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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Course
Revision 2.0

Data ONTAP 7.0


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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trademark information
Course Introduction

Copyright © 2004-2005 Network Appliance, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Specifications
subject to change without notice.

No part of this book covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means—graphic,
electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval
system—without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Network Appliance reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time, and without
notice. Network Appliance assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products or
materials described herein, except as expressly agreed to in writing by Network Appliance. The use or
purchase of this product or materials does not convey a license under any patent rights, trademark rights,
or any other intellectual property rights of Network Appliance.

The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or
pending applications.

RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to


restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software
clause at DFARS 252.277-7103 (October 1988) and FAR 52-227-19 (June 1987).

Trademark information
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Spinnaker Networks, the Spinnaker Networks logo, SpinAccess, SpinCluster, SpinFS, SpinHA,
SpinMove, SpinServer, and SpinStor are registered trademarks of Network Appliance, Inc. in the United
States and other countries. Network Appliance, Data ONTAP, Snapshot, ApplianceWatch, BareMetal,
Center-to-Edge, ContentDirector, gFiler, MultiStore, SecureAdmin, Smart SAN, SnapCache, SnapDrive,
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ComplianceClock, ComplianceJournal, EdgeFiler, FlexClone, FlexVol, FPolicy, HyperSAN, LockVault,
Manage ONTAP, ONTAPI, RAID-DP, RoboCache, RoboFiler, SharedStorage, Simulate ONTAP,
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Copyright and Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 iii


trademark information
Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Change History

Date Comment
June 4, 2004 Initial release of the Version 1.0 materials for
Data ONTAP 6.5.
February 14, 2005 Next release, Version 2.0 of the materials for
Data ONTAP 7.0

iv Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Copyright and


trademark information
Course Introduction

Course Introduction

Welcome to the
Network Appliance

Data ONTAP Fundamentals


Course
Data ONTAP 7.0

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Logistics

Introductions
Schedule (start time, breaks, lunch, close)
Telephones and messages
Food and drinks
Restrooms

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Course Prerequisites

Introduction to Network Appliance™ Products


Basic knowledge of client/server and
networking terminology management
including TCP/IP
Background in one of the following: UNIX,
Windows® or SAN system administration.

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Course Introduction

Course Objectives

 Explain the primary function of a storage appliance


 Use a storage appliance console to determine and
manage a storage appliance’s system configuration
from an adminhost
 Setup volume and set volume specific options
 Identify, Configure and manage physical and virtual
interface parameters on a storage appliance
 Export and mount a storage appliance’s volumes to a
host
 Upgrade Data ONTAP via NFS, CIFS or HTTP
 Join a storage appliance into a Windows 2000 domain
using the CIFS setup command
 Create Qtrees

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Course Objectives

 Create, Map and Access LUNS via a Windows® host


and a Solaris host
 Initialize a filer and create a new file system
 Perform an install, license protocols and upgrade a
storage appliance’s systems files
 Set the Snapshot™ schedule on a storage appliance
 Restore a deleted file from the snapshot directory
 Manage quotas on the storage appliance
 Backup a volume and a qtree using a storage
appliance’s native dump command
 Restore a volume and a qtree using a storage
appliance’s native restore command

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Course Introduction

Course Objectives

 Test NDMP services on a storage appliance


 Perform a volume copy on a storage appliance
 Access and execute a storage appliance’s admin
privilege commands
 Use the statit command to analyze system utilization
statistics
 Access & modify the Storage Appliance’s optional
settings
 Use the command reference to find details about
commands
 Use the NOW site to find answers to administrative
and troubleshooting questions, search for known
bugs and identify fixes and access technical scripts
and tools that help you manage your products better

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Course Agenda

 Day 1
– Morning
• Overview
• Basic Administration
• Managing Disks
– Afternoon
• Network
• NFS
 Day 2
– Morning
• CIFS
• Multiprotocol
– Afternoon
• SAN
• Install

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Course Introduction

Course Agenda

Day 3
– Morning
• Snapshot
• Quota
– Afternoon
• Backup
• Restore
Day 4
– Morning
• NDMP
• Vol Copy
– Afternoon
• Checking Health and Performance

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Data ONTAP Fundamentals Agenda

Day 5
– Morning
• Maintaining Health and Performance
• The NOW Site

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Course Introduction

Information Sources

NOW Site
– NOW.NetApp.com
NetApp Training
– www.netapp.com/education
– email
• Americas
NetAppUniversity@NetApp.com
• Asia Pacific
NetAppUniversity@NetApp.com
• Europe and Middle East
Registrar-emea@netapp.com

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Data ONTAP Fundamentals CD

At the end of this ILT course, you will be given


a Data ONTAP Fundamentals CD for your
reference only.
– This is a single user software disc assigned to you.
Do not share with others.
– Do not use the sync function
of this disc Version

3.0
– You may not rent, lend, lease
or sublease this software

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Course Introduction

Typographic Conventions

Convention Type of information

Italic font Book titles


Words or characters that require special attention
Variable names or placeholders for information you
must supply, for example:
Enter the following command:
ifstat [-z] {-a|interface}
interface is the name of the interface for which
you want to view statistics

Monospaced font Command names, daemon names, and option


names
Information displayed on the system console or
other computer monitors
The contents of files
Bold monospaced font Words or characters you type, for example:
Enter the following command:
options httpd.enable on

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Course Introduction

Course Introduction Instructor’s Notes


It is important to understand the timing of the flash animation in the PowerPoint displays. Do not
try to deliver this without viewing the PowerPoint displays and watching the timing. It would be
helpful to narrate what is occurring on the slides with flash animation.

Class Size
The recommended maximum number of students is 16 with 1 Windows workstation per student
and 2 students per storage appliance.

Equipment Requirements
Classrooms

Delivery Equipment
• White boards and pens

• LCD Projector connected to instructor PC

• Printer

Instructor PC
Hardware:

• Windows based PC

• Connection to the printer

Software

• Windows 2000 Professional and Adminpak

• Adobe Reader 5.x or higher

• WinZip

• Telnet or equivalent software such as Tera Term Pro

• Terminal Services or equivalent software such as Timbuktu Pro

• PowerPoint

Configuration and Other

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

• Internet access to the NOW site http://now.netapp.com/

Student PC
Hardware:

• Windows based PC

Software

• Windows 2000 Professional and Adminpak

• Adobe Reader 5.x or higher

• WinZip

• Telnet or equivalent software such as Tera Term Pro

• Terminal Services or equivalent software such as Timbuktu Pro

• Flash plug-in installed for browser

Configuration and Other

• Internet access to the NOW site http://now.netapp.com/

• Internet access to the NOW site Windows Domain Controller

• Temporary user id to access the NOW site

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Course Introduction

Lab Equipment
Storage Appliance (1 each for every 2 students)

• Minimum of one FC9 shelf fully populated with disks

• One Quad NIC (Comment: FASXXX with two onboard is acceptable)

• Ethernet connection for every Ethernet port to the Ethernet switch

• Console port connected to a term server

Storage Appliance Licenses

• CIFS (not licensed on storage appliances)

• NFS (not licensed on storage appliances)

Unix Admin-host

• User1-8 pre-created (password = username)

Windows Domain Controller

• Windows 2000 Server

• dns domain name = Varies by site

• Connected to Ethernet Switch

• DOT Fundamentals courseware installed on the domain controller

• These files are important so the Web-based materials can be utilized for the SAN,
Backup and Restore module exercises.

• DOT install software placed in the domain controller

• Release 7.X

• Release 7.(Next level for upgrades)

Two versions of 7.0 should be here for install and upgrade purposes, If need be, it is OK
to do an install and upgrade with the same version. It is helpful for students to see the
version number change.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Data ONTAP Fundamentals


Courseware

Data ONTAP Software for


upgrades

Create Joe Brown for domain

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Course Introduction

Terminal Services Controller

• Connected to all storage appliances

Ethernet Switch

• 100 baseT Ethernet Switch

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Class Setup

Storage Appliances
• Initialize all disks

• ONTAP 7.X

• one volume, 2 disks, remainder spares (minimum of 5)

• NFS not licensed

• CIFS not licensed

• DNS configured

• dns domain name = demo.netapp.com

• language set to en_US

• partner-sysid environment variables removed

• vol0 security style = NTFS

• The environment variable for floppy boot should be deleted. After a halt enter the
following at the ok prompt:

unsetenv floppy-boot? false

• time zone set to PST/PDT for local classes (instructor sets on the road)

• test network/ping the admin host, student workstations, and PDC

• Filer NIC to 100TX-FD (test for best filer performance)

• Domain controller must have IIS services running

• 7.0or 7.X DOT files placed into the c:\Inetpub\wwwroot\ directory

• DOT Fundamentals courseware will also need to be placed into this directory.

It is important to place proper DOT software for the hardware in the class. This DOT
software will be utilized with the software command in the installation module.

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Course Introduction

Exercise Setup
In 2 instances when running the exercise for the Backup module the student experienced their
keyboard input was being typed in backwards on the screen within the WBT. The solution was
to stop and restart Internet Explorer.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Overview
Course Introduction

Safety

Alarm signal
Evacuation route
Assembly area
Electrical safety
ESD procedures

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Overview

Module 1. Overview

Overview

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Explain the primary function of a storage appliance
– Identify the protocols supported by a storage
appliance
– Describe the WAFL File System
– Describe the Snapshot feature
– Describe how NVRAM is implemented
– Describe how RAID is implemented

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Overview

Storage Appliances

UNIX
UNIX

HPUX
HPUX

Storage Appliances
NetApp storage appliances are designed for data storage, connect directly to a network, and have
integrated disks. They use a streamlined Data ONTAP operating system that operates simply,
quickly, and reliably.

The primary function of a storage appliance is data storage.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

File Services Protocols

 NFS
 CIFS
 FCP or iSCSI
 DAFS
 HTTP
 FTP

File Services Protocols

Protocol Description
NFS Network File Service protocol allows UNIX and PC NFS clients to mount
file systems to local mount points. The storage appliance supports: NFS v2,
NFS v3, and NFS v4, NFS over UDP and TCP.

CIFS Common Internet File System supports Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows
2000, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, and
Windows 2000.

FCP or iSCSI Fibre Channel Protocol or internet Small Computer System Interface enables
a storage device to communicate with one or more hosts running operating
systems such as Solaris or Windows in a SAN environment. You can also
configure logical units of storage (LUNs) for multi-protocol access, for block
access or as files for file access, or both.

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Overview

Protocol Description
DAFS Direct Access File System is a file access and management protocol
designed for local file-sharing environment. It provides low latency, high
throughput, and low overhead data management.

HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol enables World Wide Web browsers to display
files that are stored on the storage appliance.

FTP File Transfer Protocol enables UNIX clients to remotely transfer files to and
from the storage appliance.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Administration Services

Administration Services
NetApp storage appliances support the following administration services:

Service Technology
Networking Services VLAN
RIP
Directory Look up Services DNS
NIS
WINS
Remote Administration Services RSH
Telnet
ssh
SNMP
RMT
SNTP
SMTP
Security Services Kerberos V5
LDAP V3

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Overview

Service Description

DNS Domain Name Service protocol enables queries for IP address vs. host names from
DNS servers.

Kerberos v5 Interoperate in a Windows 2000 domain as a Windows 2000 client.

LDAP v3 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol provides directory services for Windows
2000.

NDMP Network Data Management Protocol enables remote backup and restore of storage
appliance data to disks or tape devices, using industry standard protocol.

NIS Network Information Service protocol enables the storage appliance to query NIS
servers to authenticate user names, passwords, group names, and netgroup access
permissions.

RIP Routing Information Protocol enables the storage appliance to query RIP servers to
determine the default gateway for the network.

RMT Remote Magnetic Tape protocol enables remote hosts to remotely access the
storage appliance tape drive.

rsh Remote Shell protocol enables administrators to send commands from designated
remote hosts to the storage appliance.

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to send autosupport messages.

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol enables network management from a


central administration host.

SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol allows time synchronization with an NTP server.

ssh Secure Shell allows secure remote administration. (requires SecureAdmin)

Telnet Telnet protocol enables administrators to log in, monitor, and manage the storage
appliance from remote hosts using telnet client software.

VLAN A Virtual Local Area Network provides a virtual local area network, which is
IEEE 802.1Q compliant.

WINS Windows Interface Naming Service protocol enables the storage appliance to
query WINS servers to resolve CIFS netbios names.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Terms and Definitions

Storage Arrays of hot swappable Fiber


Channel disks
WAFL Write anywhere file layout
NVRAM Non Volatile Random Access
Memory
RAID Redundant Array of Independent
disks
Snapshot Picture of file system at a point
in time
Network Provides connectivity via many
Services types of protocols

WAFL Element Description


Storage Arrays of hot-swappable Fibre Channel disks provide the raw storage
used by Data ONTAP and WAFL.

WAFL Definition – Write anywhere file layout

Purpose – Enables data to be written over multiple disks, increasing speed


and reliability of data storage.

How data is written – Writes data in stripes across several disks.

Features – Enables file systems to grow by adding disks as they are


needed. Can handle very large amounts of data.

Advantages – Faster, more reliable, high uptime for systems. Increased


performance because data can be written anywhere on the system and
accessed from multiple disks more quickly.

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Overview

NVRAM Definition – Non-Volatile Random Access Memory.

Purpose – Improves the response time for network transactions by caching


write transactions into memory banks which are backed up by batteries.

How data is written – When data comes into the filer, it is first stored in
one of a pair of battery-backed up memory banks. As one memory bank
becomes full, it dumps the data onto disks while the other memory bank
takes over the task of caching data.

Features – Speeds up data storage because the storage appliance is not


slowed down while data is being written to disk. The memory banks are
also battery backed-up so that data is not lost in the case of a power
failure.

Advantages – NVRAM is effective in maintaining filer speed while data


is being written.

RAID Manager Definition – Redundant array of independent disks.

Purpose – Stores data into a group of disks, which is safer than putting it
in a single disk. Protects against disk failure and avoids disruption to
users.

How data is written to RAID Disks – NetApp’s RAID 4 consists of a


parity disk and several data disks. Data is written in stripes across the data
disks; then parity is written to the parity disk.

Features – In RAID 4, if a data disk fails, the RAID manager uses the
parity disk and the information contained on the remaining disks to
calculate and reconstruct the missing data and then rewrite it to a
replacement disk.

For failure protection that is 4,000 times more reliable than RAID 4,
Network Appliance Inc. offers RAID DP. RAID DP (Dual Parity) is a
double disk failure protection scheme. RAID DP incorporates a second
parity disk. With this scheme you can have two disks fail in a RAID
group without data loss.

Advantages – Performs much faster than other RAID systems because


data is stored in NVRAM before going to disk. It is also integrated into
the WAFL system so it doesn’t require extra hardware or software.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot WAFL uses Snapshot as a fast and simple file backup system. Snapshots
are “pictures” of an entire file system as it was when the snapshot was
taken. They are not complete copies of everything on the system, but are a
sort of directory of where old files are located and what they looked like
before they were changed or deleted. Snapshots enable you to find files
and copy them to the regular file system. Snapshots take up less space
than other backups because they only keep track of changes, rather than
contain all of the data. Snapshots can be done manually or set up
automatically on a schedule without taking the filer off-line. Up to 255
Snapshots can be stored on a traditional or flexible volume at one time.
The most important feature of Snapshot that differentiates it from other
file retrieval systems is the small amount of file space required.

Network Services Network services provide connectivity to many types of networks using
many types of protocols. Data ONTAP provides file-level access through
protocols including NFS, CIFS, Direct Access File System (DAFS),
HTTP, and FTP, and block-level access through Fibre Channels for SCSI
and iSCSI for TCP/IP protocols.

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Overview

Data ONTAP

Data ONTAP
Network Appliance’s Data ONTAP operating system provides comprehensive software
architecture for its storage appliances to ensure that storage management is simplified, and
business continuance is maximized. This architecture contains three main elements that work
together to provide speed, and reliability, and safety.

• Real-time mechanism for process execution

• WAFL file system containing NVRAM and Snapshots

• RAID manager

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What is the primary function of a storage


appliance?
What
 are the two main elements of WAFL?
What is a Snapshot?
What File Service Protocols are supported by
the storage appliance?
How is NVRAM implemented?
How is RAID level 4 implemented?
How is RAID DP implemented?

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Basic Admin
Basic Administration

Module 2. Basic Administration

Basic Administration

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

 At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Access and execute commands using the console
and FilerView
– View a storage appliance’s system configuration
– Access a storage appliance’s configuration files
from a remote admin host
– Setup and test the Autosupport service
– Locate the available reference material on the NOW
site
– Describe where you can go online to get documents
or product support
– Identify the available system administration
documents
– Identify the available hardware documents

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Basic Administration

Console Access

RJ-45
Connection to DB9-DB9
console port

Console Access
A terminal, or terminal server, can be connected to the storage appliance console port via a
standard RS232 connection. For example, a DB9 to DB9 serial cable (null modem) with the
following setting for the serial communication port:

• Bits per second 9600

• Data bits 8

• Parity None

• Stop bits 1

• Flow control None

Console access can be password protected.

Note: For illustration purposes, the graphic above shows an adminhost and terminal server
connected to the console of the storage appliance. There is only one console connection so you
would have either the adminhost or the terminal server connected, not both.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Telnet Access

Telnet Access
Once you have a connection, these are the steps to login:

1. Press Enter on the console.

2. If prompted, enter a user name and password.

3. To access the storage appliance with an alternative user account, enter username.

4. Enter the password at the prompt or press Enter if no password is defined for the account.

Note: The console and telnet share a single session. Commands typed at either location are
displayed at the other location. Commands entered at either location can be aborted by pressing
Ctrl-C.

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Basic Administration

Telnet Command Settings

NetApp>options telnet.enable [on|off]

NetApp>options telnet.access [legacy|*|-|[host=hostname|IP]]

NetApp>options autologout.telnet.enable [on|off]

NetApp>options autologout.telnet.timeout [60|value]

Telnet Command Settings


To log out of a telnet session, press Ctrl-D or enter logout telnet. To access the storage
appliance from a client workstation through telnet, type:

>telnet [host name]

Note: Where host name is the name or IP address of the storage appliance, follow the same
login instructions as though you were entering them directly on the console.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Options

Example Result
options telnet.enable on Enables telnet access.

options telnet.access host=admin2 Grants telnet access to admin2 host.


Note: “trusted hosts”options is ignored
if telnet access is enabled. For more
information, type “man options” on
the command line of the storage
appliance, or use the “man pages” link
in FilerView.

options autologout.telnet.enable Enables auto-logout from telnet.


on
Note: timeout value will not be used
if this option is not set to on.

options autologout.telnet.timeout Sets the telnet session idle timeout to


30 30 minutes (default = 60 minutes).

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Basic Administration

Access via rsh

NetApp>options rsh.enable [on|off]

NetApp>options rsh.access [legacy|*|-|[host=hostname|IP]]

Remote Shell Access


Use the options rsh.enable on command to enable Remote Shell services.

Valid values for this option are on or off.

The default value for this option is on.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Using rsh Commands

Using rsh Commands


There are no rsh commands available that require a response. Therefore, there are fewer
commands executable via rsh than when accessing the storage appliance directly through the
console command line.

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Basic Administration

FilerView

XX

FilerView
FilerView is an administration tool available to every NetApp storage appliance. This tool
enables IT administrators to use a web browser to access a consistent, easy-to-use graphical
interface for everyday administration tasks.

Administrators can set up and control any NetApp storage appliance remotely without disruption
to business-critical operations. While file systems remain accessible to users, they can:

• Monitor status

• Satisfy requests for additional storage capacity

• Make changes to the file system

• Make changes to file system configurations

FilerView runs in local-client web browsers and communicates to the storage appliance mostly
with HTML and SNMP protocols. It also will establish a real telnet console session to the
storage appliance upon requesting the “Use Command Line” function.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

CLI via FilerView

Using FilerView
Accessing FilerView remotely requires either:

• Netscape 4.51 or later

• Internet Explorer 4.x or later

• Browser must have Java enabled

Accessing FilerView
http:/hostname_or_IP/na_admin

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Basic Administration

One Telnet Session

One Telnet Session


The FilerView interface allows only one telnet session at a time. If you try to open a telnet
session in either FilerView or the CLI directly, and you, or someone else, already have one open,
you will receive an error message.

When you leave the Use Command Line window in FilerView, the telnet session is closed.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition Slide
Basic
Appliance
Configuration

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Basic Administration

Console Commands

Console Commands
Many console commands provide storage appliance system configuration information. These
commands can be used to:

• Check your system configuration

• Monitor system status

• Verify correct system

Example Result
sysconfig -v Displays detailed information about each I/O device.

vol status -r Displays volume and RAID group information. (Note: Same as
for sysconfig –r.)

sysconfig -r Displays volume and RAID group information. (Note: Same as


for vol status –r.)

sysconfig -c Checks configuration levels of hardware against Data ONTAP


software requirements.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Options vs. Configuration Files

Options vs. Configuration Files


The options command is used to change configurable storage appliance software options. If
no options are specified, then options prints the current value of all available options. If an
option is specified with no value, then the current value of that option is printed.

options commands:

• Can be entered on the console and some are available with FilerView

• Are automatically added to the storage appliance’s registry in the /etc/registry file

• Are persistent across reboots

• Do not require editing of configuration files

Configuration files such as /etc/rc, /etc/hosts.equiv, /etc/dgateways, /etc/hosts must be edited to


make non-options configurations permanent.

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Basic Administration

Editing Boot Configuration Files

Editing Boot Configuration Files


The storage appliance’s boot configuration file contains commands that are run automatically
whenever the storage appliance is booted.

The configuration file is named rc and is located in the /etc directory of the storage appliance’s
root volume. The default root volume is /vol/vol0. The /etc/rc file is created automatically when
the storage appliance is configured.

The /etc/rc file contains:

• Network interface configuration information

• Commands to automatically export NFS mounts

• Other commands to run at storage appliance startup

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Recovering from /etc/rc Errors


The storage appliance can become inaccessible if:

• errors are introduced into the /etc/rc file during editing

• the network interface configuration commands in the /etc/rc file specify an incorrect address
or there are other mis-configured items

Since you cannot access the storage appliance’s configuration file to edit it with a text editor, you
will have to use other methods to correct errors in the /etc/rc file.

• You can correct the errors by using the ifconfig and exportfs commands via the
console.

• Alternately, if CIFS is enabled you can access the /etc/rc file from a CIFS client and correct
the NFS export error once the network interface is configured correctly.

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Basic Administration

Registry Database

/etc/registry Current registry


/etc/registry.lastgood Copy of the registry as It existed
after the last successful boot
/etc/registry.bck First-level backup
/etc/registry.default Default registry

Registry Database
Persistent configuration information and other data are stored in a registry database.

Several backups of the registry database exist and are automatically used if the original registry
becomes unusable. In particular, /etc/registry.lastgood is a copy of the registry as it existed after
the last successful boot.

The /etc/registry, is edited by Data ONTAP and should not be manually edited.

Configuration commands such as the network interface configuration (ifconfig) must remain
in the /etc/rc file.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Administrative Access Control

Create admin User IDs


Restrict telnet
Limit rsh access
Limit FilerView access

Administrative Access Control


In most organizations, there are several individuals who will have administrative access to a
system. This ensures that someone will be available, either onsite or remotely, in case of an
emergency whether the primary administrator is on vacation, ill, or unavailable for any reason.

Several methods can be used to manage which individuals have administrative access to a
system:

• Creation of administrative console user IDs

• Limiting telnet access

• Restricting rsh access

• Controlling FilerView access

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Basic Administration

User Access

User Access
An administrative user is a named account that exists on a storage appliance. Each administrative
user will have a unique login name and password, which increases security.

Administrative console users have the same privileges as root console users. Syslog
(/etc/messages) records console logins by username, time of access, and node name/address.

Note: The password must be at least 6 characters and contain at least two letters and at least one
number or special character.

Example Result
useradmin useradd devadmin1 Creates a new administrative user named
devadmin1 and prompts you for a password.

useradmin userdel devadmin1 Deletes the administrative user, devadmin1.

useradmin userlist Lists current administrative users.

passwd Prompts you for a login and to enter a new


password. Changes console administrative user
password.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Trusted Hosts

Syntax: options trusted.hosts [hostnames|*|-]

hostnames is a comma-separated list of up to five allowed hosts


* indicates all hosts are allowed access (default)
- indicates no hosts are allowed access

Trusted Hosts
The trusted.hosts option can be used to limit telnet and FilerView access to administrative
pages to only those hosts that have been approved in advance. This prevents individuals who
have obtained administrative access IDs and passwords from accessing the system from
unknown and unapproved machines, thus increasing security.

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Basic Administration

Admin Hosts

Admin Hosts
The term adminhost is used to describe an NFS or a CIFS client machine that has the ability to
view and modify configuration files stored in the /etc directory of the storage appliance’s root
volume.

The storage appliance grants root permissions to the administration host after the setup procedure
is complete.

Client Requirements Privilege


NFS Host name must be entered in Mount the storage appliance root
the /etc/hosts.equiv file. The directory with root permissions and edit
setup procedure automatically configuration files.
populates this file.
Enter storage appliance commands by
using a remote shell program like RSH.

CIFS User must be a member of the Edit configuration files by accessing the
“Domain Administrators” or \\filer\C$ share
“Administrators” W2Kgroups.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition Slide

Autosupport

Autosupport
Autosupport is a service provided for NetApp storage appliances that monitors the function of a
storage appliance. The Autosupport daemon triggers automatic email messages to members of
Network Appliance Technical Support, alerting them to potential storage appliance problems.

If necessary, technical support contacts the administrator via email and provides troubleshooting
information for resolution. Specific storage appliance conditional events can be configured as
traps that will trigger an Autosupport sequence.

Autosupport is enabled/disabled by the command:

options autosupport.enable [on|off]

Network Appliance encourages all customers to enable Autosupport. This allows our
Autosupport mechanisms to be proactive and makes us better able to assist you when you call.

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Basic Administration

Autosupport Mail Host

Autosupport Mail Host Requirements


Because the storage appliance doesn't function as a mail host, it relies on another host at your site
to send mail on behalf of Autosupport.

If the mail host is using SMTP then it should be configured to listen on SMTP port (25).

By default, the administration host defined during setup is used as a mail host.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Autosupport Email Events

Autosupport Email Events


Autosupport emails can be triggered by the following events:

• Weekly logs (/etc/messages)

• System reboots

• NVRAM batteries low

• Disk, fan, and power supply failures

• Shelf faults

• System overheating

• Cluster events

• File system growth too large

• Administrator-defined SNMP traps

To read descriptions of Autosupport messages you might receive, complete the following steps.

1. Go to the Network Appliance NOW site, and search for “ Autosupport Message Matrices.”

2. View the matrices in the online version or the Data ONTAP manual listed.

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Basic Administration

Autosupport Email Contents

Autosupport Email Contents


Autosupport emails may contain any of the following:

• Output of system commands

• Date and timestamp of the message

• NetApp software version

• System ID and hostname of the storage appliance

• Software licenses enabled

• SNMP contact info and location (if configured)

• Contents of /etc/messages

• Contents of the /etc/serialnum file (if created)

In addition to the output of this list of auto-generated status reporting commands, the
Autosupport messages contain additional storage appliance-specific information. This
information helps to identify crucial parameters that are needed in follow-up handling of the
triggering event.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Autosupport Configuration Options

options autosupport.support.enable [on|off]


options autosupport.mailhost [host1,…,host5]
options autosupport.to [address1,…,address5]
options autosupport.from
options autosupport.content
options autosupport.noteto
options autosupport.doit [message]
options autosupport.enable [on|off]

Autosupport Configuration Options


The slide lists some of the Autosupport configuration commands available from the console.

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Basic Administration

Autosupport Options
The table shows a shortened version of the Autosupport options available. See the command
reference for a full list of options and descriptions.

Example Result
options autosupport.enable off Disables the Autosupport daemon. Default
is on.
options autosupport.mailhost Specifies two mail host names: maildev1
maildev1,mailengr1 and mailengr1. (You can enter up to five
mail host names).

Hostname is the hostname of the SMTP


mail host(s) that will receive Autosupport
email messages. Default is the hostname of
the admin host specified in setup
options autosupport.to Specifies two recipients (jjandar and ssmith)
jjandar@netapp.com, of Autosupport email messages.
ssmith@netapp.com
Address is an SMTP email address. You can
specify up to 5 addresses.

Note: Do NOT put autosupport@netapp.com


if autosupport.support.enable is "on".

options autosupport.from Defines the user, techsupport, as the sender


techsupport of the notification

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition Slide
Documentation
& Support

2-28 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Basic Administration

www.netapp.com/Library

www.netapp.com/Library
You can access many documents from the NetApp website at http://www.netapp.com by
selecting the Library link on the menu toolbar at the top of the web page.

There is a Table of Contents where you can select a document listed alphabetically and a search
function where you can search either the Tech Library or the www.netapp.com site for a
document.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

now.netapp.com

NOW
The NOW site has a tremendous amount of support and documentation information available to
Network Appliance customers.

• You can access the NOW site by clicking on the following website: http://now.netapp.com

• If you do not have a user name and password, they can be easily obtained by clicking on the
New User Sign Up link.

• You can find documents by clicking on the Technical Assistance & Documentation link or
by performing a PowerSearch for Product Documents.

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Basic Administration

Documentation

 Software Setup Guide


 System Administration Storage Management Guide
 System Administration File Access Management Guide
 System Administration Multistore Management Guide
 System Administration Network Management Guide
 System Administration Block Access Management Guide
 System Administration Data Protection Guide
 Upgrade Guide
 Commands: Quick Reference
 Commands: Manual Page Reference
 Hardware and Service Guide

Documentation
The system administration documents are available in the Data ONTAP Information Library at
http://now.netapp.com.

Since these materials are updated regularly, you should check the website for the most recent
version.

Document Description
Software Setup Guide Describes how to set up different protocols on the filer.

System Administration Describes how to configure and manage Network


Storage Management Guide Appliance filers that run Data ONTAP software and are
Serving Data By Design.

System Administration File Describes how to configure and manage different file
Access Management Guide access protocols supported by Data ONTAP software
and are Serving Data By Design.

System Administration Describes procedures relevant to Data ONTAP


Multistore Management administration, specifically, the administration of the
Guide vfiler feature.

System Administration Describe procedures relevant to Data ONTAP


Network Management Guide administration, specifically network-related issues.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Document Description
System Administration Block Describes how to configure, operate, and manage
Access Management Guide Network Appliance filers that run Data ONTAP and are
Serving Data By Design.

System Administration Data Describes procedures relevant to Data ONTAP


Protection Guide administration, specifically, data protection and high
availability issues.

Upgrade Guide Describes Data ONTAP upgrade procedures.

Commands: Quick Reference Provides a listing of all filer commands.

Commands: Manual Page Provides a listing of the man pages for filer commands.
Reference

Hardware and Service Guide Describes how to install a storage system, connect it to
the network, and start it up.

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Basic Administration

Accessing Hardware Documentation

Hardware Documentation
The NOW site contains a Hardware Information Library at http://now.netapp.com

The Hardware Information Library has documentation for NetApp filers, NearStore systems,
NetCache appliances, disk shelves, disk drives, power supplies, and related information.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

 How can you access the appliance’s command line?


 What is the URL for FilerView access?
 How can you view a storage appliance’s system
configuration?
 How can you access a storage appliance’s
configuration files from a remote admin host?
 What command is used to activate the Autosupport
service?
 Where can you obtain reference information and
support?
 List some of the documentation available at
now.netapp.com

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Basic Administration

Autosupport Exercises

Basic Administration

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Basic Administration


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Get information regarding Data ONTAP™ commands

• Use the command line to display system configuration information

• Display volume and RAID group information

• Display disk space information

• Display filer performance statistics

• Access FilerView using a web browser

• Retrieve information from the Manual Pages

• Use Autosupport options to configure Autosupport

• Set up an SNMP contact and location information for Autosupport

Exercise Overview
Student has the opportunity to use commands, FilerView and to configure Autosupport

Time Estimate
20 Minutes.

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Basic Administration

Command Line Interface


The purpose of this activity is for you to use the command line interface to get help and display
filer configuration and utilization information.

Getting Command Information

Step Action
1. Use either HyperTerminal, Tera Term Pro or telnet to access the filer.

2. Enter either help or ? at the filer prompt. What is displayed?

3. How can you get more detailed information regarding commands?

System Configuration Information

Step Action
1. Enter sysconfig. What happens?

2. Enter sysconfig –d. What happens?

3. Enter sysconfig –r. What happens?

4. Enter sysconfig –t. What happens?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-37


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

5. Enter sysconfig –v. What happens?

6. Enter sysconfig –c. What happens?

Volume Status and RAID Group Information


Enter each of the following commands and observe the results.

Step Action
1. Enter vol status. What happens?

2. Enter vol status –r. What happens?

3. Enter vol status –v. What happens?

4. Enter vol status –d. What happens?

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Basic Administration

Disk Space
Enter the following commands and observe the results.

Step Action
1. Enter df . What happens?

2. Enter df –i. What happens?

Filer Performance Statistics

Step Action
1. Enter sysstat and wait 15 seconds. What happens?

_________________________________________

Wait one minute and enter Ctrl-C to terminate the command.


What happened during the one minute?

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

2. How can you display updates every second?

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-39


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

FilerView
The purpose of this activity is for you to practice using the FilerView tool. You will access
FilerView, use FilerView to access Manual Pages and use the FilerView administration tool.

Accessing FilerView

Step Action
1. Open the web browser. (Use Internet Explorer 5.x or later.)

2. Type the following URL:

http://filername/na_admin

Note: If response is slow, check the host file of the host you are working from (or
other resolution services such as the DNS server), if you are using one. You may
also use the filer’s IP address instead of the filer name:

http://x.x.x.x/na_admin

3. Observe that the FilerView main page is displayed.

Installing Documentation

Step Action
1. Click the link to the NOW site log in and select the appropriate version of ONTAP
documentation. There are designated download links for WinZip format and TAR
files for Unix systems.

2. Download the ZIP version to your PC or workstation.

3. On the FilerView page, select Click Here next to the Documentation subheading,
respond to the prompts to install the documentation software. When prompted, enter
“root” for user name and the appropriate root password for the filer.

4. Once the installation has finished, return to the main FilerView page and observe that
the documentation link (and icon) is now active. You may need to refresh the display.

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Basic Administration

Viewing FilerView Documentation

Step Action
1. On the FilerView page, click the documentation icon and observe that you are
provided with a list of available documents.

2. Use the documentation to find the following information:

a. Locate the command, in the Commands: Manual Page Reference to display


ONTAP version installed on the filer and record the result __________.

b. In the System Administration Storage Management Guide-Chapter 2, determine


supported formats for Autosupport messages.

___________________________________________________________.

c. In the System Administration Storage Management Guide-Chapter 2, locate the


section that discusses the contents of Autosupport messages. List three?

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

d. In the System Administration File Access Management Guide-Chapter 4, locate the


command to enable ftp: __________________________.

f. Where can you find information on how to set up quotas?

___________________________________________________

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-41


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Viewing FilerView Manual Pages

Step Action
1. On the main FilerView page, click the Manual Pages icon.

2. Observe the resulting list of available manual pages.

3. Locate the manual page for Autosupport.

Hint: Look in the index

4. List three Autosupport options:

____________________

____________________

____________________

5. What three Table of Contents topics are always included in the manual pages?

____________________

____________________

____________________

Using the FilerView Administrative Tool

Step Action
1. Return to the FilerView main page. If prompted, enter “root” for user name and the
appropriate root password for the filer.

2 Click FilerView and observe the administrative options on the left.

3. Explore these options. Use the ? and Help buttons, locate information.

4. Display installed licenses.

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Basic Administration

Step Action
5. What is the path to configure Autosupport?

__________________________________________________

6. What is the FilerView path to manage snapshots?

____________________________________________

7. Use the FilerView FILER category to complete these tasks:

a. Set date and time.

b. Read syslog messages.

c. Use command line.

d. Check df, system configuration, and network interface configuration on the same
report.

e. Explore all other categories of FilerView.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-43


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Configuring AutoSupport
The purpose of this activity is for you to practice configuring the filer’s Autosupport feature.
You will execute Autosupport console commands, enter SNMP contact and location information,
verify the filer’s serial number and test your Autosupport configuration.

Execute Autosupport options commands

Step Action
1. Use either telnet or HyperTerminal Tera Term Pro to access the filer.

2. Using the information provided to you by your instructor, enter the following list of
commands at the console prompt:

options autosupport.enable on

options autosupport.mailhost <UNIX Admin host>

options autosupport.to user#@<UNIX Admin host>

options autosupport.from user#@filer#

options autosupport.noteto user#@<UNIX Admin host>

Configure SNMP contact and location information

Step Action
1. Enter the following list of commands at the console prompt:

snmp contact “Student#, 555-333-3333”

snmp location “NetApp Corp, Training Lab”

snmp init 1

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Basic Administration

Test and verify the Autosupport configuration

Step Action
1. Execute this command at the console prompt:

options autosupport.doit “testing”

2. Telnet to <UNIX Admin host>.

3. Login as user# (where # is the number of your filer).

4. Enter password: user# (where # is the number of your filer).

5. Type: mail

You should see an email message with the subject:


System Notification from filer# (testing)

6. Enter the message number of the ‘testing’ message. For instance, if ‘testing’ is
message 1 - type 1.

The message will open.

7. On the first screen verify that the SNMP_CONTACT and SNMP_LOCATION


information reflect what you entered. That information will be shown in the second
section of the Autosupport message.

8. Press the space bar to scroll forward in the message until you view the System
Serial Number line. For instance, if your serial number was 3003908 you will see
the following:
Netapp-asup-serial-num: 3003908
9. Continue to scroll through the Autosupport message to view the other information
Autosupport sends to Autosupport recipients.
10. Press ‘q’ to exit.

End of Exercises

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 2-45


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Disks & Volumes
Managing Disks and Volumes

Module 3. Managing Disks and Volumes

Managing Disks and


Volumes

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Describe & configure RAID groups and options
– Design a hot spare disk strategy
– Describe how disks may be mixed and matched
– Describe disk drive qualification
– Identify a specific disk in a shelf based on its disk ID
– Explain how disks are identified by their addresses
– Create traditional and flexible volumes and set
volume-specific options
– Identify the appropriate action based on messages
generated by the Storage Health Monitor

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

RAID Group Size

RAID-DP
Minimum Maximum group
Platform group size size Default group size
R200 3 16 14
R150 3 16 12
R100 3 12 12
All other NetApp 3 28 16
platforms

RAID 4
Minimum Maximum group
Platform group size size Default group size
R200 2 7 7
R150 2 6 6
R100 2 8 8
FAS250 2 14 7
All other NetApp 2 14 8
platforms

RAID Group Size


RAID groups can consist of two to twenty-eight disks, depending on platform.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

RAID Group

RAID4

RAID DP

RAID Group
A RAID group (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is comprised of several disks linked
together in a storage appliance. (There are different implementations of RAID; Data ONTAP
uses RAID4.) A key to understanding how to manage disks and volumes is the understanding of
RAID groups.

IN Data ONTAP, each RAID4 group consists of at least one parity disk and one or more data
disks. The storage appliance assigns the role of parity disk to the largest disk in the RAID group.

When a data disk fails, the storage appliance will determine the data that was on the failed disk
and rebuild a hot spare with that data.

RAID DP provides for dual parity protection against a single or double disk failure within a
RAID group. The minimum number of disks in a RAID DP group is three. One data, one parity,
and one dual parity (dparity) disk.

Note: If a parity disk fails, it can be rebuilt from the data on the data disks.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-3


Managing Disks and Volumes

Disk Failures

Disk Failures
You can determine which disk has failed by using the sysconfig -r command.

Hopefully, your system is equipped with appropriate hot spare disks. Notice in this graphic that
hot spares are not part of any RAID group but are part of the storage appliance. When a disk
fails, the storage appliance automatically rebuilds data or parity onto a hot spare disk if one is
available.

Replacing Disks
You can also replace a failed disk by hot swapping which is the removal or installation of a disk
drive while the storage appliance is running, with minimal interruption to a file system. This
allows new disks to be added whenever needed.

If two disks are removed from a RAID4 group at the same time, this constitutes a double-disk
failure, and data loss will occur. If the volume is protected by RAID-DP, your data is protected.

If a volume contains more than one RAID4 group, you could have two disks in a volume fail as
long as they were not in the same RAID group.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Degraded Mode

Hours

Degraded Mode
If no hot spare disk is available to replace a failed disk, the system will operate in “degraded”
mode for a period of time. The default is 24 hours.

No data will be lost, although the system will not perform optimally. If the failed disk is not
replaced during this period, the system will shut down. You can reset this time interval by using
the options raid.timeout command.

You may want to set this to a longer time interval if access to the system is limited for a specified
period, such as a long weekend.

However, if a second disk in a RAID4 group should fail during degraded mode, it will constitute
a double-disk failure and data loss will result. (In a RAID DP group no data loss occurs unless a
third disk fails.) For this reason, failed disks and used hot spare disks should be replaced as soon
as possible. In addition, be careful about using the options raid.timeout command to
lengthen the time the system will operate in degraded mode before shutdown because a longer
interval increases the risk of a second disk failure and the resulting data loss.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Mixing and Matching Disks

12

34 56

Mixing and Matching Disks


Various-sized disks can be used in the same storage appliance. This happens when disks are
purchased after equipment setup.

However, different-sized disks require different versions of Data ONTAP, and different disk
shelves. Consult the NOW site for specific information about your system by checking the
System Configuration Guides.

Remember, parity and hot spare disks must be as large as the largest disk in a RAID group, so
they can support all the stripes on any of the data disks. (When creating RAID groups with
different size disks, Data ONTAP will assign parity to the largest disk. If you later add larger
disks to the RAID group, Data ONTAP will reassign parity to the largest of those disks.)

