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1604.8 - 1606.2.2.

of the rails acting in either direction normal to the runway 1606.1.2.2 Provisions of 1606.2 do not apply to build-
rails and shall be distributed with due regard for lateral ings or structures having unusual geometric shapes,
stiffness of the structure supporting these rails. The longi- response characteristics or site locations for which
tudinal force shall, if not otherwise specified, be taken as channeling effects or buffeting in the wake of upwind
10% of the maximum wheel loads of the crane applied at obstructions may warrant special consideration. For
the top of the rail. these cases, wind loads shall be based on wind tunnel
tests or nationally recognized data.
1604.8 Supports for walkway. Where walkways are to be
installed above ceilings, supports shall be designed to carry a 1606.2 Buildings 60 feet high or less
load of 200 lb (890 N) occupying a space 2 II2 sq ft (0.23 1606.2.1 Scope. Procedures in 1606.2 shall be used for
m2), so placed as to produce maximum stresses in the affect- determining and applying wind pressures in the design of
ed members. buildings with flat, single sloped, hipped and gable-
shaped roofs whose mean roof heights exceed neither 60
1604.9 Sidewalks. Sidewalks shall be designed to carry ft (18.3 m) nor the least horizontal dimension of the build-
either a uniformly distributed load of 200 psf (9.6 kPa) or a ing.
concentrated load of 8,000 lb (35.6 kN) on a space 2 II2
square feet (0.58 m 2) and placed in any position, whichever 1606.2.2 Wind pressures
will produce the greater stresses. This does not apply to side- 1606.2.2.1 Structural members, cladding, fasteners and
walks on grade. systems providing for· the structural integrity of the
building shall be designed for the velocity pressures
SECTION 1605 from Table 1606.2A using Figure 1606, multiplied by
SNOW LOADS the appropriate pressure coefficient from Tables
1606.2B and 1606.2C and Figures 1606.2C to 1606.2E
Ground snow loads shall be as set forth in Figure 1605. and by the appropriate use factor from Table 1606.
Design roof snow loads shall be calculated in compliance Coefficients given in 1606.2 include a gust factor and
with provisions in Section 7, Snow Loads, of ASCE 7. thus do not correspond to coefficients used in many
other sources. Mixing of coefficients and dynamic
SECTION 1606 pressures from different sources shall not be permitted.
WIND LOADS
TABLE 1606
USE FACTORS FOR BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES
1606.1 Applications. All buildings, structures and parts
thereof shall be designed to withstand the appropriate wind NATURE OF OCCUPANCY USE FACTOR
loads prescribed herein. Decreases in wind loads shall not be
made for the effect of shielding by other structures. Wind All buildings and structures except those listed below 1.0
pressures shall be assumed to act normal to the surfaces con-
Buildings and structures where the occupant
sidered. load is 300 or more in anyone room. 1.15
Buildings and structures designated as essential
1606.1.1 Determination of wind forces. Wind forces on facilities, including, but not limited to: 1.15
every building or structure shall be determined by the pro- (l) Hospital and other medical facilities having
visions of ASCE 7. surgery or emergency treatment areas
(2) Fire or rescue and police stations
Exceptions: (3) Primary communication facilities and disaster
1. Provisions of 1606.2 shall be permitted for build- operation centers
ings 60 ft (18.3 m) high or less. (4) Power stations and other utilities required in an
2. Wind tunnel tests together with applicable sec- emergency
tions of 1606.2.
Buildings and structures that represent a low hazard to
3. Provisions of SBCCI SSTD 10 shall be permitted human life 'in the event of failure, such as agricultural 0.9
for applicable Group R2 and R3 buildings. buildings, certain temporary facilities, and minor storage
4. Provisions of AF&PA Wood Frame Construction facilities
Manual for One and Two-Family Dwellings -
1995 SBC High Wind Edition ©1996 shall be
permitted for applicable wood framed buildings 1606.2.2.2 Members that act as both part of the main
of Group R3 occupancy. wind force resisting system and as components and
5. ANSIINAAMM FP 1001 Specification for cladding shall be designed for separate load cases.
Design Loads of Metal Flagpoles.
1606.2.2.3 No part (component, cladding or fastener)
1606.1.2 Limitations of a building shall be designed for less than 10 psf (479
1606.1.2.1 Mixing of provisions from ASCE 7 and Pa) acting in either direction normal to the surface.
1606.2 shall not be permitted.

