia, shot it down and annihilated Boudican revolt.”
had departed in AD 70. He also knew it with its officers” (Dio, Roman History
that legiones II Augusta and XX Valeria 71.2.1). T. Mommsen, Römische Geschichte
Victrix had remained for the duration Horsley did not consider the Book 8 (1885)
of the Roman occupation. That left only obvious solution, that the Ninth Legion
legio IX Hispana. had been withdrawn from Britain and
However, as a native of Hadrian’s transferred elsewhere. The discovery of the York inscription
Wall country, Horsley could not ignore enabled Mommsen to narrow the
the abundant evidence of the presence The legion disappears chronology somewhat, because it
of legio VI Victrix. And as a diligent In the meantime, others were taking a proved that the Ninth Legion was
scholar, he was well aware that an keen interest in the fledgling science actively rebuilding the fortress during
inscribed statue base, sketched in of prosopography, the study of persons Trajan’s reign. Thus, he announced that
around 1420 prior to its disappearance and their careers from the evidence of the disaster had occurred “undoubtedly
from Trajan’s forum at Rome, carried inscriptions. (This is a subject that has soon after AD 108”, adding that “this
important information about this played a key role in the debate over was probably not caused by an enemy
legion’s movements. (Broken into two the Ninth Legion, as we shall see.) In invasion, but rather by a revolt of the
parts, it was published as CIL VI 1497 the 1830s, the Italian count Bartolomeo northern allied peoples, particularly
+ 1549, and reprinted in Hermann Borghesi, an accomplished antiquarian, the Brigantes”.

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A British war? occurred only in AD 119 and 128, but the Sixth Victrix Legion was occasioned
In Mommsen’s opinion, two passages coin expert Harold Mattingly believed by the destruction of the Ninth Hispana
from ancient literature pointed to this that he could differentiate certain coins Legion. This had simply been an
conclusion. Firstly, Hadrian’s biographer within this period on stylistic grounds. assumption first proposed by Borghesi
enumerated the troubles that greeted The coins which display the figure of and followed by Mommsen. But if the
the emperor on his accession in AD 117: Britannia he assigned early in Hadrian’s Ninth Legion was still in the province,
reign, confidently explaining that fully operational, then clearly Hadrian
“The nations that Trajan had these coins “celebrate the restoration had intended temporarily to increase
subjugated were defecting, of peace in the North after the revolt the provincial army to four legions.
the Moors were attacking, the under Trajan, in which the ninth legion Indeed, other troops were arriving,
Sarmatians were making war, the was destroyed”. too. Weber had drawn attention to
Britons could not be kept under This was, of course, Mommsen’s the career inscription of Titus Pontius
Roman control.” scenario of destruction soon after Sabinus, with its mention of an expeditio
AD 108. But it is easy to see that, if Brittanica (“British campaign”) under
Augustan History, Life of Hadrian Mattingly was wrong in his stylistic Hadrian (CIL X 5829 = ILS 2726). Weber
5.2 analysis, the coins could then fall some presumed that this had occurred in AD
years later (though still pre-AD 128), 119, and Ritterling followed him.
Secondly, the author Marcus Cornelius and might celebrate a different event However, it should be clear by
Fronto wrote a letter to the emperor in Britain. For example, the emperor’s now that there was never any direct
Marcus Aurelius, his former pupil, on own visit (normally dated to AD 122, but linkage between the disappearance of
the occasion of that emperor’s Parthian perhaps later) might have merited an the Ninth Legion and Hadrian’s “British
War in AD 162. announcement on the coinage, as his campaign”. Nor, indeed, was there
other provincial visits certainly did. Yet, any compelling evidence to date the
“Under the rule of your grandfather to this day, many scholars still assume campaign to AD 119. This particular link
Hadrian, what a number of soldiers that Hadrian’s coinage proves that a was based on Mattingly’s subjective
were slain by the Jews, what a war was won in Britain in AD 119. assessment of the coins. So the arrival
number by the Britons.” of these massive reinforcements could
Massive reinforcements equally have been linked with Hadrian’s
Fronto, On the Parthian War 2 And so, when Emil Ritterling published decision to build his Wall in the years
his magisterial survey of the Roman following AD 122.
