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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND


Computer graphics and animation is a very broad and wide aspect of computer science, and has
effects on our everyday living. Dissemination of information with good graphical user interface
becomes very important when very important information have to be passed across.

This project would be split into the two aspects (graphics and animation) sometimes during the
course of discussion.

1.1.1 Computer Graphics


Computers have become a powerful tool for the rapid and economical production of pictures.
There is virtually no area in which graphical displays cannot be used to some advantage, and so
it is not surprising to find the use of computer graphics so widespread. Although early
applications in engineering and science had to rely on expensive and cumbersome equipment,
advances in computer technology have made interactive computer graphics a practical tool.
Today, we find computer graphics used routinely in such diverse areas as science, Engineering,
medicine, business, industry, government, art, entertainment, advertising, Education and training.
Before we get into the details of how to do computer graphics, we first take a short tour through
a gallery of graphics applications.
A major use of computer graphics is in design processes, particularly for engineering and
architectural systems, but almost all products are now computer designed. Generally referred to
as CAD, computer-aided design methods are now routinely used in the design of buildings,
automobiles, aircraft, watercraft, spacecraft, computers, textiles, and many, many other products.
For some design applications; object are first displayed in a wireframe outline form that shows
the overall sham and internal features of objects. Wireframe displays also allow designers to
quickly see the effects of interacting adjustments to design shapes. Software packages for CAD
applications typically provide the designer with a multi-window environment. The various
displayed windows can show enlarged sections or different views of objects. Circuits and
networks for communications, water supply, or other utilities are constructed with repeated
placement of a few graphical shapes. The shapes used in a design represent the different network
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or circuit components. Standard shapes for electrical, electronic, and logic circuits are often
supplied by the design package. For other applications, a designer can create personalized
symbols that are to be used to construct the network or circuit. The system is then designed by
successively placing components into the layout, with the graphics package automatically
providing the connections between components. This allows the designer to quickly try out
alternate circuit schematics for minimizing the number of components or the space required for
the system.
Because of the broadness of this topic, the major part to be discussed will be the effectiveness of
the graphical user interface to the everyday living.
The human computer interface for most systems involves extensive graphics, regardless of the
application. Typically, general systems now consist of windows, pull-down and pop-up menus,
icons, and pointing devices, such as a mouse or space ball, for positioning the screen cursor.
Popular graphical user interfaces include X Windows, Windows, Macintosh, Open Look, and
Motif. These interfaces are used in a variety of applications, including word processing,
Spreadsheets, databases and file-management systems, presentation systems, and Page-layout
systems. In graphics packages, specialized interactive dialogues are designed for individual
applications, such as engineering design, architectural design, data visualization, drafting,
business graphs, and artist's paintbrush programs. For general graphics packages, interfaces are
usually provided through a standard system. An example is the X Window System interface with
PHIGS. In further chapters, we will take a look at the basic software packages for computer
graphics, their functionalities, benefits, limitations, etc.

1.1.2 Computer Animation

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Some typical applications of computer-generated animation are entertainment (motion pictures
and cartoons), advertising, scientific and engineering studies, and training and education.
Although we tend to think of animation as implying object motions, the term computer
animation generally refers to any time sequence of visual changes in a scene. In addition to
changing object position with translations or rotations, a computer-generated animation could
display time variations in object size, color, transparency, or surface texture. Advertising
animations often transition one object shape into another: for example, transforming a can of
motor oil into an automobile engine. Computer animations can also be generated by changing
camera parameters, such as position, orientation, and focal length. And we can produce computer
animations by changing lighting effects or other parameters and procedures associated with
illumination and rendering. Many applications of computer animation require realistic displays.
An accurate representation of the shape of a thunderstorm or other natural phenomena described
with a numerical model is important for evaluating the reliability of the model. Also, simulators
for training aircraft pilots and heavy-equipment operators must produce reasonably accurate
representations of the environment. Entertainment and advertising applications, on the other
hand, are sometimes more interested in visual effects. Thus, scenes may be displayed with
exaggerated shapes and unrealistic motions and transformations. There are many entertainment
and advertising applications that do require accurate representations for computer-generated
scenes. And in some scientific and engineering studies, realism is not a goal. For example,
physical quantities are often displayed with pseudo-colors or abstract shapes that change over
time to help the researcher understand the nature of the physical process.
Animation is not just a series of funny drawings strung together in movement. At its most
creative, it is a truly beautiful art form. Yet the tradition of drawn animation is a relatively short
one compared with other visual arts. It has only been in this century that the technology to
produce any film-let alone animated film- has been available. Indeed, one has often thought that
many of the Old Masters, from Leonardo da Vinci to Rembrandt to Hokusai, might well have
committed themselves to animation, had the knowledge of film-making been available to them in
their time.

Computer animation is also a very broad aspect of computer science, just like computer graphics.
One could call computer animation an advanced aspect of computer graphics. This is because,

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unlike graphics, it has the ability of incorporating other things like motion, sound, effects, etc.
This is why, most times, computer animation is widely referred to as MOTION GRAPHICS.

Animated filmmaking, which will also be discussed in the course of this study, in its widest
expression, is not, however, traditionally an art form of individual genius. A large team of
dedicated, talented, and cooperative artists is required to complete a high quality animation film.
Successful animation demands a collective creative approach, within which each individual, no
matter how talented, must harmonize and communicate with others for his or her work to be
given its fullest expression on the screen. Problems can arise when the methods and
terminologies used by any one individual of the team are not compatible or familiar to the others.

No one person can have a perfect understanding of computer animation; this is because of its
broadness. This study tends to talk about the very obvious aspect of animation in our day to day
living, for example, filmmaking, digital art, flash animations for ATMs, Billboards, etc.

At its best, animation is a wonderful varied art form, which potentially has no limitations on
imagination or technique. Sadly, exciting ideas are often spoiled by inadequate animation ability
and fall into a pit of undisciplined sloppiness. In addition to being an art, animation is also a craft
and, as with any craft, it takes time for apprentices to master it. What are then needed are
patience, commitment, and effort, to make the basic principles come alive with new life and
fresh ideas. In the early days of animation, Walt Disney established a fine tradition of
craftsmanship, which we can only look up to, from our more humble position of expertise. What
has been achieved once however can theoretically be achieved again if the will, the financial
support, and the working knowledge are there.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:

AIM
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To illustrate how computer graphics and animation can be used in cartooning.

OBJECTIVES
The major objective of this project is to give a comprehensive overview of computer graphics
and animation especially in the areas of its application.

The project will also address the history (timeline), categories, functionalities, benefits and
limitations, designs, and advancements of computer graphics and animation.

The uses of computer graphics and animation in our everyday lives would be emphasized. The
major focus of this project would eventually be in the aspect of COMPUTER ART, which also
happens to be an area of application. Cartoon animation would majorly be discussed with a brief
prototype done on it.

Here are the objectives in summary:

• To study the several advancements in computer graphics and animation.