216 STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997


(fj

i!
z
• • e
c
»
JJ
c
lD
c::
rc
zG)
0
0
c
m
@
-" PX/'-~rt~!~~"m~,)~f~TT<1tr3ro['N, /~\I----url I=tf~~ ('lll/')
(,D
(,D
..... (4f:)
(~)

(5~)

i~Vfb~
(1~go)
(1\00) , '25

i~b

In CS 8ro8S, slt.-pecffle Case Studies are required to


establish ground snow loads. Extreme local Yarlatrons
::: ~l:su:cc:.r.~owloads In these arel!S preclude mapping

Numbers In P..8l'1Jnthoses nl:PI'88IH1't the up-per eleVBtlon


limits In feet for the grouner snow IOlld values presented'
b.low. SlbNIpllClflc case studies are reqUired to establish
ground snow loads at elevations not covered.

To convert Iblsq ft to kNm 2, multiply by 0.0479.

To convert feet to met91'S, multiply by 0.3048


I ., I I I I
o 100 200 300 miles

"T1
15
FIGURE 1605 c
::D
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg , FOR THE UNITED STATES (POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT) m
.....
O'l
I\) o
-" en
.....
III1II1IIIII1111111111111I111111111111111111111111111111.111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111'1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111III11111IIIII111I11111111111111111111111111111111111111I111I11111I111111111111111111111111111111111111111111I1I1
FIGURE 1606

80 III BASIC WIND SPEED 70 MPH


~ SPECIAL WIND REGION
80

GULF OF MEXICO

NOTES:
1. VALUES ARE FASTEST-MILE SPEED AT 33 FT (10 M) ABOVE
GROUND FOR EXPOSURE CATEGORY C AND ASSOCIATED
WITH AN ANNUAL PROBABILITY OF 0.02. .

2. LINEAR INTERPOLATION BETWEEN WIND SPEED CONTOURS


IS ACCEPTABLE.

3. CAUTION IN USE OF WIND SPEED CONTOURS IN MOUNTAINOUS


REGION OF ALASKA IS ADVISED.

FIGURE 1606
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL
(ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, VIRGIN ISLANDS AND PUERTO RICO SHALL USE A BASIC WIND SPEED OF 110 MPH)

For SI: 1 mph =0.447 mls.

218 STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997


1606.2.2.4 -1606.3.1

1606.2.2.4 The wind load used in the design of the 1606.2.5.3 Gable and hip roofs. Pressure coefficients
main wind force resisting system for buildings shall GCp for components and cladding or roofs shall be
notbe less than 10 psf multiplied by the area of the taken from Figure 1606.2D and 1606.2E. Pressure
building projected on a vertical plane that is perpendic- coefficients for roof angles greater than 45 degree
ular to the wind direction. (0.785 rad) shall be based on nationally recognized
data.
1606.2.3 Definitions. For definitions, see Chapter 2.
1606.2.4 Main wind force resisting system (MWFRS). 1606.2.5.4 Monoslope roofs. Pressure coefficients
Pressure coefficients GCp for all wind loading actions GCp for monoslope roofs shall be taken from Figure
arising from combining loads acting simultaneously on 1606.2D for roof slopes between 0 degrees and 3
more than one surface shall be determined by 1606.2.4. degrees (0 and 0.052 rad), and from Figures 1606.2F
and 1606.2G for roof slopes greater than 3 degrees
1606.2.4.1 End zones. The width of "X" end zones as (0.052 rad).
shown in Figures 1606.2B 1 and 1606.2B2 shall be
twice the value of "Z" determined in 1606.2.5.1. For 1606.2.6 Simplified wind loads for buildings with ver-
framed buildings whose end bay spacings are greater tically spanning walls. Wind loads for enclosed buildings
than or equal to "X" the difference in end zone and with vertically spanning walls whose main wind force