Note: While mixing different disk sizes in a volume is a supported configuration, this can lead
to sub-optimal performance of the volume. Network appliance recommends that all disks in a
volume be of the same size.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Replacing Failed Disks

Replacing Failed Disks


When you replace a failed disk, the size of the new disk must be equal to, or larger than, the
usable space of the replaced disk, to accommodate all the data blocks on the failed disk.

If the usable space on the replacement disk is larger than the failed disk, the replacement disk
will be right-sized to the failed disk capacity. The extra space on the disk is not useable.

If you have a storage appliance with a mix of FC7, FC8 and FC9 shelves and a 9 GB drive fails
on an FC7 shelf, an 18 GB drive on another shelf will be right-sized and used to replace the
failed disk. The 18GB disk cannot be moved to the FC7 shelf because the FC7 shelf can only
support up to 9 GB drives.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Transition Slide
Configuring
RAID Groups

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

RAID Group Options

options raid.timeout

options raid.reconstruct.perf_impact

options raid.scrub.enable

options raid.scrub.perf_impact

options raid.default_raidtype

Note: For a complete listing of all the RAID options, see your product documentation.

RAID Group Options

Example Result
options raid.timeout 36 Changes the amount of time the system will
operate in degraded mode from the default
(24 hours) to 36 hours.
options Changes the amount of system resources
raid.reconstruct.perf_impact low allocated to reconstruction of data from
default (medium) to low (runs when nothing
else is running). Can also be set to high
(runs except when CPIO is running).
options raid.scrub.enable on Enables RAID scrub to occur automatically
at 1:00 a.m. on Sundays.
options raid.scrub.perf_impact low Sets scrub performance at low. Can also be
set to medium or high.
options raid.default_raidtype raid4 Specifies RAID4 as the default raidtype
used when creating new volumes. Entering
"raid4" creates one parity disk per
raidgroup; entering "raid_dp" creates two
parity disks per raidgroup.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Disk Scrub

Disk scrubbing to protect data


Each disk in a RAID group is scanned for
errors
Automatic RAID scrub is enabled (on) by
default
Manual disk scrub overrides automatic
settings

Disk Scrub
Storage appliances use disk scrubbing to protect data from media errors, or bad sectors, on a
disk. Each disk in a RAID group is scanned for errors. If errors are found, they are fixed by
reconstructing data from parity and rewriting the data. Without this process, a disk media error
might cause a multiple disk failure while running in degraded mode.

Automatic RAID scrub is enabled by default. You can set it to off, if you prefer to control when
RAID scrub will occur. You can also manually start and stop disk scrubbing regardless of the
current value (on or off) of the raid.scrub.enable option.

Error Message Cause


Inconsistent parity on volume volume_name, RAID group Inconsistent parity block
n, stripe #n. Rewriting bad parity block on volume
volume_name, RAID group n.
Rewriting bad parity block on volume volume_name, Media error on the parity disk
RAID group n, stripe #n Media error on a data disk

Multiple bad blocks found on volume volume_name, More than one bad block
RAID group n, stripe #n
Scrub found n parity inconsistencies. Scrub found n media When disk scrubbing is complete
errors. Disk scrubbing finished.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk Commands

Disk Commands

Example Result
disk fail 4a.16 Fails the file system disk, 4a.16.

disk remove 4a.17 Removes the spare disk, 4a.17.

disk swap Prepares (quiets) bus for swap.

disk unswap Undoes disk swap.

disk scrub stop Stops disk scrubbing.

disk replace start 4a.16 Replace disk 4a.16 with a hot spare.

disk zero spares Zero all non-zeroed RAID spare disks

Starts removal of all disk data by


disk sanitize start 4a.18
overwriting disk 4a.18 several times.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Disk Qualification

Transition Slide

Disk Qualification
Only disks qualified by Network Appliance, Inc. can be used with NetApp products. This means
they must be purchased only from NetApp or an approved reseller. Data ONTAP automatically
detects unqualified disks and takes the following action.

Unqualified Disks
• Attempting to use an unqualified disk will produce a “delay forced shutdown” for 72 hours.
This means that you have 72 hours to remove and replace the unqualified disk before a
forced system shutdown will occur. Additional actions include:

• Notification via syslog entries, console messages, and Autosupport

• Automatic error generation and delayed forced shutdown if the /etc/qual_devices file is
modified

• Unsupported drives are marked as “unqualified”

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk Qualification

Disk Qualification
Firmware download occurs automatically at system boot, disk insertion, and cluster takeover.

If you installed a new drive into your disk shelf and your storage appliance responds with an
error message identifying the disk and ID number indicating the disk is unqualified, you must
remove the disk and insert one that is qualified.

To correct an unqualified disk error so that the storage appliance does not halt within 72 hours:

1. Remove disk drives that are not provided by Network Appliance, Inc. or an authorized
NetApp vendor or reseller.

2. Download and install the most recent /etc/qual_devices file from


http://now.netapp.com/NOW/download/tools/diskqual/. This will update your list of qualified
disks.

3. If "unqualified" error messages persist after installing an up-to-date /etc/qual_devices file, try
reinstalling the /etc/qual_devices file.

4. If reinstalling fails, remove the unqualified disk and contact Network Appliance Technical
Support.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Transition Slide
Identifying
Disks

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk ID

Disk ID
Disks are numbered in all storage appliances. Disk numbering allows you to:

• Interpret screen messages.

• For example, command output or error messages you see on your display.

• Quickly locate the disk referred to by the message.

• To identify the disk ID, use the sysconfig –r or vol status –r commands.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Disk Numbering: Path ID

Disk Numbering: Path ID


Disks are numbered based on a combination of their path_id + device_id, represented as
path_id.device_id, as shown in the graphic.

Path ID refers to the adapter number associated with the disk. Device ID refers to the logical
loop ID of the disk.

In the example shown here, the disk with the ID 4a.16 is on the loop connected to port A of the
host adapter in slot 4.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Fibre Channel Shelves

DS14 Style

FCX Style

Fibre Channel Shelves


• Device ID refers to the loop or SCSI ID number of the disk.

• Device IDs are determined by the type of shelf, the shelf number, and the bay in which the
device is installed.

• Bays are numbered from right to left starting with 0.

Note: If you are installing a DS14 into a loop that also contains FC7, FC8, or FC9 Fibre
Channel storage shelves, to avoid address conflicts, the DS14 must be the last disk shelf in the
loop and must have the highest disk shelf ID in the loop.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Fibre Channel Loop IDS

Fibre Channel Loop IDs


The table shows the numbering system for Fibre Channel loop IDs.

The following IDs are reserved and are not used:

• FCx Series Shelves: 7, 15, 23, 31, 47, 55

• DS14 Series Shelves: 0-15, 30-31, 46-47, 62-63, 78-79, 94-95, 110-111

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk Numbering: Device ID

Disk Numbering: Device ID


In the example shown here the disk ID is 4a.16. The Device ID, in this case the loop ID, is 16,
which corresponds to bay 0 on this DS14 shelf with a shelf ID of 1.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Transition Slide
Managing
Volumes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Traditional and Flexible Volumes

Traditional and Flexible Volumes


Volumes are file systems that hold user data that is accessible by protocols supported by Data
ONTAP.

Traditional volumes
A traditional volume is a volume that is contained by a single, dedicated, aggregate; it is tightly
coupled with its containing aggregate. The only way to grow a traditional volume is to add entire
disks to its containing aggregate. It is impossible to decrease the size of a traditional volume.

All volumes created with a version of Data ONTAP earlier than 7.0 are traditional volumes. If
you upgrade to Data ONTAP 7.0, your volumes and data remain unchanged, and the commands
you used to manage your volumes and data are still supported.

Flexible volumes
A flexible volume is a volume that is loosely coupled to its containing aggregate. You can create
small flexible volumes (20 MB or larger), and you can increase or decrease the size of flexible
volumes in increments as small as 4 KB.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Limits
You can create up to 200 flexible and traditional volumes on a single filer. In addition, the
following limits apply.

Traditional volumes: You can have up to 100 traditional volumes and aggregates combined on
a single filer.

• Each traditional volume is also an aggregate; therefore a combination of 100 hits the
aggregate limit.

Flexible volumes: The only limit imposed on flexible volumes is the overall system limit of 200
volumes.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Setting up Volumes

filer

S S S S S S
Aggregate
Traditional P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A /flexvol1/plex0
/vol0/plex0 R R R R R R
/flexvol2/plex0
E E E E E E

Raid Raid
group 0 group 1
D Raid group 1
PDDD PDDD PPDDDDDDDDDDDD

Setting up Volumes
Considerations for traditional volumes
Upgrading

If you upgrade to Data ONTAP 7.0 from a previous version, the upgrade program preserves each
of your existing volumes as traditional volumes.

Disk portability

You can create traditional volumes and aggregates whose disks you intend to physically
transport from one appliance to another.

Considerations for flexible volumes


Within an aggregate you can create one or many flexible volumes.

Flexible volume space guarantee

You can choose to over commit space with flexible volumes. Refer to your documentation on
Aggregate over commitment.

Volume language

During volume creation you can specify the language character set to be used.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Backup

You can size your flexible volumes for convenient volume-wide data backup

Volume cloning

Many database programs enable data cloning. This is an efficient way to copy data for:

• Manipulation

• Projection operations

• Upgrade testing

Data ONTAP allows you to create a duplicate of a volume by having the original volume and
clone volume share the same disk space for storing unchanged data. Refer to your documentation
on Cloning flexible volumes.

Foreign Volume

A foreign volume or aggregate is one which has been removed from one storage appliance and
installed into another.

This may be necessary to perform one of the following tasks:

• Replace a disk shelf with one that has a greater storage capacity

• Replace current disks with larger disks

• Gain access to the files on disks belonging to a malfunctioning filer

NetApp recommends that you only move disks from a source filer to a destination filer if the
destination filer has equivalent or higher NVRAM capacity.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Multiple Volumes

When using multiple volumes, consider:


– Storage space is partitioned
– Multiple mount points to administer

Multiple Volumes
Many administrators decide to set up multiple volumes, rather than using only one. Advantages
of using multiple volumes are:

• Backup and restore functions take less time when performed on individual, smaller volumes
than on large volumes.

• Many properties and options command values can be set differently for individual volumes.

• Individual volumes can be taken off-line to perform administrative and maintenance tasks
while the other volumes remain online, without interrupting the availability of data on them.

Note: a volume can be dynamically taken offline.

If the original root volume is not available, the storage appliance could still boot from another
volume and provide continued service from the remaining volumes.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Volume and Aggregate Names

A traditional volume or aggregate name must


follow these naming conventions
– Begin with either a letter or an underscore (_)
– Contain only letters, digits, and underscores
– Contain no more than 255 characters

Volume and Aggregate Names


Volume or aggregate names must follow the naming conventions shown above.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Root Volumes

Root Volumes
Each storage appliance has only one root volume, although the designated root volume can be
changed. The root volume is used to boot the storage appliance. It is the only volume with “root”
attributes, meaning that its “/etc” directory is used for configuration information.

Volume pathnames begin with “/vol.” For example:

• /vol/vol0 vol0 is the name of the volume

• /vol/users/cheryl cheryl is a directory on a volume named users

Note: /vol is not a directory—it is a special virtual root path under which the storage appliance
mounts other directories. You cannot mount /vol to view all of the volumes on the storage
appliance; you must mount each volume separately.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Data Reliability

Data Reliability
Data reliability is fundamental to NetApp products. There are two functions that increase that
reliability:

• RAID-level checksums – These enhance data protection and reliability and are integral to
future Data ONTAP releases.

• Multi-path I/O setup – These provide connective redundancy.

Checksums
A checksum verifies that the amount of data read, equals the amount of data written. If we know
that these two figures are equal, then we can be certain that there is no missing data. Data
ONTAP does this, and it is invisible to the user. Two types of checksum are supported:

• Zoned Checksums (ZCS)

• Block Checksums (BCS)

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Multipath I/O

Multipath I/O
The Multipath I/O feature enables you to provide both a primary and a secondary access path for
each disk on a storage appliance.

By providing redundant paths to the same disk on a single storage appliance, the Multipath I/O
feature provides the following advantages:

• Overall reliability and uptime of the storage subsystem of the storage appliance is increased

• Increase throughput

The slide illustrates an example of a Multipath I/O setup on a storage appliance. The storage
appliance has dual-port host adapters installed in slot 7 and slot 8. The host adapter ports connect
to the disk shelf ports as shown. This setup uses two dual-port host adapters to connect to two
disk shelf loops, thus preventing the host adapters from being the single points of failure.
Although it is not necessary to have a dual-port host adapter to set up Multipath I/O, it is
recommended because using dual-port adapters conserves PCI slots.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Multipath I/O Limitations


Although Multipath I/O setups can provide data protection, there are limitations to this setup.
These limitations are:

• Only F8XX, and F9XX storage appliances are supported

• It is supported only on the 2200 or 2212 host adapters

• You cannot use Multipath on a shelf containing 9GB drives

• The storage appliance must be connected to FC9 (XL500) and/or DS14 shelves

• Clustering cannot be enabled

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

aggr Command

Common Aggregate Commands

The aggr Command


The aggregate commands are similar to the vol commands except that are performed on an
aggregate. In Fact, many aggr commands will work on traditional volumes and many vol
commands will work on aggregates. For a complete list, see your product documentation.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

vol Commands

Flexible

The vol command


To manage traditional and flexible volumes, use the vol commands. The majority of the vol
commands will work on traditional as well as flexible volumes. For a complete list of all the vol
commands, view the system documentation.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Volume Commands and Options

Example Result
vol create vol2 2 Creates a new volume named vol2 from spares. You can
ask for disks of a certain size, enter a specific list of
disks, or specify how many to add.

vol create vol2 -n 3 Displays the command that the system will execute
without actually making any changes. In this example,
vol create vol2 -d 0b.28 0b.27 0b.26 is
returned.

The -n option is useful for displaying the automatically


selected disks, as shown above.

vol create flexvol Creates a new volume named flexvol on aggr1 that is
aggr1 20G 20GBs in size.

vol add vol1 3 Adds 3 more disks to the existing traditional volume,
vol1.

vol status vol1 Displays the volume size, options, etc., for vol1.

vol rename vol2 vol3 Gives volume vol2 the new name, vol3.

vol options vol3 Displays current options settings for vol3.

vol offline vol3 Removes volume vol3 from active use without reboot.

vol online vol3 Reactivates volume vol3, which was offline.

vol restrict vol3 Places volume vol3 in restricted mode.

vol destroy vol1 Turns volume vol1 (if offline) back into individual spare
disks.

vol size flexvol 30G Changes the size of the volume named flexvol to 30GBs.

vol size flexvol +10g Increases the size of the volume named flexvol by
10GBs.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Scrubbing

Scrubbing performs the following:


– Compares the data disks to parity
– Corrects parity disk's contents
– Used only on RAID groups with active parity
– All RAID groups scrubbed for specified volume or
aggregate
– Partial volume or aggregate scrub for eligible RAID
groups

Scrubbing
Scrubbing compares the data disks to the parity disk in a RAID group, correcting the parity disk's
contents as necessary.

The vol scrub or aggr scrub commands may be used only on RAID groups with active
parity; it will not work on groups that are rebuilding parity, degraded, or reconstructing.

If the name of a specific volume or aggregate is not specified, all volumes or aggregates will be
scrubbed. If a volume or aggregate has some RAID groups that are eligible to be scrubbed and
others not eligible, a scrub can still be started. You will receive error messages for the ineligible
groups, but scrubbing will be performed on the rest.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Storage Health Monitor

Simple storage appliance management service


Automatically initiates during system boot
Provides background monitoring of individual
disk performance
Detects impending disk problems before they
actually occur

Storage Health Monitor (SHM)


The Storage Health Monitor is a simple storage appliance management service that automatically
initiates during system boot. It provides background monitoring of individual disk performance.

• Rather than detecting disk problems when one actually fails, the Storage Health Monitor
detects impending disk problems before they occur.

• You can then elect to replace the disk before any actual client data problems occur.

• Messages are reported through SNMP, Autosupport, and system log, depending on user-
specified error metrics.

There are three levels of message reporting categories:

• Urgent (current problem)

• Non-Urgent (potentially impending problems)

• Informational (general status information)

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Syslog Messages

 shm: disk has reported a predicted failure (PFA) event: disk XX,
serial_number XXXX
 shm: link failure detected, upstream from disk: id XX,
serial_number XXXXX
 shm: disk I/O Completion times too long: disk XX, serial number
XXXXX
 shm: possible link errors on disk: id XX, serial number XXXXX.
 shm: disk returns excessive recovered errors: disk XX, serial
number XXXXX
 shm: intermittent instability on the loop that is attached to Fibre
channel adapter: id XXX, name XXXXX

Syslog Messages
shm: disk has reported a predicted failure (PFA) event: disk XX,
serial_number XXXX
Description of Problem: The disk has reported a Predicted Failure (PFA) Event. The disk's
internal error processing and logging algorithm computation results are exceeding an internally
set threshold. The disk is bound to fail in a matter of hours.

Category: Urgent
Action Required: Replace the disk.

shm: link failure detected, upstream from disk: id XX,


serial_number XXXXX
Description of Problem: A Fibre Channel disk or cable, if disks are in different disk shelves,
might be malfunctioning and might have caused an open loop condition. This results in a loss of
sync over 100 milliseconds for a downstream disk that reported it as a link failure.

Category: Urgent
Action Required: Halt the storage appliance. Use disk scrub on each disk, and replace disks and
cable one at a time to determine what is malfunctioning. Replace malfunctioning disk or cable.

shm: disk I/O completion times too long: disk XX, serial number
XXXXX
Description of Problem: Either the disk is old and slow, or it is internally recovering errors,
thereby taking too long to complete an I/O. The message also indicates that there are too many
I/O timeouts and retries on a disk. The disk might also be returning Command Aborted status

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-37


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

quite often. All these can result in low data throughput rate for that disk, and lowered overall
system performance.

Category: Non-urgent
Action Required: The disk is failure-prone; you should replace it.

shm: possible link errors on disk: id XX, serial number XXXXX.


Description of Problem: One of a group of four Fibre Channel disks in a disk shelf or any
connecting cable might be malfunctioning. This results in a large number of invalid_CRC frames
and data underruns on the loop. The invalid_CRC and underrun count has crossed its set
threshold several times.

Category: Non-urgent
Action Required: Halt the storage appliance and remove the disks and cables one at a time to
determine which is malfunctioning. Replace malfunctioning disk or cable.

shm: disk returns excessive recovered errors: disk XX, serial


number XXXXX
Description of Problem: Either the disk has found medium or hardware errors (unrecovered
errors), or it has internally recovered large numbers of errors. The disk might also be returning
“Command Aborted” status. The errors returned exceeded many times the disk vendor-specified
bit error rate.

Category: Non-urgent
Action Required: The disk is failure-prone; you should replace it.

shm: intermittent instability on the loop that is attached to


Fibre Channel adapter: id XXX, name XXXXX
Description of Problem: A Fibre Channel adapter, attached disk shelf, disk, cable, or connectors
might cause instability on the FC-AL loop. It results in I/O completion rates that are below a set
threshold.

Category: Informational
Action Required: None

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Topic Review

 What are the minimum disk requirements for RAID 4?


 What are the rules for mixing disks of different
capacities?
 What is disk drive qualification?
 How are disks numbered?
 What is degraded mode?
 What is the command to display the disk ID?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-39


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Autosupport Exercises

Managing Disks

3-40 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Managing Disks and Volumes

Exercise: Managing Disks and Volumes


Objectives
When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to do the following:

• Configure RAID groups

• Create an aggregate

• Create volumes and set volume-specific options

• Add disks to a volume

• Use the vol status -r to display disk IDs

• Manually fail a disk

Exercise Overview
The purpose of this activity is for you to practice the skills needed to manage disks and volumes.
You will add a disk to an existing file system, use command line entries to create a new volume,
manually fail a disk, and replace a failed disk.

Time Estimate
30 minutes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 3-41


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise
Creating a new volume.

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s prompt, create aggr1 with 2 disks.

NetApp> aggr create aggr1 –t raid4 2

2. Create a new flexible volume by entering the following command:

NetApp> vol create vol1 aggr1 2g

3. Enter vol status –r and view the results.

How many spare disks are available? _______________

What raidtype is each volume? ______________ _______________

What type of checksum does the volume utilize? _______________

4. Enter vol status vol1 –v to view the volume settings.

What is the nosnap option set to? _______________

What is the maxdirsize set to? _______________

What is the RAID group named? ______________ _______________

What is the state of the RAID group? _______________

Adding a spare disk to a storage appliance.

Step Action
1. Access the storage appliance’s console.

2. Enter vol status –r and determine which bay on your shelf does not have a
disk installed.

Hint: Determine how many bays your disk shelf has based on the vol status –
r command. If you have an FC7-FC9 disk shelf, you should have bays 0-6. If you
have a DS14 type shelf, you should have bays 0-13. The bay that is not shown is the
one without the drive installed.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

3. Go to the system and insert the drive into the shelf.

4. View the messages that appeared on the storage appliance’s console after the
insertion of the disk.

Enter vol status –r to verify the addition of the new disk. The disk should
show up in the missing bay.

5. If all of the slots are full, there are no hot spares, and all of the disks are assigned to
volumes, can you add a disk to a volume? What must you do?

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

Adding disks and renaming a volume.

Step Action
1. Access the storage appliance’s console and enter vol status -r to determine the
availability of hot spares.

2. To view automatic disk selection, enter the following command:

NetApp> aggr add aggr1 –n 2

What output was returned on the console?

_________________________________________

3. Copy the returned command and enter it at the storage appliances prompt. View the
output.

4. Enter sysconfig –r and verify the addition of two disks.

5. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following command to rename the
volume.

NetApp> vol rename vol1 vol2

Note: At this point you should have two volumes, vol0 has two disks and vol2
should be a flexible volume that is 2 Gig in size. The volume named vol2 should be a
flexible volume on aggr1 which consists of four disks. If you have a different
configuration, please consult the instructor before proceeding to the next activity.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Setting volume options.

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following and view the vol options.

NetApp> vol options vol2

2. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following to change the nosnap setting
of vol1.

NetApp> vol options vol2 nosnap on

3. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following and view change to the vol2
options.

NetApp> vol options vol2

4. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following to change the raidtype of
aggr1 to dp.

NetApp> aggr options aggr1 raidtype dp

5. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following to view the activity to change
the raidtype.

NetApp> sysstat 1

You should see about 2-3 times the amount of reads to writes. The system is
computing the dual parity and writing it to the dparity disk.

Press Crtl-C to stop the display.

6. At the storage appliance’s console, enter the following to change the raidtype of
aggr1 to raid4

NetApp> aggr options aggr1 raidtype raid4

This will abort the conversion to raid dp.

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Managing Disks and Volumes

Failing a disk.

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s console, enter aggr status aggr1 –r or
sysconfig -r to view the disk id numbers for aggr1.

Enter the id of a disk in aggr1 here. _____

2. At the storage appliance’s console, enter

NetApp> options raid.reconstruct.perf_impact high

3. At the storage appliance’s prompt, enter:

Netapp> disk fail [device_id from step 1]

What messages were displayed on the console?

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

4. What would happen if you failed a disk in vol1 with no hot spare available?

________________________________________

_________________________________________

5. What is the difference between the information provided by the vol status and
the sysconfig command?

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

End of Exercise

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Networking
Network Administration

Module 4. Network Administration

Networking

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

Upon completion of this module you will be


able to:
– Describe hostname resolution as it applies to
storage appliances
– Explain the limitations of using a filer as a router
– Manage interface parameters on a storage
appliance
– Describe the physical interfaces used by the filer
– Create virtual interfaces (VLANs and VIFs) used by
the storage appliance

4-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Hostname Resolution

/etc/hosts
A DNS server
A NIS server

Maintaining Host Information


Data ONTAP can resolve host information on a storage appliance using these three methods:

• /etc/hosts

• DNS

• NIS

By default, the storage appliance first tries to resolve host names locally by searching the
/etc/hosts and the /etc/nsswitch.conf file.

Note: DNS and NIS can be configured using the setup command during installation of a
storage appliance. As a result, many of the commands and files that you will learn about in this
lesson are executed automatically. NIS or DNS commands are usually entered manually if:

• NIS or DNS was not configured during setup

• You need to make a change to a configuration

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Hostname Resolution

/etc/hosts

Hostname Resolution with the /etc/hosts File


Since the /etc/hosts file is checked first, it is important to keep the file current because updated
changes take effect immediately. The file can be edited using a standard editing program and
should include a blank line at the end. The format of the /etc/hosts entries is as follows:

IP address hostname alias(es)

Function
The /etc/hosts file is automatically generated during the setup procedure for the storage
appliance, as a part of the data install process. It is populated at that time with the IP addresses
and hostnames.

Note that:

• The default IP address for the local host (storage appliance) is listed

• Installed cards that do not have IP addresses are included but are commented out

The /etc/hosts file may also be managed using the FilerView web application. Choose Manage
Hosts File from the Network node on the main menu to access and edit the file.

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Network Administration

Hostname Resolution

NIS server

Hostname Resolution Using NIS


The NIS client service provides information on security-related parameters such as hosts, user
passwords, user groups, and netgroups on a network.

NIS enables you to centrally maintain host information, so you don't have to update the /etc/hosts
file on each storage appliance on your network.

The storage appliance can be a NIS client and can query NIS servers for host information, but it
cannot be a NIS server. If you want to use NIS as the primary method for host resolution,
specify it ahead of other methods in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Hostname Resolution

Domain
Controller
user info
group info
password info
machine info

Hostname Resolution Using Domain Name Service (DNS)


DNS matches domain names to IP addresses and enables you to centrally maintain host information
so that you do not have to update the /etc/hosts file every time you add a new host to the network.
This is particularly helpful if you have several storage appliances on your network.

Domain Name Service is configured using options and commands.

To make the configuration commands permanent, enter them in the /etc/rc file. The /etc/rc file is
automatically generated during the setup procedure as part of the Data ONTAP install process. It is
populated with the DNS configuration information if you choose to set up DNS at that time.

The information command, dns info, displays the status of the DNS resolver, a list of DNS
servers, the state of each DNS server, the default domain configured on the storage appliance,
and a list of other domains that will be used with unqualified names for name lookup.

Command: dns

Example Result
options dns.domainname Sets the DNS domain name to dns_campus2.
dns_campus2

options dns.enable on Enables DNS.

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Network Administration

Hostname Resolution

/etc/nsswitch.conf

Specifying a Search Order for Resolution


The /etc/nsswitch.conf file lists the order in which a storage appliance searches for resolution. To
resolve hostnames, for example, a storage appliance uses the search order listed for hosts and, in
this example, first searches using /etc/hosts file, then NIS and then DNS.

Each line in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file uses the format shown above.

The file can be modified at any time to change the default search order for hostname resolution.
Once a storage appliance resolves the hostname, the search ends.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Storage Appliance as Router

Routing

netstat –r command

Routing
Even though a storage appliance may have multiple network interfaces, it does not function as a
router for other network hosts. It does, however, route its own packets.

To display the default and explicit routes your storage appliance uses for routing its own packets,
check the current routing table using the netstat -r command. The netstat command
displays network-related data structures.

4-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Storage Appliance as Router

route command

Modifying the Routing Table


The route command allows the system administrator to manually manipulate the network
routing table for the specific host or network specified by destination.

To add or delete a specific route for a host or network in the routing table, use route.

Command Result
route add default 10.10.10.1 1 Adds a default route through
10.10.10.1 with a metric (hop) of
one.

route add host client2 bldg_router 1 Adds a route to client2 through


bldg_router with a metric of 1 .

route delete 193.20.8.173 193.20.4.254 Deletes the route destination


193.20.8.173 connecting through
193.20.4.254

For more details, view the manual pages or the product documentation.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Storage Appliance as Router

routed

routed status command


Routed is a daemon invoked at boot time to manage the network routing tables. The daemon
processes incoming packets and periodically checks the routing table entries.

To view the status of the default gateway list, use the routed status command to display
the following information:

• whether RIP snooping is active

• the current list of default gateways

• the metrics of default gateways 1-15

• the state of the gateways (ALIVE or DEAD)

• the last time each gateway was heard from

4-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Interface Names

The filer supports these network types:


– Ethernet 10/100BaseT
– Gigabit
• Jumbo Frames supported in Data ONTAP 6.x, for filers with
Gigabit Ethernet Controller II interface
– FDDI
– ATM
Interface names are based on:
– Network type
– Slot number
– Port number, with multiport interface

Network Types and Interface Names


Storage appliances support the four network types for NAS shown here:

• Ethernet 10/100-baseT

• Gigabit Ethernet

• FDDI

• ATM

Each port on an interface card is named using a combination of interface type and slot number.
Ethernet port on the system board, for example, is e0. Details regarding supported slot
assignments can be found in the hardware guide specific to the storage appliance or in the
System Configuration Guide on the NOW site.

Note: If you can't get to the NOW site, do an rdfile on /etc/sysconfigtab or view the file from
an adminhost. This file contains information about what is supported based on the release of
ONTAP and each storage appliance model.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Interface Names

Interface Names

Single Port Interfaces


For physical interfaces, the interface names are assigned automatically based on the type of
interface and the slot in which the network adapter is installed.

4-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Interface Names

Naming Quad-Port Interfaces


Some Ethernet interface cards support four ports and are referred to as quad-port interfaces. A
storage appliance refers to each port on the card using a letter. The four ports are numbered from
top to bottom on the card and lettered a-d from top to bottom when named.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The ifconfig Command

Network interface configuration parameters


– IP address
– netmask and broadcast address
– mediatype, speed
– maximum transmission unit (MTU)
– flow control (Gigabit Ethernet II controller only)
– up or down state
Changes are not permanent until entered into
the /etc/rc file

Interface Configuration Parameters


There are seven common network parameters that can be configured for an interface:

• IP address

• Netmask address

• Broadcast address

• Media type and speed

• Maximum transmission unit (MTU)

• Flow control for the Gigabit Ethernet II controller

• Up or down state

Changes made on the command line interface, however, are not permanent until added to the
/etc/rc file from the command line or from FilerView.

4-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Network Parameter Descriptions


IP address: standard format is used for IP addresses, as in 192.168.23.10. IP addresses are
mapped to host names in the /etc/hosts file.

Net mask and broadcast address: Standard format is used for netmask and broadcast
addresses; for example 255.255.255.0 for netmask and 192.168.1.255 for broadcast address.

Media type and speed: the following media types can be configured:

[ mediatype { tp | tp-fd | 100tx | 100tx-fd | 1000fx | auto }

Maximum transmission unit (MTU): Use a smaller MTU value for an interface if a bridge or
router on the attached network cannot break large packets into fragments.

Flow control for the Gigabit Ethernet II controller: The original Gigabit Ethernet Controller
only supports full duplex, not flow control. The Gigabit Ethernet Controller II negotiates flow
control with an attached device that supports autonegotiation; however, if autonegotiation fails
on either device, the flow control setting entered with the ifconfig command is used. These
flow control settings can be used:

[ flowcontrol { none | receive | send | full } ]

Up or down state: The state of any interface may be configured up or down.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Etherchannel Trunks (Virtual Interfaces)

 What is a VIF?
– Aggregate multiple ethernet links into a single logical channel
between two devices
 Clients access a single virtual IP address

What is a VIF?
AVIF is a group of Ethernet interfaces working together as a logical unit. You can group up to
sixteen Ethernet interfaces into a single logical interface.

The advantage of VIFs over single network interfaces are threefold:

• Higher throughput because multiple interfaces work as one interface

• Fault tolerance; if one interface in a VIF goes down, the remaining interfaces maintain
connection to the network

• Protection against a switch port becoming a single point of failure

4-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Single-Mode Trunk

Single-Mode Trunk
VIFs are also known as trunks, virtual aggregations, link aggregations, or etherchannel virtual
interfaces.

Trunks can be single-mode or multi-mode. In a single-mode trunk, one interface is active while
the other interface is on standby. Failure signals the inactive interface to take over and maintain
the connection with the switch.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Multi-Mode Trunk

Multi-Mode Trunk
In a multi-mode trunk, all interfaces are active, providing greater speed when multiple hosts
access the storage appliance. The switch determines how the load is balanced among the
interfaces and must therefore support manually configurable trunking.

In the figure above, four active interfaces comprise the multi-mode trunk MultiTrunk1. If any
three interfaces fail, the storage appliance still remains connected to the network.

4-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Load Balancing

Load Balancing is supported for multi-mode


VIFs only
– IP-based (default)
– MAC-based
– Round-Robin
Note: Load balancing assumes an even
distribution of IP addresses:
e1a e1b e1c e1d
× × × ×
10.10.10.1 10.10.10.2 10.10.10.3 10.10.10.4
10.10.10.5 10.10.10.6 10.10.10.7 10.10.10.8
10.10.10.9 10.10.10.10 10.10.10.11 10.10.10.12
10.10.10.13 10.10.10.14 10.10.10.15 10.10.10.16

Load Balancing
Load-balancing ensures that all the interfaces of a multi-mode VIF are equally utilized for
outbound traffic. It is supported for multi-mode trunks only, and assumes a nice distribution of
hosts. There are three methods of load-balancing with IP-based as the default:

• IP-based - the outgoing interfaces selected based on the filer and clients IP address.

• MAC-based - the outgoing interface is selected on the basis of the filer and client’s MAC
address.

• Round-Robin - all the interfaces are selected on a rotating basis.

Both IP-based and MAC-based address methods use a formula to determine the interface to use
for outgoing frames. The formula uses the exclusive operator (XOR) value of the last four bits of
the source destination addresses to determine which interface to return data on.

Note: The Round-Robin method provides true load balancing but may cause out-of-order packet
delivery and retransmissions due to overruns.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Virtual Interface Commands

The filer supports trunking with virtual


interfacing
– vif create [single|multi] <vif_name> -b
[rr|ip|mac] [<interface_list>]
– vif delete <vif_name> [interface_list]
– vif destroy <vif_name>
– vif add <vif_name> <interface_list>
– vif [favor|nofavor] <interface>
– vif status [<vif_name>]
– vif stat vif_name [interval]

The named virtual interface is treated as a


single interface: ifconfig vif_name

Creating a VIF
A trunk is created and modified using VIF commands. A trunk name must be unique, begin with
a letter, contain no spaces, and not exceed 15 characters in length. Once the trunk is created,
configure it with the ifconfig command, just like any other network interface.

Using FilerView to Configure a VIF


Besides creating VIFs on the command line, you can create and configure a VIF of any type
using FilerView.

4-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Command: vif

Example Result
vif create single SingleTrunk e1 e2 Creates a single trunkVIF on interfaces e1 and e2.
Enter this command into the /etc/rc file to make it
persistent over reboots.

vif delete MultiTrunk1 e2 e3 Removes interfaces e2 and e3 on MultiTrunk1.

vif destroy SingleTrunk1 Deletes the trunk SingleTrunk1.

vif add MultiTrunk1 e2 e3 Adds interfaces e2 and e3 to MultiTrunk1. Modify


the existing vif create command in the /etc/rc
file to make it persistent over reboots.

vif favor e0 Specifies the active interface in a single-mode trunk.


If no link is specified, the active link is randomly
chosen. Enter this command into the /etc/rc file to
make it persistent over reboots.

vif status SingleTrunk1 Displays status of the specified virtual interface, if no


interface is specified, displays the status of all virtual
interfaces.

vif stat SingleTrunk1 10 Displays number of packets received and transmitted


on each interface. Specify the time interval, in
seconds, at which the statistics are displayed. If no
number is entered, by default, statistics are displayed
at a 2-second interval.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

VLAN
(Virtual Local Area Network)

What is a VLAN?
What is VLAN Tagging?
VLAN Tagging in Data ONTAP
VLAN Commands

Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)


A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a switched network that is logically segmented by
function, project team, or applications. End-stations can be grouped by department, by project,
or by security level. End-stations can be geographically dispersed and still be part of the
broadcast domain in a switched network.

Advantages of VLANs
• Ease of administration. VLANs enable a logical grouping of users who are physically
dispersed. Moving to a new location does not interrupt membership in a VLAN. Similarly,
changing job function does not require moving the end-station because it can be reconfigured
into a different VLAN.

• Confinement of broadcast domains. VLANs reduce the need for routers on the network to
contain broadcast traffic. Packet flooding is limited to the switch ports on the VLAN.

• Reduction of network traffic. Because the broadcast domains aren't confined, traffic on the
network is significantly reduced.

• Enforcement of security. End-stations on one VLAN cannot communicate with end-stations


on another VLAN unless a router is connected between them.

4-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

VLANS

VLANs: Physical Setup


VLANs allow ports on the same or different switches to be grouped and confine traffic to
members of the group. For example, in the illustration above, a member of the Engineering
VLAN on the first floor can communicate with an Engineering group member on the third floor
without going through a router.

Similarly, a member of the Marketing VLAN on the second floor can talk to a member of the
Marketing VLAN on the first floor, but not to members of the Engineering VLAN on the first
floor.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

VLAN Tagging in Data ONTAP

A filer can have 128 interfaces


– This includes the vh, loopback, VIFs, ELAN,
Physical interfaces and VLAN IDs
Supported VLAN IDs are 1 - 4094
– VLAN ID 1 is used by many switch vendors
VLANs over VIFs is supported
Commands are not persistent (need to be in
the /etc/rc file)

VLAN Tagging
An end-station must become a member of a VLAN before it can share the broadcast domain with
other end-stations on that VLAN. In Data ONTAP, the VLAN membership is port-based. Ports
on the same or different switches can be grouped on a port-based VLAN. This allows multiple
VLANs to exist on a single switch.

Data ONTAP limits the number of interfaces on a storage appliance to 128, including physical,
VLAN, VIFs, vh, and loopback interfaces and VLAN IDs from one to 4094 are supported.
Network Appliance suggests using a VLAN ID other than one, since many switch vendors use
one. VLANs over VIFs is supported using the vlan create command.

4-24 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

VLAN Tagging

How VLAN Tagging Works


A VLAN tag is a unique identifier, included in the header of every frame sent by an end-station
on a VLAN.

For example, a member of VLAN 10 on the first floor sends a frame to a member on the second
floor. Switch 1 inspects the frame header for the VLAN tag and the destination MAC address.
Switch 1 forwards the frame to all other ports on VLAN 10, port 1 on Switches 2 and 3. If the
destination MAC address is known to either switch, the frame is forwarded to the end-station on
the second floor.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

VLAN Membership
VLAN membership is based on one of the following:

• Switch ports

• End-station and MAC addresses

• Protocol

• Dynamic registration through GVRP

GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) uses the Generic Attribute Registration Protocol
(GARP), allowing end-stations to dynamically register their VLAN membership. Because
registration is dynamic, members can be added on-the-fly, limiting the need for maintaining
static VLAN configuration on the switch port. Additionally, membership information stays
current and limits the broadcast domain to active members of the VLAN.

By default, GVRP is disabled, but it can be enabled by using the -g flag with the vlan
create command.

Prerequisites
Prerequisites for setting up VLANs include:

• The switches used in the network must either comply with IEEE 802.1 Q standards or have a
vendor-specific implementation of VLANs.

• For an end-station to support multiple VLANs, it must either dynamically register using
GVRP or be statically configured to belong to one or more VLANs. If an end-station cannot
register or cannot be configured to belong to a VLAN, the end-station can only belong to one
VLAN. This VLAN is configured on the switch port to which the end-station connects. The
frames sent on this switch port are untagged.

4-26 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

VLAN Commands

 VLAN commands
– vlan create –g on <ifname> <vlanid vlanid
…>
– vlan delete [-q] <ifname> <vlanid>
– vlan add <ifname> <vlanid vlanid ...>
– vlan stat <ifname> <vlanid>
– vlan modify –g [on|off] <ifname>

VLAN Commands
A VLAN is created using the vlan create command on the command line or in FilerView.
Once the trunk is created, configure it using the ifconfig command, just as you would any
other network interface.

Example Result
vlan create –g on e4 2 3 4 Creates three VLANs on interface e4 named e4-2, e4-3, and e4-
4. The -g on option enables GVRP on the VLANs. Enter this
command in the /etc/rc file to make it persistent over reboots.
vlan delete -q e8 2 Removes VLAN e8-2. If the interface was configured UP, a
message appears asking you to confirm the deletion.
vlan add e8 3 Adds e8-3 to the VLAN. Enter this command in the /etc/rc file
to make it persistent over reboots.
vlan stat e4 10 Displays the number of packets received and transmitted on
each interface. Specify the time interval, in seconds, at which
the statistics are displayed. If no number is entered, by default,
statistics are displayed at a 2-second interval.
vlan modify –g off e8 Interface e8 will not participate with GVRP. Enter this
command in the /etc/rc file to make it persistent over reboots.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

How does a storage appliance resolve


hostnames?
What are the limitations of using a storage
appliance as a router?
What does the ifconfig command display?
What is a virtual interface?
What is a VLAN?

4-28 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Autosupport
Exercises

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Networking
Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• View installed adapters

• Configure and check your network adapters

• Create a VLAN

• Create a VIF

Exercise Overview
The purpose of this activity is for you to practice configuring and viewing interface adapters.
Depending on the hardware installed on your storage appliance, this lab may or may not execute
properly. If your hardware does not support the lab, enter the commands to practice.