• To study the application areas of computer graphics and animation

• To design and implement a prototype on cartoon animation

1.3 METHOD OF STUDY:


To effectively achieve the objectives of this project, considering its broadness and wideness, the
following methods and procedures were adopted.

• The rigorous use of the internet

• The use of computer-based libraries, both online and offline

• Installation of computer graphics and animation software packages and apt knowledge of
each one of them

• Information collection from other related departments, like fine and applied arts.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:


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Computer graphics and animation is a very broad and wide aspect of computer science, and has
effects on our everyday living. Dissemination of information with good graphical user interface
becomes very important when very important information have to be passed across.

This study intends to illustrate how computer graphics and animation began, how well it has
grown, the several functions that particular software packages perform, how these functions can
be adopted into our everyday living, its advancements, and so on. Some of the most recent
computer graphics and animation software packages would also be looked into, and some of the
procedures for the design of the most recent animation works will also be checked.

In all, this study intends to contribute immensely to knowledge and erase the general impression
people tend to have towards computer graphics and animation about it not being broad or
relevant.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY:


This project majorly covers the areas of history (timeline), categories, functionalities, benefits
and limitations, and application areas of computer graphics and animation with a major focus on
cartooning.

1.6 ORGANIZATION OF DISSERTATION


This report describes the advancements of computer graphics and animation, and also discusses
the several old and most recent software applications for computer graphics and animation. This
report also gives room for further research.

The Bulk of this report is to be found in CHAPTERS TWO to FIVE. Chapter two represents an
overview of computer graphics and animation, focusing majorly on history, timeline, categories,
and the application areas.

Chapter three focuses on the methodology of design of CARTOON ANIMATION as it relates to


computer animation.

Chapter four discusses design process and implementation.

Chapter five focuses on the summary as drawn from the whole write-up, conclusions drawn from
the project, and opportunities for further work.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW


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2.1 HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND
ANIMATION
In 1945, (Dr. Vannevar Bush), Science Advisor to F.D. Roosevelt and designer of early
Calculators wrote an article describing his vision of a personal desktop computer for non-
numerical applications.
In 1950, Simple picture: SAGE was the first to command and control CRT display with the use
of light pen. Whirlwind used CRT for displaying the output.

Figure 2.1 – A cathode ray tube


In 1960, Douglas Engelbart invented the mouse.
In 1963, Sketchpad: Ivan E. Sutherland (Interactive graphics). He developed interactive
techniques for using light pen and keyboard for selecting, pointing, drawing and editing objects
on CRT.

In the Mid 60's, MIT, General Motors, Bell Labs, Lockheed, NASA developed multiple
timeshared graphics consoles for many phases of car design.
In the Late 60's, "Cheap" displays from Tektronics, Evans and Sutherland start a dynasty at
Utah

In the Early 70's, Alan Kay at Xerox invented SmallTalk.

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ADIS Graphics package was developed. It had the capability to read/write a single pixel, draw
line, add text to display, move existing portion of the display. The output was directed to
rectangular area of the screen called the window.
In 1974, Economic threshold crossed cheap memory and cheap displays become available in the
market.
In the Late 70's, Evans and Sutherland (Flight simulators), Economic raster graphics and
displays.
In 1979, Robert Sproull at Carnegie Mellon invented DLISP. He presented a design of raster
graphics package into programming environment.
In the Early 80's, Microprocessor graphics, VRAM (from Texas instruments)
Mid to Late 80's - Graphics workstations (Silicon Graphics, Ardent, Stellar), Photo realism (ray
tracing and radiosity)
In the Early 90's, Interactive 3D systems were designed.
In the New Millenium, More interactive 3D systems with animation abilities were designed and
are still in use
(graphics and animation department of ohio state university,ohio.edu.com, 2007)

SOFTWARES AND STANDARDS


1950's - Use of matrices and homogenous coordinates
1960's - Interactive techniques for wire frame images
1965 - Bresenham's line and circle algorithms
Late 60's and early 70's - Hidden object removal and rendering algorithms
1974 - Call for a portable, device-independent graphics standard
1979 - Core finalized by SIGGRAPH - de facto 3D standard.
Early 80's - Ray Tracing algorithms
Mid 80's - Radiosity, other photorealistic techniques, animation
1986 - GKS Graphics Kernel System becomes first international standard, the X window system
1988 - PHIGS ( Programmer's Heirarchical Interactive Graphics System ) approved - 3D
structure hierarchy. Supports animation.
Early 90's - PHIGS+ proposed - rendering, lighting models, advanced primitives, etc.

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2.2 GRAPHICS PRIMITIVE
According to Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker. Computer graphics, Principles, and
Practice(2007). A primitive is a graphics object that is essential for the creation or construction of
complex images.
Fortunately, graphics is constructed from three basic elements, as opposed to the great variety of
graphics applications.

• Pixel
• Line
• Polygon

2.2.1 PIXEL
I. A pixel is a point of light.
II. It is just one tiny dot on the raster displays.
III. Though it has no structure, it is definitely a building block and hence it can be considered
as the graphics primitive.
IV. The resolution of the CRT is defined as the number of pixels per unit length that can be
plotted horizontally or vertically.
V. As the resolution of the screen increased, a better quality graphics we can get.

2.2.2 LINE
I. Lines, especially straight lines, constitute an important building block of computer
images.
II. Line is the basic building block of Line graphs, like bar and pie charts, two and three-
dimensional graphs of mathematical functions, engineering drawings and architectural
plans.
III. In computer graphics, straight line is so basic in creating images that we call it a graphics
primitive.

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IV. Straight lines can be developed in two different ways.

• A structural method determines which pixels should be set before drawing the line;
• A conditional method tests certain conditions to find which pixel should be set next.

2.2.3 POLYGON
I. A polygon is a shape generally constructed from straight lines.
II. A polygon is a closed area of image bounded by straight or curved lines and filled with
one solid color. Since images are two dimensional, a polygon is a closed planar figure.
III. The polygon can be defined by an ordered sequence of vertices, the corners of the
polygon.

Figure 2.2 – A Polygon

2.3 CATEGORIES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND ANIMATION


The known categories that would be discussed are 2D and 3D graphics and animation. As earlier
discussed that computer animation is computer graphics in motion, so is it with 2D and 3D
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graphics and animation. So, only graphics would majorly be referred to at most times.(Friedman,
1990)

2.3.1 2D Graphics

2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-


dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques
specific to them. The word may stand for the branch of computer science that comprises such
techniques, or for the models themselves. Microsoft Encarta, (2008).

2D computer graphics are mainly used in applications that were originally developed upon
traditional printing and drawing technologies, such as typography, cartography, technical
drawing, advertising, etc.. In those applications, the two-dimensional image is not just a
representation of a real-world object, but an independent artifact with added semantic value; two-
dimensional models are therefore preferred, because they give more direct control of the image
than 3D computer graphics (whose approach is more akin to photography than to typography).

In many domains, such as desktop publishing, engineering, and business, a description of a


document based on 2D computer graphics techniques can be much smaller than the
corresponding digital image—often by a factor of 1/1000 or more. This representation is also
more flexible since it can be rendered at different resolutions to suit different output devices. For
these reasons, documents and illustrations are often stored or transmitted as 2D graphic files.