Hadrian’s Jewish war was a major event, legions in 1925 (in volume 12 of Paulys Ritterling had largely followed
proved by archaeology and coin studies. Realencyclopädie), it was generally Weber for events during the reign of
The supposed British war, on the other accepted that the Ninth Legion had Hadrian. Weber’s opinion was given
hand, is more ephemeral. The Berlin met a violent end by the early years of a further boost, barely a decade later,
professor Wilhelm Weber summed up Hadrian’s reign. Ritterling summarised when it appeared in English in the
the situation in 1907, in a short work the debate like this: influential Cambridge Ancient History.
entitled Untersuchungen zur Geschichte
des Kaisers Hadrianus (“Studies in the “The transfer of VI Victrix to Britain “Next came the crushing of the
History of the Emperor Hadrian”). He had been caused by a dangerous Britons, who had destroyed the
wrote that “the timing is uncertain, uprising; it is now clear that the Legion IX Hispana in the camp
and the views of scholars fluctuate fighting was in AD 119, but the of Eburacum, and the expeditio
regarding the date of the uprising.” outbreak could already have Britannica, which ended in 119 with
However, in the end, he decided upon occurred in the previous year. The the pacification of the country, and
a revolt which had been crushed by revolt was significant in that, not was followed, on his visit in 122, by
AD 119. But what had caused him to only was an entire legion transferred the construction of Hadrian’s Wall.”
overturn the verdict of Mommsen and to the island for the duration, but
the date of AD 108? vexillations of 1,000 men each W. Weber, Cambridge Ancient
Unlike the Jewish war, which can be were drawn from the two Upper History 11 (1936)
pinned down to the period AD 132-136, German legions and the Spanish
there is only circumstantial evidence legion. … Whether VIIII Hispana had It is plain that Hadrian’s “British war”
for a British war. Some of Hadrian’s already met its end, or only several was, by now, controversial enough to
coins carry the figure of Britannia (the years later, around AD 125, remains form the subject of its own Ancient
divine personification of the Roman unknown.” Warfare debate. So let us leave it to
province) on the reverse, and these one side and return to Ritterling, who
have been taken to imply warfare in E. Ritterling, “Legio (Hadrian)”, is always the firm foundation for any
Britain; specifically warfare during the RE 12 (1925) Roman legionary debate.
years AD 117-119. But their evidence is
problematic. As Ritterling astutely realised, there Legionary tribunes
Major changes in Hadrian’s coinage was no guarantee that the transfer of Ritterling harboured doubts about

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an early destruction of the Ninth AD 120s, to which the legion fell victim.” cashiered, there is no doubt, and it
Legion. His reasoning was based Unfortunately, the Oxford don H.M.D. seems evident that this fate, at the
on prosopography. He saw that the Parker, who drew freely upon Ritterling hands of the disciplinarian Hadrian,
careers of certain officers seemed to for his book about The Roman Legions followed an ignominious defeat.
have peaked too late for their service (1928), seems not to have appreciated But the unit was not annihilated.
in the Ninth Legion to be restricted this. He wrote, with misplaced Some of its officers at least survived
to the Trajanic period. The legion had confidence: “the Roman legions were and nothing whatever is reported
surely survived into the early years of unable at first to cope successfully with of the circumstances or place of the
Hadrian’s reign at least. the [British] revolt, and IX Hispana was trouble.”