Time Estimate
30 minutes

4-30 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Start of Exercise

Configure Network Adapters

Step Action

1. Connect to the storage appliance via the serial port or console connection. Do not try
to telnet to your storage appliance..
2. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig -a

3. Note: Your interface names may have different designations.


Ensure that the display is similar to the following:

NetApp> ifconfig -a
e0: flags=848043<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 10.41.66.130 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.41.66.255
lo: flags=948049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,TCPCKSUM> mtu 9188
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 broadcast 127.0.0.1

4. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig

5. The ifconfig syntax will be displayed:


NetApp> ifconfig
usage: ifconfig [ -a | [ <interface>
[ [ alias | -alias ] <address> ] [ up | down ]
[ netmask <mask> ] [ broadcast <address> ]
[ mtusize <size> ]
[ mediatype { tp | tp-fd | 100tx | 100tx-fd 1000fx | auto } ]
[ flowcontrol { none | receive | send | full } ]
[ trusted | untrusted ]
[ wins | -wins ]
[ [ partner { <address> | <interface> } ] | [ -partner ] ] ] ]
6. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig <onboard interface from step
#3>
7. Record the values below.
Interface name _______________
Is the interface up or down _______________
IP Address _______________
Netmask value _______________

8. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig <interface> 10.10.10.XX


Where xx is the last octet of your storage appliance’s ip
address.
9. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig <interface> down.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

10. At the command prompt, enter:


NetApp> ifconfig <interface> 10.10.10.XX netmask
255.255.252.0.
11. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig <interface> mtusize 500
12. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig –a
Now compare the values with step 7.
13. Reset the original values by entering:
NetApp> ifconfig <interface> <ip from output in step #3
or #7> up netmask 255.255.255.0 mediatype 100tx-fd
mtusize 1500

Create and Manage a Single-Mode VIF

Step Action

1. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig –a

2. At the command prompt, enter vif create and view the syntax.

3. At the command prompt, enter vif create single singletrunk1


<interface> <interface>
4. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig singletrunk1

5. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig singletrunk1 <IP from


instructor> up netmask 255.255.255.0
6. Telnet to the IP address set in step #5, now enter vif status
7. Connect to the console or enter the next commands on the console connection window
established.
8. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig –a
9. At the command prompt, enter vif destroy singletrunk1
NOTE: You cannot destroy a vif that is in the up state.
10. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig singletrunk1 down
11. At the command prompt, enter vif destroy singletrunk1
12. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig -a

4-32 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

Create a Single-Mode VIF via FilerView

Step Action

1. This exercise can only be performed on a system with a quad Ethernet card installed.
Skip to next exercise if your system is a FAS2XX system.
Open Internet Explorer and enter the following url
http://ip_address_of_storage_appliance/na_admin
For example:
http://10.32.69.15/na_admin.
2. Select Network, then Add Virtual Interface.

Enter the following information


Vif name = SingleTrunk1
Interfaces = any two available
Trunk mode = Single
Click Apply
3. View the VIF in FilerView.
After viewing the details, delete the SingleTrunk1.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Create and Manage a Multi-Mode VIF

Step Action

1. View the configured interfaces by entering ifconfig –a at the command prompt.

2. At the command prompt, enter vif create and view the syntax.

3. At the command prompt, enter vif create multi MultiTrunk1 –b ip


<interface> <interface>
4. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig MultiTrunk1

5. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig MultiTrunk1 <IP obtained in


previous exercises> up netmask 255.255.255.0
6. At the command prompt, enter vif status
What is the load balancing policy? _____________
How many links are active? _____________
What is the vif type? _____________

Creating a VLAN

Step Action

1. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig –a

2. At the command prompt, enter vlan create –g on MultiTrunk1 100


Note: The command should have failed, as the Multrunk1 interface should be in the
up state from the previous exercise.

3. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig MultiTrunk1 down

4. At the command prompt, enter vlan create –g on MultiTrunk1 test


What occurs when this command is entered?

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

5. At the command prompt, enter vlan create –g on MultiTrunk1 100


6. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig MultiTrunk1-100 <IP obtained
from previous exercises> up netmask 255.255.255.0

4-34 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Network Administration

7. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig –a


View the vlan created on the vif.

8. At the command prompt, enter vlan delete MultiTrunk1 100


Answer yes when prompted about the interface being in the up state.

9. At the command prompt, enter vif destroy MultiTrunk1


10. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig –a

Checking the Network

Step Action

1. Telnet to storage appliance name or IP address of the storage appliance onboard


interface.
2. At the command prompt, enter ifconfig <the onboard interface>

3. View the current configuration of your onboard interface.


filer> ifconfig e0
e0: flags=848043<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500inet
10.41.66.130 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.41.66.255
ether 00:a0:98:00:80:5a (100tx-up)

4. From the telnet session, enter ifconfig e0 <ip> up netmask


255.255.255.0 mediatype tp
5. What happened and why?

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

6. Open a session with the storage appliance via the console port.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 4-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

7. At the storage appliance console, enter


NetApp>netdiag

The netdiag command is used to check the network attached to the storage
appliance for errors or miss-configurations. Depending on the severity, the netdiag
command may or may not find your error.

At the storage appliance console, enter

NetApp> netdiag –v

The netdiag –v command is a much more comprehensive check of each of the


network interface connections. You should have received a duplex mismatch error
with this command.

8. Now enter ifconfig <the onboard interface> <ip from step 1


above> up netmask 255.255.255.0 mediatype 100tx-fd
9. At the storage appliance console, enter
NetApp> netdiag –v

End of Exercise

4-36 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS
NFS Administration

Module 5. NFS Administration

NFS Administration

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

Upon completion of this module you will be


able to:
– Explain the purpose and format of the /etc/exports file
– List and define the export specification options
– Explain the rules for exports
– Describe the use of the exportfs command
– Explain the use of the export specifications to grant
access privileges
– Mount a storage appliance on a UNIX host
– Add a new export from the adminhost with vi and
FilerView

5-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

Format of the /etc/exports File

/etc/exports File
As a system administrator, you want to control how NFS clients access files and directories on a
storage appliance. Exported resources are those that you make available to hosts. NFS clients can
only mount resources that have been exported from a storage appliance that has been licensed for
NFS.

There are two ways to export resources:

• For persistence across reboots, specify resources to export in the /etc/exports file; then,
execute the exportfs -a command at the command line to make changes effective
immediately

• For temporary access, use the exportfs command to export resources not specified in the
/etc/exports file or to export resources specified in the file but with different access
permissions

Add entries to the /etc/exports file for each directory you want to export. Entries specify the full path to a
directory and options. The full path name must include /vol, as in /vol/vol0/home.

The export specifications restrict access using the following options:

• root = list of hosts, netgroup names, and subnets

• rw= list of hosts, netgroup names, and subnets

ro= list of hosts, netgroup names, and subnets

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Rules for Exporting

5 Rules for Creating Exports


1. Must export each volume separately

2. Storage appliance must be able to resolve hostnames

• /etc/hosts, NIS, DNS

3. Access is granted in a positive way

• Exclusion occurs when a host is not listed or a “–“ precedes the host

• If nothing is specified, all hosts have access

4. Subdirectories of parent exports can be exported with different option specifications

5. Permissions are determined by matching the longest prefix to the access permissions in the
/etc/exports file

If you create, rename or destroy a volume, the /etc/exports file will be updated automatically.

5-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

Export Options

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Forall
allhosts
hoststo
tohave
have
read-write
read-writeaccess,
access,dodonot
not # vi
enter any options ~
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~
/vol/vol1/sales –ro (2)
~
/vol/vol1/pubs –rw=host1:host2:-host3 (3)
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have /vol/vol0/home –rw=host1:host2,ro (4)
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3.3.To
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mountthethe
directory. ~
directory. Also noticethe
Also notice the
exclusion
exclusionofofhost3
host3(-host3)
(-host3) ~
“/etc/exports“ 1 line 10 characters

4.4.To
Toallow
allowsome
somehosts
hoststo
to
mount Host1
Host1andandhost2
host2can
canmount
mountaadirectory
directorywith
with mount
read-only access, use the
read-only access, use the /vol/vol0/homeread-write,
/vol/vol0/home read-write,all
all
–rw others have read-only
–rwandandrorooptions
options others have read-only
access
access

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exporting to Subnets and Netgroups

Exporting Subnets and Netgroups


You can export volumes and directories to subnets and netgroups rather than to individual clients
if all clients on a particular subnet or netgroup require access. Export to a subnet or netgroup the
same way you export to an individual host.

Sample entry:

/vol/vol0/ -rw=host1:192.168.15.0/24:netgroup1,root=host1

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NFS Administration

Manage Exports with FilerView

Add an Export with FilerView


To give read-write access to host1 for /vol/vol2:

1. Select Manage Exports from the NFS menu on the FilerView screen.

2. Click the Add Export hot link in the upper left corner

3. The NFS Export Wizard will start. Select the check boxes for Read-Write access and
Anonymous ID

4. Click next and enter /vol/vol2; when prompted for the export path, then click next.

5. Ensure that 65534 is the Anonymous User ID and click next

6. When prompted for Read-Write Hosts, click add and enter host1, OK, then click next

7. A summary will display. Ensure the summary is correct and click commit.

If all entries are correct, a confirmation message appears.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Pick the Correct Export

1.1.Allow
Allowroot
rootaccess
accessto
to
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol0to
toadminhost
adminhost

2.2.Allow
Allowread-write
read-write
access
accessto to
/vol/vol0/home
/vol/vol0/hometotohost1
host1
and
andhost2
host2

3.3.Allow
Allowread-write
read-write
access
accessto to/vol/vol1
/vol/vol1to
to
host1
host1andandread-only
read-only
access
accessto tohost3
host3

5-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

The exportfs command

Example Result
exportfs -a Exports all entries in the /etc/exports
file

exportfs –i –o ro=host1:host3 Exports /vol/vol0/home to host1 and


/vol/vol0/home host3 with read-only access. This is
an example of a temporary export
from the command line.

exportfs –u /vol/vol1 Unexports /vol/vol1

exportfs -ua Unexports all exports

exportfs -av This command calls the verbose


option and exports as well as prints
the path name for each export in the
/etc/exports file

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The exportfs command

NetApp1> exportfs –i –o rw=host2:host3 /vol/volnew/sales/january


NetApp1> exportfs –i –o ro=host1:host4 /vol/vol1/pubs
NetApp1> exportfs –uav
unexported /vol/volnew/sales/january
unexported /vol/vol1/pubs
NetApp1>

5-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

Mounting an Exported Directory

1.1.Telnet
Telnetto
tothe
thehost
host
telnet 10.32.30.20 (1)

2.2.Create $ mkdir /NetApp1-vol2 (2)


Createaadirectory
directoryas
asaa
mount $ mount NetApp1:/vol/vol2 /NetApp1-vol2 (3)
mountpoint
pointfor
forthe
the
storage
storageappliance
appliance $ cd /NetApp1-vol2 (4)
NetApp1-vol2$ ls –l (5)
-rwxr-xr-x root 719634 FEB 11 2004 ,general
3.3.Mount -rwxr-xr-x root 719634 FEB 13 2004 ,policy
Mountthe
theexported
exported
directory
directoryininthe
thehost
host
directory
directory youjust
you justcreated
created

4.4.Change
Changedirectories
directoriesto
to
the
themounted
mountedexport
export

5.5.Enter
Enterlsls–l–lto
toverify
verifythe
the
storage
storageappliance
applianceisis
mounted
mountedand andaccessible
accessible

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What is the format for /etc/exports ?


What are the 5 rules for exports?
What is the purpose of export options?
Describe some examples of Netgroups.
How are directories exported to a subnet?
What command would you use to see what is
exported from the storage appliance?

5-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

Exercises

17

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise NFS Administration


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• License NFS on the storage appliance

• Add a new export from the adminhost with vi

• Add a new export via FilerView

• Add a new export from the adminhost with vi

• Mount a storage appliance on a UNIX adminhost

• Use the exportfs command to temporarily export a file system

Exercise Overview
In this exercise, you will license nfs, and export file systems with vi, command line and
FilerView. You will also export a file system with the exportfs command.

Time Estimate
Estimated completion time 30 minutes

5-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

Start of Exercise
License NFS and mount a volume

Step Action
1. Telnet to your assigned storage appliance

2. At the storage appliance’s console, license the NFS protocol.

NetApp> license

NetApp> license add abcdefg (Obtain the license code from the Instructor)

View the newly added license.

NetApp> license

3. Verify the content of the /etc/exports file with the rdfile command
NetApp>rdfile /etc/exports
4. At the storage appliance’s console, view the exported file systems.

NetApp> exportfs

You will notice that just by licensing NFS, all volumes and qtrees that were in the
/etc/exports file have been exported.

5. Telnet to the adminhost and create a directory for your filer.

In the below example, use your actual filer’s name where it states “filer_name”.
Do not create a directory with the name “filer_name”.
# mkdir /mnt/filer_name

6. Create the vol0 directory under your filer_name directory created in step #5.
# mkdir /mnt/filer_name/vol0

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

7. Mount your filer’s root volume to the directory you just created and view the
contents. When mounting the filer, use the filer_name or IP address.
# mount IP_address:/vol/vol0/ /mnt/filer_name/vol0
# cd /mnt/filer_name/vol0
# ls –al
The directory structure of you storage appliance should now be viewable via the ls
command.

Edit and modify the /etc/exports file from CLI

Step Action
1. Create a qtree named nfs_tree1 from the filer’s console.

NetApp>qtree create /vol/vol0/nfs_tree1

View the qtree

NetApp>qtree status
2. Export the qtree using the rdfile and exportfs commands.

In the below example, use your actual Adminhost’s name where it states
“UNIX_adminhost”. Do not type “UNIX_adminhost “

NetApp>rdfile /etc/exports

NetApp>wrfile /etc/exports

Copy, then paste all the exports from the cli window and add the following line.
/vol/vol0/nfs_tree1 -rw=UNIX_adminhost,root= UNIX_adminhost

Note: make sure to add a carriage return <enter> after the nfs_tree1 line and then
enter ctrl-C on the keyboard. You will see the following error message:
read: error reading standard input: Interrupted system call

NetApp>exportfs –a

Enter exportfs at the storage appliance prompt to ensure the qtree was exported.

NetApp>exportfs

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NFS Administration

3. Telnet to the UNIX adminhost, create and mount the qtree.


# mkdir /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree1
# mount IP_address:/vol/vol0/nfs_tree1 /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree1

# cd /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree1

Configure the /etc/exports file with FilerVIew

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s console, use the qtree create command to create a qtree
named nfs_tree2
NetApp> qtree create /vol/vol0/nfs_tree2

2. Use FilerView to add an export.


http://IP_address_of_storage_appliance/na_admin

Navigate to NFS and click Add Export.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Enable Read-Write and Root Access

Enter /vol/vol0/nfs_tree2 and click Next.

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NFS Administration

Click add

Enter the name of the UNIX adminhost and select OK

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The Adminhost will be added, select Next.

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NFS Administration

Click Add

Enter the name of the UNIX adminhost and select OK

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The UNIX adminhost will be added, click Next.

5-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NFS Administration

View the summary for accuracy and select Commit.

Click the close button.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 5-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The NFS export wizard will automatically export the volume/qtree after
completion. Use the exportfs command from the filer’s command line to
view the export.

NetApp> exportfs

3. Mount the export via the UNIX adminhost.


# mkdir /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree2
# mount IP_address:/vol/vol0/nfs_tree2 /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree2

# cd /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree2
#ls -a

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NFS Administration

Create an export with VI

Step Action

1. Access the storage appliance’s console and create a qtree in vol0 named nfs_tree3.
Netapp> qtree create /vol/vol0/nfs_tree3

2. From the adminhost, verify that the present working directory is the storage
appliance’s etc directory on the root volume.
# pwd
If this is not the case, enter the following command:

# cd /mnt/filer_name/vol0/etc

Now edit the filer’s exports file with the following command:
# vi exports

Add the following line to the exports file


/vol/vol0/nfs_tree3 -rw=<UNIX Admin host>,root=<UNIX Admin host>

Save and exit /etc/exports with the following vi commands.


<Esc>
:wq or :wq!

3. Access the storage appliance’s console to export the new entry.


4. Enter the following command:
NetApp> exportfs –a
5. Mount the export via the UNIX adminhost
# mkdir /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree3
# mount IP_address:/vol/vol0/nfs_tree3 /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree3

# cd /mnt/filer_name/nfs_tree3
#ls -a

End of Exercises

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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CIFS
CIFS Administration

Module 6. CIFS Administration

CIFS Administration
Windows 2000

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– List the prerequisites for running CIFS setup
– Run CIFS setup to configure the storage appliance
– Explain the relationship between directories on the
storage appliance and access to them from user
machines
– Describe the options and required specifications
when creating a share
– Use the CIFS shares command to create shares

6-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Use CIFS access command to grant access to
users and groups
– List the command for starting and stopping CIFS
services
– Terminate CIFS services or for specific clients
– Use the CIFS sessions command to view users
and connections
– Reconfigure CIFS on the storage appliance

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Joining a Domain

Considerations for Joining a Storage Appliance into a


Windows Domain
A Windows domain is a group of computers that share a common directory database located on a
domain controller. Each domain has a unique name, provides access to user and group accounts,
and enables centralized administration of user and group accounts.

Join a storage appliance into a Windows domain if you want:

• Centralized administration

• Integration into Windows topology

• User authentication done by the domain controllers

6-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

Joining a Domain

Prerequisites
– CIFS must be licensed on the storage appliance
– Name of the Windows 2000 domain
– IP addresses for up to four Windows Internet Name
Services (WINS) servers (optional)
– Administration name and password for the
Windows domain server
– Multiprotocol or NTFS only
– Security authentication will be Windows domain,
Windows Workgroup or UNIX password
authentication

Prerequisites for CIFS


The cifs setup command performs the initial configuration of a storage appliance for the
Common Internet File System (CIFS). Before using cifs setup, a CIFS license must be
installed and the storage appliance must be able to communicate with the primary domain
controller in the domain you want to join. Run the cifs setup command from the console or
from a telnet session since you cannot enter into the command through rsh.

To start, gather the following information:

• Name of the Windows 2000 domain

• IP addresses for up to four Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) servers (optional)

• Administrator name and password for the Windows domain server

• Whether the storage appliance will be configured as multiprotocol or NTFS

• Whether the security authentication will be Windows domain, Windows work group, or
UNIX password authentication

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Joining a Domain

NetApp1> cifs setup


Enable CIFS access to the filer by a Windows(tm) PC
Your filer is currently only visible to PCs on the same net.
Do you wish to make the system visible via WINS? [ no]:
CIFS requires local /etc/passwd and /etc/group files for multiprotocol.
Default passwd file will be created containing 'root',
'pcuser', and 'nobody'.
Enter the password for root []: joey
Retype the password: joey
The default name of this filer will be 'NetApp1'.
Do you want to modify this name? [no]:
CIFS supports three types of user authentication:
1. Windows Domain authentication.
2. Windows Workgroup authentication using the filer's user accounts.
3. /etc/passwd and/or NIS based authentication.
What type of authentication will this filer use? [ 1]:
The filer will use Windows Domain authentication.
Enter the Windows Domain for the filer []: BASEBALL
Please enter the Windows 2000 user [Administrator@BASEBALL]:
Enter the password for BASEBALL\administrator []: simon34
CIFS - Logged in as administrator@BASEBALL.
CIFS - Updating filer account 'cn=NetApp1,cn=computers,dc=BASEBALL'
CIFS - Connecting to domain controller.
Fri Mar 28 16:26:55 PST [rc:info]: Connection with \\Domaincontroller
established
Welcome to the BASEBALL Windows 2000(tm) domain.
CIFS local server is running.
NetApp1>

Joining a Domain - Using the Command Line


Running the cifs setup command at the command line begins a series of prompts that asks
you to enter information necessary for adding or changing a computer account for a storage
appliance into a Windows 2000 domain.

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CIFS Administration

Joining a Domain

Joining a Domain - Using FilerView


To Set up CIFS Using FilerView:

1. Point browser to the storage appliance's address and access FilerView.


2. Select the CIFS node and then open the Setup Wizard to set, or reset the CIFS information.
3. A set of screens will appear requesting the information required.
4. Enter or read the information as required in the Wizard and click Next.
5. Enter your storage appliance name, a description, and any CIFS servers being configured.
Click Next.
6. Determine the authentication method. In the example shown above, we've chosen Windows
2000.
7. In the next screen, enter the Windows 2000 domain name, administrator IP and their
password.
8. Choose the security style. In this example, we’re using multiprotocol.

9. The Commit screen presents a summary of your configuration. Press Commit to accept the
entries.

After a successful commit, you'll get a notification of the CIFS Setup Wizard success.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Joining a Domain - Using CIFS Setup Wizard

6-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

CIFS Shares

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

CIFS Shares

Shares can be managed by using:


– CLI - Command Line Interface
– Windows Computer Management
– FilerView
NetApp1> cifs shares –add webfinal /vol/vol1/webfinal

Command Line

Computer Management

6-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

CIFS Shares Commands

Creating and Accessing Shares – Using Command Line


Shares can be created and modified using the command line or FilerView. Enter cifs
shares on the command line to display one or more shares, add a share, change a share, or
delete a specific share.

Parameters Used with cifs Shares


The parameters used with the cifs shares command allow you to modify or display CIFS
shares information. Share settings can be changed at any time, even if the share is in use.

Parameter What it Does


sharename The name of the share that CIFS users will use to access the directory
on the storage appliance. If the sharename already exists, the command
with the add option fails.

-comment Option that precedes a description field if the comment is intended.

-forcegroup Names the group which will have access to all files created by CIFS
name users in the UNIX environment. The group must be a predefined group
in the UNIX group database. Specifying a forcegroup is useful only if
the share is in a UNIX or mixed qtree. By default, the shares give
everyone full control.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

-maxusers Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous users. The maximum


limit depends on the storage appliance memory. If the number of users
is not specified, the default is “unlimited."

description Describes the purpose of the share and contains only characters in the
current code page. It is required by the CIFS protocol and is displayed
in the share list in Network Neighborhood. If the description contains
spaces, enclose it in single quotes.

-nocomment Specifies that there is no description.

group name The name of the group in the UNIX group database. This group will
own all files created in the share.

-noforcegroup Specifies that no particular UNIX group owns files that are created in
the share. Files that are created belong to the same group as the owner
of the file.

-nomaxusers Specifies no maximum number of users who can have simultaneous


access.

6-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

CIFS Shares

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

CIFS Access

6-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

CIFS Access

Access can be managed by using:


– CLI - Command Line Interface
– Windows Computer Management
– FilerView
NetApp1> cifs access eng jbrown Read

Command Line

Computer Management

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

CIFS Access

Provide Access to Shares


Once you have created shares, you can use the cifs access command to set or modify the
Access Control List (ACL) for a share. This command grants or removes access by specifying
the share, the rights, and the user or group.

Example Result
cifs access webfinal tuxedo Gives full NT access to the group, tuxedo,
Full Control on the webfinal share.
cifs access webfinal Gives read/write access to the user,
engineering\mia rw engineering\mia, on the webfinal share.

Parameters Used with CIFS Access

Parameter What it Does


-g Specifies that the user is the name of the UNIX group. Use
this option when you have a UNIX group and a UNIX user or
NT user or group with the same name.

user Specifies that the user or group for the ACL entry can be an
NTuser or group (if the storage appliance uses NT domain
authentication) or can be the special group, everyone.

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CIFS Administration

group Specifies the user or group for the ACL entry. Can be an NT
user or group if the storage appliance uses NT domain
authentication or can be the special group, everyone.

rights Assigns either NT or UNIX-style rights. NT rights are No


Access, Read, Change, and Full Control.

-delete Removes the ACL entry for the named user on the share.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

CIFS Shares

NetApp1> cifs access eng engineering “Full Control”


NetApp1> cifs shares eng

Name Mount Point Description


---- ----------- -----------
eng /vol/vol1/eng Eng Share
EDSVCS\engineering / Full Control
NetApp1> cifs access eng jbrown Read
NetApp1> cifs shares eng

Name Mount Point Description


---- ----------- -----------
eng /vol/vol1/eng Eng Share
EDSVCS\jbrown / Read
EDSVCS\engineering / Full Control

NetApp1> cifs access –delete eng jbrown


Name Mount Point Description
---- ----------- -----------
eng /vol/vol1/eng Eng Share
EDSVCS\engineering / Full Control

6-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

CIFS Services

cifs terminate [-t time] workstation


cifs terminate [-t time] workstation
cifs restart
cifs restart

Starting and Stopping the CIFS Protocol


The cifs terminate command stops CIFS service. If a single host is named, then all CIFS
sessions opened by that host are terminated. If a host is not specified, then all the CIFS sessions
are terminated and the CIFS service is shut down.

If you run cifs terminate without specifying a time before shutdown and users have open
files, you are prompted to enter the number of minutes to delay before terminating. If CIFS
service is terminated immediately for a host that has one or more files open, the user will not be
able to save changes. The -t option, can be used to warn of an impending shutdown of service. If
you execute cifs terminate from rsh, you need to supply the -t option.

Example Result
cifs terminate -t 10 gloriaswan Terminates a session in 10 minutes for the
host gloriaswan. Alerts are sent periodically
to the affected host(s).

cifs terminate -t 0 Terminates all CIFS sessions immediately


for all clients.

cifs restart Reconnects the storage appliance to the


domain controller and restarts CIFS service.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Reconfiguring CIFS

Use cifs terminate command to disconnect


users and stop CIFS service.
Use cifs setup command to reconfigure
CIFS service.
The storage appliance automatically attempts
to restart the CIFS service with the new CIFS
configuration.

6-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

CIFS Sessions

NetApp1> cifs sessions


Server Registers as ' NetApp1 ' in Windows 2000 domain 'EDSVCS'
Filer is using en_US for DOS users
Selected domain controller \\DEVDC for authentication
========================================
PC (user) #shares #files
TPILLON2-L2K (EDSVCS\administrator - root)
1 0
NetApp1> cifs sessions -s
users
Security Information
TPILLON2-L2K (EDSVCS\administrator - root)
***************
UNIX uid = 0
user is a member of group daemon (1)
user is a member of group daemon (1)

NT membership
EDSVCS\Administrator
EDSVCS\Domain Users
EDSVCS\Domain Admins
BUILTIN\Users
BUILTIN\Administrators
User is also a member of Everyone, Network Users,
Authenticated Users
***************

cifs sessions – Command Line


Using the cifs sessions command without arguments displays a summary of information
about the storage appliance and connected users. You can specify the user, machine name, or IP
address for information on a single connected user or use the -s option to obtain security
information about one or all connected users. Viewing CIFS Session Information

Example Result
cifs sessions Displays a summary about all connected
users.

cifs sessions growe Displays information about the user, files


opened by the user, and the access level of
those files.

cifs sessions growe_NT Displays information about the host, files


opened by the host, and the access level of
cifs sessions 192.168.33.3 those files.

cifs sessions –s Displays the security information about all


connected users.

cifs sessions –s growe_NT Displays the security information about the


connected machine.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

CIFS Sessions

Viewing cifs session Information – Using FilerView


You can also view CIFS session information using FilerView:

1. From the main menu, select the CIFS node, then select Session Report.

2. Enter a username or PC name in the field provided.

3. Click Sessions or Security to view the desired information.

Note: leaving the name field blank and selecting one of the option buttons gives you either a full
session or security report on all connected users. Current session status is displayed at the
bottom of the CIFS Session Report screen.

6-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

Topic Review

What 3 methods allow shares to be managed?


What 3 methods allow permissions to be
managed?
What are some of the prerequisites for running
CIFS setup?
What command is used to configure cifs
services?
What is the command for starting and
stopping CIFS services?
What command is used to view users and
connections?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercises

6-24 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


CIFS Administration

Exercise: CIFS Configuration


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Run cifs setup to configure the storage appliance

• Use the cifs shares command

• Use cifs access command to grant access to users and groups

• Use the command for starting and stopping CIFS services

• Terminate cifs services for specific clients

Exercise Overview
The purpose of this activity is for you to perform routine CIFS administration procedures on
your Storage Appliance. You will join the Storage Appliance to a Windows 2000 Domain, add a
share, verify access to the share, administer user access, create a local group, and display session
information.

Time Estimate
This lab should take you approximately 1 hour.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise

Joining a Domain

Step Action
1. Telnet to your Storage Appliance’s IP address or Storage Appliance name.

2. License CIFS by typing the following command and using the license code
provided by your instructor.

NetApp> license add abcdef

3. At the Storage Appliance prompt, type cifs setup

NetApp> cifs setup

Enter the following parameters

• No to WINS

• Enter for password for root

• Enter for password retype

• Enter to keep default hostname

• 1 for Windows domain authentication

• Domain.company.com for the domain (Obtain info from your Instructor)

• No for creating an local administrator account

• Enter to accept administrator@domain for user with privileges

• ******* for password of administrator (Obtain info from your Instructor)

4. The Storage Appliance, at this point will determine what type of domain it is in
and continue with the setup. If the Storage Appliance does not find all the
components of a Windows 2000 domain, the program will assume it is in a NT4
domain. If you are trying to join a Windows 2000 and this occurs, this would
indicate a problem with your setup.

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CIFS Administration

5. Sample Script
Note: The following is a sample output of what your entries in Step 3 might
produce. Naturally your output will be slightly different due to different network
and host names.

NetApp> cifs setup


Enable CIFS access to the filer by a Windows(tm) PC
Your filer is currently only visible to PCs on the
same net.
Do you wish to make the system visible via WINS? [no]:
This filer is currently licensed for both CIFS and
NFS.
The filer will be configured as a Multiprotocol filer.
It can be changed to a NTFS-only filer by reissuing
the CIFS setup command.
The default name of this filer will be 'NETAPP'.
Do you want to modify this name? [no]:
CIFS supports three types of user authentication:
1. Windows Domain authentication.
2. Windows Workgroup authentication using the
filer's user accounts.
3. /etc/passwd and/or NIS/LDAP based
authentication.
What type of authentication will this filer use? [1]:
The filer will use Windows Domain authentication.
Enter the Windows Domain for the filer
[]:edsvcs.netapp.com
EDSVCS.NETAPP.COM is a Windows 2000(tm) domain.
In order to create this filer's domain account, you
must supply the name and password of an administrator
account with sufficient privilege
to add the filer to the EDSVCS.NETAPP.COM domain.
Please enter the Windows 2000 user
[Administrator@EDSVCS.NETAPP.COM]:
Password for Administrator: password
CIFS - Logged in as administrator@EDSVCS.NETAPP.COM.
CIFS - Updating filer account
'cn=NetApp,cn=computers,dc=edsvcs,dc=netapp,dc=com'
CIFS - Connecting to domain controller.
Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT [rc:info]: Starting DC address
discovery for EDSVCS.
Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT [rc:info]: Found 1 addresses
using DNS site query (Defau
lt-First-Site-Name).

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT [rc:info]: Found 1 addresses


using generic DNS query.
Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT [rc:info]: DC address
discovery for EDSVCS complete. 1 u
nique addresses found.
Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT [ALF02:info]: CIFS auditing
started.
Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT [rc:info]: Connection with
\\DEVDC established
Welcome to the EDSVCS (EDSVCS.NETAPP.COM) Windows
2000(tm) domain.
Thu Apr 29 10:24:29 PDT
[cifs.startup.local.succeeded:info]: CIFS: CIFS local
server is running.
NetApp>
NetApp>
NetApp> cifs testdc
Using Established configuration
Current Mode of NBT is B Mode

Netbios scope ""


Registered names...
NETAPP < 0>
NETAPP < 3>
NETAPP <20>
EDSVCS < 0>
Thu Apr 29 10:24:35 PDT [rc:info]: Found 1 addresses
using generic DNS query.

Testing all Primary Domain Controllers


found 1 unique addresses

found PDC DEVDC at 10.32.91.15

Testing all Domain Controllers


found 1 unique addresses

found DC DEVDC at 10.32.91.15


NetApp> cifs domaininfo
NetBios Domain: EDSVCS
Windows 2000 Domain Name: edsvcs.netapp.com
Type: Windows 2000
Filer AD Site: Default-First-Site-Name

Current Connected DCs: \\DEVDC


Preferred Addresses:
None

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CIFS Administration

Favored Addresses:
10.32.91.15 DEVDC PDC
Other Addresses:
None
NetApp> Thu Apr 29 10:24:52 PDT [NBNS00:info]: All
CIFS name registrations complete for local
NetApp>

6. At the Storage Appliance prompt, test the cifs setup


with the following command:

NetApp> cifs testdc

NetApp> cifs domaininfo


List preferred DCs ________________________

List favored DCs _______________________________

List other DCs _________________________________

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Create a new User in the domain

Step Action
1. Open Active Directory
Click on Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools-> Active Directory Users and
computers
Click the Action button, select New then User.

In the step below, please do not create “UserX”. If you are unclear, ask your
Instructor as to what user to create.

Create UserX with your Storage Appliance # (If your Storage Appliance name
is Storage Appliance10, then create User10)

Click next and set the users password. Set the password the same as the user’s
name.

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CIFS Administration

View the list of current shares

Step Action
1 View the shares on the storage appliance by entering the following command.

NetApp> cifs shares


Name Mount Point Description
---- ----------- -----------
ETC$ /etc Remote Administration
BUILTIN\Administrators / Full Control
HOME /vol/vol0/home Default Share
everyone / Full Control
C$ / Remote Administration
BUILTIN\Administrators / Full Control
These are the default shares.
2 Open Computer Management
Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools-> Computer Management
3 Click the Action button and select Connect to another computer…, Highlight the
name of your Storage Appliance.
4 Click on System Tools->Shared folders-> Shares, in the left windowpane.
5 Observe the list of currently shared directories to the right.

Add a new share via the command line

Step Action
1 Create a qtree named cli in vol0 and change security to ntfs.
NetApp> qtree create ./vol/vol0/cli
NetApp> qtree security /vol/vol0/cli ntfs
2 View the qtree information (You may have other qtrees from previous exercises).
NetApp>qtree status
Volume Tree Style Oplocks Status
------ -------- ----- -------- ---------
vol2 mixed enabled normal
vol0 mixed enabled normal
vol0 cli ntfs enabled normal

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

3 Access the storage appliance’s console and enter the following.


NetApp> cifs shares –add cli /vol/vol0/cli
Answer yes to the following messgage:

The share name 'cli' will not be accessible by some MS-DOS workstations
Are you sure you want to use this share name? [n]:Y
4 View the new share.
NetApp> cifs shares cli
Name Mount Point Description
---- ----------- -----------
cli /vol/vol0/cli
everyone / Full Control
5 Add a comment to the share.
NetApp> cifs shares -change cli -comment 'Share created
via CLI'
6. View the change to the share
NetApp> cifs shares cli
Name Mount Point Description
---- ----------- -----------
cli /vol/vol0/cli Share created via CLI
everyone / Full Control

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CIFS Administration

Add a new share with Computer Management

Step Action
1. Right click the Shares folder and select New File Share.
2. Enter the following information
Folder to share: C:\vol\vol2
Share name: vol2
Share Description: Share for volume two
Click NEXT to continue.

Click Next.

3.

Click the Customize share and folder permissions radio button, and then select
the Custom button.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

4. Add userX from the previous exercise with Full Control.

Click OK.
5. Now select Finish and observe that the selection is displayed in the Share
Permissions window.
6. Select no to create another share.
7. Observe that the new-shared directory, vol2 is displayed in the shared directories
for the Storage Appliance.
8. Close the Computer Management dialog box.

Map the new shares to a drive letter

Step Action
1. At the Windows desktop, right click My Network Places, and Select Map
Network Drive.
2. Enter the following information in the appropriate fields:
Drive: Select any unused letter.
Path: \\Storage_Appliancename\vol2
Click Finish to accept the changes and close the window
3. Now map the cli_share to a different drive letter.

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CIFS Administration

Add user access (modify permissions)

Step Action
1 Access the Storage Appliance console and enter the following:
NetApp> cifs access vol2 userX rwx
(Where userX is the user created in the previous steps)
2 Type cifs shares on the console to verify the result.
3 View the access change in Computer Management.
Start –> Programs - > Administrative Tools -> Computer Management
4 Select your Storage Appliance.
5 Select System Tools->Shared folders-> Shares
6 Select vol2
7 Click on Properties -> Permissions
8 Note that the permission is set to Full Control.
9 Go back to step 1 and enter the following
NetApp> cifs access vol2 userX read
10 Enter cifs shares and observe the effect.
11 Use Computer Management to review the permissions for userX on VOL2.

Adding a Global Group to the Domain

Step Action
1. Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools-> Active Directory Users and
computers
2. Left-click the Action button and select New then Group
3. Create a new Global group called Storage ApplianceXX Global Group
4. Assign the group name, description, add a few users from the domain, and click
on OK.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 6-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Display CIFS Session Information

Step Action
1. Open Computer Management
2. Select your Storage Appliance.
3. Click on System Tools->Shared folders-> Sessions
4. Review the displayed information.
5. Open the Storage Appliance console.
6. Enter cifs sessions.
7. Compare the results of step 6 with the results of step 3.

Terminate a CIFS Session

Step Action
1. Open Computer Management
2. Select your Storage Appliance.
3. Click on System Tools->Shared folders-> Sessions
4. Right click on a session and select Close Session
5. Close the dialog boxes and windows.
6. Go to the Storage Appliance console.
7. Enter cifs sessions and observe the effect of terminating the session.
8. Enter cifs terminate
9. Observe the effect of this command and compare it with step 4.
10. Enter cifs restart on the Storage Appliance console to restart the CIFS
service.
11. What is the difference when comparing the results of step 4 with the results of step
8? _____________________________________________________

End of Exercise

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MultiProtocol
MultiProtocol Administration

Module 7. MultiProtocol Administration

MultiProtocol
Administration

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module you will be able to:


– Distinguish a qtree from a volume and list the
advantages of using qtrees
– List the limitations of using qtrees
– Create qtrees with the qtree command
– Display qtree information using the qtree status
command
– Set the security style of a qtree

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MultiProtocol Administration

Objectives

At the end of this module you will be able to:


– Explain the differences between security styles and
types of access
– Demonstrate user mapping as it relates to security
style
– Use FilerView to modify qtrees and qtree security
– Describe the /etc/usermap.cfg file
– Explain the format and fields in the /etc/usermap.cfg
file

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Qtrees and Volumes

A qtree is a special subdirectory of a volume


and is used to manage MultiProtocol access
Qtrees differ from volumes in these ways:
– A volume can contain qtrees but qtrees cannot
contain qtrees
– The default security style of a volume is UNIX
– The security style for a qtree is the security style of
the volume’s root directory

Qtrees and Volumes


A qtree is a special subdirectory in the root directory of a volume that is used to manage
multiprotocol access. Qtrees differ from volumes in these ways:

• A volume can contain qtrees but qtrees cannot contain qtrees

• The default security style for a volume is UNIX

• The security style for a qtree is the security style of the volume’s root directory

You can use qtrees to group files or projects that have the same security style and oplocks
settings. Use NTFS-style security in a qtree, for example, for Windows files and applications.
Another project in a different qtree may use UNIX files and applications, while a third project in
another qtree may contain both UNIX and Windows files. In Windows projects, oplocks can be
turned on for one qtree and off on another qtree.

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MultiProtocol Administration

Qtree Advantages

Set security style without affecting the


security style of other qtrees in a volume
Set CIFS oplocks, if appropriate without
affecting the settings of projects in other
qtrees
Use tree quotas to limit the disk space and
number of files available to each qtree in a
volume
Backup and restore project files as a unit

Advantages of Qtrees
The advantages of qtrees over volumes lie in the fact that you can group files by any
combination of security style, oplocks setting, quota limit, and backup unit. When setting up a
qtree for a complex Windows database project, for example, you can:

• Set the security style without affecting the security style or projects in other qtrees

• Set CIFS oplocks, if appropriate, without affecting the settings of projects in other qtrees

• The CIFS oplocks protect the content of a file from being changed by another user of
the shared file.

• Use quotas to limit the disc space and number of files available to the qtree so that resources
for other projects and qtrees are not used up

• Back up and restore project files as a unit

Backing up individual qtrees adds flexibility to backup schedules, allows you to modularize
backups, and keeps the size of qtree backups to one tape.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Qtree Limitations

4994 qtrees per volume


Using the df command in a UNIX client

Limitations
Qtrees have the following limitations:

• There is a limit of 4994 qtrees per volume on a storage appliance

• When you enter a df command on a UNIX client with a path name of a qtree, the command
shows the smaller of the client's file system limit or the storage appliance’s disk space. This
makes the qtree look fuller than it is.

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MultiProtocol Administration

MultiProtocol Security Administration

Command: qtree

Example Result

qtree create pubs


Creates a qtree named pubs. If the qtree
pathname does not begin with a slash (/),
the qtree is created in the root volume.

qtree create /vol/projects/engr


Creates a qtree named engr in the
/vol/projects/ volume.

qtree security / ntfs


Applies NTFS security to the files and
directories in the root volume.

qtree security /vol/projects/ mixed


Applies mixed security to the files and
directories in the projects volume.

qtree oplocks /vol/projects/engr enable


Enables oplocks for files and directories in
the engr qtree.

Disables oplocks in the files and directories


qtree oplocks /vol/projects/ disable in qtree 0 in the projects volume.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

MultiProtocol Security Administration

qtree status Command Without Arguments


The qtree status command without arguments displays the attributes of all qtrees on the
storage appliance. The attributes include the name of the containing volume, the tree name,
security style, oplocks status, and whether or not the tree is snapmirrored.

The example lists information about qtrees and volumes on a selected storage appliance:

• The root volume, vol0 has the default settings: the security style is UNIX, oplocks is enabled,
and it is not snapmirrored.

• The marketing qtree in the root volume has NTFS security with oplocks enabled and it is not
snapmirrored.

• The volume, vol1 has the default settings: the security style is UNIX, oplocks is enabled, and
it is not snapmirrored.

• The engr qtree in the volume, vol1 has NTFS security, but oplocks is disabled, and the qtree
is not snapmirrored.

• The backup qtree in the volume, vol1has UNIX security, oplocks is enabled, and it is
snapmirrored.

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MultiProtocol Administration

Qtree Commands

NetApp1> qtree create /vol/vol2/updates


NetApp1> qtree security /vol/vol2/updates mixed

NetApp1> qtree oplocks /vol/vol2/updates disable

NetApp1> qtree create /vol/vol3/show03

NetApp1> qtree security /vol/vol3/show3 ntfs

NetApp1> qtree status

Volume Tree Style Oplocks Status


-------- -------- ----- -------- ------
vol0 unix enabled normal
vol0 mktg ntfs enabled normal
vol1 unix enabled normal
vol2 unix enabled normal
vol2 updates mixed disabled normal
vol3 ntfs enabled normal
vol3 show02 mixed enabled normal
vol3 show03 ntfs enabled normal

Creating Qtrees Using Commands


The qtree create command creates a named qtree in the path specified. By default, a qtree
has the same security style as the root directory of the volume and oplocks are enabled. The
qtree security command changes the style for files and directories. You can specify unix,
ntfs or mixed. The qtree oplocks command enables or disables oplocks for files and
directories in a qtree or in a volume.

