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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

2. Conceptual Design

2.1 Introduction

T he idea that designers should take in to consideration the environment impact of their
work is not new. The designer is in a powerful position to help create a better world.
Designers should resist designing built in obsolescence. Also designers should strive to find
ways of using their skills for socially useful ends, especially in developing countries like Sri
Lanka.
As a result of dramatic scientific evidence of ozone depletion and new
scientific agreement about the impending problems of global warming, a new sense of
urgency has arisen. Today world community has changed their attitude by joining
environment campaigning groups. Further they have changed their behaviour to
accommodate recycling or energy efficiency and also by using environment criteria in their
purchasing decisions as consumers.
We are entering a period when environment performance, together with a
wide range of ethical and moral issues, will be on the agenda for business, government and
individuals. New criteria will evolve for judging the acceptability of product and processes.
New methods will emerge to calculate the true cost of activities. New regulations will control
industrial and individual behaviour. Decisions about the nature of our society and economy
may well be underpinned by the growing commitment to sustainable rather than
uncontrolled development. Therefore design has to consider in the context of its social and
ecological impact. It does not come under the appearance. In some fields, most notably
architecture, a broader view has sometimes been taken because of the direct impact of
buildings on their local environment. But even here little attention has been paid to the
implications of the type of construction materials used for project.
Above introduction shows the level of responsibility that a designer has in
order to shape the environment and the limited resources. The essence of this report is
focused on the conceptual stage of the Thulhiriya textile city. Which is situated 65 Kilometers

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

from the Colombo. The land area that that has been selected is about 168 acres. Accessibility
to the site will be provided by A-6 road (Ambepussa - Kurunegala). Strive of our group is to
develop 67 acres and rest of the land will be reserved for future expansions.
Finding ways of minimizing the harmful effects of buildings may lead in two apparently
contradictory directions. The development of highly sophisticated technology to help control
the functions inside a building and the use of entirely natural, very simple features to ensure
that the building makes the best use of its site.
Decisions taken at the design stage of building have long term consequences
because they determine how the building is serviced – i.e. lit and ventilated. They also
determine how the building will fit in to the local area and community. It is therefore
important to conduct a thorough investigation of proposed development to ensure that all
factors have been considered.
The architect of and structural designer have a major role to play in
determining how well the building will perform in terms of energy usage and human health
and safety. They also have a role in promoting the use of materials which produced in an
environmentally sensitive way.
In the following chapters of the report will be deal on the strategy that we have
in order to develop the concept of green city. Further the way to meet our vision of creates a
city that is commercially successful, fully functional and highly aesthetically attractive.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

2.2 Energy Efficiency

I ncreasing the energy effectiveness of buildings is one of the most suitable way of saving
energy. Although it is not possible to control the human activity within buildings that may
involve careless use of energy, the way in which the building is designed can moderate the
use of energy without occupants having to be particularly aware of it. Designing for energy
efficiency involves an integrated approach, from building structure and internal systems
right through to interior furnishing.
There are two broad approaches. The first aims to minimise the impact of the
external environment, through the use of good insulation, controlled ventilation and
economic use of space. The second is to use directly the effect of the sun and natural
ventilation to minimise the need for cooling systems. This approach uses the sitting of the
building as a major contributor to internal climate control. The different approaches will
appropriate in different situations. In each development there has to be a balance between
construction cost, technical feasibility, energy effectiveness and function.
According to initial features of our design there are several factory buildings,
housing complex and other buildings. By having large windows on the north side allow
daylight in to the building without the risk of solar heat gain. Also the north vent chamber
emerges from the roof gaining height to encourage the stack effect ventilation. Very small
glazed openings on the east side minimise solar heat gain.
The primary focus of the site analysis is to ensure that the building fits
appropriately in to service infrastructure. The way in which a building is sited, however,
relative to other buildings or to natural features of the landscape can be a major determinant
of its energy efficiency. In a hot climate like prevailing at Thulhiriya site it could be important
to ensure that available breeze can blow easily through the building, creating natural cooling
ventilation.
National grid will be the main source of power supply while there are several
other alternative energy sources. For example solar power can effectively be converted in to
light by using L.E.Ds. Dendro power plant will be installed at corner of the site. Out put of
the plant can be coupled with main supply to fulfil the energy requirement of the city.
Compacted fluorescent lighting is highly popular and the performance of such lighting
system can be increased by using a reflective material for the top covering.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