2D computer graphics started in the 1950s, based on vector graphics devices. These were largely
supplanted by raster-based devices in the following decades. The PostScript language and the X
Window System protocol were landmark developments in the field.

2.3.1.1 2D graphics techniques

According to Raymond Goertz (1990), 2D graphics models may combine geometric models
(also called vector graphics), digital images (also called raster graphics), text to be typeset
(defined by content, font style and size, color, position, and orientation), mathematical functions
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and equations, and more. These components can be modified and manipulated by two-
dimensional geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, scaling. In object-oriented
graphics, the image is described indirectly by an object endowed with a self-rendering method—
a procedure which assigns colors to the image pixels by an arbitrary algorithm. Complex models
can be built by combining simpler objects, in the paradigms of object-oriented programming.

2.3.1.2 Direct painting

A convenient way to create a complex image is to start with a blank "canvas" raster map (an
array of pixels, also known as a bitmap) filled with some uniform background color and then
"draw", "paint" or "paste" simple patches of color onto it, in an appropriate order. In particular,
the canvas may be the frame buffer for a computer display.

Some programs will set the pixel colors directly, but most will rely on some 2D graphics library
and/or the machine's graphics card, which usually implement the following operations:

I. paste a given image at a specified offset onto the canvas;


II. write a string of characters with a specified font, at a given position and angle;
III. paint a simple geometric shape, such as a triangle defined by three corners, or a circle
with given center and radius;
IV. draw a line segment, arc, or simple curve with a virtual pen of given width.

2.3.1.3 Extended color models

Text, shapes and lines are rendered with a client-specified color. Many libraries and cards
provide color gradients, which are handy for the generation of smoothly-varying backgrounds,
shadow effects, etc. The pixel colors can also be taken from a texture, e.g. a digital image (thus
emulating rub-on screen tones and the fabled "checker paint" which used to be available only in
cartoons).

Painting a pixel with a given color usually replaces its previous color. However, many systems
support painting with transparent and translucent colors, which only modify the previous pixel
values. The two colors may also be combined in fancier ways, e.g. by computing their bitwise
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exclusive or. This technique is known as inverting color or color inversion, and is often used in
graphical user interfaces for highlighting, rubber-band drawing, and other volatile painting—
since re-painting the same shapes with the same color will restore the original pixel values.

2.3.1.4 Layers

The models used in 2D computer graphics usually do not provide for three-dimensional shapes,
or three-dimensional optical phenomena such as lighting, shadows, reflection, refraction, etc.
However, they usually can model multiple layers (conceptually of ink, paper, or film; opaque,
translucent, or transparent—stacked in a specific order. The ordering is usually defined by a
single number (the layer's depth, or distance from the viewer).

Layered models are sometimes called 2 1/2-D computer graphics. They make it possible to
mimic traditional drafting and printing techniques based on film and paper, such as cutting and
pasting; and allow the user to edit any layer without affecting the others. For these reasons, they
are used in most graphics editors. Layered models also allow better anti-aliasing of complex
drawings and provide a sound model for certain techniques such as mitered joints and the even-
odd rule.

Layered models are also used to allow the user to suppress unwanted information when viewing
or printing a document, e.g. roads and/or railways from a map, certain process layers from an
integrated circuit diagram, or hand annotations from a business letter.

In a layer-based model, the target image is produced by "painting" or "pasting" each layer, in
order of decreasing depth, on the virtual canvas. Conceptually, each layer is first rendered on its
own, yielding a digital image with the desired resolution which is then painted over the canvas,
pixel by pixel. Fully transparent parts of a layer need not be rendered, of course. The rendering
and painting may be done in parallel, i.e. each layer pixel may be painted on the canvas as soon
as it is produced by the rendering procedure.

Layers that consist of complex geometric objects (such as text or polylines) may be broken down
into simpler elements (characters or line segments, respectively), which are then painted as

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separate layers, in some order. However, this solution may create undesirable aliasing artifacts
wherever two elements overlap the same pixel.

2.3.1.5 2D graphics hardware

Modern computer graphics card displays almost overwhelmingly use raster techniques, dividing
the screen into a rectangular grid of pixels, due to the relatively low cost of raster-based video
hardware as compared with vector graphic hardware. Most graphic hardware has internal support
for blitting operations and sprite drawing. A co-processor dedicated to blitting is known as a
Blitter chip.

Classic 2D graphics chips of the late 1970s and early 80s, used in the 8-bit video game consoles
and home computers, include:

• Atari's ANTIC (actually a 2D GPU), TIA, CTIA, and GTIA


• Commodore/MOS Technology's VIC and VIC-II

2.3.1.6 2D graphics software

Many graphical user interfaces (GUIs), including Mac OS, Microsoft Windows, or the X
Window System, are primarily based on 2D graphical concepts. Such software provides a visual
environment for interacting with the computer, and commonly includes some form of window
manager to aid the user in conceptually distinguishing between different applications. The user
interface within individual software applications is typically 2D in nature as well, due in part to
the fact that most common input devices, such as the mouse, are constrained to two dimensions
of movement.

2D graphics are very important in the control peripherals such as printers, plotters, sheet cutting
machines, etc.. They were also used in most early video and computer games; and are still used
for card and board games such as solitaire, chess, mahjongg, etc.

2D graphics editors or drawing programs are application-level software for the creation of
images, diagrams and illustrations by direct manipulation (through the mouse, graphics tablet, or

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similar device) of 2D computer graphics primitives. These editors generally provide geometric
primitives as well as digital images; and some even support procedural models. The illustration
is usually represented internally as a layered model, often with a hierarchical structure to make
editing more convenient. These editors generally output graphics files where the layers and
primitives are separately preserved in their original form. MacDraw, introduced in 1984 with the
Macintosh line of computers, was an early example of this class; recent examples are the
commercial products Adobe Illustrator and CorelDRAW, and the free editors such as xfig or
Inkscape. There are also many 2D graphics editors specialized for certain types of drawings such
as electrical, electronic and VLSI diagrams, topographic maps, computer fonts, etc.

Image editors are specialized for the manipulation of digital images, mainly by means of free-
hand drawing/painting and signal processing operations. They typically use a direct-painting
paradigm, where the user controls virtual pens, brushes, and other free-hand artistic instruments
to apply paint to a virtual canvas. Some image editors support a multiple-layer model; however,
in order to support signal-processing operations like blurring each layer is normally represented
as a digital image. Therefore, any geometric primitives that are provided by the editor are
immediately converted to pixels and painted onto the canvas. The name raster graphics editor is
sometimes used to contrast this approach to that of general editors which also handle vector
graphics. One of the first popular image editors was Apple's MacPaint, companion to MacDraw.
Modern examples are the free GIMP editor, and the commercial products Photoshop and Paint
Shop Pro. This class too includes many specialized editors — for medicine, remote sensing,
digital photography, etc.Wikipedia (2008)

2.3.1.7 2D animation

With the resurgence of 2D animation and its booming popularity, software like Toonz Harlequin,
CelAction, Anime Studio, Toon Boom Animation, Animaker and Adobe Flash have emerged as
the new tools of choice for both amateur and professional animators.