Creating Qtrees Using FilerView


You can also use FilerView to create, modify, and manage qtrees. Select Qtrees from the
Volumes node on the FilerView main menu. Click Manage under the Qtrees node. Click Add
Qtree. In the Add Qtree menu, select the qtree volume, enter the qtree name and click Add.

You can set the security style and oplocks state in the previous step or you can modify it later:
Select Qtrees from the Volumes menu. Click Manage under the Qtrees node. Click the qtree
name where you want to change the settings to open the Volumes ->Qtree->Modify menu.
Modify the setting as desired and click Apply. The new qtree is listed and the changes are
updated on the FilerView screen.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

MultiProtocol Security Administration

MultiProtocol Security Administration - Security Styles


Volumes and qtrees have security styles that allow for MultiProtocol access. These security
styles are unix, ntfs for Windows, and mixed. In order to use the NTFS and mixed security
styles, a storage appliance must be configured as part of a Windows NT domain. On any storage
appliance that is licensed for CIFS and NFS, Windows and UNIX clients can access any volume
or qtree if they have the access rights.

What differs is the security and permissions. The security style determines who can modify the
security properties and directories in a volume or qtree. The security style also determines a
process by which users are authenticated.

Change security style of a qtree to accommodate new users or files that require a different style.

Types of File Access


Data ONTAP offers these types of file access on a storage appliance with both CIFS and NFS licenses:

• CIFS access to Windows files

• CIFS access to UNIX files

• NFS access to UNIX files

• NFS access to Windows files

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MultiProtocol Administration

Security Styles
UNIX: files and directories have UNIX permissions security style.

Mixed: both NTFS and UNIX security styles are allowed. A file or directory can have either
Windows NT permissions or UNIX permissions. Security style is determined on file-by file
basis.

NTFS: files and directories have Windows NT file-level permission settings over the Access
Control Lists (ACLs).

Hosts that Can Change Security


NFS Clients: file permissions and ownership can be changed by NFS clients or by the Windows
clients.

NFS and CIFS Clients: both CIFS and NFS clients can change security.

CIFS Clients Only: file permissions and ownership can be set by CIFS clients only.

How CIFS Client Access Is Determined


UNIX permissions: CIFS username mapped to UNIX username. UNIX permissions determine
CIFS clients access. If a CIFS client request access, the CIFS username is mapped to a UNIX
username and associated with a UNIX userID (UID) and groupID (GID). Access is determined
by the rights in an ACL at the share level and is limited by the UNIX permissions assigned to the
file.

Depends on Last Client to Set Security: both CIFS and NFS clients can change security. This
can cause confusion because the security style of a file or directory is whatever style was set by
the most recent client.

NT ACLs: NT ACLs determines CIFS client access.

How NFS Client Access Is Determined


UNIX Permissions: NFS accesses to UNIX files obey UNIX security rules.

Depends on Last Client to Set Security: both CIFS and NFS clients can change security. This
can cause confusion because the security style of a file or directory is whatever style was set by
the most recent client.

NT ACLs-UNIX username mapped to CIFS username: NT ACLs determine client access. If


an NFS client requests access, the NFS username is mapped to a CIFS username and ACLs are
applied based on the username and associated security ID (SID).

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The /etc/usermap.cfg File

Maps between Windows NT and UNIX


accounts when ...
– the Windows NT account name does not match the
desired UNIX account name.
– a different UNIX account name is required.
– a different Windows NT account is required.

How the /etc/usermap.cfg File Is Used


As a system administrator, you may have both NFS and CIFS licenses installed on your storage
appliances. Users with one security style may require access to files with a different security
style. To manage the situation, Data ONTAP uses the /etc/usermap.cfg file to map between
Windows NT and UNIX accounts when:

• The Windows NT account name does not match the desired UNIX account name

• A different UNIX account name is required

• A different Windows NT account is required

The /etc/usermap.cfg file can explicitly match Windows NT users to the current UNIX account
and UNIX users to a Windows account. Entries in the file are processed sequentially. The order
of entries is important because Data ONTAP uses the first matching entry to determine the
mapping.

7-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


MultiProtocol Administration

MultiProtocol Security Administration

/etc/usermap.cfg
"Bob Garg" == bobg
mktg\Roy => nobody
engr\Tom => ""
uguest <= *

Format for File Entry


IP_qualifier
The field contains an IP address that narrows a message. For example, 192.4.1.0/24 narrows
possible matches to the 192.4.1.0 class C subnet. The IP_qualifier can be a hostname or a
network name; for example, corpnet/255.255.255.0 specifies the corpnet subnet.

The IP_qualifier is an optional parameter.

NT-Domain \NTuser
Contains a username and an optional domain name. If the NTuser name is empty or specified as
“” on the destination side of the map entry, the matching UNIX name is denied access. If the
domain name is omitted, it is assumed to be the domain in which the storage appliance is
installed. If the storage appliance uses local accounts for authentication, the domain name is the
storage appliance name. On the source side of the map entry, use of the domain name specifies
the domain in which the user resides. On the destination side of the entry, the domain specifies
the domain used for the mapped UNIX entry. If an NTuser name contains spaces, enclose the
name in quotation marks.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Direction Field
Determines whether the entry maps Windows to UNIX, UNIX to Windows, or maps in both
directions. The direction field can use one of three values. Use = = to indicate that mapping is
bidirectional, so that the entry maps from Windows to UNIX and from UNIX to Windows.
Omitting the direction field has the same meaning as using = =.

UnixUser field
Contains a name in the UNIX password database.

Modifying the /etc/usermap.cfg File

Example Result

“Bob Garj” == bobg Map the NT user Bob Garj to the UNIX
user bobg and vice versa

marketing\Roy => nobody Give Roy in the marketing domain limited


access to files with UNIX-style security

engineering\Tom => “” Disallow UNIX access by Tom in the


Windows engineering domain

uguest <= * Map all other UNIX names to the NT user,


uguest.

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MultiProtocol Administration

MultiProtocol Security Administration

Guidelines for Using Asterisks


The asterisk (*) is the wild-card character. Here are some guidelines for using the * in the
username fields:

• If the * is on the source side, any user maps to the specified name on the destination site

• If the destination side contains * but the source side does not, no mapping is done

• If both the source and destination sides contain an asterisk, the corresponding name is
mapped. In this example, all UNIX users map to corresponding names in the homeusers
domain

The asterisk is also used in the domain name field. Here are guidelines for its use:

• If the * is on the source side, the specified name in any domain maps to the specified UNIX
name

• If the * is on the destination side, the specified UNIX name maps to a Windows name in any
trusted environment

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

MultiProtocol User Name Mapping


How a Unix User Gets Mapped to NT
Username lookup of UID in
/etc/passwd or NIS

/etc/usermap.cfg
Domain\user <= UNIX User

If user is Mapped to “” reject

Maps to user name No entry

DOMAIN_of_filer\Username

Authenticate with domain Map to


wafl.default_nt_user

Accept
reject
Multi-protocol accept

How a UNIX User Gets Mapped to NT


The storage appliance uses NTFS security semantics to determine the access.

1. The UNIX username and the /etc/usermap.cfg file are used to query the appropriate domain.
The UNIX users UID and GID are mapped to an NT security ID (SID).

2. If the username cannot be mapped and the wafl.default_nt_user is not set, the user is rejected.

3. If the username is mapped, the information passes to the domain server for authentication.

4. If the username cannot be mapped and the wafl.default_nt_user is set, the information is
passed to the domain server for authentication.

5. If authentication with the domain controller passes, access to the storage appliance is
accepted.

7-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


MultiProtocol Administration

MultiProtocol User Name Mapping


How an NT User gets Mapped to Unix
domain, user, password
guest
Authenticate with domain
reject
Accept

/etc/usermap.cfg
domain\user => unixuser

If user is Mapped to “” reject

Maps to user name or no entry

/etc/passwd or NIS
unixuser UID Maps to
wafl.default_unix_user

Multi-protocol accept

How the NT User Gets Mapped to UNIX


How does an NT user get mapped to UNIX in a multiprotocol environment? CIFS users are
mapped to UNIX User IDs (UIDs), and Group IDs (GIDs) for multiprotocol access.

1. The domain, user, and password are authenticated with a domain controller.

2. If authentication fails, the user is either rejected or given access with guest restrictions.

3. If authentication with a domain controller passes, access to storage appliance is accepted.

4. Data ONTAP uses the Windows NT name as the UNIX name when it attempts to look up the
UNIX user in the /etc/usermap.cfg file. If the UNIX name is a null string, access is denied. If
no entry is found, Data ONTAP converts the Windows name to lowercase and considers the
UNIX name the same as the Windows name.

5. The mapped name is checked with the /etc/passwd file or NIS to assign a UID. If there is no
matching entry in the /etc/passwd file or NIS, the wafl.default_unix_user default, pcuser, is
used.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

MultiProtocol Security Administration

Follow these guidelines to keep entry simple


and easy to understand:
– Keep Windows and UNIX usernames the same
whenever possible. If the names are identical, you
do not need to create map entries in the
/etc/usermap.cfg file.
– Avoid confusing entries that map the same user to
different usernames.
– Use IP qualifiers only to restrict access.

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MultiProtocol Administration

Topic Review

How do qtrees manage filer access?

What security styles are normally associated


with each protocol?

How is user name mapping accomplished in


the multiprotocol environment?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Autosupport
Exercises

7-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


MultiProtocol Administration

Exercise: MultiProtocol Administration


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Distinguish a qtree from a volume and list the advantages of using qtrees

• List the limitations of using qtrees

• Create qtrees with the qtree command

• Display qtree information using the qtree status command

• Set the security style of a qtree

• Explain the differences between security styles and types of access

• Demonstrate user mapping as it relates to security style

• Use FilerView to modify qtrees and qtree security

• Describe the /etc/usermap.cfg file

• Explain the format and fields in the /etc/usermap.cfg file

Exercise Overview
During these exercises, you will be guided through creating a UNIX, NTFS and mixed qtree and
make the qtrees accessible to NFS and CIFS clients.

Time Estimate
20 Minutes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise

Create and access a UNIX qtree using a NFS Client

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s console, use the qtree create command to create a qtree
named unix_tree

qtree create /vol/vol0/unix_tree

2. Set the security style to UNIX:

NetApp> qtree security /vol/vol0/unix_tree unix

View the newly created qtree:

NetApp> qtree status

Change the oplocks setting to disabled:

NetApp> qtree oplocks /vol/vol0/unix_tree disable

View the qtree status

NetApp> qtree status

3. Edit the /etc/exports file to export and grant access to /vol/vol0/unix_tree by adding the
following line:
/vol/vol0/unix_tree -rw=UNIX Adminhost,root=UNIX
Adminhost
4. At the storage appliance’s console run the following command to re-export the export
file.
NetApp> exportfs –a
At the storage appliance’s console run the following command to view the exports.
NetApp> exportfs
5. Create the following mount point on the UNIX host:
# mkdir /mnt/storage_appliance_name/unix_tree
6. Mount the new export
# mount storage_appliances_name:/vol/vol0/unix_tree
mnt/storage_appliances_name/unix_tree

7. Change your current directory to the new mount point.


# cd /mnt/storage_appliance_name/unix_tree

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MultiProtocol Administration

8. Create a file namend file1.

# touch file1
8. View the directory and files:
$ ls -l

Create a CIFS share and grant access to a UNIX qtree

Step Action
1. Open Computer Management
Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools -> Computer Management.
Connect to your storage appliance.
Action -> Connect to another computer …
2. Add new shared directory.
Expand the System Tools item and select the Shares Folder. Right click in the white
space with the shared folders displayed and select “New File Share”.
3. Enter the following information in the appropriate fields.
Folder to share: C:\vol\vol0\unix_tree
Share name: unix_tree
Share description: Share for new volume:

When prompted, select all users and no to create a new share.


4. Map a drive to the new share.
Right click on My Network Places
5. Select Map Network Drive.
6. Enter the following information into the appropriate fields:
Drive: Select any unused letter
Path: \\storage_appliance_name\unix_tree
Connect As: Administrator

7. Click OK or finish to accept the changes.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Create a NTFS qtree with FilerView

Step Action
1. Access View http://IP_address/na_admin.

Navigate to Volumes -> Qtrees -> Add.

Enter the following information in the screen capture and click Add.

Now click the Manage link and view the qtree.

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MultiProtocol Administration

Create NFS access to an NTFS qtree

Step Action
1. Create an export of the ntfs_tree and grant NFS access for this qtree.
2. Mount and access this new export from the adminhost client.

Creating a mixed qtree

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s console, use the qtree create command to create a qtree
named mixed_tree
NetApp> qtree create /vol/vol0/mixed_tree
2. Set the security style to MIXED
NetApp> qtree security /vol/vol0/mixed_tree mixed

Provide NFS access to a mixed qtree

Step Action
1. Create an export and grant NFS access for this qtree.
2. Mount and access this new export from the adminhost client.

Provide CIFS access to a mixed qtree

Step Action
1. Create a share and grant access to this new qtree.
2. Map this new share from a PC client.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 7-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Usermapping

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s console, turn on cifs trace login.
NetApp> options cifs.trace_login on
This will enable messages to the console which shows the login process and the
responses. It is not recommended to keep this on for normal operations. It should only
be utilized for troubleshooting purposes and then turned off as it will generate a
considerable amount of syslog messages.

2. Map a share on the windows host with the following settings.


Select any unused letter
\\storage_appliance_name\mixed_tree
Click the different user name hot text.

Attempt to connect as a user that does not exist: Domain\jbrown


password is joe.

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MultiProtocol Administration

Click OK, then click Finish on the Map Network Drive dialog box.
You should have received an error message when trying to map the drive.
The following is the output with cifs trace login set to on.

Fri Dec 5 10:43:51 PST [Auth07:info]: Login attempt by


EDSVCS\jbrown from JBROWN-L2K(10.10.10.21)
Fri Dec 5 10:43:51 PST [Auth07:info]: Attempting
authentication with DC \\DOMAIN
Fri Dec 5 10:43:51 PST [Auth07:info]: User authenticated
by DC
Fri Dec 5 10:43:51 PST [Auth07:info]: Attempting to map
PC user name to UNIX user jbrown
Fri Dec 5 10:43:51 PST [Auth07:info]: Unix user name not
valid

Notice that the Storage appliance attempted to map DOMAIN\jbrown to Unix user
jbrown. This mapping is attempted automatically.

3. Now modify the /etc/usermap.cfg file with the following entry.

DOMAIN\jbrown == bigjoe

Save the file.

Modify the /etc/passwd file and add the following entry:


bigjoe:x:1009:10::/:

Save the file and attempt to map again.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Sample output
Fri Dec 5 10:46:38 PST [Auth07:info]: Login attempt by
EDSVCS\jbrown from JBROWN (10.10.10.21)
Fri Dec 5 10:46:38 PST [Auth07:info]: Attempting
authentication with DC \\DOMAIN
Fri Dec 5 10:46:38 PST [Auth07:info]: User authenticated
by DC
Fri Dec 5 10:46:38 PST [Auth07:info]: Attempting to map
PC user name to UNIX user bigjoe
Fri Dec 5 10:46:38 PST [Auth07:info]: Login accepted
4. At the storage appliance’s console, turn off cifs trace login.
NetApp> options cifs.trace_login off

End of Exercises

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SAN
SAN Administration

Module 8. SAN Administration

SAN Administration

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Define SAN
– Describe and illustrate the supported
configurations
– Distinguish between FCP and iSCSI protocols
– Define LUN
– Overview of LUN attributes to specify
– Prepare the storage appliance
– Prepare the host
– Describe how the lun setup program works

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SAN Administration

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Run lun setup to create FCP or iSCSI LUNs
– Use FilerView to create a LUN
– Access a new LUN from a Solaris host
– Define and describe the features of SnapDrive for
Windows and Unix
– Describe briefly how the SnapDrive works
– Run SnapDrive to create a LUN for FCP
– Use Windows Disk Management to create an iSCSI
LUN

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

SAN

FCP iSCSI

Storage Area Networks


A storage area network (SAN) is a network that transfers data between computer systems and
storage elements and among storage elements. In a NetApp enterprise Storage Area Network,
hosts are attached to filers using either the Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) or the iSCSI protocol.
FCP can be used in several environments such as Solaris, Windows, Linux, HP-UX and IBM
AIX. The iSCSI protocol can also be used in several environments, such as Windows, Linux, and
Novell. See the NetApp NOW site for the most recent information for supported SAN
configurations.

FCP and iSCSI Protocols


FCP and Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) are two data transfer protocols that
NetApp SAN technology uses. FCP can only be used in SAN environments that support Fibre
Channel technology. It requires special cabling, adapter cards, and proprietary software.

In contrast, iSCSI is an IP-based protocol, designed to make SAN a global technology. It allows
for data storage and retrieval of information from geographically independent locations. The
iSCSI protocol is expected to foster development of the SAN market by enhancing the
performance and capability of storage data transmission.

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SAN Administration

FCP – Direct Attached

Connectivity Types:
Hosts and filers can be connected and configured for FCP data storage in three ways:

• Direct attached

• Fabric attached multipath connection

• Fabric attached single path connection

Direct Attached Connection


In the direct attached configuration, there is a direct cable connection between the host and
storage appliance. There are no switches and no multipath connections.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

FCP – Single Path Connection

Fabric Attached Single Path Configuration


In this configuration the two filers are connected in a cluster. The two switches are connected to
the filers in a way that allows a switch to be a single point of failure. The hosts each have a
single path connection to the switches through their HBAs.

In a fabric attached single path connection, there are one or more hosts, two Fibre Channel
switches, and one filer cluster. There is one initiator HBA. The switches, with the connected
hosts and filers, each form an independent Fibre Channel fabric.

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SAN Administration

FCP – Multipath Connection

Fabric Attached Multipath Connection


In a fabric attached multipath connection, filers are connected in a cluster. Two switches are
connected to the filers in a way that prevents either switch from being a single point of failure.
The UNIX hosts are clustered and have a multipath connection to the switches through their
HBAs. The Windows hosts, also clustered, maintain a multipath connection to the switches
through their HBAs.

In the fabric attached multipath connection, there are one or more hosts, two Fibre Channel
switches, and one filer cluster. There are, however, two initiator HBAs per host cluster. The
configuration additionally requires multipathing software such as the Dynamic Multipathing
module of the VERITAS® Volume Manager for Solaris or Microsoft MPIO for Windows.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

iSCSI Configuration

ISCSI Configuration
In contrast to the FCP configurations, an iSCSI configuration uses simpler cabling in a local area
network (LAN) environment. The Windows hosts use a single path connection to a switch,
which is, in turn, connected to a storage appliance and runs over an existing Ethernet network.

The key factors affecting performance in an iSCSI configuration are:

• The number of storage appliances

• The number of hosts

• The type of network

• The type of security

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SAN Administration

Creating LUNs with lun setup


Creating LUNs
with lun setup

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Define LUN

Initiator I see the I see the Initiator


LUN as a LUN as a
physical physical
disk disk

WWPN WWPN

Target Target

LUN
LUN

Define LUN
In order to define or describe Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs), you must first understand the
relationship between hosts and filers in a Storage Area Network (SAN) environment. In a
NetApp SAN environment hosts are initiators and storage appliances are targets that have
storage target devices, referred to as LUNs. With Data ONTAP, you configure the filer’s storage
by creating LUNs that can be accessed by hosts.

A host sees LUNs as local disks that can be formatted by the host. The storage appliance sees a
LUN as a logical representation of physical storage.

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SAN Administration

Preparation and LUN Location

The diagram shows four LUNs that were created on a storage appliance:

• LUNs 0 and 1 created at the root of /vol/vol1

• LUNs 2 and 3 created at the root of the qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1

• LUNs cannot be created on /vol/vol0 because that is the root volume used by Data ONTAP
for system administration.

The path to each LUN is as follows:

• /vol/vol1/LUN0

• /vol/vol1/LUN1

• /vol/vol1/qtree1/LUN2

• /vol/vol1/qtree1/LUN3

Prepare the Storage Appliance


Before creating LUNs, you must create volumes and/or qtrees on the storage appliance and set
options to guarantee that data writes do not fail. Use the following guidelines:

• If you are using snapshots, create volumes at least twice the size of LUNs

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

• Create volumes for the exclusive use of LUNs; no other files or directories should exist in
volumes that contain LUNs

• Ensure that volumes accessed by Network Attached Storage (NAS) protocols do not contain
LUNs, because they have different space reservation requirements

• Enable space reservations for the volume to guarantee that space is available on the LUN to
write to.

• Disable scheduled auto snapshots for the volume

• Enable the create_ucode options for the volume to dynamically allocate more space for
system messages

• Create a qtree on the volume to store LUNs of the same type since grouping qtrees facilitates
management tasks, such as backup and recovery

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SAN Administration

Required Information

To create a LUN specify the following:


– Path name to the LUN at the root level of a volume
or a qtree
– Operating system on the host accessing the LUN
– Size of the LUN
– Name of the initiator group accessing the LUN
– Protocol used (iSCSI or FCP)
– Node name or port name (WWNN or WWPN) in
hexadecimal format
– LUN ID used by the igroup accessing the LUN
lun setup prompts for this information

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

FCP - lun setup

NetApp1> lun setup


This setup will take you through the steps needed to create LUNs
and to make them accessible by initiators. You can type ^C (Control-C)
at any time to abort the setup and no unconfirmed changes will be made
to the system.
Do you want to create a LUN? [y]: y
Multiprotocol type of LUN (image/solaris/windows/hpux/aix/linux) [image]: solaris
A LUN path must be absolute. A LUN can only reside in a volume or
qtree root. For example, to create a LUN with name "lun0" in the
qtree root /vol/vol1/q0, specify the path as "/vol/vol1/q0/lun0".
Enter LUN path: /vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0
A LUN can be created with or without space reservations being enabled.
Space reservation guarantees that data writes to that LUN will never
fail.
Do you want the LUN to be space reserved? [y]: y
Size for a LUN is specified in bytes. You can use single-character
multiplier suffixes: b(sectors), k(KB), m(MB), g(GB) or t(TB).
Enter LUN size: 4g
You can add a comment string to describe the contents of the LUN.
Please type a string (without quotes), or hit ENTER if you don't
want to supply a comment.

Create an FCP LUN for Solaris


The LUN will have the following attributes:

Operating System: Solaris

Path: /vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0

Space reservation: Yes

Size: 4 gigabyte (4g)

Comment: Solaris LUN

igroup name: solarisigroup

igroup type: FCP

Port name: 10:00:00:00:c9:2d:a0:63


OS for initiator group: Solaris

LUN ID: 0

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SAN Administration

FCP - lun setup

Enter comment string: Solaris LUN


The LUN will be accessible to an initiator group. You can use an
existing group name, or supply a new name to create a new initiator
group. Enter '?' to see existing initiator group names.
Name of initiator group [UserXThrottle]: solarisigroup
Type of initiator group solarisigroup (FCP/iSCSI) [FCP]: FCP
A Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) initiator group is a collection of
initiator port names. Each port name (WWPN) is 16 hexadecimal digits,
separated (only) by optional colon (:) characters. You can separate
port names by commas. Enter '?' to display a list of connected
initiators. Hit ENTER when you are done adding port names to this
group.
Enter comma separated portnames: ?

Initiators connected on adapter 5a:


Portname Group
10:00:00:00:c9:2d:a0:63

Initiators connected on adapter 5b:


None connected.
Enter comma separated portnames: 10:00:00:00:c9:2d:a0:63
Enter comma separated portnames:

Note: The following information is repeated for convenience of the reader.

The LUN will have the following attributes:

Operating System: Solaris

Path: /vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0

Space reservation: yes

Size: 4 gigabyte (4g)

Comment: Solaris LUN

igroup name: solarisigroup

igroup type: FCP

Port name: 10:00:00:00:c9:2d:a0:63


OS for initiator group: Solaris

LUN ID: 0

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

FCP - lun setup

The initiator group has an associated OS type. The following are


currently supported: solaris, windows, hpux, aix, linux or default.
OS type of initiator group "solarisigroup" [solaris]: solaris
The LUN will be accessible to all the initiators in the
initiator group. Enter '?' to display LUNs already in use
by one or more initiators in group "solarisigroup".
LUN ID at which initiator group "solarisigroup" sees "/vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0"
[0]: 0
LUN Path : /vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0
OS Type : solaris
Size : 4g (4294967296)
Comment : Solaris LUN
Initiator Group : solarisigroup
Initiator Group Type : FCP
Initiator Group Members : 10:00:00:00:c9:2d:a0:63
Mapped to LUN-ID : 0
Do you want to accept this configuration? [y]: y
Do you want to create another LUN? [n]: n
NetApp1> lun show -m
LUN path Mapped to LUN ID
-------------------------------------------------------------
/vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0 solarisigroup 0
/vol/vol1/QTUserX/lun0 UserAig 2
/vol/vol2/QTUserX/UserXlunb UserXThrottle 1
NetApp1>

Note: The following information is repeated for convenience of the reader.

The LUN will have the following attributes:

Operating System: Solaris

Path: /vol/solarisvol/tree1/lun0

Space reservation: yes

Size: 4 gigabyte (4g)

Comment: Solaris LUN

igroup name: solarisigroup

igroup type: FCP

Port name: 10:00:00:00:c9:2d:a0:63


OS for initiator group: Solaris

LUN ID: 0

Verify the LUN using the lun show -m command

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SAN Administration

iSCSI - lun setup

NetApp1> lun setup


This setup will take you through the steps needed to create LUNs
and to make them accessible by initiators. You can type ^C (Control-C)
at any time to abort the setup and no unconfirmed changes will be made
to the system.
Do you want to create a LUN? [y]: y
Multiprotocol type of LUN (image/solaris/windows/hpux/aix/linux) [image]: windows
A LUN path must be absolute. A LUN can only reside in a volume or
qtree root. For example, to create a LUN with name "lun0" in the
qtree root /vol/vol1/q0, specify the path as "/vol/vol1/q0/lun0".
Enter LUN path: /vol/winvol/tree1/lun0
A LUN can be created with or without space reservations being enabled.
Space reservation guarantees that data writes to that LUN will never
fail.
Do you want the LUN to be space reserved? [y]: y
Size for a LUN is specified in bytes. You can use single-character
multiplier suffixes: b(sectors), k(KB), m(MB), g(GB) or t(TB).
Enter LUN size: 12g
You can add a comment string to describe the contents of the LUN.
Please type a string (without quotes), or hit ENTER if you don't
want to supply a comment.
Enter comment string: Windows LUN

Create an iSCSI LUN for Windows


The LUN will have the following attributes:

Operating Windows
System:

Path: /vol/winvol/tree1/lun0

Space yes
reservation:

Size: 12 gigabyte (12g)

igroup type: iSCSI

Nodename: iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:slu2-win.edsvcs.netapp.com

OS for initiator Windows


group:

LUN ID: 0

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

iSCSI - lun setup

The LUN will be accessible to an initiator group. You can use an


existing group name, or supply a new name to create a new initiator
group. Enter '?' to see existing initiator group names.
Name of initiator group: ?
Existing initiator groups:
Name of initiator group: salesigroup
Type of initiator group salesigroup (FCP/iSCSI) [FCP]: iscsi
An iSCSI initiator group is a collection of initiator node names.Each
node name can begin with either 'eui.' or 'iqn.' and should be in the
following formats: eui.{EUI-64 address} or iqn.yyyy-mm.{reversed domain
name}:{any string}
Eg: iqn.2001-04.com.acme:storage.tape.sys1.xyz or eui.02004567A425678D
You can separate node names by commas. Enter '?' to display a list of
connected initiators. Hit ENTER when you are done adding node names to
this group.
Enter comma separated nodenames: ?
Initiators connected on adapter iswta:
iSCSI Initiator Name Group
iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:slu2-win.edsvcs.netapp.com

Adapter iswtb is running on behalf of the partner.


Enter comma separated nodenames: iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:slu2-
win.edsvcs.netapp.com
Enter comma separated nodenames:

Note: The following information is repeated for convenience of the reader.

The LUN will have the following attributes:

Operating Windows
System:

Path: /vol/winvol/tree1/lun0

Space yes
reservation:

Size: 12 gigabyte (12g)

igroup type: iSCSI

Nodename: iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:slu2-win.edsvcs.netapp.com

OS for initiator Windows


group:

LUN ID: 0

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SAN Administration

iSCSI - lun setup

The initiator group has an associated OS type. The following are


currently supported: solaris, windows, hpux, aix, linux or default.
OS type of initiator group "salesigroup" [windows]: windows
The LUN will be accessible to all the initiators in the
initiator group. Enter '?' to display LUNs already in use
by one or more initiators in group "salesigroup".
LUN ID at which initiator group "salesigroup" sees "/vol/winvol/tree1/lun0"[0]: 0
LUN Path : /vol/winvol/tree1/lun0
OS Type : windows
Size : 12.0g (12889013760)
Comment : Windows LUN
Initiator Group : salesigroup
Initiator Group Type : iSCSI
Initiator Group Members : iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:slu2-win.edsvcs.netapp.com
Mapped to LUN-ID : 0
Do you want to accept this configuration? [y]: y
Do you want to create another LUN? [n]: n
NetApp1> lun show -m
LUN path Mapped to LUN ID
-------------------------------------------------------------
/vol/winvol/tree1/lun0 salesigroup 0
NetApp1>

Note: The following information is repeated for convenience of the reader.

The LUN will have the following attributes:

Operating Windows
System:

Path: /vol/winvol/tree1/lun0

Space yes
reservation:

Size: 12 gigabyte (12g)

igroup type: iSCSI

Nodename: iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:slu2-win.edsvcs.netapp.com

OS for initiator Windows


group:

LUN ID: 0

Verify the LUN using the lun show -m command.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Creating a LUN with FilerView

Create a LUN With FilerView


You can create a LUN using FilerView’s LUN Wizard. Follow these steps:

1. From the LUNs menu open the LUN Wizard.

2. Click Next to open the Specify LUN Parameters window.

3. Follow the instructions in the Wizard and enter information in appropriate fields.

4. At the Commit Changes window, if everything is correct, press Commit.

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SAN Administration

Exercise Slide Exercise

Practice: Create an FCP and an


iSCSI LUN

Perform the exercise “Practice: Create an FCP and an iSCSI LUN”. Let the instructor know
when you are finished.

Note: These exercises use the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training material.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

After lun setup

Each host has unique procedures to complete


for the LUN to be accessed after it is created
For example
– On the Solaris host, use sanlun to manage host
LUN and HBA information
– On the Windows host, use SnapDrive or Windows
Disk Management to connect and access LUNs
• Note: SnapDrive also integrates the capabilities
of lun setup and does not require its use to
create a lun

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SAN Administration

Accessing LUNs on a Solaris Host


Accessing LUNs
on a Solaris Host

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Accessing LUNs on a Solaris Host

 Prepare the Solaris host to access the new LUN:


1. On the storage appliance, get the Worldwide Nodename
(WWNN).
2. On the Solaris host, persistently bind the host’s Host Bus
Adapter (HBA) Worldwide Portname (WWPN) to the storage
appliance’s WWNN using the lputil command. From the Main
Menu select Persistent Bindings
• From the Persistent Bindings Menu select Bind Target
Manually
• Select By Node Name as the Binding Method
• Enter the 16-digit Node Name without using colons and
the Target Number
• Display the Current Bindings to verify your selections
3. Reboot the Solaris host with the reconfigure option using
reboot -- -r.

In certain configurations the Solaris host will be bound to a WWPN (Worldwide Portname) of a
target card on the storage appliance instead of the WWNN. These configurations are covered in
the NetApp attach-kit information for the Solaris host. A script will be run on the Solaris host
that will assist in performing the WWPN bindings.

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SAN Administration

SnapDrive for UNIX

After a LUN is accessible from the host,


SnapDrive for UNIX can perform the following
tasks:
– Create a snapshot of a volume group on a storage
appliance
– Rename a snapshot of one or more host volume groups
– Restore a snapshot
– Delete a snapshot
– Display information about snapshots that SnapDrive for
UNIX created
– Display information about which NetApp LUNs are used
for a specific host volume group, host volume, or file
system

SnapDrive for UNIX


SnapDrive for UNIX is a NetApp tool that simplifies the management of snapshots it creates on
NetApp storage appliances attached to UNIX hosts.

The SnapDrive for UNIX software interacts with the host operating system and host volume
manager. It coordinates the host volume manager, volume groups and file systems to ensure that
the host file systems stored on NetApp LUNs have consistent images in the snapshot.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise Slide
Exercise

Practice: Accessing LUNs on a


Solaris host

Perform the exercise “Practice: Accessing LUNs on a Solaris Host”. Let the instructor know
when you are finished.

Note: This exercise uses the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training material.

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SAN Administration

Creating LUNs on a Windows Host


Accessing LUNs on
a Windows Host

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Creating a Windows LUN (FCP and iSCSI)

Three methods:
– SnapDrive
– lun setup with Windows Disk Management
– FilerView with Windows Disk Management

SnapDrive only requires that the pathname for the LUN be known. The other attributes can be
defined throughout the SnapDrive creation process. For example, SnapDrive will determine the
minimum and maximum size available from the path name that is given for the lun. It will also
determine the LUN ID and which WWPNs are available.

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SAN Administration

SnapDrive for Windows

SnapDrive for Windows


SnapDrive is management software for Windows 2000 and 2003 systems. It provides virtual disk
and snapshot management from the client side.

There are three main components:

• Windows 2000 service

• MMC plug-in

• Command line interface

Use SnapDrive to create Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) LUNs or iSCSI LUNs on a Windows
host.

SnapDrive integrates the features of lun setup on the storage appliance and has added value as
well. It will complete the process of adding the LUN to the Windows host and integrates the use
of the LUN into other NetApp applications such as SnapManager.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

SnapDrive – Create Disk

Create and Map an FCP LUN Using SnapDrive


The easiest way to create, map, and access Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) LUNs on a Windows
host, is to use SnapDrive software. This software is bundled with the Client Attach Kit and Data
ONTAP and is also available from the NOW site. SnapDrive sometimes refers to a LUN as a
Virtual Disk.

The LUN creation process requires these specific attributes:

• Virtual disk location, name, and type

• Drive letter assignment

• Size in megabytes

• Worldwide Node Name (WWNN) for the HBA in hexadecimal format

To create a new LUN with SnapDrive, navigate to the Storage directory under Computer
Management. Right-click the SnapDrive MCC plug-in and select Create Disk… to open the
Create Disk Wizard.

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SAN Administration

SnapDrive – Create Disk screen

SnapDrive Procedure to Create a LUN


The information that you enter on this screen sets the name and absolute path to the FCP LUN.

• Select the protocol type. In this case, select LUN (FCP). (A VLD, Virtualized Local Disk, Is
a local disk in a NAS environment.)

• Browse to or enter the absolute path to the Storage Appliance volume or qtree that will
contain the LUN.

• Enter a name for the LUN.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

SnapDrive – Virtual Disk Type

Next, select Dedicated as the virtual disk type since this lesson does not deal with clustered
services.

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SAN Administration

SnapDrive – Virtual Disk Properties

The next window requires that you enter the following:

• A drive letter that the LUN is referenced by

• Yes or No for snapshots (space reservations)

• The size of the LUN

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

SnapDrive – Select FCP Ports

To connect the LUN, select the appropriate HBA port from the list of Available Ports. Use the
arrows to move port names between lists. This step is critical. Make sure you have selected the
appropriate HBA port on the Windows host you are connecting to. If not, you can spend a great
deal of time trying to troubleshoot the connectivity.

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SAN Administration

SnapDrive – Completion

Verify that the settings for the new LUN are correct then click Finish. Note that SnapDrive adds
an extension (.lun) to the end of the name of the LUN.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Computer Management – Disk Creation

Watch the Operation Status messages that appear in the bottom left corner of the window as the
creation process takes place. When the process is complete the LUN is created and ready for
access by the Windows host.

That completes the process for creating an FCP LUN using SnapDrive

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SAN Administration

LUN Access without SnapDrive

Write Signature

In the situation where SnapDrive is not being used on the Windows host, then after the LUN is
created with lun setup, use Windows Disk Management on the host to complete the process
to access the LUN.

Once an iSCSI LUN has been created on the filer, use Disk Management on the Windows host to
prepare the LUN for use. The new LUN should be visible as a local disk. If it is not, select
Rescan Disks under the Action button.

To finish, Disk Management will:

• Write the disk signature

• Partition the disk

• Format the disk

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-37


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk – Write Signature

Select the new LUN and click OK

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SAN Administration

Disk – Create Partition

Right click the bar that represents the unallocated disk space and select Create Partition.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-39


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk – Create Partition Wizard

The Create Partition Wizard opens. As you navigate through the screens, create a primary
partition of a size no larger than the maximum size available.

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SAN Administration

Disk – Create Partition Wizard

Accept the default drive assignment or use the drop-down menu to select a different drive.

Partition the drive using the setting shown but change the Volume Label to an appropriate
Windows volume name that represents the LUN you are creating.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-41


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk – Create Partition

Review the settings specified and click Finish.

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SAN Administration

Final Step

Verify that the LUN appears as a local drive in Disk Manager. You may then copy files to the
new disk and treat it as any other local disk.

That completes the process for creating an iSCSI LUN using lun setup and Windows Disk
Management.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-43


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What does acronym SAN mean?

Is the following a supported FCP


configuration?

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SAN Administration

Topic Review

Is the following a supported iSCSI


configuration?

What distinguishes FCP from iSCSI in a SAN


environment?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-45


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What does the acronym LUN mean and how


does a LUN appear to a host?
Give an example of a LUN attribute that needs
to specified when creating a LUN
Name three ways to create a LUN

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SAN Administration

Exercise Slide
Exercise

Scenario: SAN Admin

Perform the final exercise for this module, “Scenario: SAN Admin”. Let the instructor know
when you are finished.

Note: This exercise uses the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training material.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-47


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Practice: Create an FCP and an iSCSI LUN


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Prepare the storage appliance

• Prepare the host

• Run lun setup to create an FCP LUN

• Run lun setup to create an iSCSI LUN

Exercise Overview
The purpose of this exercise is to create a LUN for a Solaris host using the FCP protocol and a
LUN for a Windows host using the iSCSI protocol

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Required Hardware, Software, and Tools


Hardware

• A Windows workstation with Internet Explorer software

Software

• Access to the course copy of the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training

8-48 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


SAN Administration

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On your local workstation, open the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training
materials..

2. Select Tutorials, Roll the mouse over SAN Administration and select Creating a LUN
with lun setup.

3. Advance through the material to page 11 by clicking on the “right arrow” at the
bottom of the screen.

4. Position the cursor in the CLI screen and enter the lun setup command and create
an FCP LUN using the information provided in the web based training.

When you are done, proceed to the next step..

5. Advance to page 12 by clicking on the “right arrow” at the bottom of the screen.

6. Position the cursor in the CLI screen and enter the lun setup command and create an
iSCSI LUN using the information provided in the web based training.
Note: If you have some extra time after completing this exercise, you can advance
through pages 13 – 16 of the tutorial and complete the activities.

End of Exercise

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-49


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Accessing LUNs on a Solaris host


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Access a new LUN from a Solaris host

Exercise Overview
The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate how to access a LUN from a Solaris host after it
has been created on the storage appliance

Time Estimate
15 minutes

Required Hardware, Software, and Tools


Hardware

• A Windows workstation with Internet Explorer software

Software

• Access to the course copy of the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training

8-50 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


SAN Administration

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On your local workstation, open the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training
materials.

2. Select Tutorials, Roll the mouse over SAN Administration and select Accessing LUNs
on a Solaris host.

3. Perform all the instructions on pages 1 – 6. When you are through, stop and let the
instructor know when you have completed the exercise.

Note: If you have some extra time after completing this exercise, you can advance to
page 8 of the tutorial and complete the activity.

End of Exercise

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-51


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Scenario – SAN Admin


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Distinguish between FCP and iSCSI protocols

• Overview of LUN attributes to specify

• Prepare the storage appliance

• Prepare the host

• Describe how the lun setup program works

• Run lun setup to create FCP or iSCSI LUNs

• Access a new LUN from a Solaris host

• Run SnapDrive to create a LUN for FCP

• Use Windows Disk Management to create an iSCSI LUN

Exercise Overview
This exercise is in the form of a scenario. You will be given a configuration and setup
information for several hosts and LUN types.

Time Estimate
25 minutes

Required Hardware, Software, and Tools


Hardware

• A Windows workstation with Internet Explorer software

Software

• Access to the course copy of the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training

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SAN Administration

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On your local workstation, open the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training
materials.

2. Select Scenarios and select SAN Admin.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-53


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

3. Perform all the instructions on pages 1 – 13. When you are through, stop and let the
instructor know when you have completed the exercise.

Note: Setup information that is in the scenario is included below for your benefit in the
event a printer is not available to you.

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SAN Administration

Page 2: Diagram

Page 3: Setup Notes


• For Solaris server, with FCP

• New group is team16

• LUN ID: 16

• Initiator Group: team16.

• Comment: Team16

• Path/Volume: /vol/sanvol

• LUN Name: lun16

• Space Reserved: y

• LUN Size: 300 GB

• Note: The portname for the HBA is pre-entered for you in the scenario.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 8-55


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Page 4: Setup Notes


• For Windows server, with iSCSI

• New group is DBgroup

• LUN ID: 1.

