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CMMI® : St George or the Dragon?

I T &S A e r o s p a c e D e f e n c e

 Trevor Rudge,
 Thales Research and Technology, UK

® CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University

Thales Research and Technology UK


Contents

 Overview
 Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter
 Deployment in Thales
 Pitfalls and Risks
Date, reference

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Contents

 Overview
 Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter
 Deployment in Thales
 Pitfalls and Risks
Date, reference

3 Thales Research and Technology UK


Key Points to Improve Performance

PEOPLE

Process holds the elements together


PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Major determinants of product cost, Process


schedule, and quality
SW Products
Practices

Technology

People
Date, reference

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What Is a Capability Maturity Model ?

 Capability Maturity Model (CMM®*) :

"A Capability Maturity Model (CMM) contains the


essential elements of effective processes for
one or more disciplines.
It also describes an evolutionary improvement
path from an ad hoc, immature process to a
disciplined, mature process with improved
quality and effectiveness"
Date, reference

(R) CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.

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CMMI® -Based Improvement Could Help

 Improve how people work so they can make better use of tools
and technology.

 Use a reference model which is based on practices already


found to be successful.

 Use a reference model developed by other industry members


and which is internationally recognised

 CMMI® models meet this requirement.


Date, reference

® CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University

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Proliferation of CMMs ==> CMMI®

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
Sw-CMM® v2.0
IPPD* CMMI®
CMMI for
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
SE/SW/IPPD*/SS*
SE-CMM & SECAM
(v1.1)

reducing of :
Sw- ACQUISITION - redundancies
CMM - additional complexity
- costs & times
- discrepancies
* IPPD : Integrated Product and Process Development
SS : Supplier Sourcing
Date, reference

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Overview of CMMI® Process Areas

CMMI Options: * with Integrated Product & Process Development (IPPD)


** with Supplier Sourcing (SS)
Level Project Management Engineering Support Process Management

5 Optimizing CAR: Causal Analysis OID: Organizational


and Resolution Innovation
4 Quantitati- QPM: Quantitative &Deployment
OPP: Organizational
vely
Managed Project Management Process Performance
IPM: Integrated Project RD: Requirements DAR: Decision Analysis OPF: Organizational
Management Development and Resolution Process Focus
RSKM: Risk TS: Technical OEI*: Organizational OPD: Organizational
3 Defined Management Solution Environment for Process Definition
IT*: Integrated PI: Product Integration OT: Organizational
Teaming Integration Training
ISM**: Integrated VER: Verification
Supplier Management
PP: Project Planning REQM
VAL : Requirements MA: Measurement and
: Validation
PMC: Project Management Analysis
Monitoring and Control PPQA: Process &
2 Managed Product Quality
SAM: Supplier
Agreement Assurance
Date, reference

Management CM: Configuration


Management
1 Initial

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The CMMI® Project
 Sponsored by the DOD and the National Defense
Industrial Association (NDIA)
 1998 to 2000
 Collaborative endeavour
 Industry (Defense, Aerospace & Commercial)
 Government
 Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Carnegie Mellon
University
 EER Systems
 Motorola
 U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force
 Ericsson Canada
 Northrop Grumman
 Federal Aviation Administration
 Ernst and Young
 Pacific Bell
 National Security Agency
 General Dynamics
 Q-Labs
 Software Engineering Institute
 Harris Corporation
 Raytheon
 ADP, Inc.
 Honeywell
 Rockwell Collins
 AT&T Labs
 KPMG
 Sverdrup Corporation
 BAE
Date, reference

 Litton
 THALES
 Boeing
 Lockheed Martin
 TRW
 Computer Sciences Corporation

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Some CMMI® Early Adopters

 The Boeing Company  Northrop Grumman


 Computer Sciences Corporation Information Technology Sector
(CSC) Integrated Systems Sector -
 Defense Group Airborne Early Warning/Electronic
 Concurrent Technologies Warfare Systems
Corporation (CTC)  Raytheon Company
 National Security Division  TRW
 General Dynamics Land Systems  United Space Alliance
 Goddard Space Flight Center NASA  U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC
 Harris Corporation Software Enterprise
 Lockheed Martin
 Motorola, Inc.  THALES
Date, reference

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Contents

 Overview
 Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter
 Deployment in Thales
 Pitfalls and Risks
Date, reference

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THALES Process Improvement Roadmap

In synergy with ISO 9000, Tickit, EFQM, ...

Hw - CMM

Transition
SE - CMM to CMMI
Sw - CMM
Level 4
Level 3
Level 2
Date, reference

92 94 96 98 2000 02

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What is a Low Maturity Organization?

 Highly dependent on current practitioners

 Improvised by practitioners and management

 Not rigorously followed

 Results difficult to predict

 Low visibility into progress and quality

 Compromise of product functionality and quality


to meet schedule

 Use of new technology is risky


Date, reference

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What is a High Maturity Organization

 A disciplined approach for development and


management

 Defined and continuously improving

 Supported by management and others

 Well controlled

 Supported by measurement
Date, reference

 Basis for disciplined use of technology Institutionalized


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Some Typical Problems

 Specifications
 requirements not always identified
 requirements not always verifiable
 Allocation to components incomplete
 Requirements traceability informal

 Poor integration of disciplines

 Lessons are not learned from the past


 The systems engineers are permanently reinventing the
Date, reference

wheel

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Some Typical Problems

We’ll See
 Specifications We’ll See
 requirements not always identified Look what
I’ve already
 requirements not always verifiable Invented
 Allocation to components incomplete
 Requirements traceability informal