Starting from the last decade attitude of energy consumers has changed.
Consumers in several states will be faced with choices about which method that they should
use to fulfil their energy requirement. The emerging power source is defined as green power.
Our group will have a closer look on this green power during the whole heap of activities of
the project. For example energy captured from the solar heat will be a vital contributor.
“Intelligent” building controls allow cooling lighting appliances to be switched
on and regulated as needed, with the aim of using minimum energy. Sensitive thermo stats
and high sensors, combined with a computer based programme, allow temperatures to be
monitored and cooling and lighting needs adjusted accordingly. For example if the
temperature can be precisely control in a large factory space significant energy can be saved.
Most automated systems will aim to achieve maximum energy savings, but they allow the
flexibility of overriding programmes to ensure convenience and comfort.
Control systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated. They no longer
monitor one service only, such as cooling, but can now provide a comprehensive and
integrated approach to regulating the entire internal requirements and energy needs of the
building.
Air conditioning systems are major consumers of energy, in addition to being
potential sources of hazardous CFC emission. The growth in their usage could off-set the
energy savings being achieved by more efficient use of lighting. Pressures to install air-
conditioning units may well increase further, in anticipation of the effects of global warming.
It is therefore important to consider how they could be made more efficient, and also whether
any viable alternatives exist.
The use of “intelligent” controls will help reduce energy wastage but, from a
design perspective, it is worth considering how the structure of a building can help to keep it
cool, reducing the need for any artificial cooling.
Just as solar energy can be used to heat thermal stores to provide a source of
heating for a building, so thermal stores can be used to help cool a building heat collected
during the day is radiated off to the outside during night, enabling the store to absorb the
next day’s heat. Solar energy can also be used to power refrigeration units, and so can
provide a complete approach to heating and cooling. There is usually however a need to
supplement the system with a complementary one, because of the unpredictability of
weather

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

Alternatives to air conditioning may lie in the use of natural ventilation


systems. A natural flow of air is created through a building because of the differences in
pressure between cold and worm air. On the windy side of the building air will be cooler,
and will flow towards the low pressure side of the building away from the wind, displacing
warmer air. Warm air will be upwards, through chimneys.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

2.3 Textile Design and Manufacturing

A t first glance, it might appear that sticking to natural fibres and using vegetable dyes
rather than chemicals, would ensure minimal environment impact. But even the
production of natural fibres such as cotton can cause major environment damage. Pesticides
and fertilizers are used in large quantities in cotton growing and intensive cotton production
can exhaust the fertility of the soil. It is much less energy consuming, however than
production of a synthetic fibre such as polyester. Fibres such as viscose, made from wood
pulp derived cellulose, come from a renewable source and are bio degradable. But the
process used to turn wood pulp in to fabric involves the use of potentially harmful chemicals.
Textile production is split in to different stages. Fibre and yarn production,
bleaching and dyeing, cloth assembly and finishing. The different raw materials take various
routes to the bleaching and dyeing stage, after which the processes can be similar for
different types of cloth.
Textiles are manufactured from basic categories of raw material, natural fibres, regenerated
fibres derived from natural sources, and man-made synthetic fibres derived from petro-
chemicals. But although materials may be produced very differently, they all have some
detrimental environment effects if produced on an industrial scale.
Many different substances may be used during the manufacture of yarn and
fabric. Bleaching, dyeing, mercerising, proofing and stabilising are just some of the processes
a fabric may go through to give it the desired strength, appearance and texture. During these
treatments, the most important environmental factor is the pollution that is possible if the
correct controls are not used. Some of the substances used, like waxes and starches, may be
relatively harmless and biodegradable except in high concentrations, but others may be toxic.
Before cotton is woven, starch or synthetic size is used to lubricate and
strengthen the fibres during weaving. This is washed off when cotton has been woven.
Discharge large quantities of starch in to rivers can stimulate the growth of oxygen depleting
micro-organisms, despite the fact that is biodegradable synthetic size needs to be carefully
controlled. Very large quantities of water are used to clean and bleach silk, this both wastes
and contaminates water.
Apart from the above considerations following quality control measures will be
introduced.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

• Broken needle log sheets will be maintained.