interior zone loading can be allocated entirely to the resisting system consists of floor and roof diaphragms that
end frame. are laterally supported by shear walls, braced frames or
moment frames shall be permitted to be designed in accor-
1606.2.4.2, Applicability of coefficients. Pressure dance with this section. Structural members, cladding, fas-
coefficient GCp for the main wind force resisting sys- teners and systems providing for the structural integrity of
tem shall be taken from Tables 1606.2B or 1606.2C the building shall be designed for the velocity pressures
and applied with consideration for the torsional effect from Table 1606.2A using Figure 1606, multiplied by the
appropriate pressure coefficient from Table 1606.2E and
in each individual load case, as shown in Figures
Figures 1606.2C to 1606.2E and by the appropriate use
1606.2Bl and 1606.2B2 and as specified in 1606.2.2. factor from Table 1606.
Where more than one load case exists, buildings shall
be designed for all load cases. 1606.2.6.1 Main wind force resisting system. All ele-
ments and connections of the main wind force resisting
1606.2.4.3 Overhang coefficients. The pressure coef- system shall be designed for vertical and horizontal
ficients GCp to be used for the effects of roof over- loads based on the combined leeward and windward
hangs on MWFRS for each of the load cases and wind- wall and roof coefficients GCp as given in Table
ward and leeward surfaces shall be as indicated in 1606.2E. The design wind load shall be applied non-
Table 1606.2D. Roof overhang members shall be concurrently to each major axis of the structure. The
designed in accordance with 1606.2.5. width of the end zone shall be determined from
1606.2.4.1.
1606.2.5 Components and cladding. Pressure coeffi-
cients GCp for wind loading actions on components and Wall elements subjected to wind loads which also sup-
cladding shall be determined from Figures 1606.2C, port roof framing members shall be considered part of
1606.2D and 1606.2E, based on effective wind area. the main wind force resisting system. These elements
shall be designed for the interaction of vertical and hor-
1606.2.5.1 Edge strips. The width of the edge strips izontal wind loads or have independent resistance
"Z" for walls and roofs shall be determined by the mechanisms for vertical load and horizontal load. The
smaller of 10% of the least horizontal dimension of the horizontal load shall be based on GCp = ± 0.95 for end
building or 40% of the eave height, but not less than the zones and GCp =± 0.70 for interior zones.
larger of 4% of the least horizontal dimension of the
building or 3 ft (914 mm). 1606.2.6.2 Components and cladding. All wall and
roof framing including cladding and connections of
1606.2.5.2 Walls. these elements shall be designed using pressure coeffi-
1. Pressure coefficients GCp for components and cients GC p determined from Figures 1606.2C,
cladding of walls shall be taken from Figure 1606.2D, and 1606.2E.
1606.2C according to their effective wind areas
and applied to the corresponding regions of the 1606.3 Roof systems
building as shown in Figure 1606.2C. 1606.3.1 Roof deck. The roof deck shall be designed to
2. Coefficients taken from Figure 1606.2C may be withstand the wind pressures determined under 1606.2 for
reduced 10% if the angle of the roof is no greater buildings 60 ft (18.3 m) or less in height or ASCE 7 for
than 10 degrees. buildings of any height.

STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997 219


1606.3.2· TABLE 1606.2A

1606.3.2 Roof coverings. Roof coverings shall comply 7. Maximum thickness of the tail of the roof tile shall
with 1606.3.1. Rigid tile roof coverings that are air-per- not exceed 1.3 inches (33 mm).
meable and installed over a roof deck shall be permitted to 8. Roof tiles using mortar set or adhesive set systems
be designed in accordance with 1606.3.3. shall have at least 2/3 of the tile's area free of mor-
tar or adhesive contact.
1606.3.3 Rigid tile. Wind loads on rigid tile roof cover-
ings shall be determined as the lifting moment Ma . The
lifting moment shall be determined in accordance with the
TABLE 1606.3.3
following formula: LIFT COEFFICIENTS FOR RIGID ROOF TILE

ROOFING MATERIAL
where:
Concrete & clay tile 0.20
Ma = aerodynamic uplift moment (ft-lb) acting to
raise the tail of the tile.
qh = wind velocity pressure (psf) determined from
Table 1606.2A.
C L = lift coefficient determined from Table
1606.3.3 or by testing in accordance with
§.. 1707.5.
TABLE 1606.2A
VELOCITY PRESSURE (q)1 (PSF)
b =exposed width (ft) of the roof tile.
L =length (ft) of the roof tile. FASTEST MILE WIND SPEED, (V)2 IN MPH
(FROM FIGURE 1606)
La = moment arm (ft) from the axis of rotation to MEAN ROOF - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
the point of uplift on the roof tile. The point of HEIGHT H3 (ft) 70 80 90 100 110
uplift shall be taken at 0.76 L from the head of
the tile and the middle of the exposed width. 0-15 10.0 13.I 16.6 20.4 24.7
16 10.2 13.3 16.9 20.8 25.2
For roof tiles with nails or screws (with or
17 10.4 13.6 17.2 21.2 25.6
without a tail clip), the axis of rotation shall be 18 10.5 13.8 17.4 26.1
21.5
taken as the head of the tile for direct deck 19 10.7' 14.0 17.7 21.9 26.5
applications and as the top edge of the batten 20 10.9 14.2 18.0 22.2 26.8
for battened applications. For roof tiles fas- 22 11.2 14.6 18.5 22.8 27.6
tened only by a nail or screw along the side of 24 1l.5 15.0 18.9 23.4 28.3
the tile, the axis of rotation shall be determined 26 11.7 15.3 19.4 23.9 28.9
by testing. For roof tiles installed with battens 28 12.0 15.6 19.8 24.4 29.6
and fastened only by a clip near the tail of the 30 12.2 15.9 20.2 24.9 30.1
tile, the moment arm shall be determined 33 12.5 16.4 20.7 25.6 31.0
35 12.8 16.7 21.1 26.0 31.5
about the top edge of the batten with consider-
40 13.3 17.3 21.9 27.0 32.7
ation given for the point of rotation of the tiles 45 13.7 17.9 22.7 28.0 33.8
based on straight bond or broken bond and the 50 14.1 18.4 23.3 28.8 34.9
tile profile. 55 14.5 19.0 24.0 29.6 35.8
GCp = roof coefficient for each applicable zone deter- 60 14.9 19.4 24.6 30.4 36.7
mined from Figure 1606.2E. Roof coefficient
shall not be adjusted for internal pressure. For SI: I mph = 0.447 mis, I psf = 47.8803 Pa, 1 ft = 0.305 m.
Notes:
I. A single value for velocity pressure (q) is used for the entire building.
Concrete and clay roof tiles complying with the following
limitations shall be designed to withstand the wind loads q = 0.00256 V
2
( ~ ) zn
prescribed in this section.
1. The roof tiles shall be either loose laid on battens or 2. V = Fastest mile wind speed in miles per hour determined from
mechanically fastened or mortar set or adhesive set. Figure 1606.
2. The roof tiles shall be installed on solid sheathing 3. H = Mean height of roof above ground or 15 ft whichever is greater.
which has been designed as components and Eave height may be substituted for mean roof height if roof angle "a"
is not more than 10 degrees.
cladding in accordance with 1606.2.3.3.
3. An underlayment shall be installed in accordance
with 1509.7.
4. The tile shall be single lapped interlocking with a
minimum head lap of not less than 2 inches (51
mm).
5. The length of the tile shall be between 1.0 and 1.75
ft (305 and 533 mm).
6. The exposed width of the tile shall be between 0.67
and 1.25 ft (203 and 381 mm).

220 STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997


------ -------------------

TABLE 1606.2B - TABLE 1606.2C

TABLE 1606.2B
GC COEFFICIENTS FOR MWFRS
PROVIDING RESISTANCE IN TRANSVERSE DIRECTION1
END ZONE COEFFICIENTS INTERIOR ZONE COEFFICIENTS
ROOF NOTES
ANGLE5 1E 2E 3E 4E 2 3 4

OJ) 0< a s 10° 2 +.50 -1.4 -.80 -.70 +.25 -1.0 -.65 -.55
" -.15
~::l 3 +.90 -1.0 -.40 -.30 +.65 -.60 -.25
10° < a S 20° 2 +.70 -1.4 -1.0 -.95 +.40 -1.0 -.75 -.70
~
-0
<l)
3 +1.1 -1.0 -.60 -.55 +.80 -.60 -.35 -.30
~ 20° < as 30° 2 +.70 -1.0 -1.0 -.95 +.40 -.75 -.75 -.70
U -.30
3 +1.1 -.60 -.60 -.55 +.80 -.35 -.35
~" 30° < a S 45° 2 +.60 +.10 -.80 -.75 +.45 +.05 -.70 -.65
3 +1.0 +.50 -.40 -.35 +.85 +.45 -.30 -.25
4 -.75 -1.4 -.80 -.75 -.70 -1.0 -.65 -.70
a = 90° 5 2 +.58 +.58 -.74 -.74 +.43 +.43 -.62 -.62
3 +.98 +.98 -.34 ~.34 +.83 +.83 -.22 -.22
4 -.74 -1.4 -.80 -.74 -.71 -.98 -.62 -.71
0< a s 10° 2 +.10 -1.8 -1.2 -1.1 -.15 -1.4 -1.1 -.95
-0 3 +1.0 -.90 -.30 -.20 +.75 -.50 -.15 -.05
~
0 10° < a s 20° 2 +.30 -1.8 -1.4 -1.4 0.0 -1.4 -1.2 -1.1
U
3 +1.2 -.90 -.50 -.45 +.90 -.50 -.25 -.20
~"
b 20° < a s 30° 2 +.30 -1.4 -1.4 -1.4 0.0 -1.2 -1.2 -1.1