 Poor integration of disciplines

 Lessons are not learned from the past


 The systems engineers are permanently reinventing the
Date, reference

wheel

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CMMI® : the Manager’s Vision
Maturity Level Characteristics Management visibility Business
Optimising Continuous and view

Probability
measurable E S
5 process
improvement is a Target Time / Cost
Quantita- way of life
Business-oriented

Probability
tively
Managed process S
E
management, the
4 performance of Target Time / Cost

Defined Thethe processes


process is

Probability
predictable
defined at the
S
organisation level E
3 are tailored to the
project. Performance Targe Time / Cost
is more predictable
Project t
Managed

Probability
management is S
more disciplined. E
2 Past successes Target Time / Cost
can be expected
Initial Performance is

Probability
on similar projects
difficult to predict.
Date, reference

E
Practices may not S
1 Target Time / Cost
be effective, rely
on individuals

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Results measured by a THALES Unit
for Software impact on cost deviation
Average Cost Between CMM level 1 and
Variance - % Project Distribution
CMM level 3
reduced by 20% 10 software projects for each
60 plot
On average late 96 Level 3
to acceptance -
50
divided by 24
94 Level 2
Number of 40
defects during
Customer 30
acceptance -
divided by 20 92 Level 1
20

Cost of customer
acceptance - 10
reduced by 60%
Date, reference

- - - + + + + + + +
30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
% Cost deviation

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Impact of Process Improvement

GLOBALLY

• Change of culture
• Inter-personnel
relationships improvement
• Confidence &
Responsibility atmosphere

On PROJECTS On ORGANISATIONS

• Engineering community sharing


• Respect of Cost and Schedule
common references & practices
Commitments
facilitates :
• Practices Efficiency
• People mobility
Improvement
• Career management
• Satisfaction of business and
Date, reference

• Company workforce
quality objectives
management

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Contents

 Overview
 Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter
 Deployment in Thales
 Pitfalls and Risks
Date, reference

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CMMI Assessments in Thales

 6 SCAMPI Appraisals in Thales Units from October


2001 to June 2003
 From Level 2 to Level 4
 Approx. 70 assessments using CMM and CMMI in
Thales Units in 2003, of all types (launch, mini,
official,…)
 A pool of 89 corporate assessors from Thales Units,
trained in CMMI and/or CMM and the assessment
method
 Assessment needs are managed by Thales Research
& Technology via a corporate database and using a
defined process
Date, reference

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Elements for Cost/Benefit (SW experience)
 Cost of PI primarily attributed to :
 Cost of Engineering Process Group (coord. of actions)
 Cost of WG to define/optimize practices
 Cost of assessments
 Cost of training/deployment of practices

 Benefits :
 Primarily on the ability to meet schedule
 Better requirements elicitation
 Better Software management
 Higher defect detection and lower verification effort

 Non measurable benefits :


 improved morale of the developers
 improved customer satisfaction (fewer post release problems in
Date, reference

the SW)
Reference: Data & Analysis Center for Software /DOD -
http://www.dacs.dtic.mil/techs/roispi2
 ROI : 6 to 1
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Average cost and ROI (Thales source)

 For software:

 1.5% of software development effort for SEPG team


 1.5% of software development effort for dissemination
 Key figures : aprox. 30 units; teams from 50 to 300 engineers

 Measured ROI between 3 (minimum) and 6 (maximum)


 period from 1992 to 1997

 Investment in multi-discipline Process Improvement with CMMI:


 2%-3% of development effort in population affected to move
from one level to another

 Factors affecting cost:


 Number of disciplines, number of sites, size of population, range
of different types of project
Date, reference

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Contents

 Overview
 Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter
 Deployment in Thales
 Pitfalls and Risks
Date, reference

24 Thales Research and Technology UK


Management of the improvement initiative

An improvement initiative must be


managed as a project

A customer Sponsorship of the Top Management


Clear identification of business objective and
Objective
improvement scope
Responsibilities A project leader and people involved
Definition / improvement of practices
Activities Deployment
Training
Budget / schedule Estimation / Tracking of cost and delay
Tracking of the actions
Milestones
Regular mini-assessments
Final Acceptance Official assessment
Date, reference

Change of culture and practices on projects and


Product
in the organization

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Other Risks and Pitfalls

 Common-sense failure:
 “Compliance-based” process definition
 Lack of focus on business benefit/improvement of
performance
 Standard processes defined based on practices
which already do not work and which are not
tailorable to all business needs
 Change Management
 Buy-in, communication not addressed
 Practitioners not involved
 Changing business-critical processes is risky
Date, reference

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Some Ways Process Improvement Can Get Stuck

Shared Skilled Maturity Resources PI Managed


Objectives People Rewarded Provided as a Project Change

Skilled Maturity Resources PI Managed Lack of Clear


People Rewarded Provided as a Project Decisions

Common
Shared Maturity Resources PI Managed
Objectives Rewarded Provided as a Project
Mistakes
repeated

Shared Skilled Resources PI Managed Change


Objectives People Provided as a Project Depends
on Individuals

Shared Skilled Maturity PI Managed Lack of


Objectives People Rewarded as a Project Progress
Date, reference

Shared Skilled Maturity Resources Uncoordinated


Objectives People Rewarded Provided Actions

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Summary

 The CMMI model is well established and has a


credible origin
 Thales has been long time advocator of the model
 A culture of Process Improvement is well established
within the organisation
 Process Improvement needs to be managed and co-
ordinated in order to succeed
Date, reference

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 Thank You for your attention

Trevor Rudge
Thales Research and Technology
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