However, the principal issue with 2D animation is labor requirements. With advanced software
like RETAS and Adobe After Effects, coloring and compositing can be easily done with
significantly less time.

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Additional software is being developed to aid and speed up the process of digital 2D animation,
specifically in the area of automatic coloring and in-betweening. One such example is Cacani.

2D animations allows you to create images, characters, and animals that are two dimensional.
You can use cell animation, which is more traditional, but these days companies are coming up
with a number of animation software choices that you'll want to consider as well.

You can use these programs and methods to create frames for the characters you have created, so
that you can fool the eye into thinking that the animation you've created is actually moving or
speaking.

2D animations work much the same way that 3D graphics do, but the process is a little simpler,
so you may want to try software that is created for 2D applications first before expanding your
portfolio.

2.3.2 3D GRAPHICS

According to Donald Hearn and M. Pauline (2008), 3D computer graphics (in contrast to 2D
computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data
(often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and
rendering 2D images. Such images may be for later display or for real-time viewing.

Despite these differences, 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D
computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final
rendered display. In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is
occasionally blurred; 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting,
and primarily 3D may use 2D rendering techniques.

3D computer graphics are often referred to as 3D models. Apart from the rendered graphic, the
model is contained within the graphical data file. However, there are differences. A 3D model is
the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object (either inanimate or living). A
model is not technically a graphic until it is visually displayed. Due to 3D printing, 3D models
are not confined to virtual space. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image

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through a process called 3D rendering, or used in non-graphical computer simulations and
calculations.

2.3.2.1 History

William Fetter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1960, to describe his
work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld (1976), which
included an animation of a human face and hand — produced by Ed Catmull and Fred Parke at
the University of Utah.

2.3.2.2 Overview

The process of creating 3D computer graphics can be sequentially divided into three basic
phases: 3D modeling which describes the process of forming the shape of an object, layout and
animation which describes the motion and placement of objects within a scene, and 3D rendering
which produces an image of an object.

Layout and animation

Before objects are rendered, they must be placed (laid out) within a scene. This is what defines
the spatial relationships between objects in a scene including location and size. Animation refers
to the temporal description of an object, i.e., how it moves and deforms over time. Popular
methods include keyframing, inverse kinematics, and motion capture, though many of these
techniques are used in conjunction with each other. As with modeling, physical simulation is
another way of specifying motion.

Rendering

During the 3D rendering step, the number of reflections “light rays” can take, as well as various
other attributes, can be tailored to achieve a desired visual effect. Image created with Cobalt

Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get
photorealistic images, or by applying some kind of style as in non-photorealistic rendering. The

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two basic operations in realistic rendering are transport (how much light gets from one place to
another) and scattering (how surfaces interact with light). This step is usually performed using
3D computer graphics software or a 3D graphics API. The process of altering the scene into a
suitable form for rendering also involves 3D projection which allows a three-dimensional image
to be viewed in two dimensions.

Distinction from photorealistic 2D graphics


Not all computer graphics that appear 3D are based on a wireframe model. 2D computer graphics
with 3D photorealistic effects are often achieved without wireframe modeling and are sometimes
indistinguishable in the final form. Some graphic art software includes filters that can be applied
to 2D vector graphics or 2D raster graphics on transparent layers. Visual artists may also copy or
visualize 3D effects and manually render photorealistic effects without the use of filters

2.4 APPLICATION AREAS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS

Computer graphics has so many applications, some of which are discussed below.

• Computer aided design

• Computer art

• Entertainment

• Data visualization

• Graphs and charts

• Graphical user interface

• Image processing

• Virtual reality environment

2.4.1 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the design of objects, real
or virtual. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and

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engineering drawings, the output of CAD often must convey also symbolic information such as
materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional ("2D") space; or curves,
surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional ("3D") objects.

CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive,
shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many
more. It is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies,
advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that
even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by
engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major
driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and
software), and discrete differential geometry.

The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is often called computer-aided
geometric design (CAGD).

Current Computer-Aided Design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting


systems to 3D solid and surface modellers. Modern CAD packages can also frequently allow
rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle,
even from the inside looking out. Some CAD software is capable of dynamic mathematic
modeling, in which case it may be marketed as CADD — computer-aided design and drafting.

CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of
buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial
structures (hospitals and factories).

CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical
components, but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and
layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of
manufacturing methods of components. It can also be used to design objects.

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CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided
technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened
design cycle. CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen, print it out and save
it for future editing, saving time on their drawings. Occupations that use CAD include designers,
architects, and developers.

Originally software for Computer-Aided Design systems was developed with computer
languages such as Fortran, but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods
this has radically changed. Typical modern parametric feature based modeler and freeform
surface systems are built around a number of key C (programming language) modules with their
own APIs. A CAD system can be seen as built up from the interaction of a graphical user
interface (GUI) with NURBS geometry and/or boundary representation (B-rep) data via a
geometric modeling kernel. A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the
associative relationships between geometry, such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or
components in an assembly.

2.4.1.1 Hardware and OS technologies

Today, CAD systems exist for all the major platforms - CAD systems like QCad, NX provide
multiplatform support including Windows, Linux, UNIX and Mac OS X; ArchiCAD and
Vectorworks work on both Windows and Mac OS X, but not on Linux; and, for example,
AutoCAD works on Windows only. Right now, no special hardware is required for most CAD
software. However, some CAD systems can do graphically and computationally expensive tasks,
so good graphics card, high speed (and possibly multiple) CPUs and large amounts of RAM are
recommended.

The human-machine interface is generally via a computer mouse but can also be via a pen and
digitizing graphics tablet. Manipulation of the view of the model on the screen is also sometimes
done with the use of a spacemouse/SpaceBall. Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses
for viewing the 3D model.

Computer-Aided Design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in
many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. There
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are several different types of CAD. Each of these different types of CAD systems require the
operator to think differently about how he or she will use them and he or she must design their
virtual components in a different manner for each.

There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems, including a number of free and open
source programs. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over
scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting, since these can be
adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.

3D wireframe is basically an extension of 2D drafting. Each line has to be manually inserted into
the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features
directly added to it, such as holes. The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D
systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final
engineering drawing views.

3D "dumb" solids (programs incorporating this technology include AutoCAD and Cadkey 19)
are created in a way analogous to manipulations of real world objects. Basic three-dimensional
geometric forms (prisms, cylinders, spheres, and so on) have solid volumes added or subtracted
from them, as if assembling or cutting real-world objects. Two-dimensional projected views can
easily be generated from the models. Basic 3D solids don't usually include tools to easily allow
motion of components, set limits to their motion, or identify interference between components.