• All metal tags will be tagged and fixed.
• Needle/eye/pulley guards will be available.
• Each snap button is buttoned and unbuttoned two times to check whether it is
properly secured or not.
• All functional items such as bows, flows, etc ; are manually pulled twice to check
whether properly secured or not.
• All snap machines are tested hourly by using the push pull scale.
• Pinch setting is recorded hourly.
• All the garments are sent through the converter type needle detection (needle check
machine) which is calibrated every hour.
• Metal free environment will be maintained.
All the garments will be checked for any foreign objects.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

2.4 Career Path

T he development and success of the whole city depends on the attitude of the employees.
Join garment industry would be the last option that a young boy or a girl have in their
minds after finishing the education. A well defined career path has not been developed by
the garment industry for a bottom most worker. Due to this reason most of the workers are
disappointed about the future.
Improve the productivity of the whole city it is imperative to give a reasonable
credit to each and every member. By doing this we not only increase the production capacity
but also form a crew with a lot of willingness. So well stabilised carrier path has defined for
any individual who join the textile city to climb his or her dream ladder as shown in Fig 1.
When a new group of people join the industry an initial training period is
necessary. Then they will be directed to relevant sections of the production process. After
getting some experience under their belt, energetic workers will receive promotions as
supervisors. Further their experience will be used as an important input to the research and
development. Which invariably help them to improve the understanding and skill of state of
the art practices of the industry.
Next level of the path consists of an evaluation programme. There will be paper
exams, interviews to capture the right people to the next level. Talented people who get
through this level will be posed with extra responsibilities.
Apart from this safety and welfare of working community will be a key
consideration. Arrangements for annual gatherings, social activities, educational
programmes for children.
This approach can be summarised as bringing the goals and values of
individual in line with goals and values of entire industry.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

Fig: 1 Dream ladder

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

2.5 Material Specification

A
rchitects and designers have a considerable opportunity to influence environment
impact through the specification of materials. Understanding the environment issues
surrounding the extraction of raw materials, the manufacture of construction materials, and
their effects in use, is important to ensure that environment problems are minimised.
Thoughtful design can greatly reduce the amount of waste generated in the construction
process. Dimensioning to use standardized construction material sizes will reduce both
resource consumption and construction costs. Limit use of finish materials by specifying
elements that are durable and self finished, such as exposed, textured concrete. Use of factory
assembled or off-site construction of components can allow tighter on-site assembly
tolerances, better air leakage performance and can greatly reduce waste from production or
assembly.
Specifying materials with high recycled content not only reduces the amount of
new material, energy and pollution in their production, it reduces the need for land fill, and
possible pollution from incineration. Many materials and components are now available that
have recycled or waste product content. These range from concrete that uses fly ash
aggregate, carpets made from recycled soda bottles, and insulation made from recycled
paper. Designer should pay particular attention to the recycled contents of building materials
derived from scarce non-renewable resources. Such as
• Increasingly scarce metals: copper, lead, zinc, tin, steel and aluminium
• Plastics made from petroleum products rather than cellulose
• Other materials such as concrete, requiring large amounts of petroleum energy for
production.
These should be selected with as high a recycled content as possible and limited
to applications where they will contribute to the overall longevity of the building, have no
economical substitutes or are designed for reuse/recyclables. However the availability of
products with recycled content is dependent on demand by specifies. As a design group we
can help ensure that innovative products with greater recycled content are available by
making this a visible priority in our material specifications.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