• Initiator Group: DBgroup

• Comment: DBgroup

• Path/Volume: /vol/sanvol

• LUN Name: ActiveDB

• Space Reserved: y

• LUN Size: 50 GB

Page 9: Setup Notes:


• LUN Name: lun22

• LUN Path: \\Jaf1\sanvol

• Limit size to accommodate at least one Snapshot: y

• LUN Size: 150 GB

• Assigned Drive: R:

• Type of Drive: Dedicated

Page 11: Setup Notes:


• Type: Primary Partition

• Size: 50 GB

• Drive Letter: H:

• File System: NTFS

• Volume Label: ActiveDB


End of Exercise

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Installation
Installation

Module 9. Installation

Installation

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

Upon completion of this module, students will


be able to:
– Identify the location of hardware and software
installation information
– Identify the contents of the CD-ROM and floppies
– List steps to prepare for Installation and info
needed to complete the install
– Configure a new storage appliance
– Describe the different types of installation
procedures
– Upgrade Data ONTAP via CIFS, NFS and the
software command
– Re-purpose a storage appliance

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Installation

Exercise Slide Exercises

Installation-Initialize the System


Disks

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Taking it out of the Box

Product Documentation
Software
Boot Diskettes (non-flashcard system)
Hardware

Product Documentation
New storage appliances are shipped with product documentation (on CD-ROM) and software
(CD-ROM and diskettes if applicable). Product documentation and additional information about
your new storage appliance are also available online at http://now.netapp.com. Along with the
product documentation is a list of all licenses that were purchased for the storage appliance.

Additional Information:
Check the Data ONTAP Release Notes and Read Me First document for descriptions of the latest
details of the release

Software
The CD-ROM contains system software and system boot diskettes (for storage appliances that
use diskettes instead of CompactFlash™ cards). Because the system software was installed at the
factory, you don’t need the CD-ROM or system boot diskettes to install or configure a new
storage appliance. However, Network Appliance recommends that you store the CD-ROM and
system boot diskettes in a safe place so that you can use them to recover from any unlikely
software problems in the future

The CD-ROM contains the system software and system boot software in two formats so that
both UNIX and PC workstations can read it. If you need to reinstall the system software for any
reason, you need this CD-ROM or access to the NOW site.

9-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Installation

Making Boot Diskettes (non-compact flash units)


In the event that the system will not boot from the hard disks, you must boot it from the system
boot diskettes, unless your storage appliance has a compact flash card.

Locating Instructions for Making Boot Diskettes

1. Access the NOW site and enter the Service and Support window.

2. Click the Download Software link

3. Scroll down to the Documentation & Related Knowledge section and select the appropriate
“boot diskette” link

4. Scroll down and review the instructions. Print a copy for easy reference.

5. Follow the instructions to create a new set of boot floppies.

Hardware Install
The product documentation includes a copy of the Hardware and Service Guide for your storage
appliance. Detailed instruction, including important cautions and warnings are provided.

• Installs in a standard 19-inch rack

• Connect shelves to the CPU unit as described in the Hardware Guide

• Plug in serial cable to console port of storage appliance and a terminal device

• Apply power to the disk shelves and then to the CPU unit

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Software Install Process

Prepare
Prepare
Choose
Choose
Task
Task

Configure Re-purpose a Storage Appliance Upgrade


UpgradeData
ConfigureaaNew
New Re-purpose a Storage Appliance Data
Storage ONTAP
ONTAPSoftware
StorageAppliance
Appliance Software

Initialize Disks
Initialize Disks

Re-enable Choose
Choose
Re-enable
Licenses Method
Method
Choose Setup Licenses
Choose Setup
Method
Method

Via Software Via CIFS Via NFS


Via Software Via CIFS Via NFS
Command
Command (Zip
(ZipFile)
File) (Tar
(TarFile)
File)
Command Line
Command Line
Yes
Web-based
Web-based Setup
Setup
Download
Download

System Verify
Verify
System
Repurposed Reboot
Reboot
Repurposed Installation
Installation

Software Installation
There are three types of software installations:

• Configuring a new storage appliance

• Upgrading Data ONTAP software on an existing storage appliance

• Re-configuring or re-purposing an existing storage appliance

Regardless of which type of installation you choose, planning ahead will ensure that you have
the information you need to conduct a flawless installation.

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Installation

Configuring a New Storage Appliance

Storage appliances are configured using the


setup command.
– Automatically runs at first installation when the
storage appliance is booted and /etc/rc is missing
– Re-configurable at any time by typing setup
• not recommended unless a new install
Default values are in brackets [ ].

The setup Script


The setup script installs new versions of /etc/rc, /etc/hosts, /etc/exports, /etc/resolv.conf,
/etc/hosts.equiv, and /etc/dgateways to reflect the new configuration. When setup completes, the
new configuration does not take effect until the storage appliance is rebooted. You can re-
configure a storage appliance at any time by typing setup at the console prompt. This is not
recommended unless you are doing a new install.

If a reconfiguration is done, the old contents of these five configuration files are saved in rc.bak,
exports.bak, resolv.conf.bak, hosts.bak, hosts.equiv.bak, and dgateways.bak

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Configuring a Storage Appliance


eng_router
10.10.10.1
NetApp1 OurDomain
Joey 10.10.10.100
GMT 10.10.10.200
Bldg. 1
en_US
adminhost
10.10.10.20

e0
10.10.10.30 10.10.10.100
255.255.255.0

Administrator
vif1
4 nollip
e4a, e4b, e4c, e4d

Configuration Worksheet
The setup script requires information specific to your network environment. A Configuration
Worksheet is provided in Appendix A of the Software Setup Guide. You can use the worksheet
for information gathering. Not all the information requested on the worksheet is required for all
installations.

Host name
The name by which the storage appliance is known on the network. If the storage appliance is
licensed for the NFS protocol, the name can be no longer than 32 characters. If the storage
appliance is licensed for the CIFS protocol, the name can be no longer than 15 characters. The
host name must be unique for each storage appliance in a cluster.

Password
A password that the storage appliance requires before granting administrative access at the
console, through a Telnet session, or through the Remote Shell protocol.

Time zone
The time zone in which the storage appliance resides. See the Setup Guide, Appendix B, “Time
Zones,” for a list of valid time zones. The time zone must be identical on both storage
appliances in a clustered system.

Location
A description of the physical location of the storage appliance. This information sets the SNMP
location information.

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Installation

Language
The language used for MultiProtocol storage appliances if both the CIFS and NFS protocols are
licensed. See Setup Guide, Appendix C, “Supported Languages,” for a list of supported
languages and their abbreviations. The language must be identical on both storage appliances in
a cluster.

Administration host
A client computer that is allowed to access the storage appliance through a Telnet session or
through the Remote Shell protocol. In /etc/exports, adminhost is granted root access to / so that it
can access and modify the configuration files in /etc. All other NFS clients are granted access
only to /home. If no adminhost is specified, then all clients are granted root access to the root
directory. This is not recommended for sites where security is a concern.

Ethernet
If your network uses standard Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) interfaces, gather the following
information for each interface.

Network Interface name


The name of the Ethernet (or GbE) interface, depending on what port the Ethernet card is
installed in. Examples include e0 (for Ethernet single); e1 (for GbE); and e3a, e3b, e3c, e3d (for
Ethernet quad-port). Data ONTAP automatically assigns network interface names as it discovers
them.

IP address
A unique address for each network interface.

Subnet mask (Network Mask)


The subnet mask for the network to which each network interface is attached.

Example: 255.255.255.0

Partner IP address (Interface to Take Over)


If your storage appliance is licensed for cluster takeover, record the interface name or IP address
belonging to the partner that this interface should take over.

Jumbo Frames
If jumbo frames are supported, set the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size

The default frame size defined for a jumbo frame on the storage appliance is 9,018 bytes, and the
maximum supported size is 9,210 bytes. These sizes correspond to MTU sizes of 9,000 and
9,192, respectively.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Virtual interface
Specify the interface name rather than the interface IP address.

Router (Routing Gateway)


The gateway name and IP address for the primary gateway to use for routing outbound network
traffic.

DNS domain
Enter the name of your network’s Domain Name Service (DNS). The DNS domain name must
be identical on both storage appliances in a cluster. Record the IP addresses of your DNS servers.

NIS domain name


Record the name of your NIS domain. NIS Domain is used to authenticate users and client
computers. The NIS domain name must be identical on both storage appliances in a cluster.

NIS servers
Enter the IP or host names of your preferred NIS servers.

Windows domain
If your site uses Windows servers, it has one or more Windows domains. Record the name of the
Windows domain to which the storage appliance should belong.

WINS servers
The servers that handle Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) name registrations, queries,
and releases. If you choose to make the storage appliance visible through WINS, you need to
record up to four WINS IP addresses.

Windows 2000 user (Windows 2000 administrator)


This is the name of the administrative Windows 2000 domain user who has sufficient privilege
to add this storage appliance to the Windows 2000 domain. Only required if you are using a
Windows 2000 domain.

Windows 2000 user password


The domain password to be used for the Windows 2000 user or administrative user. If your
domain is a Windows 2000 domain, you must use the password for the user having sufficient
privilege to add the storage appliance to the domain.

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Installation

Active Directory
The container in which to place storage appliance accounts. This can be either the default of
Computers or a previously created organizational unit (OU) specified by you. The path for the
OU must be specified in reverse order, separated by commas.

Example: if the path is eng\dev\mgmt, the active directory distinguished name is as follows:
ou=mgmt, ou=dev, ou=eng

Note: A user in the Windows 2000 domain can pre-create the account and Data ONTAP updates
that account.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Configuring a Storage Appliance

9-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Installation

The setup Command

Please enter the new hostname []: NetApp1


Do you want to configure virtual network interfaces? [n]:
Please enter the IP address for Network Interface e0a []: 10.10.10.30
Please enter the netmask for Network Interface e0a [255.0.0.0]: 255.255.255.0
Please enter media type for e0a {100tx-fd, tp-fd, 100tx, tp, auto (10/100/1000)}
[auto]:
Please enter flow control for e0a {none, receive, send, full} [full]:
Do you want e0a to support jumbo frames? [n]:
Would you like to continue setup through the web interface? [n]:
Please enter the name or IP address of the default gateway: 10.10.10.1
The administration host is given root access to the filer's
/etc files for system administration. To allow /etc root access
to all NFS clients enter RETURN below.
Please enter the name or IP address of the administration host: adminhost
Please enter the IP address for adminhost: 10.10.10.20
Please enter timezone [GMT]: US/Pacific
Where is the filer located? []: Bldg. 1

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The setup Command

What language will be used for multi-protocol files (Type ? for list)?: en_US
Setting language on volume vol0
The new language mappings will be available after reboot
Wed Apr 7 16:12:15 GMT [localhost: rc:ALERT]: Language on volume vol0
changed to en_US Language set on volume vol0
Do you want to run DNS resolver? [n]: y
Please enter DNS domain name []: OurDomain.company.com
You may enter up to 3 nameservers
Please enter the IP address for first nameserver []: 10.10.10.100
Do you want another nameserver? [n]: y
Please enter the IP address for alternate nameserver []: 10.10.10.200
Do you want another nameserver? [n]:
Do you want to run NIS client? [n]:
This system will send event messages and weekly reports to Network Appliance Tec
hnical Support. To disable this feature, enter "options autosupport.support.enab
le off" within 24 hours. Enabling Autosupport can significantly speed problem de
termination and resolution should a problem occur on your system. For further in
formation on Autosupport, please see: http://now.netapp.com/autosupport/
Press the return key to continue.
Setting the administrative (root) password for 270B ...
NetApp1>

9-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Installation

Transition Slide

Upgrade

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Upgrade via CIFS

Map a Drive Letter


The first step in the process of upgrading the system software is to map the storage appliance to a
drive on your Windows client. In this example, \\filer7\C$ is mapped to drive G. The next step is
to download the software from the NOW site.

9-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Installation

Download the software


Follow these steps to download the compressed files:

1. From your web browser, log in to the NOW site.

2. Click Service & Support

3. Click Download Software.

4. In the Software Download table, click the Select Platform list box in the Data ONTAP
product row.

5. Select your storage appliance from the list and click Go.

6. Follow the prompts to reach the software download page.

7. Download the file to your Windows system.

Caution: Before upgrading to any release, make sure that you read the Important Caution issues
that might affect the availability of your systems.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Upgrade via CIFS

Expand the Compressed Software


Follow these steps to expand the compressed software:

1. Double-click the downloaded file.

2. In the WinZip dialog box that opens, enter the drive letter to which you mapped the storage
appliance. In the example shown, you would replace <drive> with G which you mapped in a
previous step.

3. Ensure that the two check boxes are selected: Overwrite files without Prompting and When
done unzipping run…ainstall.bat

4. Click the unzip button. numerous files are copied to the /etc directory on the storage
appliance.

9-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Installation

Upgrade via CIFS

NetApp1> download
Sun Feb 9 19:03:20 GMT [download.request: notice]:
Operator requested download initiated
download: Downloading disks: opening Data ONTAP 6.5
…………………………………………… done
download: boot blocks successfully copied to disk(s)
Sun Feb 9 19:15:23 GMT [download.request Done:notice]:
Operator requested download completed
NetApp1> reboot
Tue Feb 4 21:23:03:55 GMT [kern.shutdown:notice]:
System shutdown because:"reboot"
Alpha Open Firmware by FirmWorks
Copyright 1995-1998 FirmWorks, Network Appliance.
All Rights Reserved. Firmware release 2.3_a2
Memory size is 1024 MB
Testing SIO
Testing LCD
Probing devices
NetApp1> version
NetApp Release XX: Fri Feb 7 00:03:16 PST 2005

Download and Boot


The download command copies the boot information to the disks as well as the compact flash
unit if applicable. If this step is not performed, your upgrade will not be successful.

When the system files have decompressed, open the storage appliance console and follow these
steps:

1. Enter the download command.

2. When the boot blocks have been successfully copied, reboot the storage appliance.

Note: Rebooting or halting will only work on a console session. A telnet session will end! If
the unit has a floppy drive, check to be sure that there are no diskettes inserted.

3. Enter the version command to verify the upgrade was successful.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Upgrade via NFS

Upgrade Using NFS


The first step in the process of upgrading the system software is to access the storage appliance
from your UNIX client. This example above assumes that you have already exported the root
volume.

1. Create a mount point for the storage appliance in the root directory on the adminhost.

2. Mount the storage appliance to the new mount point.

3. Download the software to your UNIX system.

9-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Installation

Upgrade via NFS

$ cd /dldir
$ cp *.tar /NetApp
$ cd /NetApp
$ tar xvf XX_sysfiles.tar
$ ./install_netapp /NetApp

xx

xx

Expand and Install


Follow these steps to expand the compressed software on the NFS adminhost:

1. Copy the compressed files from the UNIX client download directory (/dldir) to the storage
appliance.

2. Go to the directory on the storage appliance containing the compressed file and expand it.

3. Verify that the files tar_image.Z and install_netapp were created in the directory, and then
enter the command to install the system files. ./install_netapp /NetApp

Numerous files are copied to the /etc directory on the storage appliance.

Follow these steps on the storage appliance’s console

1. Enter the download command.

2. When the boot blocks have been successfully copied, reboot the storage appliance.

Note: Rebooting or halting will only work on a console session. A telnet session will end! If
the unit has a floppy drive, check to be sure that there are no diskettes inserted.

3. Enter the version command to verify the upgrade was successful.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 9-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The software Command

The software Command


The software commands allow you to upgrade Data ONTAP from the console without using
CIFS or NFS.

Before you start, you need to establish an HTTP host and download the appropriate software (the
Windows executable file for the specific platform, for example: XX_setup_i.exe) from the NOW
site to the host.

Once the .exe files are on an HTTP server, you can get and install them on any storage appliance
by using the software commands.

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Installation

Software Command Syntax

NetApp>software
NetApp>software get
get http://swserver/XX_setup_i.exe
http://swserver/XX_setup_i.exe

NetApp>software
NetApp>software list
list
setup.exe
setup.exe
XX_setup_i.exe
XX_setup_i.exe

NetApp>software
NetApp>software delete
delete setup.exe
setup.exe

NetApp>software
NetApp>software install
install XX_setup_i.exe
XX_setup_i.exe

NetApp>software
NetApp>software install
install http://swserver/XX_setup_i.exe
http://swserver/XX_setup_i.exe

The software Command


The software command is a command that allows upgrading of Data ONTAP without CIFS
or NFS protocols licensed. The command was designed for SAN Protocol only systems.
However, the software command probably requires the least amount of steps and time to
upgrade Data ONTAP.

Follow these basic steps to upgrade with the software command:

1. Download appropriate system files from the NOW site to a host HTTP server (internal or
external)

2. Verify HTTP host and source URL.

3. Execute the software commands.

4. Run download and reboot

5. Verify installation/upgrade.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Upgrade via software command

NetApp1> software install http://webserver/XX_setup_i.exe


software: copying to /etc/software/XX_setup_i.exe
software: 100% file read from location.
software: /etc/software/XX_setup_i.exe has been copied.
software: installing software, this could take a few minutes...
Fri Apr 2 09:54:59 PST [rc:info]: software: installation completed.
Please type download to load the new software and reboot subsequently for
changes to take affect.
NetApp1> download
download: You can cancel this operation by hitting Ctrl-C in the next 6
seconds. Depending on system load, it may take many minutes
to complete this operation. Until it finishes, you will not be able to use
the console.
Fri Apr 2 09:55:22 PST [download.request:notice]: Operator requested
download initiated
download: Downloading boot device
...................... Downloading boot device (Service Area)
NetApp1> Fri Apr 2 09:56:54 PST [download.request Done:notice]: Operator
requested download completed
NetApp1> reboot
NetApp1> version
NetApp Release XX: Tue Mar 16 13:53:42 PST 2005

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Installation

Transition SlideReinstall or
Repurpose a
Storage
Appliance

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Re-installation

Steps for Re-installing a Storage Appliance


Gather network and license information
Initialize the storage appliance
Complete the setup script
Re-enable licenses
Obtain and install Data ONTAP software
Download
Reboot
Verify the installation

Re-Installing or Re-Purposing a Storage Appliance


Re-purposing or re-installing a storage appliance means zeroing out the disks (initialization),
installing Data ONTAP software, and reconfiguring the software. This is typically done when
changing the disk allocation (reducing disk capacity) on a storage appliance or redeploying the
storage appliance in a new application.

A major difference between this process and a new install is the initialization step. A new
storage appliance is shipped with two disks initialized in one file system (vol0) and all other
disks marked as spares. When you reinitialize an existing storage appliance, you wipe out the
disk configuration and all system configuration files. All data on existing drives is destroyed.
Initialization provides a fresh start.

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Installation

Upgrade vs. Reinstall Process

Re-Purposing a Storage Appliance


To re-purpose a storage appliance, follow the steps below:

1. Gather network information and license codes

2. Initialize the storage appliance

3. Complete the Setup script

4. License protocol to install Data ONTAP software or utilize the software command

5. Run download

6. Reboot

7. Re-enable licenses

8. Verify the installation

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What is the the difference between an “out-of-


the-box” installation and a full installation?
What happens when the storage appliance’s
system disks are initialized?
Name 3 methods to install Data ONTAP?
What is the command to access the storage
appliance for configuration via the HTTP
protocol?
List steps to prepare for Installation and info
needed to complete the install

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Installation

Exercises
Installation-Remainder of
Exercises

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Installation
Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Assemble the information and materials needed to initialize a storage appliance and create a
new file system.

• Install licenses.

• Add the storage appliance to a domain and map it to an drive

• Install system files with various methods

• Verify the installation.

Exercise Overview
You will perform all of the pre-installation preparations required for a successful installation.
You will boot the storage appliance from floppy disks and install the software. During this
process you will create a new file system and configure the network file system. You will install
the licenses needed. You will install the system files. You will use the download command to
install system files on the boot sector of the disk. You will verify that the software is correctly
installed and the storage appliance is functioning properly.

Note: The following exercises will take you through installing Data ONTAP on a storage
appliance. The actual text on the screen may differ depending on the version of Data ONTAP
you install.

Time Estimate
30 Minutes

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Installation

Start of Exercise

Initialize the System Disks

Step Action

1. Compile the information listed in the Filer Configuration table. Your instructor will
provide you with specific information for your storage appliance.
2. Filer Configuration
Filer hostname ______________
e0 IP Address ______________
Subnet Mask ______________
Media type ______________
Adminhost Name ______________
Adminhost IP Address ______________
DNS Domain Name ______________
3. Access the storage appliance’s console via the console port and halt the storage
appliance.
NetApp> halt
Enter the boot command in the storage appliance console, or, if the system is
4.
powered off, power it on.

Press CTRL-C together when the system prompts you.


5.
Starting AUTOBOOT press any key to abort...
Loading: 0xffffffff80001000/8659992 Entry at
0xffffffff80001000
Starting program at 0xffffffff80001000
Press CTRL-C for special boot menu
...........................................................
...........................................................
...........................................................
...........................................................
........
Special boot options menu will be available..

6. When the 1-5 menu displays, select option (4) Initialize all disks. From
the storage appliance’s list of options.
7. When prompted type y to zero all disks and install a new file system.

8 Type y to indicate you are sure you want to continue.

9. Notify Instructor that you have completed this exercise.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Repurpose or Reinstall a Storage Appliance

Step Action

1. Enter the storage appliance’s host name

2. Press [Enter] or no when asked if you want to configure virtual interfaces.

3. Enter the IP address for the storage appliance's primary interface.

4 Enter the netmask for the storage appliance's primary interface.

5. Enter media type for the storage appliance's primary interface

6. Enter no for the remainder of the installed interfaces

7. Enter no to configure through the web interface.

8. Enter the name of the default gateway for this interface.

9. Enter the IP address of the default gateway.

10. Enter the name of the admin host.

11. Enter the IP address of the admin host.

12. Press [Enter] when prompted for location.

13. Enter yes to indicate you do want to run DNS.


Enter the domain name and IP address when prompted.
Enter no to indicate you do not want to run NIS.
14.

Install System Files with the software Command

1. Enter the software install command from the storage appliance’s console.
NetApp> software install
http://IP_of_DomainController/XX_setup_i.exe
Obtain the filename from you Instructor.

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Installation

2. When prompted, enter the download command to copy the boot block information
to disk or compact flash.
NetApp> download
Sample output, your output might vary.

NetApp> download
download: You can cancel this operation by hitting Ctrl-C
in the next 6 seconds.
download: Depending on system load, it may take many
minutes
download: to complete this operation. Until it finishes,
you will
download: not be able to use the console.
Wed May 12 20:40:02 GMT [download.request:notice]: Operator
requested download initiated
download: Downloading boot device
......................
download: Downloading boot device (Service Area)
.....
NetApp> Wed May 12 20:40:54 GMT
[download.requestDone:notice]: Operator requested download
completed
NetApp>

3. After the download completes, reboot the storage appliance.


NetApp> reboot
4. Verify the installation was successful by entering the version command.

NetApp> version

NetApp Release XX: Thu Apr 15 02:27:37 PDT 2005

Install system files via CIFS

Step Action

1. License NFS by typing the following command and using the license code provided
by your instructor.
NetApp> license add nfslicense

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

2. License CIFS by typing the following command and using the license code provided
by your instructor.
NetApp> license add cifslicense
3. License HTTP by typing the following command and using the license code provided
by your instructor.
NetApp> license add httplicense
At the storage appliance prompt, type cifs setup
4
NetApp> cifs setup

Enter the following parameters

• No to WINS

• Depress the enter key twice for root password

• Enter to keep default hostname

• 1 for Windows domain authentication

• Domain.company.com for the domain (Obtain info from your Instructor)

• Depress the enter key twice for local administrator password

• Enter to accept administrator@domain for user with privileges

• Password of administrator (Obtain info from your Instructor)

The Storage Appliance, at this point will determine what type of domain it is in and
5.
continue with the setup. If the filer does not find all the components of a Windows
2000 domain, the program will assume it is in an NT4 domain. If you are trying to join
a Windows 2000 domain and this occurs, this would indicate a problem with your
setup.

6. Go to the Windows desktop

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Installation

7. Right click My Network Places -> Map a Network Drive to the storage appliance as
shown in the example below.

8. Download the Window version of the system files from the NOW site or use the
following URL http://IP_ofDC/XX_setup.exe to obtain the software.

Now double click on the setup.exe file. (Filename may vary depending on your
hardware).
9. When the WinZip Self-Extractor dialog box is displayed, replace “<drive>” with
the drive letter you mapped to in Step 7 and select Unzip.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

10. Press any key when the C:\WINNT\System32\CMD.exe screen is displayed.

11. Return to the storage appliance’s console and enter download at the prompt as
shown below.
NetApp> download

..done

download: boot blocks successfully copied to disk(s)

NetApp>

12. Reboot the storage appliance.

Install System Files via UNIX

Step Action

1. Log in to the adminhost as root or su.


Login:
Pass:
2. Create a mount point for the storage appliance in the root directory.
$ cd /

$ mkdir storage_appliance_name
(Replace with your storage appliance’s name).

Mount the storage appliance to /storage_appliance_name.


3.
$ mount netappx:/vol/vol0 /storage_appliance_name

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Installation

Copy the system files to the storage appliance.


4.
$ cp /software/*.tar / storage_appliance_name
Go to the directory on the storage appliance containing the system tar files and expand
5.
them

$ cd /storage_appliance_name

$ tar xvf XX_sysfiles.tar

Verify that the following two files were created in the directory:
6.
tar_image.Z

install_netapp

Install the system files


7.
$./install_netapp /storage_appliance_name

8. Observe that numerous files are copied to the /etc directory.

9. Go to the storage appliance console when you see the UNIX prompt.

10. Enter download at the storage appliance’s prompt as shown below.


NetApp> download

Fri Feb 2 18:48:20 GMT [download.request:notice]: Operator


requested download initiated
....done
download: boot blocks successfully copied to disk(s)

NetApp>

11. Reboot the storage appliance

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Snapshots
Snapshot Administration

Module 10. Snapshot Administration

Snapshots

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

Upon completion of this module you will be


able to:
– Describe how snapshots function
– Recognize and perform snapshot commands
– Set and modify snapshot options
– Create a snapshot schedule

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Snapshot Administration

Snapshot Technology Overview

• Key element in WAFL architecture


• Read-only copy of file system
• Location data only, does not contain data files
• Consumes little disk space, initially
• Supports backup, error recovery and
commands related to Snapshot technology

Snapshot Overview
The SnapShot technology is a key element in the implementation of the WAFL file system.

• A snapshot is a read-only space-efficient, point-in-time image of the data in a volume or


an aggregate.

• It is only a picture of the file system and does not contain the actual contents of data
files.

• Snapshots are used for such purposes as backup and error recovery.

Data ONTAP automatically creates and deletes snapshots of data in volumes to support
commands related to Snapshot technology.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot Technology Overview

Volumes
• Snapshot subdirectory accessible to users
• Users can access and recover files
Aggregates
• 5% of aggregate reserved for aggregate
snapshots
• Primary function is to support functions
related to Snapshot technology

Volumes
Snapshots for traditional and flexible volumes are stored in “special” subdirectories that can be
made accessible to Windows and UNIX clients so users can access and recover their own files
without assistance. A maximum of 255 Snapshots per volume may be stored at any one time.

Aggregates
Five percent of an aggregate is reserved for snapshots of the aggregate. In normal day to day
operations, aggregate snapshots are not actively managed by the system administrator. Instead,
for example, Data ONTAP automatically creates snapshots of aggregates to support commands
related to the SnapMirror® software, which provides volume-level mirroring.

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Snapshot Administration

Snapshot Overview

Snapshot Overview
Snapshots are taken according to an automatic schedule. You can manually reset the schedule
when you configure the storage appliance. Schedule intervals are weekly, nightly, and hourly.

Because the Snapshots are stored independently of the Active File System (AFS), you can
perform backups on recently created Snapshots without taking the system off-line, even while
users are heavily accessing and updating data.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot Overview

How Snapshots Work


Before the Snapshot is taken you have a file system tree pointing to data blocks containing
content. When the Snapshot is taken, a copy of the file structure is made that points to the same
data blocks.

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Snapshot Administration

Snapshot Overview

How Snapshots Work


After the Snapshot is taken, there is no significant impact on disk space. Because the file
structure takes little space and no data blocks need to be copied on disk, a new Snapshot uses up
almost no additional disk space.

Snapshots begin to use space when data is deleted or modified. WAFL writes the new data to a
new block on disk (D’) and changes the root structure for the active file system to point to the
new block.

Meanwhile, the Snapshot still references the original block D. As long as there is a Snapshot
referencing a data block, the block remains unavailable for other uses. So Snapshots only start to
consume disk space as the file system changes after a Snapshot is created.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

How disk space is allocated for FlexVols

Aggregates Aggregate
Each aggregate has 5% allocatedSpace
for snap reserve and 10% 10% WAFL Overhead
allocated for WAFL.
WAFL Aggregate Space
Flexible Volumes
Each volume has 20% allocated FlexVol1
for snap reserve. The remainder 80%
is used for client data.
.snapshot 20% FlexVol
Space
Snap Reserve 95% plus
90% FlexVol#n
The amount of space allocated for Aggregate
80%
snap reserve is adjustable. To use Snapshot
Reserve
this space for data (not .snapshot 20%
recommended), you must
manually override the allocation
which is used for Snapshots.
Aggregate Snapshot Reserve 5%
(adjustable)

How Disk Space Is Allocated for FlexVols


Aggregates
The size of an aggregate depends on the number and size of the disks allocated to it. Five
percent of the aggregate is allocated for snap reserve for aggregate snapshots. Ten percent of the
aggregate is allocated for WAFL.
Flexible Volumes
More than one flexible volume can exist in an aggregate. Each flexible volume however, has 20
percent allocated for snap reserve for snapshots. To use the snap reserve space for data (not
recommended), you must manually override the allocation, which is used for Snapshots. The
remainder can be used for client data.
Snap Reserve
The snap reserve for aggregates does not automatically expand into the WAFL aggregate space.
When space is needed for the snapshot, the default is for an older aggregate snapshot to be
deleted in order to accommodate a new snapshot. This snap reserve size for aggregates is
adjustable using the snap reserve command.
On volumes, the space used for the snap reserve may expand into user space as required by
system needs. For example, this could occur if numerous changes are made to the AFS. If
necessary, the Snapshot reserve will expand into the user space as Snapshots are taken,
regardless of the designated snap reserve percentage.
You may manually reallocate disk space using the snap reserve command however, unless
you deliberately re-adjust it, user data space on a volume will never exceed 70%.

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Snapshot Administration

How disk space is allocated for Traditional Volumes

Aggregates with a Traditional Aggregate


Volume Space
Each aggregate has 10% 10% WAFL Overhead
allocated for WAFL.

Traditional Volumes WAFL Traditional Volume


Each volume has 20% allocated Space
for snap reserve. The remainder
is used for client data.
80%
Snap Reserve 90%
The amount of space allocated for
snap reserve is adjustable. To use
this space for data (not
recommended), you must
manually override the allocation
which is used for Snapshots. Snapshot Reserve 20%
(adjustable)

How Disk Space Is Allocated for Traditional Volumes


Aggregates
The size of an aggregate depends on the number and size of the disks allocated to it. Ten percent
of the aggregate is allocated for WAFL.
Traditional Volumes
Only one traditional volume can exist in an aggregate. That volume has 20 percent allocated for
snap reserve for snapshots. To use the snap reserve space for data (not recommended), you must
manually override the allocation, which is used for Snapshots. The remainder can be used for
client data.
Snap Reserve
Like, flexible volumes, the space used for the snap reserve in a traditional volume may expand
into user space as required by system needs. For example, this could occur if numerous changes
are made to the AFS. If necessary, the Snapshot reserve will expand into the user space as
Snapshots are taken, regardless of the designated snap reserve percentage.
You may manually reallocate disk space using the snap reserve command however, unless
you deliberately re-adjust it, user data space on a volume will never exceed 70%.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot Commands

snap create [ -A | -V ] [volume_name] [snapshot_name]


snap list [ -A | -V ] [volume_name]
snap delete [ -A | -V ] [volume_name] [snapshot_name]
snap delete [ -A | -V ] -a [volume_name]
snap rename [ -A | -V ] [volume_name] [old_file_name] [new_file_name]
snap reserve [ -A | -V ] [volume_name] [percent]
snap sched [ -A | -V ] [volume_name [weeks [days [ hours[@list]]]]]

Snapshot Commands
In the snap command the option A is used for aggregates and the option V is used for volumes.
Volume is the default if neither A or V is specified. The table shown above lists commands you
can use to create and manage Snapshots.

If you omit the volume name in any of these commands, the command applies to the root
volume. The Snapshot commands are persistent across reboots.

Example Result
snap create Creates a snapshot named Friday5pm in the engineering volume.
engineering Friday5pm
snap list engineering Lists all available snapshots in the engineering volume.
snap delete Deletes Friday5pm in the engineering volume.
engineering Friday5pm

snap delete –a vol2 Deletes all snapshots in vol2.

snap rename Renames the snapshot named nighlty.0 to firstnight.0 in the


engineering nightly.0 engineering volume.
firstnight.0
snap reserve vol2 25 Changes the snap reserve in vol2 to 25%.

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Snapshot Administration

Example Result
snap sched vol2 0 2 6 Sets the automatic schedule on vol2 to save the following:
@ 8, 12, 16, 20
• 0 weekly snapshots

• 2 nightly

• 6 hourly at 8 A.M., 12:00 P.M., 4:00 P.M. and 8:00 P.M.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot Schedule

Snapshot Command Syntax

snap sched [volume_name [weeks [days [ hours[@list]]]]]

Example: snap sched vol2 0 2 6@8,12,16,20

The snap schedule in the example above would keep the following snapshots for vol2:
No weekly snapshots
2 nightly snapshots
6 hourly snapshots taken at 8:00 A.M., 12:00 P.M., 4:00 P.M. and 8:00 P.M.

The snap sched command


The snap sched command sets the schedule for automatically creating Snapshots and
specifies how many of each type will be stored. When the limit is reached, the oldest for each
interval is deleted as a new Snapshot is added. The example shown here is the default schedule.
It specifies that Snapshots are taken at 8 a.m., 12 noon, 16:00 and 20:00. (24-hour clock) and that
the most recent 2 daily Snapshots and the most recent 6 hourly Snapshots are kept.

Snapshots are a “picture” of a volume. The only difference between a weekly snapshot and a
nightly or an hourly is the time at which the Snapshot was taken and any data that was changed
between the snapshots.

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Snapshot Administration

Snap List Command

The snap list command


The snap list command displays a single line of information for each Snapshot in a volume.
The table here shows a list of Snapshots for the Engineering volume.

• The first column, % used, shows the relationship between accumulated Snapshots and the
total disk space consumed by the active file system. Values in parentheses show the
contribution of this individual Snapshot.

• The second column, % total, shows the relationship between accumulated Snapshots in the
total disk space consumed by the volume. Values in parentheses show the contribution of this
individual Snapshot.

• The date column shows the date and time the Snapshot was taken. Time is indicated on the
24-hour clock and in this example, reflects the hours set in the automatic Snapshot schedule.

• Finally, the name column lists the names of each of the saved Snapshots. Scheduled
Snapshots are automatically renumbered as new ones are taken so that the most recent is
always .0. This also ensures that the file with the highest number (in this case, hourly.5) is
always the oldest Snapshot.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

13

Configuring Snapshot Schedules Using FilerView


Automatic Snapshots are turned on by default and use a preset schedule until changed by the
administrator, using the snap sched command or the FilerView graphical interface.

• To modify the schedule for an existing Snapshot: From the Volumes node on the main menu,
open Snapshots and select Configure. Enter data in the available fields and click Apply to
activate the schedule.

• To create a brand-new Snapshot: Open the Volumes node, select Snapshot, then Add. The
Add Snapshot pane allows you to select a volume and insert a new Snapshot name. Click the
Add button to create the new Snapshot.

• To view a list of current Snapshots: Open the Volumes node, select Snapshots, and select
Manage.

• To manually delete individual Snapshots from the Volume: Open the Volumes node, select
Snapshots node, then select Manage. Locate the Snapshot you want to delete and check its
box. Click the active Delete button, then click OK to verify your action.

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Snapshot Administration

Snapshot Options

15

Snapshot Options
The table shown here lists the options available for controlling the creation of and access to
Snapshots and Snapshot directories on a volume

• Disable automatic snapshots: setting the nosnap option to on disables automatic Snapshot
creation. You may still manually create Snapshots at any time.

• Make .snapshot directory invisible to clients, and turn off access to .snapshot directory:
setting the nosnapdir option to on disables access to the Snapshot directory that is present at
client mount points and the root of CIFS directories and makes the Snapshot directories
invisible. (For NFS, the directories are named .snapshot; for CIFS, the directories are named
~snapshot.) By default, this option is off (directories are visible).

• Make ~snapshot directory visible to CIFS clients: Two steps are required to make the
~Snapshot directories viewable by clients:

1. turn on the cifs.show_snapshot option

2. turn off the nosnapdir option for each volume desired.

You must also ensure that the show hidden files in enabled on your Windows system.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot Options

Example Result
vol options vol2 nosnap on Disables automatic snapshots for vol2
vol options vol2 nosnapdir on Makes (.snapshot) (~snapshot) directory
invisible to clients.
options cifs.show_snapshot on Makes ~snapshot directory visible to CIFS
clients.

Showing Snapshot Directories Using FilerView


You can also change the CIFS configuration setting to show Snapshot directories using the
FilerView graphical interface.

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Snapshot Administration

Snapshot View from a UNIX Client

# pwd
/filer /.snapshot
# ls -l
total 240
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 hourly.0
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 hourly.1
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 hourly.2
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 hourly.3
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 hourly.4
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 hourly.5
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 nightly.0
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 nightly.1
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 weekly.1
drwxrwxrwx 9 root other 12288 Jan 29 16:19 weekly.2
#

16

Snapshot Directories
Every volume in the file system contains a special Snapshot sub-directory. This allows users to
access earlier-in-time versions of the file system in cases where they need to recover lost or
damaged files.

Viewing Snapshots from a UNIX Client


The Snapshot sub-directory appears to NFS clients as .snapshot. The .snapshot directories are
usually “hidden” and do not show up in directory listings

Take the following steps to view the .snapshot directory:

1. On the storage appliance, login as root and ensure that the nosnapdir option is set off.

2. To view the hidden directories, from the NFS mount point, enter the (ls) command with the
-a (all) option.

When listing the snapshot directories from a client, the date/time stamp is usually the same for
all the directories. Therefore, to find the actual date/time of each snapshot you should use the
snap list command on the storage appliance.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Snapshot View from a Windows Client

Not
Note:e:SSnapshots
napshotsare arevisib
visibleletoto
Windows
Windowsclien clientststhat
thathave
haveFileFile
Manage
Manager rconfigure
configureddtotodisplay
display
“hid den file s”
“hid den file s”

17

Viewing Snapshots from a Windows Client


Snapshot directories are “hidden” files on a Windows client. To view them, first configure the
File Manager to display hidden files, then navigate to the root of the CIFS share and look for the
directory folder.

The Snapshots sub-directory appears to CIFS clients as ~Snapshot. Files shown here are those
created automatically for specified intervals. Manually created Snapshots, if any, would also be
listed.

Restoring a File
To restore a file from the ~snapshot directory, rename or move the original file then copy the file
from the ~snapshot directory to the directory in which the file originally existed.

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Snapshot Administration

Topic Review

How do snapshots function?


What are some of the snapshot commands?
What option would you use to manually create
an aggregate snapshot?
What are some of the snapshot options?
Describe the snapshot schedule syntax.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercises

20

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Snapshot Administration

Exercise: Snapshots
Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• View current Snapshots

• Establish a Snapshot schedule

• Manually create a new Snapshot

• Manually delete a Snapshot

• View space consumed by snapshots

• View and modify snap reserve

• Navigate and copy deleted files from the .snapshot and ~snapshot directory

Exercise Overview
During this exercise you will view current Snapshots, set up a new Snapshot schedule, and
manually create a Snapshot.

Time Estimate
20 Minutes

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise

Manage snapshots

Step Action
1. Access the storage appliance console and type the following to get a list of Snapshots
on vol0:
NetApp> snap list vol0
2. Enter the following command to schedule Snapshots for vol0:
NetApp> snap sched vol0 1 3 4@8,10,12,14
3. Enter the following command to create 2 new Snapshots:
NetApp> snap create vol0 newsnap1
NetApp> snap create vol0 hourly.1
4. Enter the following command to view the newly created snapshots.
NetApp> snap list vol0
5. Enter the following command to delete the hourly.1 Snapshot:
NetApp> snap delete vol0 hourly.1
6. Verify hourly.1 was deleted by running snap list again.
7. What times of day and which days will Snapshots be taken based on the schedule you
entered in Step 2?
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

View space consumed by snapshots


Step Action
1. Access the storage appliance console and type the following:
NetApp> df
Write the values for vol0 from the df command.
Filesystem kbytes used avail capacity Mounted on
/vol/vol0 ________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/.snapshot
2. From the Adminhost, in your filer’s home directory in the /vol/vol0 mount point, copy
3-100 MB files to vol 0.
cd to /filers_mountpoint/home
# mkfile 100M foo foo1 foo2

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Snapshot Administration

3. At the filer console, type the following:


NetApp> df
Write the values for vol0 from the df command.
Filesystem kbytes used avail capacity Mounted on
/vol/vol0 ________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/.snapshot

Notice the differences in the output from step #1. You should have noticed an increase
in the used space on vol0. The amount of change may vary based on the size of the
disks in your volume.
4. At the filer console, type the following:
Netapp> snap create vol0 mysnap
5. At the filer console, type the following:
Netapp> snap list
Observe that the snapshot has zero size.

6. From the Adminhost, in your filer’s /vol/vol0 mount point; delete the 3-100 MB files
you created.
# rm fo*
7. At the filer console, type the following:
Netapp> snap list
Notice the difference in the % used columns.
8. At the filer console, type the following:
Netapp> df
Notice the differences
9. From the Adminhost, in the filer’s mount point, cd to the /.snapshot/mysnap and copy
the files back to the storage appliance’s root directory.
cd to /filers_mountpoint/.snapshot/mysnap/home
# cp foo*
10. At the filer console, type the following:
Netapp> snap list
11. At the filer console, type the following:
Netapp> df

View and Modify the snap reserve

Step Action

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

1. Access the filer console and type the following to view snap reserve on vol0:
NetApp> snap reserve
View the space reserved for snapshots on vol0
2. Change the snap reserve value to 5% for vol0
Netapp> snap reserve vol0 5
View the space reserved for snapshots on vol0
3. Set the snap reserve back to the original value of 20 for vol0.
4. Access the filer console and type the following to view snap reserve on vol0:
NetApp> snap reserve
Ensure the value has been set back to 20%.