3D parametric solid modeling requires the operator to use what is referred to as "design intent".
The objects and features created are adjustable. Any future modifications will be simple,
difficult, or nearly impossible, depending on how the original part was created. One must think
of this as being a "perfect world" representation of the component. If a feature was intended to be
located from the center of the part, the operator needs to locate it from the center of the model,
not, perhaps, from a more convenient edge or an arbitrary point, as he could when using "dumb"
solids. Parametric solids require the operator to consider the consequences of his actions
carefully.

Some software packages provide the ability to edit parametric and non-parametric geometry
without the need to understand or undo the design intent history of the geometry by use of direct
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modeling functionality. This ability may also include the additional ability to infer the correct
relationships between selected geometry (e.g., tangency, concentricity) which makes the editing
process less time and labor intensive while still freeing the engineer from the burden of
understanding the model’s design intent history. These kind of non history based systems are
called Explicit Modellers. The first Explicit Modeling system was introduced to the world at the
end of 80's by Hewlett-Packard under the name SolidDesigner. This CAD solution, which
released many later versions, is now sold by PTC as "CoCreate Modeling"

Draft views are able to be generated easily from the models. Assemblies usually incorporate
tools to represent the motions of components, set their limits, and identify interference. The tool
kits available for these systems are ever increasing; including 3D piping and injection mold
designing packages.

Mid range software are integrating parametric solids more easily to the end user: integrating
more intuitive functions (SketchUp), using the best of both 3D dumb solids and parametric
characteristics (VectorWorks), making very real-view scenes in relative few steps (Cinema4D)
or offering all-in-one (form•Z).

Top end systems offer the capabilities to incorporate more organic, aesthetics and ergonomic
features into designs (Catia, GenerativeComponents). Freeform surface modelling is often
combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual
requirements as well as they interface with the machine.

2.4.1.2 The Effects of CAD

Started in the late 1980s, the development of readily affordable Computer-Aided Design
programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in
drafting departments in many small to mid-size companies. As a general rule, one CAD operator
could readily replace at least three to five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many
engineers began to do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional
drafting departments. This trend mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally
performed by a secretary as word processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. became standard
software packages that "everyone" was expected to learn.
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Another consequence had been that since the latest advances were often quite expensive, small
and even mid-size firms often could not compete against large firms who could use their
computational edge for competitive purposes. Today, however, hardware and software costs
have come down. Even high-end packages work on less expensive platforms and some even
support multiple platforms. The costs associated with CAD implementation now are more
heavily weighted to the costs of training in the use of these high level tools, the cost of
integrating a CAD/CAM/CAE PLM using enterprise across multi-CAD and multi-platform
environments and the costs of modifying design work flows to exploit the full advantage of CAD
tools. CAD vendors have effectively lowered these training costs. These methods can be split
into three categories:

I. Improved and simplified user interfaces. This includes the availability of “role”
specific tailorable user interfaces through which commands are presented to users
in a form appropriate to their function and expertise.
II. Enhancements to application software. One such example is improved design-in-
context, through the ability to model/edit a design component from within the
context of a large, even multi-CAD, active digital mockup.
III. User oriented modeling options. This includes the ability to free the user from the
need to understand the design intent history of a complex intelligent model.

2.4.2 COMPUTER ART

Computer art is any art in which computers played a role in production or display of the
artwork. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, videogame,
web site, algorithm, performance or gallery installation. Many traditional disciplines are now
integrating digital technologies and, as a result, the lines between traditional works of art and
new media works created using computers has been blurred. For instance, an artist may combine
traditional painting with algorithm art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining
computer art by its end product can thus be difficult. Computer art is by its nature evolutionary
since changes in technology and software directly affect what is possible. Notable artists in this
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vein include James Faure Walker, Manfred Mohr, Ronald Davis, Joseph Nechvatal, Matthias
Groebel, George Grie, Olga Kisseleva, John Lansdown and Perry Welman.

By the mid-1960s, most individuals involved in the creation of computer art were in fact
engineers and scientists because they had access to the only computing resources available at
university scientific research labs. Many artists tentatively began to explore the emerging
computing technology for use as a creative tool. In the summer of 1962, Dr. A. Michael Noll
programmed a digital computer at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey to
generate visual patterns solely for artistic purposes .His later computer-generated patterns
simulated paintings by Piet Mondrian and Bridget Riley and become classics. Noll also used the
patterns to investigate aesthetic preferences in the mid 1960s.

Computer art dates back to at least 1960, with the invention of the Henry Drawing Machine by
Desmond Paul Henry. His work was shown at the Reid Gallery in London in 1962, after his
machine-generated art won him the privilege of a one-man exhibition. In 1963 Joan Shogren of
San Jose State University wrote a computer program based on artistic principles, resulting in an
early public showing of computer art in San Jose, California on May 6, 1963.

The first two exhibitions of computer art were held in 1965- Computer-Generated Pictures, April
1965, at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York, and Generative Computergrafik, February
1965, at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart, Germany. The Stuttgart exhibit featured work
by Georg Nees; the New York exhibit featured work by Bela Julesz and A. Michael Noll. Note
the names of these expositions, not mentioning the word 'art', because these 'generated pictures'
were not yet seen as such. A third exhibition was put up in November 1965 at Galerie Wendelin
Niedlich in Stuttgart, Germany, showing works by Frieder Nake and Georg Nees.

In 1968, the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in London hosted one of the most influential
early exhibitions of computer art- Cybernetic Serendipity. The exhibition included many of
whom often regarded as the first true digital artists, Nam June Paik, Frieder Nake, Leslie Mezei,
Georg Nees, A. Michael Noll, John Whitney, and Charles Csuri.One year later, the Computer
Arts Society was founded, also in London.[4]

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At the time of the opening of Cybernetic Serendipity, in August 1968, a symposium was held in
Zagreb, Yugoslavia, under the title "Computers and visual research". It took up the European
artists movement of New Tendencies that had led to three exhibitions (in 1961, 63, and 65) in
Zagreb of concrete, kinetic, and constructive art as well as op art and conceptual art. New
Tendencies changed its name to "Tendencies" and continued with more symposia, exhibitions, a
competition, and an international journal (bit international) until 1973.

2.4.3 DATA VISUALIZATION

Data visualization is the study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information which
has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of
information".

According to Friedman (2008) the "main goal of data visualization is to communicate


information clearly and effectively through graphical means. It doesn’t mean that data
visualization needs to look boring to be functional or extremely sophisticated to look beautiful.
To convey ideas effectively, both aesthetic form and functionality need to go hand in hand,
providing insights into a rather sparse and complex data set by communicating its key-aspects in
a more intuitive way. Yet designers often fail to achieve a balance between design and function,
creating gorgeous data visualizations which fail to serve their main purpose — to communicate
information".

Data visualization is closely related to Information graphics, Information visualization, Scientific


visualization and Statistical graphics. In the new millennium data visualization has become
active area of research, teaching and development. According to Post et al (2002) it has united
the field of scientific and information visualization".