One of these officers, already noticed destroyed not later than AD 122.”
by Borghesi but forgotten again, was I.A. Richmond, Roman Britain (1955)
Lucius Aemilius Karus (a variant An ignominious defeat?
spelling of Carus). This former tribune So this is how things stood. A British The extent to which theory had become
of the Ninth Legion was governing the war was universally believed to have fact in his account is astonishing. And
praetorian province of Arabia in AD 142, occurred in AD 119, despite both the thus, the carefully weighed caution of
the task of a man in his mid- to late- absence of direct evidence and the Ritterling and the perceptive theories
thirties (CIL VI 1333 = ILS 1077; a recently fragility of the circumstantial evidence. of Birley were swept aside by the pre-
discovered diploma confirms the date And the Ninth Legion was universally eminent Roman military scholar of the
of his Arabian governorship). believed to have been destroyed in that day.
Governors of Arabia normally war, despite Ritterling’s warning.
proceeded to the consulship within a Two British scholars now took The Eagle of the Ninth
few years. So the classicist Sir Ronald centre stage in the debate. First, the When the children’s author Rosemary
Syme proposed that Karus was the archaeologist Eric Birley voiced concerns Sutcliff sat down to write her novel
“Lucius Aemilius” who was on record in one of his annual contributions to about The Eagle of the Ninth, she would
as consul in AD 144. Coincidentally, this the Durham University Journal. In his not have read Richmond’s fantastical
was the same year as Pontius Laelianus, 1948 paper on “The End of the Ninth theory. The source for her background
whom we met previously. Ritterling Legion”, he took note of Ritterling’s research was probably the Cambridge
suggested a date “only after AD 120” warning and proposed two possible Ancient History. In any case, her writing
for Karus’ service in the Ninth Legion, scenarios. owed more to the influence of her
for it ought to have been at roughly the Either the Ninth Legion had been favourite author, Rudyard Kipling, and
same time as Laelianus’ service in the transferred from Britain under Trajan his late Roman centurions in Puck of
Sixth Legion. in connection with the Parthian war, Pook’s Hill. (Her mention of the province
Another senatorial tribune also which certainly saw other legionary of Valentia, an anachronism in her
gave Ritterling pause for thought. This transfers. (In this case, the Sixth Legion Hadrianic setting, definitely came from
was Lucius Novius Crispinus Martialis arrived several years later to bring the Kipling.) She explained the starting
Saturninus, who became consul garrison back up to three legions.) Or point for her novel in a foreword:
in AD 150 after vacating his post as else the Sixth Legion was brought over
legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae to Britain, not to replace the Ninth “Sometime about the year AD
Africae (“the emperor’s legate with the Legion, but to supplement the garrison 117, the Ninth Legion, which was
powers of a propraetor in the province during the building of Hadrian’s Wall. stationed at Eburacum where York
of Africa”, the official designation of (In this case, the Ninth Legion might now stands, marched north to deal
the commander of the Third Augusta, have been transferred from Britain at a with a rising among the Caledonian
in charge of the de facto province of later date, perhaps in connection with tribes, and was never heard of again.
Numidia where the legion had its Hadrian’s Jewish War, which certainly … no one knows what happened to
fortress). saw other legionary transfers.) the Ninth Legion after it marched
As he was probably born in around But Birley’s wise suggestions were into the northern mists.”
AD 105, he was thus a little younger than ignored by Ian Richmond (later to
Aemilius Karus and Pontius Laelianus. become Professor Sir Ian Richmond). It R. Sutcliff, The Eagle of the Ninth
Ritterling realised that Crispinus’ was he who spun the familiar tale in (1954)
service in the Ninth Legion “could not its fullest version and thus created the
reasonably have fallen before AD 123”. myth: Only a few years later, the Dutch
Destruction in a British war of AD 119 archaeologist Jules Bogaers discovered
was out of the question. “[Trouble in Britain] is to be clues in his native Netherlands that
Ritterling’s only mistake lay in connected with the issue of victory would open up a new line of enquiry.
not stressing this logical conclusion. coins in AD 119 and the fact that For in 1959, while excavating the
Instead, he simply advised that “we by AD 122 the Ninth Legion was legionary fortress on the Hunerberg at
should reckon on the possibility that a replaced at York by the Sixth and Nijmegen (Netherlands), archaeologists
second British revolt broke out towards disappeared from the army list unearthed a roofing tile which bore the
the middle or in the second half of the thereafter. That the legion was ownership stamp of the Ninth Legion.