'"
.~
0..
30° < as 45°
3
2
+1.2
+.20
-.50
-.30
-.50
-1.2
-.45
-1.2
+.90
-.05
-.25
-.35
-.25
-1.1
-.20
-1.1
3 +1.1 +.60 -.30 -.25 +.95 +.55 -.20 -.15
4 -1.2 -1.8 -1.2 -1.2 -1.1 -1.4 -1.1 -1.1
a = 90° 5 2 +.28 +.28 -1.0 -1.0 +.03 +.03 -1.0 -1.0
3 +1.1 +1.1 -.24 -.24 +.93 +.93 -.12 -.12
4 -1.1 -1.8 -1.2 -1.1 -1.1 -1.4 -1.0 -1.1
"0.-
<l) 0< as 10° 6,11 + 1.8 -.70 -.70 0 +1.8 -.70 -.70 0
0 7,11 + 1.8 .-.30 -.80 0 +1.8. -.30 -.80 0
'£""' 10° < a s 25° 6,11 + 1.8 -.70 -.70 0 +1.8 -.70 -.70 0
<l)
7,11 + 1.8 +.70 -.70 0 +1.8 +.70 -.70 0
0..
E 7,11 + 1.8 +.20 -.90 0 +1.8 +.20 -.90 0
0
u 25° < a s 45" 6,11 + 1.8 -.70 -.70 0 +1.8 -.70 -.70 0
7,11 + 1.8 +2.0 +.30 0 +1.8 +2.0 +.30 0

See notes following Figure 1606.2B2

TABLE 1606.2C
GC COEFFICIENTS FOR MWFRS
PROVIDING RESISTANCE IN LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION
(ALL ROOF ANGLESp

END ZONE INTERIOR ZONE


COEFFICIENTS COEFFICIENTS
BUILDING
CLASSIFICATION NOTES 2E 3E 5E 6E 2 3 5 6

Enclosed 8,9 -1.40 -0.80 +0.50 -0.70 -1.00 -0.65 +0.25 -0.55
8,10 -1.00 -0.40 +0.90 -0.30 -0.60 -0.25 +0.65 -0.15
Partially 8,9 -1.80 -1.20 +0.10 -1.10 -1.40 -1.05 -0.15 -0.95
Enclosed 8,10 -0.90 -0.30 +1.00 -0.20 -0.50 -0.15 +0.75 -0.05
6,11 -0.70 -0.70 +1.8 0.00 -0.70 -0.70 +1.8 0.00
Open 7,11 -0.30 -0.80 +1.8 0.00 -0.30 -0.80 +1.8 0.00

See notes following Figure 1606.2B2

STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997 221


FIGURE 1606.281 • TA8LE 2606.282

LOAD CASE A: WINDS GENERALLY PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE LOAD CASE 81: WINDS GENERALLY PARALLEL TO RIDGE
4 4

" 4E "
<
" 8 2E

H 1E
. B~,>-)?

WIND DIRECTION RANGE


~
WIND DIRECTION RANGE

FIGURE 1606.281
APPLICATION OF COEFFICIENTS FOR PRIMARY STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS PROVIDING RESISTANCE IN TRANSVERSE DIRECTION
(POSITIVE SIGN INDICATES INWARD ACTING PRESSURE)

LOAD CASE 82: WINDS GENERALLY PARALLEL TO RIDGE LOAD CASE 83: WINDS GENERALLY PARALLEL TO RIDGE
6

6E 6E

WIND DIRECTION RANGE WIND DIRECTION RANGE

FIGURE 1606.282
APPLICATION OF COEFFICIENTS FOR PRIMARY STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS PROVIDING RESISTANCE IN LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION
(POSITIVE SIGN INDICATES INWARD ACTING PRESSURE)

222 STANDARD 8UILDING CODE@1997


TABLE 1606.20

Notes to accompany Tables 1606.28, 1606.2C and Figures 1606.281, 1606.282:

I. The building must be designed for all wind directions. Transverse and longitudinal directions denote directions perpendicular and parallel to ridge,
respectively. For buildings having flat roofs, a ridge line normal to the wind direction shall be assumed at the mid-length dimension of the roof for the
direction considered. Each corner must be considered in turn as the windward corner shown in the figures. For all roof slopes, Load Case A and Load
Cases B2 and B3 are required as separate conditions to generate the wind actions, including torsion, to be resisted by the structural systems. If the roof
slope is 30 degrees or more, a third loading condition B I is also required.
2. Load Case A with internal pressure; wind generally perpendicular to ridge.
3. Load Case A with internal suction; wind generally perpendicular to ridge.
4. Load Case B 1 with internal pressure; wind generally parallel to ridge.
5. For roof angles, 45 0 < a < 90 0 , the coefficient OCp may be obtained by linear interpolation.
6. Uplift equal on both roof surfaces.
7. Unbalanced loading on roof surfaces.
8. Load Case B2 with internal pressure; wind generally parallel to ridge.
9. Load Case B3 with internal pressure; wind generally parallel to ridge.
10. Load Case B3 with internal suction; wind generally parallel to ridge.
II. Coefficient to be applied to the windward side of the effective solid area of every vertical surface exposed to the wind.
12. For buildings whose widths are greater than 5 times their eave heights, coefficient 2 in Table 1606.2B, when negative, shall be applied to the windward _
slope of the roof starting at the windward eave for a distance of 2 1/2 times the eave height. Coefficient 3 shall be applied to the remainder of the roof.
13. Coefficients 2E and 2 in Table 1606.2C shall be applied in accordance with Sections 1606.2.4.1 to the windward portion of the roof starting at its wind-
ward edges for a distance of 2 1/2 times the maximum height of the roof. Coefficients 3E and 3 shall be substituted for 2E and 2 respectively for the
remainder of the roof.
14. Notations:
a: Roof angle from horizontal, in degrees.
B: Width of building, in feet.
H: Reference height for assessing design pressures given by mean height of roof or 15 feet, whichever is greater. Eave height may be substituted for
mean height when angle of the roof "a" is less than or equal to 10 degrees.
N: Number of transverse frames.
S: Bay spacing, in feet.
X: Zone width defined as 2Z, where Z is edge strip distance defined below. All areas not within end zone are considered interior zones.
Z: Edge strip defined as the lesser of 10% of least horizontal dimension of building or 40% of height H but not less than 4% of least horizontal dimen-
sion of building and at least 3 ft.
0: Ratio of solid area of frame to gross area outlined by frame on vertical plane.
=
1 degree 0.01745 rad
For SI: I ft =0.305 m.

TABLE 1606.20
GCp COEFFICIENTS FOR ROOF OVERHANGS

LOAD WINDWARD ROOF LEEWARD ROOF


CASE OVERHANG OVERHANG

Zone GC p Zone GC p

A 2&2E +0.2, -1.5 3 &3E Coefficients given


Bl, B2 2E&3E +0.2, -1.5 2&3 in Tables 1606.2B
B3 2&2E +0.2, -1.5 3 &3E and 1606.2C

STANDARD BUILDING CODE@1997 223


TABLE 1606.2E - FIGURE 1606.2C

TABLE 1606.2E
SIMPLIFIED WIND LOAD COEFFICIENTS GC p

HORIZONTAL1 VERTICAL2

End Zone Interior Zone End Zone Interior Zone

DIRECTION ROOF Wall Roof Wall Roof Windward Leeward Windward Leeward
OF LOAD ANGLE Roof Roof Roof Roof

O:S:a:S:lO° +1.20 -0.60 +0.80 -0.35 -1.40 -0.80 -1.00 -0.65


100<a<20° +1.65 -0.40 +1.10 -0.25 -1.40 -1.00 -1.00 -0.75
Transverse 20° < a:S: 30° +1.65 0 +1.10 0 -1.00 -1.00 -0.75 -0.75
30° < a:S: 45° +1.35 +0.90 +1.10 +0.75 +0.10 -0.80 +0.05 -0.70
Longitudinal all angles +1.20 -0.60 +0.80 -0.35 -1.40 -0.80 -1.00 -0.65

For SI: I degree = 0.01745 rad.


Notes:
1. Horizontal coefficients:
a. Positive sign indicates pressure acting in direction of wind, negative sign indicates pressure acting opposite to direction of wind.
b. Roof coefficients are applied to the vertiCal projection of the roof. For buildings with a width to eave height (He) ratio greater than 5, the effective
vertical projection of the roof shall be taken as 2.5 He tan a.
2. Vertical coefficients:
a. Positive sign indicates pressure acting downward, negative sign indicates pressure acting upward.
b. Roof coefficients are applied to the horizontal projection of the roof.

-1.8 WALL=
-1.6
-1.4
-1.2
o
-1.0
-0.8
G
-0.6
GC p -0.4
-0.2
o
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0

FIGURE 1606.2C
WALL COEFFICIENTS, GCp, COMPONENTS AND CLADDING
(ENCLOSED BUILDINGS)
Notes:
I. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
2. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
3. For partially enclosed buildings, positive coefficients shall be increased by 0.1, negative coefficients shall be increased by 0.4 (in absolute sense).
4. Coefficients may be reduced 10% when a:S: 10° (0.175 rad).

224 STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997


FIGURE 1606.2D

-3.0 -3.0 r--1~:-:-::=~~"T""1


-2.8 ROOF= r---
-2.6 -2.6=_~0 I
-2.4 -2.4 F\.~ w I
-2.2 -2.2 (!)
I
Cl
-2.0 -2.0 W I
-1.8 -1.8 LL
I
GC p -1.6
o
0) -1.4 ?i I
I
-1.2 -1.2
I
-1.0 -1.0 L _
-0.8 -0.8
-0.6 -0.6
-0.4 -0.4
-0.2 -0.2
o 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 o 10 20 50 100200 5001000
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (sq. ft.) EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (sq. ft.)