Navigate and copy deleted files from the ~snapshot directory

Step Action
1. From the Windows desktop double click my computer. Access the c$ share that is
mapped to your system. Navigate to the /etc directory. Locate the file named
cifssec.bak and delete the file.

2. Navigate to the ~snapshot directory and locate the file in the /etc directory. Copy the
file back to its original location /etc/cifssec.bak

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Snapshot Administration

Notice the path in the address.

Navigate and copy deleted files from the .snapshot directory

1 Telnet to the <UNIX Admin host>


2 Login to <UNIX Admin host>as root using the password provided by your
instructor.
3 Navigate to the /etc directory of storage appliance’s mount point and delete the file
named hosts.bak.
# pwd
/mnt/filer_name/vol0/etc
# rm hosts.bak
4. CD to the .snapshot directory at the root of the mount point.
# cd /mnt/filer_name/.snapshot/mysnap/etc
# pwd
/mnt/filer_name/vol0/.snapshot/mysnap/etc
# cp hosts.bak /mnt/filer_name/vol0/etc
cd /mnt/filer_name/vol0/etc
Enter ls –l to view the restored file.

End of Exercise

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Quotas
Quota Administration

Module 11. Quota Administration

Quotas Administration

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 11-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module you will be able to:


– Describe how quotas are used to restrict and track
disk access
– Determine the function of quotas
– Recognize the purpose of the /etc/quotas file
– Interpret the contents of the /etc/quotas file
– Define the function and syntax of quota, quota
resize, quota report, and quota logmsg
commands
– Turn quotas on for a specific volume
– Display a quota report to view current status
– Identify and define the function of two special
entries in the /etc/quotas file

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Quota Administration

Quotas Overview

Functions of Quotas
Limit set to control use of file or disk space
Method to track usage without imposing a
limit
Way to warn users when usage is high

Functions of Quotas
Quotas are important tools for managing the use of disk space on your storage appliance. A
quota is a limit set to control or monitors the number of files or amount of disk space an
individual or group can consume. Quotas allow you to manage and track the use of disk space by
clients on your system.

A quota is used to:

• limit the amount of disk space or the number of files that can be used
• track the amount of disk space or number of files used, without imposing a limit
• warn users when their disk space or file usage is high

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quota Targets

Quota Targets
The target of a quota limit can be an individual user, a group, or a qtree:

• User, indicated by a UNIX ID or Windows ID


• Group, indicated by UNIX group names (GID)
• Qtree, represented by the path name to the qtree
User quotas, group quotas, and tree quotas are stored in the /etc/quotas file. You can edit this file
at any time.

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Quota Administration

Quota Targets

Quota Targets
Quotas are based on a Windows account name, UNIX UID, or GID in both NFS and CIFS
environments.

The CIFS system administrator must maintain the /etc/passwd file for CIFS users to obtain UIDs
(if those users are going to create UNIX files) and the /etc/group file for CIFS users to obtain
GIDs, or use an NIS server to implement CIFS quotas.

Tree quotas do not require UIDs or GIDs. If you only implement tree quotas, it is not necessary
to maintain the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files (or NIS services).

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The /etc/quotas File

Target column Type column


Lists the users, groups, and trees to which Lists the type of quota being
the quota limits will be applied applied

# Target Type Disk Files Thold Sdisk Sfiles

* user@/vol/vol2 50M 15K 45M 10K


/vol/home/user user 50M 10K 45M
21 group 750M 75K 700M 9000
/vol/eng/proj tree 100M 75K 90M
writers group@/vol/techpub 75M 75K 70M
acme\cheng user@/vol/vol2 200M - 150M
tonyp@acme.com user - - -
rtaylor user@/vol/vol2 200M - 150M
s-1-5-32-544 user@/vol/vol2 200M - 150M
Threshold Sdisk and Sfiles
Disk and Files column columns
columns Lists the limit at List the limits at
List the hard limits which console which warning
for disk space and messages are messages are
number of files triggered triggered

The /etc/quotas File


Manage and create quotas by using the quota commands and by modifying the /etc/quotas file.
This is an example of the contents of that file. The comment line (the first line in the sample)
lists the fields in the /etc/quotas file. The /etc/quotas file is a text file and can be viewed or
modified in 4 ways:

1. Through NFS access such as through the vi editor on a UNIX host


2. Through CIFS access such as through NOTEPAD.exe or WordPad.exe on a Windows host
Note: Be cautious when using NOTEPAD.exe. It can introduce special or control characters
into the file that cannot be seen but will cause the quota file to fail.
3. Through the storage appliance using the CLI commands rdfile and wrfile
4. Through the storage appliance using FilerView

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Quota Administration

Quota Types

user user@vol user@tree

group@vol group@tree
group

tree@vol
tree

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Contents of the /etc/quotas File


Target Column

Target lists the entity the quota will be applied against. The examples in this column represent
equivalent ways you can specify the target. The entries serve to inform the storage appliance of
the target’s UID (if it’s a user) or GID (if it’s a group). The ID numbers must not be zero. The
system checks quotas every time it receives a write request—so it is important to use a target that
won’t change over time.
Note: Do not use the backslash (\) or at sign (@) in UNIX quota targets – Data ONTAP
interprets them as being part of Windows names.
Type Column
Type is the kind of quota applied. You can enter one of the values shown here to define the quota
type. A tree quota is created in the root directory of a volume. The target for a tree quota is the
complete path name to this directory.
Note that while the root user and Windows Administrators are exempt from user and group
quotas, they are not exempt from tree quotas.

Quota type Value in the Type field Sample entry in the Type field

User quota in a volume user@/vol/volume user@/vol/vol1

User quota in a qtree user@/vol/volume/qtree user@/vol/vol0/home

Group quota in a volume group@/vol/volume group@/vol/vol1

Group quota in a qtree group@/vol/volume/qtree group@/vol/vol0/home

Note: If the user or group name is not fully qualified the quota applies to the root volume only.

Disk Column

The Disk field lists the maximum disk space allocated to the quota target. This hard limit cannot
be exceeded: If the limit is reached, messages are sent to the user and console and SNMP traps
are created.
Use abbreviations (G, M, or K) for gigabytes, megabytes, and kilobytes. You can enter letters
either upper or lowercase. If you omit the letter, the system assumes K (kilobytes). Do not leave
this field blank: enter a dash (-) to track usage without imposing a limit.
Maximum Values: 4,294,967,295k, 4,194,303m, 4,095g
Files Column

The Files field specifies the maximum number of files the quota target can use. A blank or a
dash (-) in this field indicates that the number of files is not part of the quota and is to be tracked
only. You can omit abbreviations (upper or lowercase) and you can enter an absolute value such
as 15000.
Maximum Value: 4,294,967,295

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Quota Administration

Note: the value for the files field must be on the same line in your quotas file as the value for the
disk field –otherwise, the Files field will be ignored.
Threshold Column

The Threshold field specifies the limit at which write requests trigger messages to the console. If
the threshold is exceeded, the write still succeeds, but a warning is logged to the console.
The Threshold field has the same format as the Disk field.
Do not leave this field blank. The value following Files is always assigned to the Threshold
field. If you do not want to specify a threshold limit, type a dash (-) here.
The maximum values in the Threshold field are: 4,294,967,295k, 4,194,303m, 4,095g
Soft Disk Column

The Soft Disk field specifies the disk space that can be used before a warning is issued. If this
limit is exceeded, a message is logged to the console and an SNMP trap is generated.
When the soft disk limit returns to normal, another syslog message and second SNMP trap are
generated. The Soft Disk field has the same format as the Disk field. If you do not want to
specify a soft limit, use a dash (-) or leave the field blank.
The maximum value you can enter in the Soft Disk field is 4,294,967,295 K. Note: The Soft
Disk field value must be on the same line as the value for the Disk field–otherwise, Soft Disk
will be ignored. The Sdisk limit is the NFS equivalent of a CIFS threshold.
Soft Files Column

The Soft Files field specifies the number of files that can be used before a warning is issued. If
the soft limit is exceeded, a warning message is logged to the storage appliance console and an
SNMP trap is generated. When the soft files limit returns to normal, another syslog message and
an SNMP trap are generated. The Soft Files field has the same format as the Files field. If you do
not want to specify a soft files limit, type a dash (-) or leave the field blank.
The maximum value you can enter in the Soft Files field is 4,294,967,295 K. Note: The Soft
Files field value must be on the same line as the value for the Disk field–otherwise, Soft Files
will be ignored. The Sfiles limit is the NFS equivalent of a CIFS threshold.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quotas Example

# Target Type Disk Files Thold Sdisk Sfiles

* user@/vol/techpubs 100M 10K 90M - -


editors group@/vol/marketing 100M 10K 90M - 9K
engineers group@/vol/engineering 200M 20K 190M - 19K
yhagopian user@/vol/techpubs 500M 50K 475M - -

Quotas Example
Users in the Technical Publications group are limited to 100M of disk space on the techpubs
volume. Yolanda, the graphic artist, is responsible for managing the entire department’s graphic
and photo files. She’s constantly receiving warnings about disk space being full. Creating a new
quota for Yolanda on that volume solves this problem. Her userid is yhagopian. This example
shows an increase in the amount of the disk space allowed, an increase in the number of files that
can be created and an increase on the threshold limit.

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Quota Administration

Managing Quotas
Managing
Quotas

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quota Commands

Quota Commands
The table shown here lists the commands you can use to manage quotas in each volume. For all
of these commands, if there is only one volume on the system, you may omit the volume name.
The quota commands are persistent across reboots.

Using FilerView

Quotas can also be managed using the FilerView interface. To access the Quota functions, point
your browser to the storage appliance’s address and open the Volumes node. Choose Quotas,
then the Manage function.

Using the Quota Commands

Example Result
quota on vol1 Activates quotas on vol1 based on the contents
of the /etc/quotas file
quota resize vol1 Activates changes on vol1 based on the
contents of the /etc/quotas file
qtree create /vol/vol2/techpubs Creates a special directory at the root of a
volume for ./vol/vol2/techpubs

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Quota Administration

Command: quota on|off [volume]


When quotas are first turned on, the file system is scanned and current user and group usage is
recalculated. During the several minutes this requires, quotas are not in effect, although the file
system is still accessible.

Before activating quotas, you must first define quota rules for the volume in the /etc/quotas file.
Modifying /etc/quotas has no effect until the next time you execute quota on (or quota
resize).

Command: quota resize [volume]


The quota resize command adjusts currently active quotas to reflect changes in the
/etc/quotas file. For example, if you edit an entry in /etc/quotas to increase a quota, entering
quota resize causes the change to take effect. Create a quota report before and after the quota
resize to view active quotas.

Use quota resize only when quotas are already on for the volume, quota resize
implements newly added and changed entries to the /etc/quotas file.

Command: qtree create


The qtree create command is shown here because qtrees are an efficient way to apply quotas for
large numbers of users. For example, you can set up qtrees to reflect functional groups such as
departments or for special projects.

• You don’t need to have quotas enabled to create qtrees.


• To make a qtree, enter the qtree create command followed by the qtree name. If the
name does not begin with a slash, the qtree will be created in the root volume. To create a
qtree in a specific volume, use this format: /vol/vol_name/qtree_name.
• A qtree does not initially have any limits on disk space or number of files. To impose these
restrictions, add tree quotas in the /etc/quotas file.
To delete a qtree, remove it from a client as you would any directory.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quota Report Example

NetApp> quota report –u


Type ID Volume Tree Used Limit Used Limit Quota Specifier
Phughes 4 vol0 Proj1 856 104857600 3 1000 /vol/vol0/proj1
ACME\phughes

Command: quota report [-s] [-u|-x] [-t] [path]


The command, quota report prints current file and space consumption for each user, group,
and qtree. With a path argument, it displays information about all quotas that apply to the files in
the path. Space consumption and disk limits are rounded up and reported in multiples of four
Kbytes.

The example above shows the report command with the –u option. For targets with multiple
IDs, this report shows the first ID on the first line of each report entry. Other IDs are shown on
separate lines, one ID per line. Each ID is followed by its original quota specifier, if any.
(Default displays one ID per target.)

Option: -s
Prints soft and hard limit values for each user, group, and qtree.
Option: -u
For targets with multiple IDs, shows first ID on first line of each report entry. Other IDs shown
on separate lines, one ID per line. Each ID is followed by its original quota specifier, if any.
(Default displays one ID per target.)
Option: -x
For targets with multiple IDs, shows all IDs, comma separated, on first line of report entry.
Report shows threshold column. Columns are tab delineated.
Option: -t
Prints the threshold of the quota entry. If omitted, the warning threshold is not included.

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Quota Administration

Example Result
quota report -s Prints a report of active quotas for .
/vol/vol1/techpubs /vol/vol1/techpubs

Using FilerView

You can also view reports showing quota usage in volumes by using the FilerView interface. To
access the Reports function, point your browser to the storage appliance’s address and open the
Volumes node. Select Quotas, then the Report function.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The quota logmsg Command

Specifies interval between log messages

Option Function
ON Example: quota logmsg on 60m –v vol2
OFF Disables logging of messages to system log
-v Applies interval to named volume
all Applies interval to all volumes on the filer

Command: quota logmsg {on [<interval>] |off} [-v <vol> | all]


This command specifies a time interval during which quota messages will be disabled. To view
the current interval settings, enter quota logmsg with no arguments.

Option: on
Specify “on” followed by a number and a letter: d (days), h (hours), and m (minutes). If no
interval is specified, a default interval of 60 minutes is used. An interval of 0 causes continuous
logging. For very small interval settings, message logging may not occur at the specified
interval rate. This is due to the system buffering messages instead of outputting them
immediately.
Option: off
Use this option to disable logging of quota messages.
Option: -v [volume_name]
Use this option to specify a volume name.
Option: all
Use this option to apply an interval to all the volumes in the system.

Example Result
quota logmsg on 120 all Activates interval logging every 120 minutes
for all volumes

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Quota Administration

Special Entries in the /etc/quotas File

Two time-saving tools for managing quotas:

– QUOTA_TARGET_DOMAIN

– QUOTA_PERFORM_USER_MAPPING

Special Entries in the /etc/quotas File


The /etc/quotas and the quota commands are the primary tools for managing the allocation and
use of disk space on your system. Using the /etc/quotas file effectively can save you time and
simplify your job. In particular, the /etc/quotas file supports the two special entries shown above.
These entries enable you to quickly change UNIX user IDs to Windows IDs.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Special Entries in the /etc/quotas File

Change UNIX names to Windows names by


inserting a domain name prefix

– QUOTA_TARGET_DOMAIN [domain name]

Special Entries in the /etc/quotas File


The QUOTA_TARGET_DOMAIN entry enables you to change UNIX names to Windows
names in the quota Target field.

The syntax to use is:

QUOTA_TARGET_DOMAIN [domain_name]

Use this entry if both of the following conditions apply:


• The /etc/quotas file contains user quotas with UNIX names.
• The quota targets you want to change have identical UNIX and Windows names. For
example, a user whose UNIX name is “jsmith” also has a Windows name that is jsmith.
For each user quota, Data ONTAP adds the specified domain name as a prefix to the user name.
Another way to get the same result would be to modify each line individually.

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Quota Administration

Special Entries in the /etc/quotas File

Make UNIX and Windows user names


equivalent by mapping

– QUOTA_PERFORM_USER_MAPPING

Special Entries in the /etc/quotas File


The QUOTA_PERFORM_USER_MAPPING entry enables you to map UNIX names to
Windows names or vice versa. The syntax to use is:
QUOTA_PERFORM_USER_MAPPING [on | off]
Use this entry if both of the following conditions apply:
• There is a one-to-one correspondence between UNIX names and Windows names
• You want the same quota to apply whether the user uses the UNIX name or the Windows
name.

Data ONTAP consults the /etc/usermap.cfg file to map the user names. For UNIX to Windows
mapping: if the /etc/usermap.cfg file maps “Roberts” to “corp/jroberts,” the first quota entry
applies to both the user whose UNIX name is Roberts and to the user whose Windows name is
corp\jroberts (who should be the same user). A file owned by either is subject to the quota.

For QUOTA_PERFORM_USER_MAPPING to be used effectively, there must be a one-to-one


correspondence between Windows and UNIX user names. If the name mapping is not one-to-
one, the entry produces confusing results. Often, the solution to a resulting problem is to edit
one or both of the /etc files. If you make changes to the /etc/usermap.cfg file, you must disable
and then re-enable quotas for the changes to take effect.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quota Error
Messages

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Quota Administration

Quota Error Messages

Sent when quota limits are reached


Message (to console or client)
depends on quota type

Quota Types /etc/quotas field


Hard Disk and File
Threshold Threshold
Soft SDisk and SFile

Exceeding Quotas
Quotas are set to forewarn you that limits are being approached so you can do something before
users are impacted. Quota Types are shown here.

For all types, Data ONTAP sends console messages when the quota is exceeded and when it
returns to normal. SNMP traps about quota events are also initiated. Additional messages are
sent to the client when hard quota limits are violated.

Note: Threshold quotas (CIFS) and Soft quotas (NFS) are equivalent.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quota Error Messages

Quota Error Messages


On receiving a write request, Data ONTAP checks if the file to be written is in a qtree. If the
write would exceed the tree quota, an error message is sent to the console:

tid tree_ID: tree quota to exceeded on volume vol_name.

If the qtree is not full, but the write would cause either the user or group quota to be exceeded,
Data ONTAP logs one of these errors:

uid user_ID: disk quota exceeded on volume vol_name

gid group_ID: disk quota exceeded on volume vol_name.

Error Messages Received by Clients

When hard quota limits are violated, Data ON TAP returns an "out of disk space" error to the
NFS write request or a "disk full" error to the CIFS write request.

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Quota Administration

Messages for NFS Clients


Client OS version and application determine what messages the user sees. If a UNIX client
mounts a storage appliance without the noquota option, the client login program checks to see if
the user has reached the disk and file quotas each time the user logs in. If a hard quota was
reached, the client displays a message to alert the user before displaying the system prompt.

Not all versions of UNIX perform the quota check described above and messages vary
depending on version.

Messages for CIFS Clients


If a write from a CIFS client causes a hard quota to be exceeded, the user experience depends on
the operating system and the application.

An application might display the following message:

Cannot write file filename

When the user tries to copy a file using the Explorer in Windows 95, the following error is
displayed:

Cannot create or replace filename: cannot read from the source file or disk.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Quota Error Messages

What happens when a soft quota limit is


reached?
– Message to console
– SNMP traps generated
What happens when a hard quota limit is
reached?
– Message to console
– Message to client
– SNMP traps generated

Soft Quotas Notification


Soft quotas are specified in the /etc/quotas file. These quotas provide advance notice that the disk
and file quotas are being approached. In Data ONTAP, soft quotas basically mimic the CIFS
threshold which applies on every update (file write, file create, etc.).

If a soft quota is exceeded, a console message is generated as well as SNMP traps. When the
quotas return to normal, another console message is sent.

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Quota Administration

Topic Review

What are the two primary functions of quotas?


What is the purpose of the /etc/quotas file?
What information is entered in the /etc/quotas
file?
What command would you enter to turn
quotas on for volume vol2?
What command would you enter to activate
changes made to the /etc/quotas file for vol2?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 11-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What command would you enter to view a list


of all users and their current usage?
What command would you enter to make
system log entries every two hours?
In the /etc/quotas file what does the entry,
QUOTA_TARGET_DOMAIN techpubs do?
Root user and Windows Administrators are
exempt from user and group quotas. What are
they not exempt from?

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Quota Administration

Exercises
Quotas True/False
Quota Management and Administration

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 11-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Quotas True/False


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Describe how quotas are used to restrict and track disk access
• Determine the function of quotas
• Recognize the purpose of the /etc/quotas file
• Interpret the contents of the /etc/quotas file
• Define the function and syntax of quota, quota resize, quota report, and quota logmsg
commands
• Turn quotas on for a specific volume
• Display a quota report to view current status
• Identify and define the function of two special entries in the /etc/quotas file
Exercise Overview
This exercise tests knowledge of quotas through the use of True/False questions.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. Answer the following questions with a True or False response

2. When this exercise is complete, continue on to the next exercise.

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Quota Administration

Question True or
False?

1. You can modify the /etc/quotas files from either the command line or
using the FilerView interface but you must create the file using CLI.

2. User quotas, group quotas, and tree quotas are stored in the /etc/quotas
file.

3. Tree quotas do not require UIDs or GIDs.

4. You can enter zero for a UID or GID in the Target field

5. The system checks quotas every time it receives a write request, so it is


important to use a target that won’t change over time.

6. A tree quota is created in the home directory of a volume.

7. The root user and Windows administrators are exempt from tree quotas.

8. When entering values in the Disk and File fields you can use the
abbreviations G, M, or K.

9. You can leave the Threshold field blank if you want to track usage
rather than applying a limit.

10. If a Threshold limit is exceeded, the write operation still succeeds, but a
warning is logged to the storage appliance console.

11. The values for Soft Disk and Disk must be on the same line in the
/etc/quotas file—otherwise, Soft Disk will be ignored.

12. The quota target for a qtree should be the qtree name.

13. To make sense, the value in the Disk field should be smaller than the
value in the Threshold field.

14. An explicit quota overrides a default quota.

End of Exercise

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 11-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Quota Management and Administration


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Describe how quotas are used to restrict and track disk access
• Determine the function of quotas
• Recognize the purpose of the /etc/quotas file
• Interpret the contents of the /etc/quotas file
• Define the function and syntax of quota, quota resize, quota report, and quota logmsg
commands
• Turn quotas on for a specific volume
• Display a quota report to view current status
• Identify and define the function of two special entries in the /etc/quotas file
Exercise Overview
The purpose of this activity is for you to perform the procedures to administer quotas on the
storage appliance. During this part of the lab you will create a quota, enable the quota, alter
quotas and display quota information.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

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Quota Administration

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On the storage appliance verify that a qtree with the name of tree1 exists on vol1.
For example,
NetApp> qtree status
Volume Tree Style Oplocks Status
-------- -------- ----- -------- ---------
vol1 tree1 unix enabled normal
vol0 unix enabled normal

If the qtree or vol1 does not exist, then create them by typing:
NetApp> #Comment: If aggr1 does not exist then create it.
NetApp> aggr create aggr1 -t raid4 2
NetApp> #Comment: Create “vol1” and qtree “tree1”
NetApp> vol create vol1 aggr1 2g
NetApp> qtree create /vol/vol1/tree1
NetApp> #Comment: Turn quotas on “vol1”.
NetApp> quota on vol1
2. Using the Unix Adminhost or a Windows workstation, update the /etc/quotas file.
Use vi or wordpad to add the following entries to the /etc/quotas file.
#QuotaTarget type Disk Files Thresh Sdisk Sfiles
/vol/vol1/tree1 tree 100K 5 10K 20K 4
* user - - -
3. Activate the changes by entering the following command:
NetApp> quota resize vol1
4. Use a Windows or UNIX client to create at least five small files in the tree1 directory
on vol1 of your storage appliance.

5. When you exceeded the file quota, what message did you receive on your Windows or
UNIX client?

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

6. When you exceeded the file quota, what message did you receive on your storage
appliance?

7. Create and then analyze a quota report. Type in the following command:
NetApp> quota report –tx

8. How much disk space is being used by all users on your storage appliance?

9. How many files were created on your storage appliance for qtree tree1?

10. Prepare to increase the amount of disk space, files and other thresholds available
through quotas.
Use FilerView to update the following entries to the /etc/quotas file.
Disk Space Soft Limit: No Entry
Disk Space Hard Limit: 152KB
Threshold: 20KB
Files Soft Limit: 15
Files Hard Limit: 15

11. Use FilerView to resize quotas for vol1

12. Verify your changes by using FilerView to run a quota report

13. Use a Windows or UNIX client to create more than 15 files in the tree1 directory on
vol0 of your storage appliance

14. When you exceeded the quota, what message did you receive on your Windows or
UNIX client?

15. When you exceeded the file quota, what message did you receive on your storage
appliance?

End of Exercise

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Backup
Administering Backups

Module 12. Administering Backups

Administering Backups

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

 At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Describe the types of backups available and the
format of backup data
– Use the dump command to execute a full backup
of a volume and backup the data in a qtree to tape
– Describe how the dump command uses Snapshots
– Identify devices used by the dump command and
tape qualification
– Recognize prerequisites for backing up data to a
remote drive
– Identify ways to minimize backup time, data loss
and recovery down time

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Administering Backups

Data Protection Strategy

Data Protection Strategy


Backing up data and being able to recover it is the goal of a good data protection strategy.

Businesses need data backup and protection systems in order to: protect data from accidental
deletion, application crashes, data corruption, and viruses; archive data for future use; and to
recover from a disaster.

Making tape archives gives you the following advantages over relying solely on online storage:

• Once made, tapes require few resources to maintain


• Archives can be placed in a more secure location
• Data can be recovered on Sun Solaris systems using the ufsrestore command
• Data on tape is stored in a standard format. You can recover data from any release of Data
ONTAP
• Tape backups enable recovery from double-disk failure in a RAID 4 volume

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Autosupport
Preparing for Tape
Backup

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Administering Backups

Tape Devices Used for Backup

Tape Devices Used for Backup


You can use the dump command to back up data to the following devices:

• Up to two tape drives or tape stackers attached to the storage appliance


• Tape drives or tape stackers attached to a remote computer
• Standard output
Remote Tape Drives or Stackers
Remote tape drives or stackers are hardware devices the storage appliance accesses remotely
through a network. The following requirements must be met for remote access:

• The computer supports the RMT protocol.


• The storage appliance must “trust” the remote computer to which the tape drive is attached.
This relationship enables the storage appliance to write to the tape drive. For example, to
back up a storage appliance to a tape drive attached to another storage appliance, include the
storage appliance in the /etc/hosts.equiv file of the destination storage appliance. To back up
the storage appliance to a tape drive attached to a SunOS or Solaris computer, include the
storage appliance in the /.rhosts file on the computer.
• The storage appliance is able to resolve the name of the computer to which the tape drive is
attached using the information in the storage appliance’s /etc/hosts file or in the DNS
database.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Types of Tape Files

NetApp> sysconfig -t

l
l
l

Types of Tape Files


The output from a sysconfig –t command lists the tape file types available on your system.

• Rewind--storage appliance rewinds the tape after it finishes writing the tape file. The name of
a rewind tape file begins with an r.
• Norewind—storage appliance does not rewind; specify norewind to write multiple tape files
on the same tape. The name of a norewind tape file begins with the letter “n.”
• Unload/reload--type applies only if you are backing up to tapes in tape stackers. The tape is
unloaded when it reaches the end of tape and another tape is reloaded. The name of an
unload/reload tape file begins with the letter “u.”

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Administering Backups

Qualified Tape Devices


Qualified Tape Devices
To identify NetApp-qualified tape drives, view the Data Protection—Supported Devices page on
the NetApp NOW site. Information is also available in the System Configuration Guides found
on the web site.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Sample Tape Qualification File

Tape Drive Qualification


You can also “dynamically” qualify a tape drive by adding a valid tape qualification file to the
/etc/tape_config directory. The sample file shown here is for a hypothetical product called “Tape
Drive 2001.”

You need to get the information for this file from the tape drive documentation and then use a
text editor to create the file. Contact the tape vendor to see if this file is available.

There may be multiple files in the directory, one for each model being qualified.

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Administering Backups

Autosupport
Using the dump
Command

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Using the dump Command

Overview to Using the dump Command


The dump command can back up a file, a directory, a qtree, or an entire volume. You can use
the dump command to perform the following backup operations:

• Full volume
• Full qtree
• Miscellaneous
In miscellaneous backups, you back up a subtree that is neither an entire volume nor an entire
qtree. You can also backup files and directories.

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Administering Backups

Dump Using Snapshots

How the dump Command Uses Snapshots


When you enter a dump command, you specify the complete path name to be backed up. This
path name is referred to as the dump path.

The dump path can exist in the active file system or in a Snapshot. If the dump path is in an
active file system, a Snapshot of the active file system is taken before the data is written to tape.
The system then uses that Snapshot to create the backup. As a result, the backup always contains
the most recent file system data.

Whenever you use a Snapshot as the source for creating the archived tape images (rather than the
active file system), users can continue to access their files while archiving to tape media takes
place.

The dump command names each Snapshot snapshot_for_backup.n.

The variable n is an integer starting at zero. Each time the dump command creates a Snapshot, it
increments the integer. The integer is reset to 0 when the system is rebooted.

The dump command automatically deletes the Snapshot after finishing the backup. (Unless you
point the dump command to an existing Snapshot. In this case, the Snapshot is not deleted.)

Note: When you back up from an existing Snapshot, no additional Snapshot is created.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Multiple Dumps Create Multiple Snapshots


When the system executes multiple dump commands simultaneously for the same volume,
multiple Snapshots are created on the volume. For example, if two dump commands are backing
up data from /vol/vol0, you will find these Snapshots in the volume: snapshot_for_backup.0 and
snapshot_for_backup.1.When the dump command is in progress, you cannot delete a Snapshot
from which the command writes the data. When dump uses a Snapshot, it locks the file, and no
one will be able to delete the Snapshot. (A snap list report shows the Snapshot marked with a
“busy” flag.)

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Administering Backups

The dump Command

dump [ option argument ] path

dump 0ufb rst0a 63 /vol/vol0

Dump Level
Update etc/dumpdates
f specifies tape file Path
b specifies blocking factor Blocking Name
Factor
Tape
File
Name

Options and Arguments for the dump Command


• Arguments are linked to options by their order in the command, so you need to list the
arguments in the same order as you list the options.
• If an option takes a list of arguments, commas separate the arguments in the list.
• Some options such as the first two listed (dump level 0 and update dump dates), do not have
corresponding arguments.
The dump command shown here has four options followed by two arguments.

option argument
0 – specifies a level 0 dump no argument
u – records information about the dump to no argument
/etc/dumpdates file
f – specifies the backup to use a tape device a list of one or more tape devices
b – specifies a custom blocking factor is 63 is the default blocking factor. The storage
specified. appliance supports a blocking factor of 4-64.
Blocking factors of 4 – 256 are supported from
remote hosts that are not storage appliances

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Tape Options
• The ‘f’ option specifies backup to a tape file and corresponds to one or more tape device
names in the argument. You can list several devices in the dump command for the backup
• There are different types of tape files that you choose based on functionality.
• Join multiple tape names with commas: rst0a, urst0a, etc.
Note: There are more options available for use with the dump command than those described in
this topic. For detailed information, see the Command Reference or review the MAN pages from
the console and the Tape Backup and Recovery Guide available on the NOW site.

Command Result
Level 0 backups to a local tape file
dump 0uf rst0a Creates a full backup of the
/vol/vol1/users/tom /vol/vol1/users/tom directory and records
the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.

dump 0fQ rst0a /vol/vol1 Creates a full backup of all data in the
/vol/vol1 volume that does not belong in any
qtrees.
Incremental backup to a local tape drive
dump 1uf nrst0a /vol/vol1 Performs a level-1 backup of /vol/vol1 to
nrst0a and records the backup in the
/etc/dumpdates file. Only data that has
changed since the most recent level-0
backup is written to tape. After the
command is finished, it does not rewind the
tape.
dump 1f nrst0a,nrst1a /vol/vol1 Performs a level-1 backup of /vol/vol1 to
the tape in nrst0a. After the command
finishes writing the first tape drive, it does
not rewind the tape.
Backing up a directory from a Snapshot
dump 0f rst0a Performs a level-0 backup of the
/vol/vol1/.Snapshot/weekly.0 /vol/vol1/home/user directory from the
/home/user weekly Snapshot.

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Administering Backups

Command Result
Backups to a tape stacker
dump 0f urst0a,urst0a,nrst0a Backs up the /vol/vol1 volume to a tape
/vol/vol1 stacker and records the backup in the
/etc/dumpdates file. After the command
finishes writing a tape file, it unloads the
tape and reloads another tape. After the
command finishes writing the third tape
file, it does not rewind the tape.
Backing up data without ACLs
dump 0uAf rst0a /vol/vol1 Performs a level-0 backup of /vol/vol1 and
records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates
file. The A option means that the backup
does not include any NT ACL information.
Use this option if the files in the volume are
for NFS only.
Specifying a tape file size
dump 0ufB nrst0a,nrst0a 2000000 Performs a level-0 backup of /vol/vol1 to
/vol/vol1 the tape in nrst0a using a tape file size of
2,000,000 kilobytes and records the backup
in the /etc/dumpdates file. After writing
2,000,000 kilobytes to the first tape file, the
system does not rewind the tape; it
continues writing the second tape file on
the same tape. If there is more data to be
backed up after the command reaches the
end of the second tape file, the system
prompts you for a new tape.
Backups to a remote tape file
dump 0f root@netapp1:nrst0a Performs a backup to a tape drive attached
/vol/vol1 to a storage appliance named netapp1.

dump 0f Performs a backup to a tape drive on a


root@unix_machine:/dev/rst0 UNIX system.
/vol/vol1

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Command Result
Excluding files from a backup
dump 0ufX rst0a Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates
tmp,*.o,core*,*backup*,usr\ file and performs a level-0 backup of the
/vol/vol1 /vol/vol1 volume, which excludes the files
that meet one of these requirements:
• The name is tmp
• The name ends in .o (for example,
program.o)
• The name begins with core (for
example, core.small)
• The name contains backup (for
example, spec.backup.1)
• The name is usr

Format of Backup Data


The format of the backup data is organized based on inodes. An inode for a file or a directory
contains information for tracking the file’s or the directory’s type, time stamps, bad blocks, etc.
A 1 KB header precedes each file and directory with this metadata and a map of 1 KB holes.

Metadata
Information about the data files includes the following information:

• UNIX group IDs and user IDs and file permissions

• UNIX access, creation, and modification times


• File type, including UNIX symbolic links and hard links

• Metrics about file size and “holes” in the file system

• DOS name, DOS attributes, and creation times

• Windows Access Control Lists (ACLs)

• Qtree information

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Administering Backups

Maps
On each tape, the dump command creates two maps:

• The first map shows which inodes are used in the directory to be dumped. The storage
appliance uses this map to determine which files have been deleted between incremental
dumps.
• The second map shows which inodes have been written to the tape. The storage appliance
uses this map to verify the accuracy of the restore operation when the backup data is restored.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Backup Preparation

Determine if the backup is local or remote


Estimate amount of data
Determine the blocking factor
Determine the tape file size
Determine the number of tapes

Backup Preparation
Backups require preparation. As you perform the steps, you should keep notes so you can refer to
them when you decide whether the data can be restored from another computer.

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Administering Backups

Local vs. Remote Backup

Step 1: Determine if Backup is Local or Remote


If you back up data to a local tape drive, the process is simple: you enter the dump command
specifying a tape device from the local tape drive and wait while the process completes. Remote
backups require you to consider factors such as:

• Verify the trust relationships between source and destination. The remote storage appliance
must be listed in both the /etc/hosts.equiv file and the /etc/hosts file on the local storage
appliance or the DNS database, if the storage appliance uses DNS. The local storage
appliance should be listed in the remote appliance’s /etc/hosts file as well.
• Verify rsh is enabled for remote access. You will need remote access to identify the tape
devices on the host appliance and, if the backup process is lengthy, to check the status of the
operation from another appliance.

Multiple Storage Appliances Sharing One Tape Drive


The storage appliance with the most data to back up should access a local tape drive—all others
should use the RMT protocol. Follow these guidelines if multiple storage appliances back up to
the same tape drive:

• Use a private network so that network traffic does not slow the process
• Schedule the dump command on each storage appliance to start only when no other storage
appliances are using the tape drive

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Estimating Full Volume


Dump Usage

Step 2: Estimate Amount of Data


It is helpful to estimate the amount of data to be backed up so you can determine the number of
tape files and tapes required for backup.

You enter the full dump path in the dump command. To determine the amount of space required
on tape, look up how much space corresponding directories, volumes, or qtrees are using.

There are various ways to find the information, depending on the file system and what you’re
backing up.

Estimating Data Usage for a Full Volume Dump


Use the df command to view the amount of free disk space on the volume.

The amounts shown as “used” are good estimates to use in your calculations for a full volume
dump.

Specify a pathname (df /vol/vol0) to view information for a specified volume only.

Estimating Data Usage for a Full Volume Dump (FilerView)


You can also identify disk usage from the FilerView interface by selecting Filer> Report to see
the disk usage for all the volumes on the system.

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Administering Backups

Quota Report Example

Quota Report Shows KB used


A quota report show the amount of KB used for the quotas specified. This is a method that can
be used when the backup path is specified by a quota for a volume, qtree or a directory path
specific to a user or a group.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Estimating From the Host

NFS CIFS
[root@acme] #cd /NetApp10
[root@acme] /NetApp10 #du –s docs home
91424 docs
2833 home
[root@acme] /NetApp10

Estimating Data Usage from a Host


NFS
If the storage appliance is mounted on an NFS client, follow these steps to determine the amount
of backup data in directories on the client:

1. Change directory to the mount point.

2. Enter df –s [directory_name]
The command output shows the amount of space allocated for the directories. Refer to the
documentation for your client system for interpreting the output because the output is written in
different units (for example, 512-byte units or 1,024 units) depending on the operating system.

CIFS
If a CIFS client shares the storage appliance, follow these steps to determine the amount of
backup data on the client:

1. On the CIFS client, point to the shared file or directory that you want to back up.

2. Right-click to display the drop-down menu.

3. Click Properties to display the number of bytes used by the file or directory.

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Administering Backups

Determine Blocking Factor

Step 3: Determine Blocking Factor


The dump command transfers a number of blocks of data at a time to an output file on tape.

A tape block is 1 kilobyte of data. In the dump command, you can specify the number of tape
blocks that are transferred in each write operation. This number is called the “blocking factor.”

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Blocking Factor Considerations

Considerations for Entering the Blocking Factor in the dump


Command
If the files being, backed up, are to be restored on a computer other than the storage appliance,
make sure that the blocking factor you choose does not exceed the maximum blocking factor
supported by that computer.

If you use a storage appliance to restore the backup data, the blocking factor must not exceed 64.
The storage appliance has a default blocking value of 63.

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Administering Backups

Tape Files

Step 4: Determine Tape File Size


The dump output file is called a tape file. You can back up a dump path to one tape file on a tape,
multiple tape files on a tape, or multiple tape files on multiple tapes.

A tape can contain multiple tape files, but any tape must contain at least one complete tape file.

You can specify the maximum size of the tape file in terms of tape blocks. For example, if you
want the maximum tape file to be 2 GB, you specify 2,097,151 in the dump command.

Considerations
If the files, being backed up, are to be restored on a computer other than the storage appliance,
make sure that the tape file size you choose does not exceed the maximum tape file size
supported by that computer.

When the path being backed up exceeds a tape file, the dump command automatically writes to
the next tape file specified in the command, regardless of the amount of space left in the current
tape.

If the current tape file is the last tape file listed on the dump command, the storage appliance
prompts you to load another tape.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Estimating Tapes Required

Step 5: Determine Number of Tapes Needed


The final step is calculating the number of tapes needed. By doing this in advance, you can:

• Ensure that the dump command does not fail because it runs out of tapes
• Load the right number of tapes in the tape drives or stackers in advance for an unattended
backup
If you do not load enough tapes before entering the dump command and you start the operation
from the console, Data ONTAP prompts you to load additional tapes. However, if you start the
dump command through an rsh connection, you will not see the prompts from Data ONTAP
and the dump command will terminate because of the lack of tapes.

Follow these steps to estimate the number of tapes needed:

1. Determine the capacity of the tape device to be used by entering the sysconfig –t
command.

2. Determine the amount of data in the backup, as described earlier.

3. Divide the amount of data by the capacity of a tape.

4. If your data will nearly fill the last tape, add a tape in case the estimate is exceeded.

Note: This is especially important when using compression, because compression rates vary
based on the data.

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Administering Backups

Autosupport
Managing the Tape
Backup Process

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Minimizing Backup Time

Minimizing Backup Time


You can enter the dump command any time the tape devices you want to use are free to back up
data in a specified path. After the dump command is finished, the data in the path is written to
tape.

How long it takes to finish a backup depends on the data to be backed up, your equipment, and
when and how you enter the dump command. For maximum efficiency consider:

• Using multiple local tape drives


• Organizing data in volumes and qtrees
• Limiting the amount of data to be backed up
• Using multiple tape drives and multiple dump commands

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Administering Backups

Organize Data

NetApp10> dump 0ufb rst0a 63 /vol/vol0

Organize Data to Be Backed Up


There are five passes in a dump operation, during which the storage appliance displays progress
messages.
In the first two passes, the storage appliance searches for files in the dump path and those
changed since previous lower-level backups.
Dump commands for volumes, qtrees, or data not belonging to qtrees are more efficient. When
dumping data from these sources, the storage appliance executes the first passes faster than it
would if backing up a subdirectory.
Organize data in volumes and qtrees to capitalize on this.

Minimize Data Loss Using Incremental Backups


You can minimize both the time required to perform a backup and the possibility of data loss by
making frequent incremental backups. These backups minimize the amount of unrecoverable
data resulting from errors. Also, shorter backup operations allow more time to make incremental
backups.
There is a disadvantage to having numerous incremental backups. When you restore data, you
must restore from all the incremental backup tapes, which requires running multiple restores and
manipulating multiple tape sets. To overcome this problem store incremental backups for the
same dump path on the same tape.
This is especially useful if you want to do a sub-tree restore. In that case, you must restore
from all incremental backups to restore the most recent data. Having all the incremental
backups in the same tape saves time during restore.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Minimizing Down Time During Data


Recovery

Minimizing Down Time during Data Recovery


Planning your backup strategy with your restore process in mind can help minimize down time.
For example, planning your backups so data in the dump paths is 100GB or less will speed up
the restore process.

