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Form 1 Science Chapter 4 : The Various Resources on Earth

1. Water, air, soil, minerals, fossil fuels and living things are the important
resources on Earth.
The uses of various resources on Earth

Resource Use
 It is needed by living things to carry
_________________ in the body.
 It is needed by living things to maintain the body
_________________.
Water  It is needed by plants to transport food from the
____________ to other parts of the plant.
 It is needed by green plants to make food through
____________________.
 It provides a ____________ for all aquatic organisms.
 It is needed for process such as _________________,
Air
burning of fuels and photosynthesis.
 It contains various organic materials, ____________,
Soil ___________________, water and air.
 It also provides a habitat for some organisms.
 Minerals are used by humans to make various
objects. Example
Minerals (a) Copper is used to make electric cables and ________.
(b) Aluminium is used to make __________ for drinks
and kitchen utensils.
 Fossil fuels such as coal, _______________ and
Fossil fuels natural gas are resources of energy for motorised
vehicles, power stations and factory machines.
 Plants and animals are sources of __________,
Living things
building materials, clothes and fuel.

Form 1 Notes Chapter 4 prepared by Ms Sue Page 1


Form 1 Science Chapter 4 : The Various Resources on Earth

4.2 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures


1. An _____________ is a substance which cannot be broken down into two
or more simpler substance by any ______________ or ______________
method.
2. It is the simplest form of _________.
3. An element is made up of atoms of _________ type only. A
___________ of similar atoms is known as a molecule.

Iron is made up of iron atoms Oxygen is made up of oxygen molecules

4. Elements can be classified into ____________ and _________________.


5. All metallic elements, except _____________, are solids at room
temperature.
6. Non-metallic elements exist as liquids, solids and gases at room
temperature.
Examples of metals

Metal State (at room temperature)


Aluminium Solid
Iron Solid
Silver Solid
Copper Solid
Magnesium Solid
Potassium Solid
Tin Solid
Mercury Liquid

Form 1 Notes Chapter 4 prepared by Ms Sue Page 2


Form 1 Science Chapter 4 : The Various Resources on Earth

Example of non-metals

Non-metal State (at room temperature)


Carbon Solid
Sulphur Solid
Iodine Solid
Bromine Liquid
Oxygen Gas
Hydrogen Gas
Chlorine Gas
Nitrogen Gas

Properties of metal and non-metals

Metal Non-metals
Have shiny surfaces Have __________ surfaces
Malleable Brittle
Ductile Not ductile
Have _________ melting points Have _________ melting points
__________ conductors of heat and __________ conductors of heat and
electricity electricity

Compounds
1. A ______________ is a substance made up of two or more elements
chemically combined together.
2. Examples of compounds are ___________, common salt, ____________
_____________ and ammonia.

Form 1 Notes Chapter 4 prepared by Ms Sue Page 3


Form 1 Science Chapter 4 : The Various Resources on Earth

3. The component elements of a compound can be separated by chemical


means such as __________________ or _____________.
4. Compounds are formed by chemical reactions in which heat or light is
______________ or ____________.
5. Compounds have properties that are _______________ from those of the
elements that it contains.

Mixtures
1. A mixture consists of two or more substances that are not
_________________________.
2. A mixture may be formed from two elements, elements and compounds
or two compounds.

______________ _______________ ________________

Examples of mixtures

Mixtures Components

Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, water


vapour, inert gases, dust, bacteria and
other substances

Stones, sand, silt, humus, minerals, air,


water

Salt, water

Petrol, kerosene, diesel, bitumen

Form 1 Notes Chapter 4 prepared by Ms Sue Page 4


Form 1 Science Chapter 4 : The Various Resources on Earth

3. The following are some general properties of mixtures.


(a) They are formed without any chemical reaction.
(b) They have properties that are the sum of the original properties of their
components.
(c) They can be separated into their components by physical methods of
separation.
Some separation techniques of mixtures

Separation technique Example

Separation of iron fillings from


_________________________
sulphur powder

________________ Separation of sand from water

_______________ Separation of salt from salt solution

Separation of the different grades of


__________________
petrol

The differences between a compound and a mixture

Compound Mixture

It is prepared from a ______________ It is prepared by any ______________


reaction means

A new substance is formed No new substance is formed

The new substance has properties Each constituent retains its original
which are different from those of the properties
original elements

Elements are combined in a fixed ratio Elements are not combined in a fixed
ratio

The components can only be separated The components can be separate by


by ______________ means ______________ means

___________is absorbed or released ________________ is absorbed or


when it is prepared released when it is prepared

Form 1 Notes Chapter 4 prepared by Ms Sue Page 5


Form 1 Science Chapter 4 : The Various Resources on Earth

4.3 The Importance of Earth’s Resources

1. As Earth’s resources are required to ensure then continuity of life on


Earth, they need to be preserved and conserved.
2. __________________ means maintaining certain areas of the Earth in
their natural condition.
3. Examples of efforts in preservation are the setting up of forest reserves,
national parks and marines parks.
4. __________________ is the protection and management of the resources
of the Earth such as flora and fauna, water, air, mineral salts, fossil fuels
and soil.
5. Preservation and conservation of Earth’s resources prevent
(A)The destruction of resources which provide the basic needs.
(B) The destruction of animals and plants and their habitats.
(C) The destruction of the environment through pollution.
(D)Animals and plants from becoming _____________.
(E) The destruction of the balance of nature.
6. Practising the reuse and the recycle are the common methods used to
preserve and to conserve the Earth’s resources.
7. Reusing and recycling are some of the common methods used to preserve
and to conserve the Earth’s resources.
8. _____________ refers to use discarded or unwanted materials to save
natural resources.
9. _______________ refers to the processing of waste materials to become
new useful things in order to save the Earth’s resources.
10.Examples include the recycling of newspaper, plastic, glass and
aluminium cans.

Form 1 Notes Chapter 4 prepared by Ms Sue Page 6