0.2m~
0.4 0.2m~
0.4
0.6 ALL REGIONS :I 0.6 ALL REGIONS :I

FIGURE 1606.2D
ROOF COEFFICIENTS, GCp, COMPONENTS AND CLADDING1
(ENCLOSED BUILDINGS)
0° :s; a :s; 10°
Note:
I. Overhang coefficients include contributions from both upper and lower surfaces.

STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997 225


FIGURE 1606.2E

-3.0 -3.0
-2.8
acv= =ROOF = -2.8 = i=OVERHANG*
-2.4 == ~0 and (9= =
-2.6 -2.6
-2.4 =('c -
-2.2 -2.2
-2.0 =
-1.8 ;;;;; ~
-2.0
-1.8
GC p -1.6
-1.4 :::: =fls l
GC p -1.6
-1.4
= = G) =
r~ -
-1.2
-1.0 - -
.{J.8 c-G) and (re
==
-1.2
-1.0 ~
.{J.8
= and

.{J.6 .{J.6
.{J.4 .{J.4
.{J.2 .{J.2
o 10 20 5010020050010 00 o 10 20 50 100 200 5001000
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (sq. fl. ) EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (sq. fl. )
0.4 0.4
0.6 0.6
0.8 ALL REGIONS1 10"< a:s 30' 0.8 ALL REGIONSJ

-2.0E~EEROiQF"3 -2.0
-1.8 - , 8 ,I-- -;::!.,ROOF = -1.8 ~
= ~OV~~

_1'61~1~IClalndll'1'111
-1.6 c S S an
1
-1.4
:~:~ - i and 'a -1.2
GCp-~~=t=Q (88
GC p -1.0 0)~ ;=
.{J.6
-0.8
-0.6 ==
.{J.4 -0.4
.{J.2 .{J.2
o 10 20 50 100200 5001000 o 10 20 50 100 200 5001 000

E~F~FE~C~T~NE~W~I~NID~AR§EA§d§'S~Q"
~
EFFECTNE ~~~~~~~'lft
.)
0.4 fl.) 0.8
0.6
0.8
ALL REGIONS 30"<a:s45' 1.0
1.8

FIGURE 1606.2E
ROOF COEFFICIENTS, GC p • COMPONENTS AND CLADDING1
(ENCLOSED BUILDINGS)
10°<8::::45°

Note:
1. Overhang coefficients include contributions from both upper and lower surfaces.

Notes to Figures 1606.2D and 1606.2E:


I. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
2. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
3. For partially enclosed buildings, positive coefficients shall be increased by 0.1, negative coefficients shall be increased by 0.4 (in absolute sense).
4. For open buildings, roof coefficients in Figures 1606.2D and 2E shall be reduced by 0.2 (in absolute sense).
5. Overhang coefficients include contributions from both upper and lower surfaces.
6. Notation:
a: Roof angle from horizontal ( ° ).
Z: 10% of minimum building width or O.4H, whichever is smaller, but not less than the larger of 4% of the minimum building width or 3 ft.
H: Mean roof height, (ft) except that eave height may be used when a :::: 10°.
7. For roof angles greater than 45°, coefficients shall be based on nationally recognized data.

226 STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997


FIGURE 1606.2F - FIGURE 1606.2G

-3.4
-3.2
-3.0
o ~ ROOF=
-2.8
-2.6 ;;;;;;;;l( s
-2.4 t----,..

-2.0
-1.8
GC -1.6
P -1.4
-1.2
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
o 10 20 50 100200 5001000
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (sq. ft.)
a

-{
[_ _Jl
It-..- - - 8 ------<a-il
FIGURE 1606.2F
MONOSLOPE ROOF COEFFICIENTS, GC p , COMPONENTS AND CLADDING1, 2
(ENCLOSED BUILDINGS)
3° < a ~ 10°

Notes:
I. For 3° < a < 5° coefficients may be reduced 10% for comer coefficients, C, only.
2. For 0° < a < 3°, use Figure 1606.2D.

-3.6
-3.4 ROOF:
-3.2=~8
-3.0
~2.8
-2.6

-2.0
-1.8
GC -1.6 t( r
P -1.4
-1.2
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
o 10 20 50 100200 500 1000
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (sq. ft.)