In this example, data has been backed up in five dump paths: 100GB for each of five qtrees.
Restoring the data for each qtree is relatively straightforward. In the second example, the restore
process requires the system to extract 100GB of data from a 500GB backup—a process that
takes more time.

Limit the Amount of Data to be Backed Up


In general you want to avoid backing up too much data in a single dump command.

• Limit the amount to be backed up from a volume or qtree to 200 GB.


• Divide large volumes into smaller volumes or qtrees. For example, if you divide a 600 GB
volume into three qtrees, you can back up each qtree to a separate tape drive or run three
separate full backups.
• Do not divide a backup into more than 15 qtrees.

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Administering Backups

Multiple Tape Drives and


Multiple dump Commands

Use Multiple Tape Drives and Multiple dump Commands


Using locally attached and remote tape drives, you can have up to eight dump commands
running in parallel on up to eight tape drives, one command per drive. This will increase
throughput.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

 What is the purpose of the dump command?


 What backup methods are supported?
 How is backup data organized?
 How does the dump command use Snapshots?
 Which devices are used with the dump command?
 What is tape qualification?
 What must be done prior to executing the dump
command?

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Administering Backups

Autosupport Exercise

Administering Backups

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Administering Backups


Objectives
When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to do the following:

• Verify amount of data and tape device before issuing a dump command
• Execute a full backup of a volume using the dump command
• Back up the data in a qtree
Overview
The purpose of this lab is to provide hands-on practice performing the tasks required to use the
dump command to backup the data on a storage appliance.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Required Hardware, Software, and Tools


Hardware

− A Windows workstation with Internet Explorer software

Software

− Access to the course copy of the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training

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Administering Backups

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On your local workstation, open the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web-based training
course.

2. Access the Preparing for Tape Backup Tutorial

3. Do the practice activities on pages 9 through 20.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 12-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

4. Access the Backup and Restore module of Scenario 3, Backup, Restore, and Upgrade..

5. Complete pages 1 through 4 of the 8-page scenario.

Note: Pages 5 through 8 concerns the restore command and will be addressed in
the next module.

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Restore
Administering Restores

Module 13. Administering Restores

Administering Restores

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Identify the syntax information needed to formulate
a restore command
– View a list of files on tape
– Describe how to restart a failed restore process
– Describe how to restore an entire volume
– Describe considerations for restoring a volume with
qtree information
– Describe how to perform a full restore of a volume
containing qtrees
– Describe how to restore files to another system

13-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

When to Restore Data from Tape

When to Restore Data from Tape


Restoring from tape takes time. Therefore it is generally done under these circumstances:

• Files were inadvertently deleted from disk and there is no Snapshot.

• Files are corrupted. In this case, you can restore the subtree containing the files.

• You need more disk space. You can back up to tape, swap in larger disks, set up new
volumes, and then restore from tape.

• The entire storage appliance is damaged and unusable. Restoring a tape backup allows you to
recover to either a repaired or replaced system.

When Not to Restore Data from Tape


You would not restore a deleted file from tape if you can recover the data from an existing
Snapshot on the system. If the file is in a Snapshot, copying it to the active file system is faster
than recovering the file from tape.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Data Recovered Using restore Command

Data Recovered Using restore Command


The restore command enables you to recover all the information that was backed up with the
dump command.

It is helpful to keep a log of information about each dump performed. However, if the
information is not available in a log, you can obtain some information about the dump using the
restore command. This will be covered later in this module.

13-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Permissions Limitations

Takes on
Default
Windows
permissions

Dump and Restore Permissions Limitations


Depending on where you restore your data, the dump command can affect the way file
permissions are translated. For example:

• If you dump a file that has only Windows permissions, and restore it into a UNIX-style qtree
or volume, the file gets the default UNIX permissions for that qtree or volume, and the
ACL’s are not restored.

• If you dump a file that has only UNIX permissions, and restore it into an NTFS-style qtree or
volume, the file gets the default Windows permissions for that qtree or volume.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Preparing to Restore Data


from Tape

Preparing to Restore Data from Tape


Before restoring data with the restore command, make sure you have the required
information and materials and that the destination for the restore has been prepared.

To formulate an effective restore command you will need to know:


• The level of the restore

• The back-up level defines the amount of data to be copied. Level 0 specifies all data
in the dump path. Levels 1-9 specify incremental back ups. For example, Level 1 is
all data that has changed since the last Level 0backup. When you restore incremental
backups, you must have all tapes in the increment chain.

• The tape device you used for each tape file in the backup from which you are restoring data

• The path into which you are restoring the data

• The blocking factor originally used in the backup

13-6 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Disk Space Requirements

Disk Space Requirements


You will need about 100MB more space on the destination storage appliance than the amount of
data to be restored. This is crucial because the restore operation will terminate if it runs out of
disk space.

If you want to perform a full restore, this additional space should be in the root directory
containing the backup data. If you want to restore only some data from the backup, this
additional space should be in the /etc/tmp directory of the volume where data is to be restored.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Restoring Data From Tape

Use the restore command to recover data


backed up with the Data ONTAP dump
command
You can restore individual files and directories
by using the x option
You can perform incremental-only restores
You can run up to two simultaneous restore
commands

Restoring Data from Tape


Use the restore command to recover data backed up with the Data ONTAP dump command.
You cannot use the restore command to recover data backed up by commands issued on other
systems.

Incremental Restore
The restore command supports incremental-only restores. You need not begin the restoration
from a level 0 dump, you can restore from level 1 dump.

You can run up to two simultaneous restore commands.

13-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

The restore Command

restore [ option argument ] path

restore rfD rst0a /vol/vol0

Restore type
f specifies tape file
D specifies absolute pathname Path
Name

Tape
File
Name

The restore Command: Syntax


The basic syntax for the restore command is shown above. Enter the command followed by
options, arguments, and files.

Arguments are linked to options by their order in the command, so you need to list the arguments
in the same order as you list the options.

The path name is an exception to the order rule — it should always be entered as the last
argument in the list. If you are restoring data to its original location, no path is needed.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The restore command Options

Option Type of restore


r Rebuilds the file system or subtree

R Restarts data recovery after the restore is interrupted

t Lists all the file names on a tape

T List Qtree information in Data ONTAP 6.x

x Extracts an individual file or subtree from the backup

13-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

The restore Command: Options

Option Argument Meaning


b number blocking factor
f tape_file name of the tape file
D pathname absolute path name
s number number of the file
v restore takes place in
verbose mode
y don’t ask whether it should
abort when getting an error
A does not restore ACLs

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition Slide
Managing
Restores

Restore Management Tasks


• View a list of files on tape.

• Advance a tape to a specific location.

• Restart a failed restore process.

13-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Viewing a List of Files on Tape

Viewing a List of Files on Tape


Enter restore followed by the option “T” and the tape device name to see a list of the qtree
information on the tape.

The tape file number and information about qtree security style is displayed.

Generally, a table-of-contents restore should be done using a remote shell connection. Because
the system generates a line-by-line list of all the files in the backup, controlling and saving such a
large amount output is frequently easier via a client console.

For obvious reasons it is helpful to be able to identify the files that are stored on a given tape—
especially if the tape hasn’t been labeled and the information isn’t recorded elsewhere.

Example Result

restore tf rst0a List all files backed up to rst0a

restore tf rst0a /home List all files in the /vol/vol0/home directory


backed up to rst0a

restore Tf rst0a List qtrees backed up to rst0a

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The mt Command: Syntax

Enter a number to
Use nrst devices
specify how many
for all movement
filemarks should be
operations
skipped

mt [-f|-t] [tape_device] command [count]

The –f and –t
options specify the
tape device Use fsf or bsf
commands to move the
tape forward or
backward a specified
number of filemarks

The mt Command: Syntax


There will be times when you need to access one particular file on a tape with multiple tape files
on it. To do this, use the mt (magnetic tape positioning and control) command. The mt
command moves the tape forward, skipping two filemarks and positioning the tape on the end-
of-tape side of the filemark. To move backward, use the bsf command.

Advancing a Tape to a Specific Location


To view help text describing other available command options enter mt ?

Note the following commands:

• rewind: enables you to rewind to the beginning of the first tape file on the tape.

• status: displays the current location of the tape head on the tape.

13-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Controlling the Tape Head

Controlling the Tape Head


When using the mt command, you need to know the status of the tape head, since all subsequent
positions are relative to the head’s starting point.

For example, here we’ve backed up the contents of four qtrees to a single tape using a non-
rewinding tape device and consecutive dump commands.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Controlling Tape Movement for Restores

Rewind using:
– mt –f [tape device] rewind
Check head position using:
– mt –f [tape device] status
Use no-rewind tape devices (starting with ‘n’)
for tapes with multiple tape files
Remember that tape file numbering starts at
zero

Controlling Tape Movement for Restores


• Use mt –f [tape device] rewind to move the beginning of a tape over the tape head.

• Tape movements are relative to the position of the tape head: use mt –f [tape device] status
to check the location of the tape head.

• Use no-rewind tape devices for tapes that will have multiple tape files on them.

• Tape file-numbering starts at zero.

13-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Restarting a Failed Restore Process

Restarting a Failed Restore Process


If the data recovery process is interrupted, the restore command enables you to restart the process
from the last tape file that was successfully used for restoring data. To do this, specify the R
option in your restore command. There are some restrictions for using the restart function:

• You can restart a restore process only if the backup consists of multiple tape files. If the
backup contains only one tape file, simply re-enter the restore command to start the recovery
from the beginning of the backup.

• The restore command can only restart full restores. It cannot restart incremental restores.

The example illustrates the process for restarting an interrupted restore operation.

The original restore command was entered and sometime during the process (while tape file #2
was in use) someone entered Ctrl-C from the console. As a result, the restore operation was
aborted, the file was closed, and the tape was ejected from the drive. To restart:

1. Reload the tape.

2. Enter the same restore command as the one that was interrupted with the changes
summarized above.

The new restore command restarts data recovery from the beginning of the second tape file.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Restore Operations

Restore an entire volume


Perform a full restore of a volume containing
qtrees to:
– original location
– different location
Restore a named file from multiple tapes
Restore files to another system

13-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Restoring an Entire Volume

Ask: Is there adequate disk space in root


destination volume?
Verify level, tape device, blocking factor, and
path.
– dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol1
Enter the restore command.
– restore rfD rst0a /vol/vol1

Restoring an Entire Volume


Volume backed up as a single entity

To restore an entire volume to its original location, follow these steps:

1. Ensure there is adequate disk space in the root of the destination volume.

2. Review the original backup command to verify level, tape device, blocking factor, and path.

Example: dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol1

3. Enter the restore command:

Example: restore rfD rst0a /vol/vol1

Volume backed up by individual elements


If the volume was backed up using separate dump commands for each element, you will have to
use separate restore commands to recover them. For example, if the root volume contains two
directories, /vol/vol0/etc and /vol/vol0/home, and you used separate dump commands to back
them up, enter a restore command for the /etc directory and another for the /home directory

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Full Restore of a Volume Containing Qtrees

Basic
BasicSteps
Steps
1.
1. Ensure adequatedisk
Ensure adequate diskspace
space
inindestination root.
destination root.
2.
2. Verify
Verifylevel,
level,tape
tapedevice,
device,
blocking
blockingfactor,
factor,and
andpath.
path.

Restoreto
Restore tooriginal
originallocation
location Restore
Restoreto
todifferent
differentlocation
location

3.Enter
3. Enterthe
therestore command.
restore command. 3.Rename
3.Renameor ormove
movefiles
filesthat
thatmight
might
be
beoverwritten.
overwritten.
4.If
4.Ifnecessary,
necessary,create
createnewnewvolume,
volume,
directory,
directory,or
orqtrees
qtreesininthe
thenew
new
location.
location.
5.Enter
5.Enterthe restorecommand
therestore command
specifying
specifyingnew
newlocation
locationpath.
path.

Performing a Full Restore of a Volume Containing Qtrees


The process for doing a full restore of a volume is essentially the same whether you have qtrees
or not. If the qtrees were backed up separately, they will require separate restore commands to
recover them. The same is true of directories, files, and subtrees in a volume.

13-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Restoring Named File from Multiple Tapes

To restore /vol/vol0/projects to /vol/vol2 you must


include the D option and destination path followed
by the file name or directory to be restored.

Destination Dir or file to restore

restore xfD rst0a /vol/vol2 /projects

The tape device for the first


tape (in this case, rst0a)

Restoring a Named File from Multiple Tapes


To restore a specific file or directory from a subtree, enter a restore command with the following
features:

• x option to extract the specified file or directory

• D option and path name of the file or directory relative to the backed up subtree

For example, volume vol0 was backed up to two tapes as a subtree. The tape devices used were
rst0a and rst2a. You want to restore all contents of the /vol/vol0/projects directory to /vol/vol2.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

Describe the restore command


What is needed to formulate the restore
command?
How does restoring a qtree compare with
restoring a volume?
What is the the syntax for the restore
command?
What are the steps to restore an entire
volume?

13-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Exercise Slide
Exercise

Administering Restores

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Administering Restores


Objectives
When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to do the following:

• Use the restore command to recover files

• Formulate commands to perform different restore tasks

• View a list of files on tape

Overview
The purpose of this exercise is to provide experience using the dump command.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Required Hardware, Software, and Tools


Hardware

• A Windows workstation with Internet Explorer software

Software

• Access to the course copy of the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web based training

13-24 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Administering Restores

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On your local workstation, open the Data ONTAP Fundamentals web-based training
course.

2. Access the Using the restore Command Tutorial

3. Do the practice activity on page 8 of 11.

4. Access the Managing the Restore Process tutorial.

5. Do the practice activity on page 8 of 12.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 13-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

6. Access the Backup and Restore module of Scenario 3, Backup, Restore, and Upgrade.

7. Complete pages 5 through 8 of the 8-page scenario.

End of Exercise

13-26 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP
NDMP

Module 14. NDMP

NDMP

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

 At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Describe the purpose and function of NDMP
– Identify the types of tape devices that can be used with NDMP
– Turn on and test NDMP services on the storage appliance
– Check NDMP status
– Terminate an NDMP session
– Identify limitations of ndmpcopy operations
– Recognize the syntax of the ndmpcopy command
– Identify the options available for use with the ndmpcopy
command
– Use ndmpcopy to copy the contents of qtrees and volumes

14-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP)

NDMP
The Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) is a standard protocol for controlling data
transfers between primary and secondary storage devices.

NDMP allows network backup applications to backup and restore data on a NAS file server,
without sharing the same OS or being installed on the filer itself.

This is possible because NDMP separates the data management functions from the backup and
restore operations, as shown here.

NDMP-compliant programs offer many advantages over using native dump and restore
commands alone:

• Faster operations: you can execute more parallel backup and recovery operations. Filers
support up to 100 NDMP sessions

• Sophisticated scheduling: you can schedule operations across multiple filers

• Ease of Use: NDMP-compliant applications typically provide user-friendly, graphical


interfaces to simplify the management of data protection services.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

NDMP Application Products

Network Appliance: Data ONTAP


Legato: NetWorker SnapImage Module
Veritas: NetBackup
HP: Omniback
Workstation Solutions: Quick Restore
… and others

NDMP Application Products


This slide lists a few of the NDMP application products available on the market. For more
information:

• Visit http://www.ndmp.org for a list of vendors supporting NDMP and information on


specifications.

• Visit http://now.netapp.com for details on which versions of each vendor’s software are
certified to work with a specific version of Data ONTAP.

Depending on the release version of Data ONTAP software, you can use any third-party backup
management program that supports NDMP versions 2 through 4 .

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NDMP

NDMP Functionality

NDMP Functionality
You can use third-party backup management programs that support NDMP to enable your
storage appliance to read from or write to the following devices:

• Tape drives, libraries, or stackers attached to the storage appliance or work station

• NDMP-enabled tape libraries attached to your network

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Simple Configuration

NDMP Simple Configuration


In the simplest NDMP configuration, a DMA (Data Management Application) backs up data
from a filer to a tape subsystem attached to the filer. The NDMP control connection exists
across the network boundary. The NDMP data connection between the data and tape services
exists within the filer and is called an NDMP local configuration.

14-6 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

Two Tape Drives

NDMP – Two Tape Drives


NDMP backup applications enable efficient management of backup and recovery operations to
multiple tape drives. Two or more tape drives increase the number of backups you can run.
Depending on the platform, NetApp filers can run up to 6 backups at peak speeds.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Juke Box

NDMP - Jukebox
NDMP applications offer precise management of robotic control functions. The jukebox/tape
library has become a key technology for backups. As systems have grown in size, backups
require multiple tapes and increasing amounts of time and effort to physically manage the
process. The use of robotic hardware automates the work of locating existing tapes and switching
and loading new tapes.

14-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

Considerations when Using NDMP

Start the NDMP service on your storage


appliance with ndmpd on and then consider:
– Limits on concurrent backup and restore
– Time- and CPU-intensive file history generation and
processing
– Unicode format not supported
– Security issues
– Bandwidth constraints across WAN

Considerations when Using NDMP


Take the following considerations into account when starting NDMP service on your storage
appliance.

Limits on Concurrent Backup and Restore Operation

Data ONTAP supports a maximum of eight concurrent backup and/or restore operations. The
maximum includes backups initiated by NDMP as well as by the filer’s dump and/or restore
command.

Time- and CPU- Intensive File History Generation and Processing

NDMP services generate file history data when requested by backup applications. This data is
used by backup applications to recover selected subsets of data from a backup image. Generating
and processing file history data is time-consuming and CPU-intensive for both the filer and the
backup application. If your needs are limited to disaster recovery, where the entire backup image
will be recovered, you may want to disable file history generation to reduce backup times. See
your backup application documentation to determine if it is possible to disable NDMP file
history generation.

No Support for Unicode Format

NDMP does not support Unicode format. If you use a third-party tool to back up a storage
appliance using the Unicode directory format, the NDMP client displays the file names in the
NDMP file history database in two ways:

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

1. If possible, the Unicode format is replaced with the NFS character set.

2. If the Unicode format cannot be replaced with the NFS character set, the NDMP client
displays the file names as :XXXXXXX, where XXXXXXX is a character string.

Note: Because NDMP uses the restore command to recover files, you can use NDMP to
restore files with correct file names regardless of how the client displays the file names in the
NDMP file history database.

Security Issues Addressed in Latest Version of Data ONTAP

Several NDMP-related security issues have been addressed in the latest release of Data ONTAP
software, such as password protection, access control, authentication, and connection event
tracking. New security features include:

1. New command to enable non-root users to obtain NDMP passwords (ndmpd password
[user name])

2. New option commands to allow the system administrator to:

• Restrict access to the storage appliance (ndmpd.access)

• Select authentication method (ndmpd.authtype)

• Track connection events recorded in syslog and debug log


(ndmpd.connectlog.enabled)

Bandwidth Constraints Using NDMP Across a WAN Link

You can use NDMP services across a WAN link. However, because there is no mechanism for
bandwidth control inside the NDMP protocol, backup and restore operations could significantly
slow traffic on the WAN line. Incremental backups and selective restores may not cause a
problem, but full backup and restore operations on WAN links are not recommended.

14-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

Transition Slide
Managing
NDMP
Functions

Managing NDMP Functions


Before you can use NDMP-compliant applications for your network backup and restore
operations, you need to enable the service on your storage appliance and set some specific values
in your configuration files. After NDMP services are up and running, occasionally you will need
to control and track NDMP sessions. You perform these tasks using the ndmpd options and
commands.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The ndmp Commands

ndmpd [on|off]
ndmpd password [user_name]
ndmpd status [session #]
ndmpd probe [session #]
ndmpd kill [session #]
ndmpd version [maxversion]

The ndmp Commands


Use the ndmpd command to enable NDMP support on the storage appliance and to display
information about backup and restore operations that use NDMP. The table shown here lists the
command options you can use to manage NDMP services.

Example Result
ndmpd on Enables NDMP services.

ndmpd password jsorsky Allows you to define an NDMP-specific password for


the existing administrative account, jsorsky.

ndmpd status 4 Displays general status information about NDMP


session, #4.

ndmpd probe 4 Displays detailed information about NDMP session,


#4.

ndmpd kill 4 Terminates the NDMP session #4 (if the session is not
responding).

ndmpd version 4 Specifies the NDMP version (version 4) to be used.


Enter the command without a number to display the
current version being used.

14-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

FilerView

FilerView
FilerView can be used to manage NDMP functions and services.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Options Commands for NDMP Services

options ndmpd.enable [on|off]


options ndmpd.access
[[access_spec][AND|OR][access_spec]…]
options ndmpd.preferred_interface
[interface]
options ndmpd.connectlog.enabled[on|off]
options ndmpd.authtype [type1[,type2]]

Options Commands for NDMP Services


The options command is used to change configurable software options on the storage
appliance. The table shown here lists the options you can use to configure access and security
values for NDMP services.

Example Result
options ndmpd.enable on Enables NDMP services.
options ndmpd.access host=10.56.10.113 Restricts access to NDMP operations to:
options ndmpd.access ‘if=e0,e8’ • the IP address 10.56.10.113
options ndmpd.access host=filer3 • the interfaces e0 and e8
options ndmpd.access ‘host=filer3 and • the hostname, filer3
if=e8’
options ndmpd.preferred_interface e0 Specifies e0 as the preferred network
interface to be used when establishing an
NDMP data connection to another storage
appliance.
options ndmpd.connectlog.enabled on Enables the optional audit log to track
NDMP connection events for security
purposes.
options ndmpd.authtype Specifies the acceptable authentication
challenge,plaintext methods challenge and plaintext for the
storage appliance.

14-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

Transition Slide
Using the
ndmpcopy
Command

Using the ndmpcopy Command


You can use NDMP to transfer data from one storage appliance to another, without going to tape
at all. The process, called Disk-to-Disk copy, is controlled by a small application that directs the
flow of data from one storage appliance to another. This application, bundled with the Data
ONTAP software, is executed by the ndmpcopy command.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The ndmpcopy Command: Features

 Features  Limitations
– Local and remote copies – Cannot copy individual files
– Full and incremental – Incremental limited to
transfers maximum of two levels
– Transfer of full or partial – Works only with NetApp
volumes, qtrees, or filers
directories
– Supports data migration
between all releases of Data
ONTAP (NDMP v3 and above)
– Auto-negotiates between
filers to use highest common
NDMP version

The ndmpcopy Command: Features


Using ndmpcopy, you can direct the transfer of file system data between storage appliances
that support NDMP v3 or v4 and the UFS dump format.

The ndmpcopy command can be executed locally or remotely and supports both full and
incremental transfers. You can transfer full or partial volumes, qtrees, or directories.

In addition, you can migrate data between storage appliances at different ONTAP release levels
(providing the storage appliances support NDMP v3 or above and the command is issued from a
storage appliance supporting v4).

14-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


NDMP

The ndmpcopy Command: Function

The ndmpcopy Command: Function


The storage appliance-resident ndmpcopy tool functions as a simple NDMP data management
application (DMA). The ndmpcopy function performs data transfers by initiating backup
operations on the source storage appliance and recovery operations on the destination storage
appliance. It establishes separate NDMP control connections with the source and destination
storage appliances, creates a single NDMP data connection between the storage appliances, and
initiates backup and recovery operations that result in the desired data transfer between the
source and destination.

Since ndmpcopy is an NDMP application, not an NDMP server, it can be executed from the
command line of the source storage appliance, the destination storage appliance, or a storage
appliance that is neither the source nor the destination of the data transfer. You can also execute
ndmpcopy on a single storage appliance that is both the source and the destination.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The ndmpcopy Command: Syntax

Command Syntax
To create an ndmpcopy command you enter the command, followed by options and their
arguments, followed by the source storage appliance and path, followed by the destination
storage appliance and path.

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NDMP

The ndmpcopy Command:


Options and Arguments

[-sa <username>:<password>]
[-da <username>:<password>]
source/destination filer authentication
[-st { text | md5 }]
[-dt { text | md5 }]
source/destination filer authentication type
default is md5
[-l { 0 | 1 | 2 }] incremental level default is 0
[-d] debug mode
[-f] force flag, to copy system files
[-h] display this message

Command Options and Arguments

Example Result

ndmpcopy –sa admin3:grevitz3 This command migrates level (-l) 2


incremental data from a source path on
–st text –l 2 NetApp20: NetApp20 to a destination path on
/vol/vol0/techpubs NetApp10: NetApp10.
/vol/vol0/engineering
The source filer authentication (-sa) is
username, admin3 and password grevitz3.

The ndmpcopy command tool running on


NetApp20 will authenticate with
NetApp10 using text authentication.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The ndmpcopy Command

Option Description
-sa (source storage appliance Specifies authorized access to the source storage appliance.
authentication) Takes username:password as argument.
-da (destination storage Specifies authorized access to the destination storage
appliance authentication) appliance. Takes username:password as argument.
-st (source storage appliance Specifies authentication type used by the source storage
authentication type) appliance when processing the ndmpcopy request. Takes
one of two arguments: text or md5. The md5 argument
encrypts the passwords so clear-text passwords cannot be
intercepted over the network.
-dt (destination storage Specifies authentication type used by the destination storage
appliance authentication type) appliance when processing the ndmpcopy request.
–l (incremental level) Specifies the backup level of the data to be transferred.
Valid levels: 0, 1, 2. If no level is specified, the default is 0
(full backup).
–d (debug mode) Specifies that debug log messages should be generated. Log
files appear in the root volume /etc/log directory. Log file
names are in the form: ndmpcopy.yyyymmdd.
–f (forced mode) Specifies that the system files in the /etc directory on the
root volume should be overwritten. Default is to preserve
the files in /etc directory.

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NDMP

Topic Review

What is NDMP?
What types of tape devices can be used with
NDMP?
What is the command to check NDMP status?
What are some limitations of ndmpcopy?
What is the syntax of the ndmpcopy
command?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise Slide
Exercise

NDMP

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NDMP

Exercise: NDMP Administration


Objectives
When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to do the following:

• Enable and disable NDMP services

• Test NDMP

• Use the ndmpcopy command to copy the contents of qtrees and volumes

Exercise Overview
The purpose of this lab is to provide hands-on practice performing the tasks required to turn on
the NDMP daemon, verify NDMP is running, and view and terminate NDMP sessions.

Time Estimate
15 minutes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise
Turn on NDMP and check NDMP status.

Step Action
1. Access the filer console. Type ndmpd status. What happened?

. Type ndmpd on.

This will turn on the NDMP daemon.

Note: If you are going to use NDMP, it is recommended that you add ndmpd on to
the /etc/rc file, or, turn NDMP on using the options command

3. Type ndmpd status. What happened?

Test NDMP services.

Step Action
1. From a Windows or Unix host, telnet to port 10000 on your filer.

telnet [filerx] 10000

or

telnet [IP] 10000

What appears on the screen?

Terminate an NDMP session.

Step Action
1. Make sure you are connected to the filer via telnet to port 10000. If you are not, repeat
step 2 of the previous exercise.

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NDMP

2. Access the filer console, and, while the telnet session is still active type

filer> ndmpd status

What happened?

3. What is the session number shown for your telnet session?

4. On the filer console, type the following to kill the NDMP session.

filer> ndmpd kill #

(Where # is the session number.)

5. What happened?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 14-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Use ndmpcopy on the same filer.

For this section, you may use either the command line or FilerView.

Step Action
1. Create a qtree named tree1 on vol0 with a mixed security style.

2. Create a 5M file in tree1.

Hint: From the Adminhost mount point in the tree1 directory, enter

# mkfile 5m foo

3. Copy tree1 to vol2 as tree2 with the following command:

filer>ndmpcopy /vol/vol0/tree1 /vol/vol1/tree1

4. What happened?

5. Verify that the new qtree was created..

Use ndmpcopy from one filer to another.

Step Action
1. Select a partner to copy to.
2. Copy tree1 to your partner filer with the following command:
filer>ndmpcopy –da root:password
sourcefiler:/vol/vol0/tree1
destinationfiler:/vol/vol0/copy
3. On the destination filer, type qtree and note that a qtree named copy was created on
vol0.
End of Exercise

14-26 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy
Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Module 15. Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Describe the purpose and function of the volume
copy and aggregate copy features
– Recognize benefits of using vol copy and aggr
copy
– Describe considerations for using vol copy and
aggr copy
– Recognize options and arguments used with the
command
– Identify the pre-requisites for performing volume
copy and aggregate copy operations
– Use the vol copy and aggr copy command to
copy a volume
– List the steps to perform an aggr copy

15-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

The vol copy and aggr copy


Commands: Function
Snapshots

Snapshots

The vol copy and aggr copy Commands: Function


The vol copy and aggr copy commands enable you to make an identical copy of a file
system (the active file system view as well as Snapshots) and transfer it from one volume or
aggregate to another. You can copy between volumes or aggregates in the same storage
appliance or between volumes or aggregates on different storage appliances. The source and
destination volumes or aggregates must be of the same type:

• Traditional volume to Traditional volume

• Flexible volume to Flexible volume

• Aggregate to Aggregate

The command must be issued from either the source or the destination storage appliance. You
cannot initiate the copy operation from a third storage appliance.

Volume copy and aggregate copy is a standard Data ONTAP feature.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The vol copy and aggr copy


Commands: Function cont’d

The vol copy and aggr copy Commands: Function


A vol copy and aggr copy commands generate two volume copy operations: one for
reading data from the source volume (dump) and one for writing data to the destination volume
(restore). Each filer can support up to four simultaneous vol copy or aggr copy
operations.

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Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Why Use the Volume Copy or Aggregate


Copy Feature?

Migrating Data
Ensuring High Availability of Data
Managing Disks and Volumes

Why Use the Volume Copy or Aggregate Copy Feature?


Migrating Data
The volume copy and aggregate copy features are both good for migrating data from one storage
appliance to another. You might do this if the destination storage appliance has more storage or
is a model that supports newer technology, such as FCAL disks.

Ensuring High Availability of Data

Creating an identical volume copy or aggregate copy guarantees access to the data even when:

The storage appliance is shut down for software or hardware upgrades.

A network client process accidentally deletes a large number of files on the source storage
appliance. Clients can continue to have access to the files as you work to restore the files to the
source storage appliance.

There is a natural disaster and the source storage appliance becomes unusable. You can put the
destination storage appliance online to continue file service.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Managing Disks and Volumes


As storage needs change and disk technology improves, the volume copy and aggregate copy
feature helps you adjust the balance between resources by simplifying management processes
such as:

Splitting a volume. Using the vol copy command you can copy the contents of vol0 to vol1
and then delete portions of the duplicated files and directories in each volume so that the original
contents of vol0 are split into two volumes.

Expanding storage appliance storage. If you had eight 18-GB disks for vol0 and four 36-
GB spare disks, you could use vol copy or aggr copy to migrate vol0 to the four larger
disks. You might then replace the 18-GB disks with larger ones. One advantage of using aggr
copy is if the aggregate being copied contains ten Flexible volumes you could migrate all ten
Flexible volumes to the new aggregate with one command. The aggr copy command transfers
everything within the aggregate and treats the aggregate as one object regardless of the number
of Flexible volumes contained within it.

Volume Copy and Aggregate Copy Benefits


Although you can copy data using client programs such as cpio or using the storage appliance’s
dump and restore commands, the vol copy and aggr copy command set offers the
following benefits:

The vol copy command is faster. A volume copy operation copies data block for block
directly from the disks. This is much faster than methods where the storage appliance traverses
directories in the volume.

Snapshot data is preserved. The volume copy process saves the source volume Snapshot data,
which can then be used to recover deleted files.

Multiprotocol security is preserved. All Windows Access Control Lists (ACL) and security
information is copied.

The aggr copy command will transfer all Flexible volumes in the aggregate. When copying
single Flexible volumes or traditional volumes using vol copy you may only have two copies
going at once. When copying the aggregate you are able to copy all the Flexible volumes within
the aggregate (bulk copy).

One Consideration…
If you have disk fragmentation, do not use vol copy or aggr copy commands. The block-
by-block copy process will transfer the fragmentation to the new volume or aggregate. Use
ndmpcopy instead of vol copy, or use reallocate before the vol copy.

15-6 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

The vol copy and aggr copy


Command: Syntax

vol copy start [options] [source] [destination]

aggr copy start [options] [source] [destination]

NetApp1> vol copy start –s nightly.1 vol0 vol1


NetApp1> aggr copy start –s aggrsnap aggr3 aggr4

The vol copy and aggr copy Command: Syntax


To begin a vol copy operation, you enter the vol copy start command, followed by
Snapshot options, followed by the source volume_name, followed by the destination
volume_name. The command shown above copies the contents of vol0 to vol1 on the same
storage appliance, using the blocks represented by the nightly.1 Snapshot.

The aggr copy command syntax and options are identical to the vol copy command.

The vol copy and aggr copy Command: Options

Option Description
-s Specifies a specific Snapshot to be copied from the source to the
destination volume or aggregate. You must enter it followed by
the name of an existing Snapshot. This copies the blocks
represented in the Snapshot. The destination volume or
aggregate will look like the source at the time the Snapshot was
taken.
-S Specifies that all Snapshots be copied from the source to the
destination volume or aggregate. This is a “full” copy.
None (Null) Indicates that only the Snapshot created when the volume or
aggregate copy operation was initiated (the current AFS) is
copied to the destination volume.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Preparing for a
Transition Slide
Volume Copy or
Aggregate Copy
Operation

15-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Volume Copy and Aggregate Copy


Operations: Requirements

Volume Copy and Aggregate Copy Operations:


Requirements
The storage appliances involved in a volume copy or aggregate copy operation must meet several
requirements for data to be copied successfully. The table above briefly summarizes these
requirements.

Status
The source volume or aggregate must be online and the destination volume or aggregate must be
restricted. Because root volumes or root aggregates cannot be offline, the destination volume or
aggregate cannot be a root volume or root aggregate.

The vol copy command will not automatically create a volume if it doesn’t already exist. The
storage appliance will return the following error message:
NetApp10>vol copy start vol0 vol2

Volume doesn’t exist: vol2AbortingNetApp10

The aggr copy command will give the same result.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Capacity
The usable disk space of the destination volume or aggregate must be equal to or larger than the
source volume or aggregate. Trying to copy a volume to a smaller volume results in an error
message:
VOLCOPY: volcopy restore:volume is too small, aborting

You cannot use vol copy to shrink a volume.

Networking
Each storage appliance must be defined as a trusted host of the other storage appliance. In other
words, each storage appliance’s /etc/hosts.equiv file must contain the other storage appliance’s
host name or IP address. If the source storage appliance does not have permission to copy to the
destination storage appliance, you may receive the following error message:
Permission denied.VOLCOPY: Could not connect to filer NetApp20Volume

Copy operations will flood the network connection between storage appliances with large
amounts of data. To avoid negative impact on your network traffic, you should set up a private
network connection between source and destination storage appliances.

Access Protocol
The Remote Shell program must be enabled. This is important because once the volume copy
operation is in progress, the console prompt on both the source and destination storage
appliances will not be available. To view the operation status, you will need remote access from
another machine. If rsh access is not enabled when a local volume copy is attempted, the result
is an error message similar to the following:
Write: setting up STDERR broken pipe Popup for Data:

Data
If the destination volume or aggregate is not a new file system, make sure that it does not contain
data you might need in the future. The volume copy and aggregate copy operation overwrites all
data in the active file system and in the Snapshots of the destination volume or aggregate.

15-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Checking Volume or Aggregate Status


Using CLI

Checking Volume Status Using CLI


Before executing vol copy or aggr copy commands, you need to check the status of source
and destination volumes or aggregates to get answers to the following questions:

Is the source volume or aggregate online or offline? It must be online.

Which is the root volume or aggregate? It cannot be the destination volume or aggregate.

Is access to the destination volume or aggregate restricted? It must be restricted before copying
begins.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Volume Status Using FilerView

Checking Volume Status Using FilerView


FilerView can also be used to check the volume’s status. The Volumes Report page displays
information about all the volumes on the storage appliance.

Note: The status column indicates whether a volume is online, offline, or restricted.

The root volume is identified by parentheses (root).

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Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Restricting Volume Status Using FilerView

Restricting Volume Status Using FilerView


In the Manage Volumes pane, select the volume to be restricted and click the restrict button.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking File System Size Using CLI

Checking File System Size Using CLI


Before executing vol copy or aggr copy commands, you need to check the status of source
and destination volumes or aggregates to get answers to the following questions:

How much space does each volume or aggregate consume?

Is there room on the destination volume or aggregate for the source data?

How large (in blocks) is the source aggregate aggr3 and the destination aggr4?

15-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Checking File System Size Using FilerView


Volumes Report

Source and Destination Size


FilerView can also be used to check the size of the source and destination volumes.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Volume Networking Status


Using CLI

Checking Volume Networking Status Using CLI


Before executing vol copy or aggr copy commands, you need to check and/or modify the
contents of the /etc/hosts.equiv file on each storage appliance for a trusted host entry for the other
filer. For example:

Is Filer20 a trusted host for Filer10?

Is Filer10 a trusted host for Filer20?

15-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Managing Remote Shell (rsh) Access


Using FilerView

Managing Remote Shell (rsh) Access Using FilerView


RSH access is required between the source and the destination filers. Otherwise, the vol copy
operation will fail. Enabling RSH access can be done by using either the command line interface
or FilerView to make entries in the /etc/hosts.equiv file.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Managing Remote Shell (rsh) Access


Using FilerView cont’d

Managing Remote Shell (rsh) Access Using FilerView


FilerView can also be used to verify the other filer is listed in the /etc/hosts.equiv file.

15-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Enabling Remote Shell (rsh) Access Using


CLI

Enabling Remote Shell (rsh) Access Using CLI


Before executing vol copy or aggr copy commands, you need to ensure that both storage
appliances have the remote shell program enabled so the volume copy or aggregate copy status
can be accessed from either one. To use rsh requires a trust relationship (established through
the /etc/hosts.equiv file) between storage appliances and that the program be enabled.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Managing Hosts Using FilerView

Managing Hosts Using FilerView


An entry for the localhost must be in the /etc/hosts file. FilerView or the command line interface
can be used to verify the entry or to modify the file.

15-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Checking LocalHost & Loopback Address


Using CLI

Checking LocalHost & Loopback Address Using CLI


Before executing vol copy or aggr copy commands, to copy data on the same storage
appliance, answer the following questions:

Is the localhost (Filer10) listed in the /etc/hosts.equiv file?

Is localhost’s loopback address in the storage appliance’s /etc/hosts file?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition SlideManaging
Volume and
Aggregate
Copy
Operations

15-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Volume Copy and Aggregate Copy


Operation

Volume Copy Operation


During a volume copy or aggregate copy operation, the storage appliance sends messages
indicating where it is in the process (percentage done) and stating the estimated time to finish.

Depending on the amount of data being copied, these processes can continue from several
minutes to many hours. Data ONTAP provides commands for viewing status, controlling speed,
and terminating the processes while they are in progress.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

The vol copy and aggr copy


Command: Options

The vol copy Command: Options

Example Result
vol copy status 0 Displays the status of volume copy operation #0.
vol copy abort 1 Stops volume copy operation #1.
options vol.copy.throttle Displays current speed setting for the
vol.copy.throttle option.

options vol.copy.throttle 10 Sets the speed setting for the


vol.copy.throttle option to 10 (high).

vol copy throttle 1 5 During volume copy operation #1. Sets the
vol.copy.throttle speed to 5 (medium).

aggr copy status 0 Displays the status of aggregate copy operation #0.
aggr copy abort 1 Stops aggregate copy operation #1.
aggr copy throttle 1 5 During aggregate copy operation #1. Sets the
aggr.copy.throttle speed to 5 (medium).

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Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Topic Review

 What is vol copy?


 Why use vol copy?
 What are some considerations for using vol copy?
 What is aggr copy?
 Why use aggr copy?
 What are the syntax differences between the aggr
copy command options and the vol copy command
options?
 How is Remote Shell (rsh) access enabled?
 What command allows control of the copy speed?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise Slide
Exercise

vol copy

15-26 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

Exercise: Volume Copy Operations


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to prepare a filer to run the vol copy
command.

Overview
The purpose of this lab is to provide hands-on practice performing the tasks required to prepare a
filer to run volume copy operations.

Time Estimate
15 minutes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise
Preparing for a Volume Copy Operation
At the beginning of this exercise, the instructor will assign each filer a partner. You will use the
vol copy command to copy data to your partner's filer.

Verify localhost is a trusted host.

Step Action

1. Access both the source and destination filers and type:

options rsh.enable on

This will ensure Remote Shell access is enabled. If RSH is disabled, and you execute
this command from a workstation, vol copy will fail.

2. Add the following entry to the /etc/hosts.equiv file for both filers:

filerx (Where filerx is the hostname of your partner's filer.)

3. Add the following line to the /etc/hosts file for both filers.

filerx ipaddress

Where filerx is the hostname of your partner's filer and ipaddress is the IP
address of your partner's filer.

Note: This step is not required if your filer is able to resolve your partner filer's IP
address using DNS.

4. On your filer, create a Snapshot of vol1.

5. Create a volume on your partner’s filer (destination) called copyvol.

6. Restrict access to copyvol by entering:

vol restrict copyvol

7. On the console for your filer (source) run:

vol copy start -s snapshotname vol1 filerX:copyvol

Where snapshotname is the name of the Snapshot you just created and filerX is the
name of your partner's filer.

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Vol Copy and Aggr Copy

8. When the volume copy operation is complete bring copyvol online.

vol online copyvol

9. Export and mount or share and map to the root of copyvol and verify the data on your
partner's filer was copied to your filer.