Data visualization scope


There are different approaches on the scope of data visualization. One common focus is on
information presentation such as Friedman (2008) presented it. On this way Friendly (2008)
presumes two main parts of data visualization: statistical graphics, and thematic cartography. In

25
this line the "Data Visualization: Modern Approaches" (2007) article gives an overview of seven
subjects of data visualization:

• Mindmaps
• Displaying news
• Displaying data
• Displaying connections
• Displaying websites
• Articles & resources
• Tools and services

All these subjects are all close related to graphic design and information representation.

On the other hand, from a computer science perspective, Frits H. Post (2002) categorized the
field into a number of sub-fields:

• Visualization algorithms and techniques


• Volume visualization
• Information visualization
• Multi resolution methods
• Modeling techniques and
• Interaction techniques and architectures

2.4.4 ENTERTAINMENT

Filmmaking (often referred to in academic contexts as film production) is the process of


making a film, from an initial story idea or commission, through scriptwriting, shooting, editing,
directing and distribution to an audience. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and
takes from a few months to several years to complete. Filmmaking takes place all over the world
in a huge range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies
and techniques.

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Stages

Film production occurs in five stages:

• Development— The script is written and drafted into a workable blueprint for a film.
• Pre-production—Preparations are made for the shoot, in which cast and crew are hired,
locations are selected, and sets are built.
• Production— The raw elements for the finished film are recorded.
• Post-Production—The film is edited; production sound (dialogue) is concurrently (but
separately) edited, music tracks (and songs) are composed, performed and recorded;
sound effects are designed and recorded; and any other computer-graphic 'visual' effects
are digitally added, all sound elements are mixed into "stems" then the stems are mixed
then married to picture and the film is fully completed ("locked").
• Sales and distribution—The film is screened for potential buyers (distributors), is
picked up by a distributor and reaches its cinema and/or home media audience.

2.4.5 GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

A graphical user interface (GUI) (sometimes pronounced gooey) is a type of user interface
item that allows people to interact with programs in more ways than typing such as computers;
hand-held devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or Gaming devices; household
appliances and office equipment with images rather than text commands. A GUI offers graphical
icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text
navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. The actions are
usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.

The term GUI is historically restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with
display resolutions capable of describing generic information, in the tradition of the computer
science research at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). The term GUI earlier might have been
applicable to other high-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as videogames,
or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays.

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A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform the user can interact
with, for the tasks of gathering and producing information.

A series of elements conforming a visual language have evolved to represent information stored
in computers. This makes it easier for people with few computer skills to work with and use
computer software. The most common combination of such elements in GUIs is the WIMP
("window, icon, menu, pointing device") paradigm, especially in personal computers.

Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of GUI is an important part of software
application programming. Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the underlying
logical design of a stored program, a design discipline known as usability. Techniques of user-
centered design are used to ensure that the visual language introduced in the design is well
tailored to the tasks it must perform.

Typically, the user interacts with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for
interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold. The widgets of a well-designed interface
are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of the user. A Model-view-
controller allows for a flexible structure in which the interface is independent from and indirectly
linked to application functionality, so the GUI can be easily customized. This allows the user to
select or design a different skin at will, and eases the designer's work to change the interface as
the user needs evolve. Nevertheless, good user interface design relates to the user, not the system
architecture.

The visible graphical interface features of an application are sometimes referred to as "chrome".
Larger widgets, such as windows, usually provide a frame or container for the main presentation
content such as a web page, email message or drawing. Smaller ones usually act as a user-input
tool.

A GUI may be designed for the rigorous requirements of a vertical market. This is known as an
"application specific graphical user interface." Among early application specific GUIs was Gene
Mosher's 1986 Point of Sale touchscreen GUI. Other examples of an application specific GUIs
are:

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• Self-service checkouts used in a retail store
• Automated teller machines (ATM)
• Airline self-ticketing and check-in
• Information kiosks in a public space, like a train station or a museum
• Monitors or control screens in an embedded industrial application which employ a real
time operating system (RTOS).

The latest cell phones and handheld game systems also employ application specific touchscreen
GUIs. Newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and touch screen multimedia
centers.

Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) designed the first Graphical User
Interface (GUI) in the 1970s. The first Macintosh computer is released in 1984, since then
the GUI became popular. Many graphic designers quickly accepted its capacity as a
creative tool.

2.4.6 IMAGE PROCESSING

Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as
photographs or frames of video; the output of image processing can be either an image or a set of
characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve
treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal-processing
techniques to it.

Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image
processing are also possible. This article is about general techniques that apply to all of them.
The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging.

2.4.7 VIRTUAL-REALITY ENVIRONMENT

Virtual Reality (VR), system that enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-
simulated environment. Various types of devices allow users to sense and manipulate virtual
29
objects much as they would real objects. This natural style of interaction gives participants the
feeling of being immersed in the simulated world. Virtual worlds are created by mathematical
models and computer programs.

INTERFACE DEVICES

Virtual reality simulations differ from other computer simulations in that they require special
interface devices that transmit the sights, sounds, and sensations of the simulated world to the
user. These devices also record and send the speech and movements of the participants to the
simulation program.

To see in the virtual world, the user wears a head-mounted display (HMD) with screens directed
at each eye. The HMD also contains a position tracker to monitor the location of the user's head
and the direction in which the user is looking. Using this information, a computer recalculates
images of the virtual world—a slightly different view for each eye—to match the direction in
which the user is looking, and displays these images on the HMD. The computer must generate
these new views at least ten times a second in order to prevent the user's view from appearing
halting and jerky and from lagging behind the user's movements. Virtual-world scenes must be
kept relatively simple so that the computer can update the visual imagery quickly enough.
Because of these simplifications and other shortcomings of current visual displays and computer
graphics, VR participants can easily distinguish a simulation from physical reality.

Users hear sounds in the virtual world through earphones in the HMD. The information reported
by the position tracker on the HMD can also be used to update audio signals. When a sound
source in virtual space is not directly in front of or behind the user, the computer transmits
sounds to arrive at one ear a little earlier or later than at the other and to be a little louder or
softer and slightly different in pitch. However, as with visual imagery, there are currently
scientific and engineering challenges that must be overcome in order to simulate accurately all
the sounds heard in the physical world.

The haptic interface, which relays the sense of touch and other physical sensations in the virtual
world, is the least developed and perhaps the most challenging to create. Currently, with the use
of a glove and position tracker, the computer locates the user's hand and measures finger
30
movements. The user can reach into the virtual world and handle objects but cannot actually feel
them. It is particularly difficult to generate the sensations that are felt when a person taps a hard
surface, picks up an object, or runs a finger across a textured surface. To simulate these
sensations, a set of computer-controlled motors faster and more accurate than any presently
available would have to generate force feedback by physically pushing against the user. Another
problem is determining how a user would wear these motors and the wiring needed to control
them. Touch sensations would also have to be synchronized with the sights and sounds users
experienced in their HMDs. A current solution to the haptics challenge is the use of desktop
devices that can apply small forces, through a mechanical linkage, to a stylus held in the user's
hand. Users can feel when the point of the stylus encounters a virtual object, and they can drag
the stylus across the surface to feel its texture and surface geometry.