FIGURE 1606.2G
r::sJ
I. B .1

MONOSLOPE ROOF COEFFICIENTS, GCp , COMPONENTS AND CLADDING


10° < a ~ 30°

STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997 227


1607 -1607.1.6

SECTION 1607 4. The Seismic Performance Category according to


EARTHQUAKE LOADS 1607.1.8.
5. The soil profile type according to Table 1607.3.1.
1607.1 General 6. The basic structural system and seismic resisting
1607.1.1 Scope. Every building and structure, and portion system according to Table 1607.3.3.
thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the 7. The response modification factor, R, and the deflecc
effects of earthquake motions determined in accordance tion amplification factor, Cd' according to Table
with 1607. Additions and change of occupancy to existing 1607.3.3.
buildings and structures shall be designed and constructed 8. The analysis procedure utilized in accordance with
to resist the effects of earthquake motions determined in 1607.4 or 1607.5 as applicable.
accordance with 1607. Special structures, including but
not limited to vehicular bridges, transmission towers, 1607.1.3 Additions to existing buildings. An addition
industrial towers and equipment, piers and wharves, and which is structurally independent from an existing build-
hydraulic structures shall be designed for earthquake ing shall be designed and constructed in accordance with
loads using a properly substantiated analysis. As an alter- the seismic requirements for new buildings. An addition
nate, buildings, structures, and special structures, as which is not structurally independent from an existing
described in Section 9.2.6 of ASCE 7, shall be designed to building shall be designed and constructed such that the
resist the effects of earthquake motions determined in entire building conforms to the seismic requirements for
accordance with Section 9, Earthquake Loads, of ASCE 7. new buildings unless the following three provisions are
complied with:
Exceptions: 1. The addition complies with the seismic require-
1. Buildings of detached one and two family ments for new buildings,
dwellings (Group R3) that are located in seismic 2. The addition shall not increase the seismic forces in
map areas having an effective peak velocity- any structural element of the existing building by
related acceleration value, A v' according to more than 5% unless the increased forces on the ele-
1607.1.5, less than 0.15 are exempt from the
requirements of 1607. ment are still in compliance with these provisions.
2. Agricultural storage buildings which are intend- 3. The addition shall not decrease the seismic resis-
ed only for incidental human occupancy are tance of any structural element of the existing build-
exempt from the requirements of 160i ing below that required for new buildings.
3. Buildings or structures located where the seismic
coefficient representing the effective peak veloc- 1607.1.4 Change of occupancy. When a change of occu-
ity-related acceleration, A v ' is less than 0.05 need pancy results in an existing building being reclassified to
only comply with 1607.3.6.1. a higher Seismic Hazard Exposure Group, the building
4. Buildings of detached one and two-family shall conform to the seismic requirements for new build-
dwellings (Group R3) with a building height not ings.
more than 35 feet (l0.7 m) or two stories, which
have seismic load-resisting systems which are Exception: Upgrading the building for the seismic
entirely of wood frame construction in accor- requirements of this section is not required for build-
dance with the requirements of Chapter 23, and ings located in seismic map areas having an effective
are located in seismic map areas having an effec- peak velocity-related acceleration, A v' value of less
tive peak velocity-related acceleration, A v ' equal than 0.15 when the change of use results in a building
to or greater than 0.15, need only comply with being reclassified from Seismic Hazard Exposure
1607.3.6.1. Group I to Seismic Hazard Exposure Group II.
5. Buildings assigned to Seismic Performance
Category B, according to 1607.1.5 and 1607.1.8, 1607.1.5 Seismic ground acceleration maps. The effec-
which have seismic load-resisting systems which tive peak velocity-related acceleration, A v ' and the effec-
are entirely of light frame wood construction in tive peak acceleration, A a , shall be determined from
accordance with the provisions of Chapter 23, Figures 1607.1.5A and 1607.1.5B, respectively.
need only comply with 1607.3.6.1. Interpolation shall be permitted in the determination of the
effective peak velocity-related acceleration, A v ' and the
1607.1.2 Required design data. Where earthquake loads effective peak acceleration, A a . Where site-specific
are applicable, the following design data shall be indicat- ground motions are used or required, they shall be devel-
ed on the design drawings: oped with 90% probability of ground motion not being
1. The peak velocity related acceleration, A v' accord- exceeded in 50 years.
ing to 1607.1.5.


2. The peak acceleration, A a , according to 1607.1.5.3. 1607.1.6 Seismic hazard exposure groups. All buildings
The Seismic Hazard Exposure Group according to shall be assigned to one of the following Seismic Hazard
1607.1.6. Exposure Groups in Table 1607.1.6.

228 STANDARD BUILDING CODE© 1997

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