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This was not an isolated find. Earlier in Lower Germany. An altar to Apollo, 5 km south of Carlisle.
excavations at the legionary pottery and discovered near the Roman spa of Intriguingly, stamped tiles of the
tile-works, located at De Holdeurn less Aquae Granni (Aachen, Germany), Ninth legion discovered in York were
than 5 km from the fortress, had turned was set up by Lucius Licinius Macer, invariably marked LEG IX HISP, whereas
up the stamped rim of a mortarium, primus pilus (“chief centurion”) of the those from Carlisle and Scalesceugh
one of the army’s thick ceramic bowls Ninth Legion, who had been promoted (and indeed from Nijmegen) were
used for grinding food. It was usual for to the highly prestigious position of marked LEG VIIII HISP. It seemed
official products to be stamped by the praefectus castrorum (“prefect of the possible to Bogaers that the legion
unit responsible for their manufacture. camp”, AE 1968, 323). Eric Birley believed had brought its distinctive Scalesceugh
This one was stamped LGVIIIIHIS, that “the praefectus castrorum could tile-stamps over to the Holdeurn tilery
clearly an abbreviation for l(e)g(io) VIIII not have been serving with a mere near Nijmegen, to continue production
His(pana). vexillation”, but in theory he could have there.
Up until then, tile-stamps been commanding one. Of course, only Besides the tile-stamp and the
from the Nijmegen area belonged the presence of the aquilifer would be mortarium fragment, an inscribed
overwhelmingly to the Tenth Gemina a cast-iron guarantee that the entire pendant from a horse harness also
Legion, which had rebuilt the fortress legion was there, but it would have advertised the presence of the Ninth
in stone towards the end of the first been odd for the primus pilus to receive Legion. Intriguingly, the pendant was
century AD. But the requirements of a promotion while absent in charge of found some 10 km west of the Nijmegen
Trajan’s Dacian Wars soon caused the a vexillation. camp, near the site of a Roman villa; its
Tenth Legion to vacate the Hunerberg inscription, LEG IX HISP, suggests that
fortress. (The legion is mentioned as The travels of the Ninth its owner had learned the ‘York’ version
still operating in Lower Germany in ca. At around the same time, the Romano- of the legion’s name, rather than the
AD 101/102, but tile-stamps at Sucidava British pottery expert Brian Hartley was ‘Carlisle/Nijmegen’ version.
prove its involvement in the occupation questioning whether the Ninth Legion In the meantime, other officers had
of Dacia.) Its eventual destination might have occupied a base in the appeared, whose careers supported the
was the new fortress at Aquincum Carlisle area of Britain in the early years continued existence of the Ninth Legion.
(Budapest, Hungary), before finally of Hadrian’s reign. In his opinion, the Lucius Aninius Sextius Florentinus was
settling further up-river at Vindobona ceramic record indicated that the York known to have moved from the post of
(Vienna, Austria). fortress was under reduced occupancy legatus legionis VIIII Hispanae (“legate
The next most common tile- in the early second century, whereas of the Ninth Hispana legion”) to the
stamp from Nijmegen reads VEX BRIT, stamped tiles of the Ninth Legion were proconsulship of Gallia Narbonensis,
the abbreviation for a vex(illatio) being produced at Scalesceugh, around and finally to the governorship of
Brit(annica) (“detachment from Arabia, but the dating had always been
Britain”). Most scholars now follow uncertain. Then, in the 1960s, a newly
Bogaers in assuming that, discovered papyrus finally showed
during the early years that his governorship fell
of the second century, around the year AD 127. Such
the vacant Hunerberg a man ought to have held
fortress was occupied his legionary command
by mixed troops no more than five years
detached from the earlier.