DEVELOPMENT AND USES

Researchers have been working on virtual-reality devices for many years. In the 1960s Raymond
Goertz at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, and Ivan Sutherland at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, demonstrated early
versions of HMDs. Goertz, and later Michael Noll of Bell Laboratories, also developed prototype
force-feedback devices. In recent years, virtual-reality devices have improved dramatically as the
result of various technological advances. Computers now are more powerful, have a higher
memory capacity, are smaller, and cost less than in the past. These developments, along with the
advent of small liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) that can be used in HMDs, have made it possible
for scientists to develop virtual-reality simulations.

Virtual reality is currently used to explore and manipulate experimental data in ways that were
not possible before. Therapists use VR to treat sufferers of child abuse and people who are afraid
of heights. Muscular dystrophy patients can learn to use a wheelchair through virtual reality.

In the future, surgeons may use VR to plan and practice an operation on a virtual patient rather
than a real person. Architects could take clients on a virtual tour of a new house before it was
built. VR could be used to train the operators of aircraft and other complicated machinery.
Network VR simulations could enable people in many different locations to participate together

31
in teleconferences, virtual surgical operations, or simulated military training exercises. Hasan
Fleyeh(2000).

CHAPTER THREE

3.O METHODOLOGY

3.1 CARTOON ANIMATION

Design and implementation would be carried out on one of the major aspects of computer
graphics. Computer art, as earlier discussed, comprises several other sub-divisions, one of which
is CARTOON ANIMATION.

Cartoon animation happens to be one of the major aspects of computer art as it involves a whole
lot of technicalities. It is quite a costly procedure, in both time and money, and anything that
eases its birth process should be ignored. If audiences only knew all it involved in any cartoon
animation production, their respect for what is called the most creative computer art forms would
increase. On a large scale production, it is important that the animation team function efficiently.
There are always a lot of personalities, and also gadgets required for a single production of an
animated cartoon. Considering all the personalities involved, it is often a miracle that any
animation film gets made at all. Whether the film being produced is a 30-second television
commercial or a full-length animated feature, the process of animation should follow certain
structured procedures. If these procedures are adhered to at the outset, then all will be well. But
failing to respect the laid down guidelines can prove extremely costly in time and money,
regardless of the individual skills of the personnel involved.

The following are the basic requirements for the design of a regular cartoon animated film.

I. A director
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II. A producer

III. A number of animators and assistant animators

IV. Cleanup artists

V. Tracers, Painters, and Renderers

VI. Special effects artists, Editors, and Rostrum Cameramen (Where necessary).

The job of the computer scientist or, better still, the graphics artist, is to play the role of the
director, animator, editor, and the special effects artist. For this particular project, the use of
animation software known as ADOBE AFTER EFFECTS will be adopted.

ADOBE AFTER EFFECTS

Adobe After Effects is a digital motion graphics and compositing software published by Adobe
Systems. Its main purpose is for film and video post-production.

Adobe After Effects is primarily used for creating motion graphics and visual effects. After
Effects allows users to animate, alter, and composite media in 2D and 3D space with various
built-in tools and third party plug-ins, as well as individual attention to variables like parallax
and user-adjustable angle of observation.

Both After Effects and some non-linear editing systems (NLEs) are layer-oriented, meaning that
each individual media object (video clip, audio clip, still image, etc.) occupies its own track. In
contrast, other NLEs use a system where individual media objects can occupy the same track as
long as they do not overlap in time. This track-oriented system is more suited for editing and can
keep project files much more concise. The layer-oriented system that After Effects adopts is
suited for extensive effects work and keyframing. Although other compositing packages—
especially ones that employ tree or node workflows, such as Apple Shake—are better suited to
manage large volumes of objects within a composite, After Effects is able to somewhat counter
the clutter by selectively hiding layers (using the Shy switch) or by grouping them into pre-
compositions.

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The main interface consists of several panels (windows in versions prior to After Effects 7.0).
Three of the most commonly used panels are the Project panel, the Composition panel, and the
Timeline panel. The Project panel acts as a bin to import stills, video, and audio footage items.
Footage items in the Project panel are used in the Timeline panel, where layer order and timing
can be adjusted. The items visible at the current time marker are displayed in the Composition
panel.

After Effects integrates with other Adobe software titles such as Illustrator, Photoshop, Premiere
Pro, Encore, Flash, and third-party 3D programs like Cinema 4D.

After Effects was originally created by the Company of Science and Art in Providence, RI, USA.
Version 1.0 was released in January 1993. Version 2.1 introduced PowerPC acceleration in 1994.
CoSA along with After Effects was then acquired by Aldus corporation in July 1993; this
company was then acquired by Adobe in 1994, and with it PageMaker and After Effects.
Adobe's first new release of After Effects was version 3.0.

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Figure 3.1 – Adobe After Effects Environment.

3.2 DESIGN PROCESS

This design process combines both the old fashioned animation technology with the computer-
based animation technology. This is done because of flexibility in design as the designer might
want to draw out his own character as it soothes him. The design and implementation of this
project would be based on combined technologies.

The following are the tools to be considered in the design process:

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I. SCRIPT: The first stage of any film production is the creation of the script, and, as for
any other production, the script for an animation film is extremely important. This film
script differs, however, from the live-action film script. With live action, dialogue is of
great importance to the actor’s performance. With the animation film script, on the other
hand, dialogue is less important, and, indeed, complicated dialogue should be avoided as
much as possible. It is the visual action in plot and performance that is paramount. The
best animation is achieved through a form of mimed action, where dialogue is
nonexistent and the visual invention captures the imagination. For the on-going project,
the script describes a man and a woman dressed in traditional attire, and reading the early
morning, or late night NEWS in a stationary position.

II. STORYBOARD: From the script, the director produces a storyboard, a series of
drawn images that graphically portray the action described in the script. Often, while
producing the storyboard, deficiencies in the structure and format of the script are
detected and corrected by the director. The storyboard, then, allows the writer, the
director, producer, and animation team to see and appreciate the content of the project. If
the project is more ambiguous than a 30-second television commercial, often a think
tank, comprised of all the contributors involved, is set up and the story, content, and ideas
are finely polished.

III. SOUNDTRACK: After the script and storyboard are completed, the recording of any
dialogue or key music is undertaken. Since animation relies totally on perfect
synchronization of the picture to the soundtrack, the animator must receive the final
recorded track before beginning to draw. Without it, the animator cannot time the action
accurately. When the action is in sync with music, it should be possible to record a simple
guide track, with a minimum of musicians, to indicate the essential beat and the basic
melodies. A click track - which has a predetermined click or beat, overlaid onto it - serves
this purpose.

IV. TRACK BREAKDOWN: When the soundtrack has been made, an editor assembles
it into the precise working length of the film and then breaks down the track. Basically,
the breakdown is a simple process of analyzing the dialogue phonetically – by sound

36
rather than by spelling – and documenting the precise position of each sound in relation
to the film frames. If, for instance, a character begins to cough after one second of film
time (35mm movie film is projected at 24 frames per second), the editor marks the
beginning of the cough on the 25th frame and then indicates the subsequent frames
through which the cough continues. The entire track breakdown is transferred to the bar
sheet, a pre-printed sheet designed to allow every frame of soundtrack and film to be
identified and analyzed visually.