We have conducted a research on the availability of such material during the


“construct 2007” and “Techno 2007” exhibitions. Following materials will help us to make the
green dream true.
• Compressed stabilized earth bricks
• Building panels made out of straw
• Compressed interlocking bricks
The amount of energy used to transport building materials from their source to
the building site can be a major consideration. The transport of large quantities of very heavy
materials over long distances can significantly contribute to wastage of energy. Strive should
be focussed to get material as close as possible to the site.
The use of locally occurring materials is becoming more popular because of the
emphasis now being put in many planning considerations on how well the building fits in to
the local environment.
Another interesting finding is the use of fly ash in the concrete mixture. Many
reasons for using fly ash are global, environmental or societal in nature. The production of
Portland cement puts about a ton of carbon dioxide (primary green house gas) in to the
atmosphere for every ton of cement produced. Roughly half a ton from the fuel used to cook
the raw limestone, and half a ton from the calcinations of the limestone. This indicates a
single industry has the opportunity to slow the very alarming trend toward global warming.
For every ton of fly ash used (to replace Portland cement)
• Enough energy is saved to provide electricity to a modern house in Sri Lanka for 24
hours
• The landfill space conserved equals 455 days of solid waste produced by the Sri
Lankan.
• The reduction in carbon dioxide emissions equals two months emissions from an auto
mobile.
Fly ash happens to be a perfect replacement for half or more of the cement in
almost any mix, and yields equal or better quality concrete. This is why high usage of fly ash
in concrete is now a component for global trading so called “carbon credits” based on the
Kyoto accords and the making points in the increasingly important LEED system of
evaluating and rating buildings.
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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

Other aspects in development include the use of other industrial by-products as


cementitious materials or as components of cement manufacturing, the use of previous
concrete to absorb storm water, the use of light or white concrete to reduce the urban heat-
island effects, and the reuse of demolished concrete as aggregate in new structures.
Garments without guilt- green factory
A complete design of a factory with green aspects is the key consideration
during our project. Factory will be designed as a reinforced concrete structure. Which make
quite tedious task to apply green concepts. As I explained in the material specification it is
possible to achieve eco friendly concrete structure by following means.
• Using fly ash to the concrete mixture.
• Following precise detailing to use minimum amount of steel.
• Use compressed soil blocks as filling material.
• Using panels made out of straw.
• Always give priority to materials with low embodied energy.
• Use recycled materials whenever possible.
Arrangement of spaces inside the green factory has been done according to the
production procedure. One side of the factory consists from material stores. Then the
production section followed by the packing section. This attribute will avoid any congested
situations inside the factory. Production area has double height walls. Also we have arranged
roofs in such a way that it facilities maximum light gain with minimum of solar heat entering
in to the building.
Green spectrum has lot of dimensions other than sound architecture. Issues
related to the health and safety of the workforce have to be consider.
With the belief that cannot better lives of people without a clear understanding of issues that
confront them, both professionally and personally following pro people initiatives will be
introduced.
1. Factory compliance officer to carry out daily audits.
2. Fire drills will be conducted once every six months
3. One person for every 25 employees to be trained for fire fighting.
4. First aid workshops are carried out once a year.
5. One trained first aid person for every 25 employees.
6. A certified nurse is available at the medical centre at any working time.
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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

7. A qualified doctor visits once a week to check employee, free transport, free medical
deposit, annual trip, sport meet, get together and more entertainment activities.
By having above concepts our city will be able to secure the right people. Many
developed countries are facing the prospect of a decline in the number of people making up
the skilled work force. It is our duty to make ourselves as attractive as possible to have an
excellent work crew.
Maintaining the loyalty and commitment of the workforce will also demand
that the goals and values of the company are compatible with the goals and values of
individuals.

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Comprehensive Design Project Thulhiriya Textile City

2.6 Road Network and Accessibility

T extile city should be connected with the A-6 high way which facilitates shorter delivery times for
large orders, a sound accessibility to the city will attract more and more foreign investments.
Existing railway line which is running by the side of the river can be connected with the city by a
bridge.
Road network inside the city has been arranged which cause minimum congestion while
handling large vehicles.
A separate lane for cyclists will be a key feature. This enhances the green behaviour with
zero environmental pollution. Parking for bicycles will be provided to each factory.
Traffic data from RDA and generated traffic due to city has considered to determine ADT.

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