garrison of Britain. And the German
However, Bogaers classicist Werner Eck lent his
realised that such a considerable authority to the
vexillation would be dating of another legionary tribune,
unlikely to have stamped Quintus Numisius Iunior, to around
their products with the AD 140. The discovery that this man was
name of the Ninth Legion. consul in February AD 161 should have
His solution was to suggest closed the issue, once and for all. It is
that the Ninth Legion took up unthinkable that his glowing career
residence in the Hunerberg fortress (CIL XI 5670) could have begun as long
after the vexillation had returned to ago as AD 119, for this would mean that
Britain, and continued the production Pendant from a horse harness found at he only achieved the consulship at the
of ceramics at the Holdeurn tilery. Ewijk, about 10 km west of the legionary age of sixty!
Unfortunately, no firm date could be castra at Nijmegen. The punctured And so, a new chapter in the Ninth
applied to these events, except that they inscription reads LEG IX HISP. Now in Legion’s history was taking shape
were broadly “early second century”. the Valkhof Museum, Nijmegen. during the 1970s. It seemed that, if the
Further evidence supported the case legion was already forming a stop-gap
that the Ninth Legion was quartered © Jona Lendering, Livius.org in Lower Germany, it might be called

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© Jona Lendering, Livius.org


upon to fulfil other duties further
along the frontier. Trajan’s Parthian
War had caused some dislocation of
units, and Hadrian’s Jewish War would
do the same. So it is interesting to note
that a previous soldier of the Ninth
Legion, Aelius Asclepiades, hailed from
the east, in present-day Turkey (CIL X
1769). Other explanations are possible,
but both Bogaers and Birley thought it
significant that the man bore Hadrian’s
family name, Aelius, which he might
have taken on enlistment to the legion
in his native Cilicia.
Of course, all of these tiny clues
served to refute Richmond’s fantastical
theory (and Rosemary Sutcliff’s novel)
by prolonging the life of the legion
beyond AD 119. In his book on The Roman
Soldier (1969), the classicist G.R. Watson
felt confident enough to write of “the
loss of IX Hispana … probably during
the Jewish War of AD 132-5 … or even in
Armenia in 161.” Of Hadrian’s shadowy
British war, there was no mention.

Fresh doubts
Nevertheless, archaeology is an inexact
science. Most theories can be objected
to, at some level. Many survive such
scrutiny, but some theories are less
robust than others. For example,
the destruction of the Ninth Legion
in a British war at the beginning of
Hadrian’s reign is a very weak theory.
There is no direct evidence for any of
the required elements. And yet, the
idea has exerted such a hold on the
popular imagination that it is difficult
to dispel the myth.
The logical alternative, that the
legion continued to exist at least until
AD 140, in order to accommodate the
tribunate of Numisius Iunior, has even
been questioned. Professor Lawrence
Keppie has suggested that the consul
of AD 161 was actually the son of the The   splendid tomb of Lucius Aninius
tribune of the Ninth Legion. He has Sextius Florentinus in Petra (Jordan)
also doubted that Aelius Asclepiades underlines the fact that legionary Further Reading
was recruited to the legion while in commanders were high-status indivi- J.K. Haalebos, “Römische
his native Cilicia, preferring to see him duals. The inscription (not visible) Truppen in Nijmegen”, in: Y.
transferred from the Italian fleet at testifies to Florentinus’ career spanning Le Bohec & C. Wolff (eds.), Les
Misenum. the breadth of the Roman empire. légions de Rome sous le Haut
Clearly this is a debate which is Empire. Lyon, 2000. Haalebos
destined to rumble on. Whether only hope that further epigraphic has references to the earlier
the Ninth Legion met its end in discoveries will bring clarity. n works of Birley, Bogaers, Eck,
Hadrian’s Jewish War, or with the ill- and Keppie.
fated Severianus at Elegeia in 161, or Duncan B. Campbell is a regular
somewhere entirely different, we can contributor.

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