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Titles & Headings

• All NAATI test passages have headings

+ many also have sub-headings
Some Practical Issues + these are part of the text & must be translated

in Translation + try to imitate the general layout of the source text

Paragraphing & Sub-paragraphs Transference of SL Words

• Retain the original paragraph divisions • Some SL words may have no TL equivalents
+ unless there are very strong reasons to change + differences in geography / culture
– not just because you ‘feel like it’ + new technology
• Retain any sub-paragraphs / dot-points + borrowing from SL to fill gaps in TL vocabulary
+ also retain any identifying numbers / letters • These may require transferring the SL word into the TL
+ ie, the SL word is not translated
+ but a translator’s note may be required
+ requirements when SL & TL use different scripts
– may require transliteration

Names of People, Places etc (1) Names of People, Places etc (2)

• Particular cases of ‘transference’ are names of: • Translation of position names depends on type of
+ people (eg, Quentin Bryce) document:

+ places (eg, Riverview) + if TL readers will need to know SL term

+ organisations (eg, Medicare) – ‘transfer’ SL word, then explain in a TN

+ positions (eg, Student Welfare Coordinator) + in other cases, translate using suitable equivalents

• Even when they can be translated, they should not be

• Names widely known in the TL usually have equivalents
+ eg, United Nations
+ but not those specific to SL country, eg Newstart

Abbreviations & Acronyms Punctuation & Capital Letters (1)

• Some SL documents may use: • Punctuation in translated text should reflect the original
+ abbreviations, eg Kodam = Komando Daerah Militer + but should be ‘converted’ to reflect normal TL usage
= Military Area Command + eg, English use of comma [,] for thousands / millions
+ acronyms, eg NAATI = National Accreditation Auth- + many languages use full stop [.] for this purpose
ority for Translators & Interpreters
• Quotation marks in SL should be reflected in TL
• These may also be handled by transferring the SL word
+ eg, to indicate quoting of exact words / unusual
+ but a translator’s note may be particularly useful meaning
+ some TL scripts may not allow separate letters for • Use of round brackets ( ) should also be reflected in TL
+ ie, to indicate a parenthesis
– may require full translation

Punctuation & Capital Letters (2) Words of Unknown / Uncertain Meaning

• Insertions by translator must be in square brackets [ ] • Sometimes meaning of SL word:

+ emphasises information not in original document + cannot be found (not listed in available dictionaries)
• Upper-case / lower-case letters + is genuinely ambiguous (original badly expressed)
+ if TL writing system allows for these: • Translators must alert their readers to this
– capitals in SL must be reflected in TL + if possible, indicate what intended meaning might be
– but only as consistent with normal rules in TL + don’t just leave blank space
– in English, capitals must be used when required, + this is what translator’s notes are for
even if SL did not have them

Translator’s Notes (1) Translator’s Notes (2)

• Typical situations: • Typical situations [cont]:

+ information that TL readers do not know + for clarity in legal documents
‘Pancasila [official state philosophy] Education’ – information not stated in SL, but required in TL for
+ information the translator does not know grammatical reasons

‘loss of 1 laptop, 3 [word illegible], 2 watches’ ‘he stated [that he] had once met this man’

+ mistakes in the SL document – in most types of texts, this will not be required

‘pay the sum of $125,000 (one hundred and twenty • Over-use of TNs in NAATI tests may be penalised
thousand dollars) to the other party’
‘moved from Melbourne to Sidney to seek work’