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You are on page 1of 3

ANKE D. POHL

wonderful book [1] is slightly incorrect, since Schwarz’ Lemma requires 0 to

be fixed by the map this lemma is applied to. In this note we correct this

inaccuracy. For the convenience of the reader, we provide a complete proof,

which is identical to Rudin’s in all steps but the beginning of Step 2. The

references are relative to [1].

domain Ω in C (other than C itself ) is conformally equivalent to the open unit disc

D.

Proof. Let Ω be a simply connected domain in C, Ω 6= C. Recall that then for each

holomorphic function f : Ω → C \ {0} there is a holomorphic function g : Ω → C

such that

f (z) = eg(z)

(a complex logarithm). Thus, h : Ω → C,

1

h(z) := e 2 g(z)

is a holomorphic function satisfying h2 = f (a holomorphic square root of f ).

If ψ(Ω) = D for some ψ ∈ Σ, then ψ is a biholomorphic map from Ω onto D by

Thm. 10.33. We will show that Σ contains such a ψ.

ϕ(z)2 = z − w0 .

Let z1 , z2 ∈ Ω such that ϕ(z1 ) = ϕ(z2 ). Then

z1 − w0 = ϕ(z1 )2 = ϕ(z2 )2 = z2 − w0 ,

hence z1 = z2 . Therefore ϕ is injective. Analogously, one sees that

(1) ϕ(z1 ) 6= −ϕ(z2 )

for each pair z1 , z2 ∈ Ω with z1 6= z2 .

By the Open Mapping Theorem ϕ is open. Thus, ϕ(Ω) contains a disc Ur (a)

with 0 < r < |a| (for some a). Then (1) implies

U1 (−a) ∩ ϕ(Ω) = ∅.

Since ϕ(Ω) is open, it follows that

Ur (−a) ∩ ϕ(Ω) = ∅.

1

2 ANKE D. POHL

r

ψ :=

ϕ+a

is in Σ.

there is ψ1 ∈ Σ such that

|ψ10 (z0 )| > |ψ 0 (z0 )|.

χ := ϕw ◦ ψ

where ϕw is given by Def. 12.3. Since ϕw ◦ ψ(Ω) ⊆ D and ϕw ◦ ψ is injective, we

see that χ ∈ Σ. Further, since ϕw is biholomorphic on D, we find χ(Ω) $ D.

Let α ∈ D \ χ(Ω). Then ϕα ◦ χ ∈ Σ. Since the unique root α of ϕα is not in

χ(Ω), the map ϕα ◦ χ does not have a root.

Hence there is a holomorphic function g : Ω → C such that g 2 = ϕα ◦ χ. Since

2

g is injective, g is so. Moreover we have

|g(z)|2 = |ϕα (χ(z))| < 1

for all z ∈ Ω. Thus g ∈ Σ.

Let β := g(z0 ). Then

ψ1 := ϕβ ◦ g ∈ Σ

2

and ψ1 (z0 ) = 0. With s(z) := z it follows that

χ = ϕ−α ◦ s ◦ g = ϕ−α ◦ s ◦ ϕ−β ◦ ψ1 .

Set

F := ϕ−α ◦ s ◦ ϕ−β .

Since ψ1 (z0 ) = 0, the chain rule implies

(2) χ0 (z0 ) = F 0 (0)ψ10 (z0 ).

Further, F (D) ⊆ D,

F (0) = χ(z0 ) = ϕw (ψ(z0 )) = 0,

and F is not injective (otherwise s would be injective). Hence F is not a rotation.

Therefore Schwarz’ Lemma shows

|F 0 (0)| < 1.

Taking absolute values in (2) we find

|χ0 (z0 )| < |ψ10 (z0 )|.

Using Thm. 12.4 we get

ψ 0 (z0 )

χ0 (z0 ) = ϕ0w (w)ψ 0 (z0 ) = .

1 − |w|2

Sin ce 0 < 1 − |w|2 < 1, it follows that |ψ 0 (z0 )| < |χ0 (z0 )|, and thus

|ψ 0 (z0 )| < |ψ10 (z0 )|.

PROOF OF THE RIEMANN MAPPING THEOREM 3

λ := sup{|ψ 0 (z0 )| | ψ ∈ Σ}.

Step 3: We claim that there is ϑ ∈ Σ such that |ϑ0 (z0 )| = λ. Step 2 then shows

ϑ(Ω) = D, which completes the proof.

Since |ψ(z)| < 1 for all ψ ∈ Σ and z ∈ Ω, the set Σ is locally bounded. Let

(ψn )n∈N be a sequence in Σ such that (|ψn0 (z0 )|)n∈N converges to λ. By the The-

orem of Montel there is a subsequence (ϕnk )k∈N which converges uniformly on

compact sets to a holomorphic function ϑ : Ω → C.

The Convergence Theorem of Weierstrass shows that (ψn0 k )k∈N converges to

0

ϑ (z0 ). Thus

|ϑ0 (z0 )| = λ > 0.

Since ψn (Ω) ⊆ D and ψnk → ϑ pointwise, ϑ(Ω) ⊆ D. The Maximum Principle

shows ϑ(Ω) ⊆ D. It remains to show that ϑ is injective.

Let z1 , z2 ∈ Ω, z1 6= z2 . Set α := ϑ(z1 ) and αk := ψnk (z1 ) for k ∈ N. By

the Identity Theorem there is r > 0 such that ϑ − α does not have roots on

D := Ur (z2 ) ⊆ Ω other than possibly z2 . After shrinking r we may assume z1 ∈

/ D.

Let

ε := min{|ϑ(z) − α| | z ∈ ∂D} > 0.

Since (ψnk − αk )k∈N converges uniformly to ϑ − α on D, there is l ∈ N such that

k(ϑ − α) − (ψnl − αl )k∞ < ε

on D. The Theorem of Rouché shows that on D the map ϑ − α has as many roots

as ψnl − αl . Since ψnl − αl is injective on Ω and the root z1 of ψnl − αl is not

contained in D, the map ψnl − αl does not have any root in D. Therefore ϑ − α

does not have any root in D. Thus, ϑ(z2 ) 6= α = ϑ(z1 ). ¤

References

[1] Walter Rudin, Real and complex analysis, third ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1987.

Institut für Mathematik, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Pader-

born, Germany

E-mail address: pohl@math.uni-paderborn.de

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