V. DESIGNS: While the soundtrack is being broken down, the director selects one or
more film designers to produce visual interpretations of all the characters featured in the
film. When these interpretations are approved, each character is drawn from a multitude
of angles and placed on a single sheet of paper, called a model sheet, for all the animators
to use as a reference. In addition to the character designs, at this stage, ideally, the
background styling for all the principal sequences in the film is produced.

VI. CLEANUP: On a major production, it is ideal to have a team of cleanup artists on


staff. They take all the animation drawings and clean them up, to give them a consistent
visual style. This is important because, when many animators are working on the same
character, there is an inevitable variation in the look of the character. After the entire
cleanup is completed, it is best to line-test the drawings again, just to check that no
additional mistakes have slipped in.

VII. TRACE AND PAINT: When a cleaned-up line test is finally approved, each
drawing is transferred to a thin sheet of celluloid or acetate – a cel – and painted in the
colors of the original design. In the early days of animation, transferring the drawings to
cels involved large teams of trained artists, who carefully traced each drawing required in
a varied range of line techniques. Today, however, it is possible to quickly photocopy a
drawing on the cel or for the cleanup artists and animators to draw directly on the cel
itself, avoiding the pencil stage altogether. After the animated image is on cel, and in
preparation for the final shoot, a team of artists paints the cel in opaque colors on the
reverse side to the drawing, thus keeping the paint from going over the lines and
producing flatter, smoother colors.

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VIII. BACKGROUNDS: While the animation is being traced and painted, another team of
artists produces the background – everything behind or sometimes, in front of the moving
characters that do not move. Each background artist must achieve a continuity of style by
producing work identical to the original film design style.

IX. CHECKING: As the finished animation cels and backgrounds are completed scene by
scene, they are passed to the checker, who makes sure that everything is correctly drawn,
traced, painted, and prepared for the computer animator, who will finally animate it. It is
essential that the checker be efficient; incomplete or incorrect work discovered during the
final shoot results in wasted time and money.

X. FINAL ANIMATION: When the checker is satisfied that all the artwork for each
scene is right, the artwork is passed on to the computer animator, who does the animation
of the completed scene. The stage of the animation is sometimes referred to as the final
shoot. Just as the name implies, the final shoot is the final stage in the actual filming
procedure related to the artwork.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Following the process of design as put down in the previous chapter, the design of the cartoon
animation prototyped will be explained in detail here, with inclusion of the voice over process,
the sketching and painting processes, and the animation process.

4.1 DESIGN

The first thing to be carried out, as specified in the previous chapter of this project work, is the
SCRIPTING, followed by the STORYBOARD. For this particular project work, the storyboard
had to determine the scripting, in other words, the storyboard was thought of before the scripting

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was put down. The storyline worked on in this project work has to do with the media,
specifically a broadcasting scenario in Yoruba language.

Two newscasters are involved in this storyline, a male and a female, who happen to be the
project developers. The script was later developed after storyline had been thought of. Below, is
the breakdown of the eventual script used.

Male:E ku irole o, Oruko mi ni OLAOKE OLUSEGUN

Female:Oruko mi ni ADEAGBO ADEBOLA

Male: Eyi ni iroyin ni soki lori project tv. Won fi to wa leti wipe awon omo ile iwe giga ti
Ladoke Akintola ti n gradue nse igbekale ise ipari won, eyi ti oloyinbo npe ni project defence.

Female:Ipinle Oyo ati Osun nja lori tani ni ile iwe giga ti Ladoke Akintola tin be ni ilu
Ogbomoso

Male: Eyi ni iroyin ni soki. Ema ba wa kalo fun awon eto jankan jankan to ku lori project tv…
Eku irole

After the script is being written or better still, typed, the animator seeks the attention of the voice
over artists for the recording. After this is done, the breakdown is carried out, and from here, the
artists get the attention of the characters to be drawn, in order to get the movement of the mouth,
nose, eyes, head at the pronunciations of particular vowels like A,E,I,O, and U, for the process of
DESIGN. The artist also draws the background of the news room, and every other required
details for the process of design.

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Figure 4.1- Sketched parts at different vowel sounds

The artist is also responsible for, after drawing all the moving parts of the proposed animation,
the eventual drawing of the finished product in terms of drawing. This also would include the
eventual painting of the work that has been drawn. This is done under the TRACE AND PAINT
aspect of the work.

Figure 4.2 – Completely sketched diagram

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Figure 4.3- Completely painted diagram

4.2 IMPLEMENTATION

The final step, which happens to be the most important, is the eventual animation of all the
drawn works. All of the drawings are animated together with the soundtrack that had been earlier
recorded. As earlier mentioned, the animation software used is ADOBE AFTER EFFECT. To
make use of this software effectively, the computer system must meet the following
requirements.

i. 2 or more Gigabytes of RAM

ii. Great Processor speed

iii. Large harddisk size

iv. Full color Capability

Each drawn part is imported into the environment of the software, and animated using specific
tools in the software package.

A very important thing to note is that, each of the lines of animation blends with the exact parts
of the equivalent recorded voice over.

The main interface of After Effects consists of several panels. Three of the most commonly used
panels are the Project panel, the Composition panel, and the Timeline panel. The Project panel

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acts as a bin to import stills, video, and audio footage items. Footage items in the Project panel
are used in the Timeline panel, where layer order and timing can be adjusted. The items visible at
the current time marker are displayed in the Composition panel.

After the process of animation, which takes quite a time, a process known as RENDERING is
carried out. This allows the animated work to be viewed using one or more video players.

The completed work is placed in a compact disc or maintained in the system of design, as the
case may be.

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CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1 SUMMARY

Some typical applications of computer-generated animation are entertainment (motion pictures


and cartoons), advertising, scientific and engineering studies, and training and education.
Although we tend to think of animation as implying object motions, the term computer
animation generally refers to any time sequence of visual changes in a scene. In addition to
changing object position with translations or rotations, a computer-generated animation could
display time variations in object size, color, transparency, or surface texture. Advertising
animations often transition one object shape into another: for example, transforming a can of
motor oil into an automobile engine. Computer animations can also be generated by changing
camera parameters, such as position, orientation, and focal length. And we can produce computer
animations by changing lighting effects or other parameters and procedures associated with
illumination and rendering. Many applications of computer animation require realistic displays.

5.2 CONCLUSION

No GUI (Graphical user Interface) building or development can be complete without a


knowledge of computer graphics, and animation, as the case may be. It is, therefore,
recommended that the practical applications of computer graphics and animation be inculcated
into the curriculum of the computer science students, so that students would be able to carry out
animation projects, such as building an animated departmental notice board, animated
information board, etc, and also be able to design very attractive GUIs for their software
developments.

No one person can have a perfect understanding of computer animation; this is because of its
broadness.

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