End of Exercise

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 15-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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15-30 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health
Checking Health and Performance

Module 16. Checking Health and Performance

Checking Health and


Performance

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module you will be able to:


– Describe, list and utilize administrator normal and
privileged commands
– Describe and utilize the statit command
– Describe the use of the options settings
– Describe, list and utilize the options commands
– Describe and use the flash boot menu
– Describe and execute the hidden special boot
options commands
– Refer to the Command Reference manual in the
Data ONTAP documentation
– Locate the Command Reference manuals at the
NOW site

16-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Transition Slide
Normal and Advanced
Privilege Commands

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Normal Administration Commands

There are four types of commands available


from the CLI for basic system administration
– Normal administrative commands
– Advance privileged commands
– Options setting commands
– Flash boot commands

Normal Administrative Commands


These commands are used in the everyday administration of a storage appliance

Advanced Privileged Commands


Advanced privileged commands are for special tasks such as system tuning, testing, or
displaying statistics, and are available only when accessing advanced privileged mode. These
commands can destroy data if used incorrectly. Network Appliance highly recommends that you
do not leave the storage appliance in the advanced privilege mode.

Option settings
The commands set arguments and are available from the options command. Typing
options at the command line prompt displays the option settings.

Flash Boot Commands


These commands become available during the storage appliance booting process.

16-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Basic Administration Commands


NetApp1> ?
? halt nfs snapvault
aggr help nfsstat snmp
backup hostname nis software
cf httpstat options source
cifs ifconfig orouted storage
config ifstat partner sysconfig
dafs igroup passwd sysstat
date ipsec ping timezone
df ipspace priv traceroute
disk iscsi qtree ups
disk_fw_update iswt quota uptime
dns license rdate useradmin
download lock reboot version
dump logger restore vfiler
echo logout rmc vif
ems lun route vlan
environment man routed vol
exportfs maxfiles rsm vscan
fcp mt savecore wcc
fcstat nbtstat secureadmin ypcat
file ndmpcopy setup ypgroup
filestats ndmpd shelfchk ypmatch
fpolicy netdiag snap ypwhich
ftp netstat snapmirror
NetApp1>

Basic Administration Commands


At the normal administration privilege level, typing a “?” at the command line displays the
commands available to the system administrator for disk management, networking and system
management, physical and virtual interface configuration, and related tasks.

Some commands are simple; some use arguments; some perform an obvious function, such as
backup, ping, or help. Typing help <command name> on the command line displays a brief
description of the command. Typing the command alone on the command line displays the full
syntax of the command and any arguments it takes.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Common Administrative Commands

Typical Configuration Commands Typical System and Network


Management Commands
arp setup date passwd
config snmp download ping
ifconfig software dump priv
lun source echo rdate
man vif ems reboot
environment restore
Typical Disk Management Commands
fcp route
options qtree help routed
df quota hostname savecore
disk storage ifstat secureadmin
dns igroup snap
Typical Services and Protocols ipsec source
Commands ipspace sysconfig
iscsi sysstat
cifs nfsstat iswt timezone
config nis license traceroute
httpstat ypcat logger uptime
ipsec ypgroup lun useradmin
nbtstat ypmatch man version
nfs maxfiles vfiler
ndmpd vol
File and Directory Commands netdiag vscan
nfsstat wcc
exportfs fpolicy options
fcp ndmpcopy orouted
filestats snapmirror partner

Device Control Commands


mt

16-6 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Advanced Administrative Commands


NetApp1> priv set advanced
Warning: These advanced commands are potentially dangerous; use
them only when directed to do so by Network Appliance
personnel.
NetApp1*> help
/etc/rmt halt netdiag shelfchk
? hammer netstat show_bios_log
arp help nfs showfh
availtime hostname nfs_hist sm_mon
backup httpstat nfsstat smb_hist
blink_off ic nis snap
blink_on ifconfig options snapmirror
bootfs ifinfo orouted snapvault
cf ifstat panic snet
... <text deleted here> ...
exportfs maxfiles routed wafl
fcadmin mbstat rsm wafl_susp
fcp mem_scrub_stats rtag wcc
fcstat mt savecore wrfile
file mv scsi ypcat
filestats nbtstat secureadmin ypgroup
fpolicy ndmpcopy setup ypmatch
ftp ndmpd sh ypwhich
getXXbyYY
NetApp1*> priv set admin
NetApp1>

Advanced Administrative Command Functions


Advanced privilege commands are additional commands to the normal command set and provide
more control and access to the storage appliance. In some cases, there are more arguments or
options available to a specific command when the administrator is in privileged mode. These
commands are potentially dangerous and should be used only by knowledgeable personnel.

Advanced privilege commands are accessed by using the priv set advanced command.
This changes the command line prompt by inserting an asterisk (*) in the prompt when advanced
privileges are enabled.

To return to basic administration mode, type the priv set admin command. There are
additional administration commands that are considered advanced but are also available from the
basic administration mode. They are hidden however and do not appear when help is typed
from the basic administration mode. Three of those commands are:

Example Result
rdfile /etc/exports displays the contents of the /etc/exports file
wrfile /etc/exports creates or overwrites the contents of the
/etc/exports file
mv /etc/exports /etc/exports.old move /etc/exports file to /etc/exports.old
file

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise
Exercises

Functions of Common Commands


Using Common Commands

Perform the exercises “Functions of Common Commands” and “Using Common Commands”.
Let your instructor know when you complete the exercises.

16-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Transition Slide

Using the statit Command

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

statit Commands

Using the statit Commands


The statit command issues a report with detailed system utilization statistics. Since screen
output for the report normally exceeds 25 lines, it is best to capture the output in a scrollable
window or to a file using rsh.

The output from statit displays statistics relative to almost all functions of the storage
appliance. It can be used when the storage appliance is suspected of poor performance.

The statit command is an advanced privilege command so you must change to advanced
privilege mode before issuing the command. Return to normal admin privilege mode when
reporting is complete.

16-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Command: statit

Example Function
statit Displays the syntax for the command.

statit –b Begins taking statistics and continues until the


statit –e command is issued.

statit –e Ends the collection of statistics and displays


the results. Generally, 30 seconds or more is
required for an adequate analysis. Can be used
with flags –r or –n.

statit –r Used to obtain consistent statistical results over


an interval instead of per second. Used as a
flag following –e.

statit –n Includes NFS statistics in the report. Used as a


flag following –e.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Obtaining Statistics

 To obtain statistics using the statit command


follow these steps:

1. Enter priv set advanced to enter advanced privilege


mode
2. Enter statit –b to begin collecting statistics
3. Enter statit –e -n after 30 seconds or so to end
statistics collection and include NFS statistics
4. Enter priv set to return to normal admin privilege
mode

16-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Obtaining Statistics

 The report generated is divided into sections


– CPU statistics
– Multiprocessor statistics
– CSMP domain switches
– Miscellaneous statistics
– WAFL statistics
– RAID statistics
– Network interface statistics
– Disk statistics
– Aggregate statistics
– Spares and other disks
– FCP statistics
– iSCSI statistics
– Tape statistics

Statit output
slu2-f2*> statit -b
slu2-f2*> statit -e -n
Hostname: slu2-f2 ID: 0033604816 Memory: 3072 MB
NetApp Release 6.5: Tue Jan 6 00:49:17 PST 2004
<3O>
Start time: Fri Apr 2 13:36:26 PST 2004

CPU Statistics
3.523732 time (seconds) 100 %
0.045492 system time 1 %
0.010523 rupt time 0 % (7258 rupts x 1 usec/rupt)
0.034969 non-rupt system time 1 %
7.001972 idle time 199 %

0.093921 time in CP 3 % 100 %


0.000359 rupt time in CP 0 % (206 rupts x 2
usec/rupt)

The next few pages contain the report output for the storage appliance.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Report Results: statit Command

NetApp*> statit -b
NetApp *> statit -e -n

Hostname: slu2-f2 ID: 0033604816 Memory: 3072 MB


NetApp Release 6.5: Tue Jan 6 00:49:17 PST 2004
<3O>
Start time: Fri Apr 2 13:36:26 PST 2004

CPU Statistics
3.523732 time (seconds) 100 %
0.045492 system time 1 %
0.010523 rupt time 0 % (7258 rupts x 1 usec/rupt)
0.034969 non-rupt system time 1 %
7.001972 idle time 199 %

0.093921 time in CP 3 % 100 %


0.000359 rupt time in CP 0 % (206 rupts x 2
usec/rupt)

Multiprocessor Statistics (per second)


cpu0 cpu1 total
sk switches 2377.31 1677.77 4055.08
hard switches 1034.41 859.32 1893.73
domain switches 148.14 150.41 298.55
CP rupts 29.23 29.23 58.46
nonCP rupts 1000.64 1000.64 2001.29

CP rupt usec 32.64 69.24 101.88


nonCP rupt usec 796.03 2088.41 2884.44
idle 992590.53 994498.73 1987089.82
kahuna 4120.63 542.61 4663.81
network 72.65 957.79 1030.16
storage 706.35 767.08 1473.44
exempt 408.94 17.31 426.54
raid 730.76 1029.87 1760.92
target 271.59 5.68 277.26
netcache 0.00 0.00 0.00
netcache2 269.88 22.99 293.16

0.031100 seconds with one or more CPUs active ( 1%)


0.026948 seconds with one CPU active ( 1%)
0.004152 seconds with both CPUs active ( 0%)

16-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

CSMP Domain Switches (per second)


From\To idle kahuna network storage exempt raid
target netcache netcache2
idle 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
kahuna 0.00 0.00 6.53 3.69 0.00 139.06
0.00 0.00 0.00
network 0.00 6.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
storage 0.00 3.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
exempt 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
raid 0.00 139.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
target 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
netcache 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
netcache2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00

Miscellaneous Statistics (per second)


1893.73 hard context switches 0.00 NFS operations
0.00 CIFS operations 0.00 HTTP operations
0.00 NetCache URLs 0.00 streaming packets
0.00 network KB received 0.00 network KB transmitted
18.16 disk KB read 61.30 disk KB written
0.28 NVRAM KB written 0.00 nolog KB written
0.00 WAFL bufs given to clients 0.00 checksum cache hits (
0%)
0.00 no checksum - partial buffer 0.00 DAFS operations
0.00 FCP operations 0.00 iSCSI operations

WAFL Statistics (per second)


5.96 name cache hits ( 62%) 3.69 name cache misses (
38%)
19.30 inode cache hits ( 100%) 0.00 inode cache misses (
0%)
55.06 buf cache hits ( 100%) 0.00 buf cache misses (
0%)
0.00 blocks read 0.00 blocks read-ahead
0.00 chains read-ahead 0.00 blocks speculative read-
ahead
5.11 blocks written 0.57 stripes written
0.00 blocks over-written 0.28 wafl_timer generated CP
0.00 snapshot generated CP 0.00 wafl_avail_bufs generated
CP
0.00 dirty_blk_cnt generated CP 0.00 full NV-log generated CP
0.00 back-to-back CP 0.00 flush generated CP
0.00 sync generated CP 0.00 wafl_avail_vbufs generated
CP
55.06 non-restart messages 0.00 IOWAIT suspends
604852 buffers

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

RAID Statistics (per second)


5.68 xors 0.00 long dispatches [0]
0.00 long consumed [0] 0.00 long consumed hipri [0]
0.00 long low priority [0] 0.00 long high priority [0]
0.00 long monitor tics [0] 0.00 long monitor clears [0]
0.00 long dispatches [1] 0.00 long consumed [1]
0.00 long consumed hipri [1] 0.00 long low priority [1]
0.00 long high priority [1] 0.00 long monitor tics [1]
0.00 long monitor clears [1] 18 max batch
0.85 blocked mode xor 0.57 timed mode xor
0.00 fast adjustments 0.00 slow adjustments
0 avg batch start 0 avg stripe/msec
1.14 tetrises written 0.00 master tetrises
0.00 slave tetrises 5.68 stripes written
0.00 partial stripes 5.68 full stripes
5.68 blocks written 0.00 blocks read
5.68 1 blocks per stripe size 1

Network Interface Statistics (per second)


iface side bytes packets multicasts errors collisions pkt
drops
e0 recv 171.69 2.55 0.00 0.00
0.00
xmit 115.22 1.42 0.00 0.00 0.00
e9 recv 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
xmit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
e6 recv 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
xmit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
vh recv 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
xmit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Disk Statistics (per second)


ut% is the percent of time the disk was busy.
xfers is the number of data-transfer commands issued per second.
xfers = ureads + writes + cpreads + greads + gwrites
chain is the average number of 4K blocks per command.
usecs is the average disk round-trip time per 4K block.

disk ut% xfers ureads--chain-usecs writes--chain-usecs cpreads-chain-


usecs greads--chain-usecs gwrites-chain-usecs
/vol0/plex0/rg0:
8a.16 5 3.69 0.57 1.00 94500 3.12 2.64 0 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.21 4 3.12 0.57 1.00 39500 2.55 2.78 5480 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
/vol2/plex0/rg0:
8a.17 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.32 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.18 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .

16-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

8a.33 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....


. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.19 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.34 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
/vol1/plex0/rg0:
8a.22 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.37 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.20 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.35 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.23 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8a.36 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .

Aggregate statistics:
Minimum 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
Mean 1 0.28 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00
0.00
Maximum 5 3.69 0.57 3.12 0.00 0.00
0.00

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Spares and other disks:


8b.16 2 1.70 1.70 1.00 10167 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.17 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.18 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.19 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.20 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.21 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.22 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.23 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.24 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.25 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.26 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.27 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.28 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.29 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.32 2 1.70 1.70 1.00 12000 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.34 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.35 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.36 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
8b.37 0 0.00 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
. 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .

<report edited>

FCP Statistics (per second)


0.00 FCP Bytes recv 0.00 FCP Bytes sent
0.00 FCP ops
iSCSI Statistics (per second)
0.00 iSCSI Bytes recv 0.00 iSCSI Bytes xmit
0.00 iSCSI ops
Interrupt Statistics (per second)
2000.15 Clock 3.97 Fast Enet
47.68 FCAL 4.54 int_22
3.41 FCAL 2059.75 total

16-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

NFS Detail Statistics


Server rpc:
TCP:
calls badcalls nullrecv badlen xdrcall
0 0 0 0 0

UDP:
calls badcalls nullrecv badlen xdrcall
0 0 0 0 0

Server nfs:
calls badcalls
0 0

Server nfs V2: (0 calls)


null getattr setattr root lookup readlink read
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
wrcache write create remove rename link symlink
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
mkdir rmdir readdir statfs
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

Read request stats (version 2)


0-511 512-1023 1K-2047 2K-4095 4K-8191 8K-16383 16K-32767
32K-65535 64K-131071
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
Write request stats (version 2)
0-511 512-1023 1K-2047 2K-4095 4K-8191 8K-16383 16K-32767
32K-65535 64K-131071
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0

Server nfs V3: (0 calls)


null getattr setattr lookup access readlink read
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
write create mkdir symlink mknod remove rmdir
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
rename link readdir readdir+ fsstat fsinfo pathconf
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
commit
0 0%

Read request stats (version 3)


0-511 512-1023 1K-2047 2K-4095 4K-8191 8K-16383 16K-32767
32K-65535 64K-131071
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
Write request stats (version 3)
0-511 512-1023 1K-2047 2K-4095 4K-8191 8K-16383 16K-32767
32K-65535 64K-131071
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0

Server nfs V4: (0 calls, 0 ops)

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

null compound badproc2 access close


commit
0 0 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
0%
create delegpurge delegret getattr getfh
link
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
0%
lock lockt locku lookup lookupp
nverify
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
0%
open openattr open_confirm open_downgrade putfh
putpubfh
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
0%
putrootfh read readdir readlink remove
rename
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
0%
renew restorefh savefh secinfo setattr
setclntid
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
0%
setclntid_cfm verify write
0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

NFS V2 non-blocking request statistics:


null getattr setattr root lookup readlink read
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
wrcache write create remove rename link symlink
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
mkdir rmdir readdir statfs
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

NFS V3 non-blocking request statistics:


null getattr setattr lookup access readlink read
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
write create mkdir symlink mknod remove rmdir
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
rename link readdir readdir+ fsstat fsinfo pathconf
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

NFS reply cache statistics:


TCP:
In progress Delay hits Misses Idempotent Non-
idempotent
0 0 0 0 0
UDP:
In progress Delay hits Misses Idempotent Non-
idempotent
0 0 0 0 0
NetApp*>

16-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

CPU Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The first section of the report deals with CPU statistics:

Statistic Interpretation
Shows the percentage of time the CPU was
275.044317 system time 54 %:
busy.

23.412966 rupt time Shows the number of interrupts received when


5%
the CPU ran at interrupt level.
(7022 rupts x 0 usec/rupt):

Shows the percentage of time the CPU


271.837944 idle time 44 %:
executed the idle loop.

Shows the percentage of time the system was


439.543653 time in CP in a consistency point. Of the 92% the system
92 % 100 %:
was in CP, WAFL was consistent 100% of that
time.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Multiprocessor Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The second section of the report includes multiprocessor statistics for multiple CPUs.

16-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

CSMP Domain

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The third section of the report includes values for the CSMP domain switches. Rates for various
kernel events (switches, and interrupts) are reported for each CPU and also for the system as a
whole. A "domain switch" is when a process makes a call to switch to a new CSMP domain.

Note: CSMP stands for Coarse Symmetric Multiprocessor .

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Miscellaneous Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The fourth section of the report includes miscellaneous rates or counts for the following
operations:

• Context switches
• NFS, CIFS, and HTTP operations
• Network KB transmitted and received
• Disk KB read and written
• NVRAM KB written
• WAFL bufs to clients
• FCP and iSCSI operations

16-24 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

WAFL Rates

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The fifth section of the report displays WAFL rates or counts, including:

• Name cache hits and misses


• Inode cache hits and misses
• Read-aheads
• Stripes and blocks written
• Various sources of consistency points

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

RAID Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The sixth section of the report displays RAID performance rates or counts, including the number
of XOR operations performed per second. Individual XOR operations are classified as
background, idle, timed, or blocked.

16-26 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Network Interface Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The seventh section of the report deals with network interface rates or counts, including:

• Packets and bytes transmitted and received


• Transmit and receive errors
• Collisions

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Disk Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The eighth section of the report deals with disk rates or counts for each drive. The column
headings are defined at the top of the screen.

Beginning with the fourth column of data, the report uses hyphens in the column headings to
group related information; for example, user reads and the associated chain and round-trip time
are linked in the heading ureads--chain--writes.

16-28 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Report Results: Individual Disk Statistics

Column Content
Column 1 (disk) Indicates the drives for which the statistics were collected.

Column 2 (ut%) Shows the drive utilization, that is, the percent of elapsed time
that the driver had a request outstanding.

Utilization over 80% suggests there is an I/O bottleneck. If the


bottleneck is on the parity drive, it could indicate either a severe
fragmentation of the drive or a degraded RAID group.

Column 3 (xfers) Shows the number of transfers, that is, reads and writes per
second. Most drives are capable of 50 100 IOPS.

Columns 4-6 Ureads shows the number of reads per second performed to
(ureads--chain—usecs) satisfy user requests for data.

Chain is the average number of 4 KB blocks per command. The


usecs value indicates the round-trip time in microseconds per 4
KB block.

Columns 7-9 Writes displays the number of write operations performed per
(writes--chain—usecs) second.

Chain is the average number of 4 KB blocks per command. The


usecs value indicates the round-trip time in microseconds per 4
KB block.

Columns 10-12 Cpreads displays the number of reads caused by consistency


(cpreads—chain—usecs) points.

Chain is the average number of 4 KB blocks per command. The


usecs value indicates the round-trip time in microseconds per 4
KB block.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Aggregate, Spares and Disk Statistics

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The next sections of the report display aggregate, spares and other disks statistics.

16-30 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

FCP, iSCSI and Tape Operations

Interrupt Statistics (per second)

Analyzing the Statistical Report Results


The last three sections of the report display rates or counts on FCP, iSCSI and tape operations.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise
Exercise
Using the statit Command

Perform the exercise “Using the statit Command”. Let your instructor know when you
complete the exercise.

16-32 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Transition Slide
Accessing and Modifying
Options Settings

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Normal Administration Commands

Options commands can:


– Fine-tune systems
– Tailor an environment or application, such as CIFS,
HTTP, or NFS
– Troubleshoot problems

Accessing and Modifying Options Settings


Storage appliance software is highly configurable using the options command. Many options
can be toggled on or off, while others require numeric values, delimited lists, or a value for a
variable. Options are all of the arguments that can be passed to the options command.

To preview the options commands, enter options at the command line prompt to see a list of
most available options. Enter options <optionname> to see the current value for a particular
option. Detailed descriptions of all options are in the Command Reference Manual, which can be
downloaded from on the NOW site.

16-34 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Exploring options Commands

The options Commands


There are over 200 different options that the options command can be used for. The following
are 2 examples of those commands.

Option Command: auditlog.enable


In response to this command, the system logs all input to the system at the console/telnet shell or
through rsh to the auditlog if this command is enabled.

Option Command: autosupport.doit


This command triggers the autosupport daemon to send an autosupport notification immediately.
A text word entered as the option is sent in the notification subject line and should be used to
explain the reason for the notification. Issuing this command to specific individuals or NetApp
technical support can often provide a head start for the troubleshooting process. Scripts can also
be used to send an autosupport email whenever specific monitoring events occur.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Viewing options Commands

Viewing Command Options Using FilerView


The sub-commands for the options command can be viewed by logging onto the filer and
typing options at the CLI prompt. This will produce an output about 6 pages long. An
alternative way to search for a particular sub-command is to view the man pages via FilerView.

16-36 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Viewing options Commands

Viewing Command Options Using FilerView


In FilerView, the options command is found under “Section 1: Commands”

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-37


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Viewing options Commands

Viewing Command Options Using FilerView


Once the FilerView man page for options is opened, you can use the Find function of Internet
Explorer to search for the desired sub-command.

16-38 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Exercise
Exercise
Accessing and Modifying options Settings

Perform the exercise “Accessing and Modifying options Settings”. Let your instructor know
when you complete the exercise.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-39


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition Slide
Accessing and Executing
Special Boot Commands

16-40 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Checking Health and Performance

Flash Boot Commands

NetApp1> reboot

CIFS local server is shutting down...

CIFS local server has shut down...


Tue Feb 6 08:55:44 PDT [kern.shutdown:notice]: System shut down
because : "reboot".

CFE version 1.2.0 based on Broadcom CFE: 1.0.35


Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002,2003 Broadcom Corporation.
Portions Copyright (C) 2002,2003 Network Appliance Corporation.

CPU type 0x1040102: 600MHz


Total memory: 0x20000000 bytes (512MB)

Starting AUTOBOOT press any key to abort...


Loading: 0xffffffff80001000/8659992 Entry at 0xffffffff80001000
Starting program at 0xffffffff80001000
Press CTRL-C for special boot menu
......................................................................
.........................................................
Special boot options menu will be available.

Accessing and Executing Special Boot Commands


You may need to reboot a storage appliance to do a new install or do some troubleshooting. In
either case, you can access the special boot options menu to help you after entering the halt or
reboot command. Data ONTAP gives you the opportunity to display the special boot menu by
pressing the Control and C keys (CTRL-C) simultaneously when that instruction appears
onscreen.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-41


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Flash Boot Commands

Special boot options menu will be available.

NetApp Release 7.0: Tue Feb 16 13:53:42 PST 2005


Copyright (c) 1992-2005 Network Appliance, Inc.
Starting boot on Tue Feb 16 15:56:03 GMT 2005

(1) Normal boot.


(2) Boot without /etc/rc.
(3) Change password.
(4) Initialize all disks.
(4a)Same as option 4, but create a flexible root volume.
(5) Maintenance mode boot.

Selection (1-5)?

Accessing the Flash Boot Commands


The menu choices on the special boot menu allow you to continue booting the storage appliance
under normal or special conditions. Selections (2) and (5) are used for troubleshooting.
Selection (4 or 4a) is usually done at the start of a system installation. To enter a selection on the
command line, enter the number of the option that you choose and press Enter.

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Flash Boot Menu Options

Menu Option Function


(1) Normal boot. This option allows the system to boot as it normally would.

(2) Boot without /etc/rc. This does a normal boot, but bypasses execution of the etc/rc
file. Following this, the system is running normally, but
without the configuration normally provided to it in the etc/rc
file and system daemons. The commands in the etc/rc file can
be typed manually to bring the system fully operational.

Generally, this command is used when there is something in


the etc/rc file that is causing the storage appliance to
misbehave. Often, only ifconfig, nfs on , and
exportfs –a commands are done manually, allowing NFS
or CIFS to become operational; then the etc/rc file is edited to
remove the offending lines, and the system is rebooted. CIFS
is disabled in this scenario and cannot be restarted until the
system is rebooted.
(3) Change password. This allows you to change the root password of the filer. It is
usually used when you have forgotten the current password,
and so cannot use the online passwd command.

(4) Initialize all disks. This command zeroes all the disks of the storage appliance,
and re-enters the setup menu. It is typically used only once, at
(4a)Same as option 4, but create system reinstallation time. This option asks you to confirm its
a flexible root volume. use; once confirmed, there is no way to retrieve data
previously on the disks. Zeroing the disks may take time
(sometimes hours), depending on how many disks there are,
whether they need to be zeroed or not, and what capacity each
has.

Do not use this option unless you are positive that you want to
initialize your disks.

(5) Maintenance mode boot. This enters a mode of the system in which a small subset of
commands is available, and is usually employed to diagnose
hardware (often disk-related) problems. In maintenance mode,
WAFL volumes are recognized but are not used, the /etc/rc
file is not interpreted, and few system services are started.
NFS and CIFS cannot be used. Disk reconstructions do not
occur. No file system upgrade occurs, even if the system is
newer than the OS release previously installed.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Special Boot While Troubleshooting

NetApp> halt

CIFS local server is shutting down...

CIFS local server has shut down...


Wed Apr 7 20:47:27 GMT [kern.shutdown:notice]: System shut down
because : "halt".

CFE version 1.2.0 based on Broadcom CFE: 1.0.35


Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002,2003 Broadcom Corporation.
Portions Copyright (C) 2002,2003 Network Appliance Corporation.

CPU type 0x1040102: 600MHz


Total memory: 0x20000000 bytes (512MB)
CFE> bye
CFE> setenv floppy-boot? true

Special Boot While Troubleshooting


A storage appliance can be set to special boot automatically while troubleshooting; however, do
not leave this environment variable set during normal operations because it prevents the
appliance from booting without user intervention. The special boot mode is set by halting the
storage appliance and then entering the setenv floppy-boot? true command.

Note: Depending on the filer hardware and software the screen may look different.

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Special Boot While Troubleshooting

CFE> printenv

Variable Name Value


-------------------- -------------------------------------------------
-
BOOT_CONSOLE uart0a
NETAPP_BOARD_TYPE TSANTSA
NVRAM_START_ADDR 0x000000008bfff000
.
.
.
BOOTED_FROM OTHER
boot_ontap autoboot ide0.0
boot_primary setenv BOOTED_FROM PRIMARY; boot -elf
$NETAPP_PRIMARY_KERNEL_URL
boot_backup setenv BOOTED_FROM BACKUP; boot -elf
$NETAPP_BACKUP_KERNEL_URL
boot_diags boot -elf $NETAPP_DIAG_URL
netboot setenv BOOTED_FROM NETWORK; boot -elf
update_flash flash flash0a flash0b && flash
$NETAPP_FIRMWARE_URL flash0a
version printenv CFE_VERSION
floppy-boot? true
CFE> bye

Viewing the Environment Settings


The printenv command displays the environment settings from this boot mode.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Special Boot While Troubleshooting

CFE> bye
CFE version 1.2.0 based on Broadcom CFE: 1.0.35
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002,2003 Broadcom Corporation.
Portions Copyright (C) 2002,2003 Network Appliance Corporation.

CPU type 0x1040102: 600MHz


Total memory: 0x20000000 bytes (512MB)

Starting AUTOBOOT press any key to abort...


Loading: 0xffffffff80001000/8616680 Entry at 0xffffffff80001000
Starting program at 0xffffffff80001000
Press CTRL-C for special boot menu
.........................................

NetApp Release 7.0: Thu Feb 26 15:41:17 PST 2005


Copyright (c) 1992-2005 Network Appliance, Inc.
Starting boot on Wed Apr 7 20:52:31 GMT 2005

(1) Normal boot.


(2) Boot without /etc/rc.
(3) Change password.
(4) Initialize all disks.
(4a)Same as option 4, but create a flexible root volume.
(5) Maintenance mode boot.

Special Boot While Troubleshooting


The system automatically reboots to the 1-5 menu whenever setenv floppy-boot? true
is set.

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Special Boot While Troubleshooting

Selection (1-5)? 1
Wed Apr 7 20:52:50 GMT [fmmbx_instanceWorke:info]: Disk 0b.18 is a
primary mailbox disk
.
.
.

Loading Volume vol0


Wed Apr 7 20:52:53 GMT [rc:notice]: The system was down for 64
seconds
Wed Apr 7 20:52:54 GMT [dfu.firmwareUpToDate:info]: Firmware is up-
to-date on all disk drives
Wed Apr 7 20:52:58 GMT [ltm_services:info]: Ethernet e0a: Link up
add net default: gateway 10.32.91.1
Wed Apr 7 20:53:00 GMT [mgr.boot.floppy_done:info]: NetApp Release
6.5R1 floppy boot complete.
Wed Apr 7 20:53:00 GMT [mgr.boot.reason_ok:notice]: System rebooted.
CIFS local server is running.
NetApp> Wed Apr 7 20:53:01 GMT [console_login_mgr:info]: root logged
in from console
Wed Apr 7 20:53:23 GMT [NBNS03:info]: All CIFS name registrations
complete for local server

NetApp>

Special Boot While Troubleshooting


Entering a “1” on the 1-5 menu will cause the system to begin its normal boot process.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Special Boot While Troubleshooting

NetApp> halt

CIFS local server is shutting down...

CIFS local server has shut down...


Wed Apr 7 20:53:48 GMT [kern.shutdown:notice]: System shut down
because : "halt".

CFE version 1.2.0 based on Broadcom CFE: 1.0.35


Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002,2003 Broadcom Corporation.
Portions Copyright (C) 2002,2003 Network Appliance Corporation.

CPU type 0x1040102: 600MHz


Total memory: 0x20000000 bytes (512MB)
CFE> unsetenv floppy-boot?
CFE> bye

Special Boot While Troubleshooting


After the troubleshooting is complete, the environment variable should be reset. Otherwise,
every time the system reboots it will boot to the 1-5 menu. This may not be desired if the system
is running unattended and reboots for an unexpected reason. The system will remain at the 1-5
menu until a manual entry is made. Change the environment variable by using the unsetenv
command as shown in the example above.

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Checking Health and Performance

Secret Boot Commands

(4a)Same as option 4, but create a flexible root volume.


(5) Maintenance mode boot.

Selection (1-5)? 22/7


(22/7) Print this secret list.
(23/7) Boot in nothing initialized mode.
(25/7) Boot w/ disk labels forced to clean.
(28/7) Display disk labels.
(28/8) Examine disk labels in detail.
(29/7) Bypass media errors.
(30/7) Edit disk labels.
(readonly) Readonly boot
(prev_cp) Boot from previous CP
(quotaoff) Boot and turn quotas off
(WAFL_check) All forms of WAFL_check on aggregates and traditional volumes.
(wafliron) Run wafliron on all aggregates and traditional volumes.
(vol_offline <vol-name> <aggr-name>) offline a flexible volume
(vol_quota_off <vol-name> <aggr-name>) turn quotas off on a flexible volume
(vol_cancel_snaprestore <vol-name> <aggr-name>) cancel snaprestore on flexible volumes
(vol_pick_root <vol-name> <aggr-name>) pick a flexible volume as the new root
(vol_rewrite_fsid <vol-name> <aggr-name>) rewrite a flexible volume's fsid
(vol_show_ops) show flexible volume operations to be done
(vol_remove_op) remove flexible volume operation to be done

Secret Boot Commands


Additional hidden boot commands become available when the special boot menu is displayed on
the screen, but they should be used only under the guidance of Network Appliance
Technical Support. For example, to print the list of secret commands, Technical Support will
ask you to enter 22/7 on the command line.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Secret Boot Commands

Command Function
(22/7) Print this secret list. Allows you to review the whole list of secret
boot commands.

(23/7) Boot in nothing Allows the storage appliance to boot with


initialized mode. nothing initialized. This is a good way to view
all hardware on a system without software or
file system contingencies preventing the
display.

(25/7) Boot w/ disk labels Used when a consistency point was interrupted
forced to clean. during a shutdown while in degraded mode.
This command dumps NVRAM and cleans the
disk labels. Clean signifies that data on disks
match the parity on the parity disk. Up to ten
seconds of NVRAM will be lost when this
command is executed.

(28/7) Display disk labels. Allows you to view all RAID-level


information on the disks. This gives a low-
level view of what the storage appliance thinks
each disk’s function currently is and how
consistent the file system is.

(29/7) Bypass media errors. This command allows reconstruction to


complete after a RAID reconstruction failure.
The command also reports bad sectors. A
warning message appears onscreen with this
command, advising you to run the WAFL_check
command to ensure the integrity of the file
system.

(30/7) Edit disk labels. Allows you to edit the disk labels. Do NOT
use this command without proper
understanding of the label structure and
guidance from NetApp.

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Checking Health and Performance

Exercise
Exercise
Special Boot Commands

Perform the exercise “Special Boot Commands”. Let your instructor know when you complete
the exercise.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-51


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Transition Slide
Using the Command
Reference

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Checking Health and Performance

Content of the Command Reference

Content of the Command Reference


The Command Reference manual comes with Data ONTAP documentation and is a useful tool
for checking the syntax and description of commands. The manual also contains a wealth of
additional information in categories such as sub-commands, examples, warnings, and
diagnostics. The result is a reference manual that is concise yet covers each command and related
topic in depth. A current copy of this manual can always be located on the NOW site.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Content of the Command Reference

About the Command Reference


This Command Reference is a compilation of all the manual (man) pages for Data ONTAP
commands. Manual pages are grouped into sections according to standard UNIX naming
conventions and are listed alphabetically within each section.

The Command Reference contains four sections, indexed in this order:

• Commands, listing most of the commands available for use on a storage appliance
• Special Files, containing a single reference on the storage appliance tape interface
• File Formats and Conventions, containing detailed information on the system files, logs,
databases, and mappings
• System Management and Services, containing in-depth information on protocols, daemons,
and services
Manual pages can also be viewed from the FilerView main navigational page or displayed at the
filer command line.

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Checking Health and Performance

Content of the Command Reference

For each of the priv set admin commands


the following information is provided:
– Command name
• sub-command options
– Description of the command
– Examples, Considerations and Limitations are often
provided

About Manual Page Names: the na Prefix


All Network Appliance manual pages are stored on the filer in files whose names are prefixed
with the string "na_" to distinguish them from client manual pages. The prefixed names are used
to refer to filer manual pages from other manual pages and sometimes appear in the NAME field
of the manual page, but the prefixes do not need to be part of commands.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What are the privileged commands for normal


administration used for?
How would you display a list of these
commands with brief descriptions?
What are some useful normal administrative
commands?
What is the function of the statit command?
How would you list the statit command
options?

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Topic Review

How would you capture statistics and run an


onscreen report?
What kind of information is reported?
What tasks can you accomplish using various
options settings?
What are some of the characteristics of
options commands?
How would you get a list of available options?

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

How would you access flash boot mode?


What are the five special boot commands?
How can you view the hidden special boot
commands?
Under what conditions would you use these
commands?
Where would you find the Command
Reference manual?
How would you locate the online Command
Reference manuals?

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Checking Health and Performance

Exercise
Exercises
Using the Command Reference Manual

Perform the exercise “Using the Command Reference Manual”. Let your instructor know when
the exercise is complete.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 16-59


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Functions of Common Commands


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• List normal administrative commands and obtain descriptions of selected commands


• Specify useful normal administrative commands
Exercise Overview
What are the functions of the following commands? In the list below, enter the command’s
number in front of its corresponding function. For assistance, log on to the storage appliance and
use the help command to display information about any command.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

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Start of Exercise
Match the Command to its Function. When you complete this exercise, continue on to the next
exercise.

Command Match Function


No.
1. arp Used with Cluster Failover commands
2. cf Used to manage virtual network interface configuration
3. cifs Used to configure IP to ethernet/FDDI address tables
4. config Transfers directory trees between storage appliances using
NDMP
5. df Sets the system date from a remote host
6. ems Set of commands related to CIFS administration
7. exportfs Save the core dump of the system
8. fcstat Reads and executes a file of filer commands, line by line. Errors
do not cause termination.
9. ifconfig Prints values from a NIS database whose key matches.
10. mt Performs network diagnostics
11. mbtstat Manages the WAFL credential cache
12. ndmpcopy Invokes commands to the Data ONTAP EMS
13. netdiag Gives disk Fiber Channel statistics
14. options Export or unexport files or directories
15. priv Displays information about the NetBIOS over a TCP connection
16. rdate Displays free disk space in one or more volumes
17. savecore Displays configuration information about a storage appliance
18. secureadmin Controls magnetic tape positioning and control
19. source Controls admin privilege settings
20. sysconfig Configures network interface parameters
21. vif Changes configurable storage appliance software options
22. wcc Allows the user to backup, restore and clone the configuration of
a storage appliance
23. ypmatch A product option that can be configured to provide a secure
channel for administering a Data ONTAP or a NetCache
appliance in a nontrusted environment

End of Exercise

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Using Common Commands

Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following

• List normal administrative commands and obtain descriptions of selected commands


• Specify useful normal administrative commands
Exercise Overview
This exercise executes some common commands on the storage appliance.

Time Estimate
10 minutes

Start of Exercise
Log on to the storage appliance and enter the following commands

Step Action

1. Type sysconfig and view the output returned.

2. Type ifconfig to see required syntax that is returned to use the command.

3. Type df to see disk free space.

4. Type help quota to see help information returned.

5. Stop, and let your instructor know that you have completed this exercise.

End of Exercise

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Checking Health and Performance

Exercise Using the statit command


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following

• Explain the function of the statit command


• Use statit to capture statistics, run onscreen reports and analyze utilization statistics

Exercise Overview
This exercise creates a report of the storage appliance’s performance.

Time Estimate
10 minutes

Start of Exercise
Log on to the storage appliance and perform the following steps.

Step Action

1. On the storage appliance, type in the command to enter privileged administrative


mode

2. Type the following command to start gathering statistics


statit –b

3. Using your Unix or Windows host, copy the contents of the directory disk_fw on
/vol/vol0/etc/ to vol1.

4. Wait approximately 30 seconds and type the appropriate command to stop data
gathering for statit.

5. Review the report results, then type in the appropriate command to return to normal
administrative mode.
What disks on vol0 were showing read activity?

What disks on vol1 were showing write activity?

6. Stop, and let your instructor know that you have completed this exercise.
End of Exercise

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise Accessing and Modifying options Settings


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following

• Explain the use of the options settings


• List some of the characteristics of options commands

Exercise Overview
This exercise uses the command line to view the man page for options.

Time Estimate
15 minutes

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. Log on to the storage appliance and type the following command

> options

2. Look up the following sub-commands for options in the table below and briefly write
down the definitions and possible setting for each

3. When you complete this exercise, continue on to the next exercise.

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Checking Health and Performance

Option: Sub-Command Definitions and Settings


autosupport.doit

autosupport.support.transport

cifs.max_mpx

cifs.netbios_over_tcp.enable

dns.domainname

dns.enable

httpd.rootdir

raid.timeout

rsh.access

timed.sched

wafl.default_security_style

End of Exercise

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise Special Boot Commands


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following

• Explain how to access flash boot mode


• Recognize the five special boot commands
• Explain the availability of the hidden boot commands
• Execute the 22/7 command
Exercise Overview
In this exercise, you will reboot the filer several times to observe its behavior under various
conditions. As you enter commands and perform the requested actions, notice how the storage
appliance responds.

Time Estimate
15 minutes

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. Log on to the storage appliance and complete the following steps

2. Type reboot
Type ^c when the following message appears:
Press CTRL-C for special boot menu
................................

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3. The special boot menu below should appear:


(1) Normal boot.
(2) Boot without /etc/rc.
(3) Change password.
(4) Initialize all disks.
(4a)Same as option 4, but create a flexible root volume.
(5) Maintenance mode boot.

Selection (1-5)?
Type 1 to have the system complete a normal boot

4. After the system boots, type halt

5. Once the storage appliance halts type the following command and view the results.
> printenv
Scan the output for an entry for floppy-boot?. There should either be no entry at
all, or it should have a variable of false

6. Change the action taken during a boot by typing in the following command.
> setenv floppy-boot? true
Verify the change by typing in the following command.
> printenv

7. Now enter bye to boot the system and watch it go to the special boot menu without
using ^c as you had to do in Step 2.

8. At the special boot menu type 1 to have the system complete a


normal boot

9. Now, halt the system and re-set the action taken during a boot by typing in the
following command.
> unsetenv floppy-boot?

10. Type printenv to verify that floppy-boot true is deleted.


Note setenv can be used to set the floppy-boot option to false but leaves the entry.
Use unsetenv to set it to false and delete the entry; if it has been deleted,
printenv will not display it.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

11. Now enter bye to boot the system and watch it boot normally without displaying the
special boot menu.

12. Stop, and let your instructor know that you have completed this exercise.
End of Exercise

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Checking Health and Performance

Exercise Using the Command Reference Manual


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following

• Refer to the Command Reference manual in the Data ONTAP documentation


• Find Command Reference manuals on the NOW site
Exercise Overview
This exercise accesses the NetApp NOW site to gain access to documentation and information.

Time Estimate
15 minutes

Required Hardware and Software


Network

• Internet Explorer to access the NetApp NOW site http//NOW.NetApp.com

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. On your local workstation open an Internet Explorer session and enter the following
URL

http//NOW.NetApp.com

2. Log on to the NOW site using your user-id or a temporary user-id supplied to you by
your instructor.

3. Navigate to and locate the most current Command Reference Manual on the NOW
site. Open the HTML or PDF version of the manual to perform the following tasks
and answer the associated questions

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

4. Locate information about the cifs setup command and answer the following
question.
What is the function of the cifs setup command?

5. Locate information about the netdiag command and answer the following
question.
What is the purpose of the –b option when used with the netdiag command

6. Locate information about the rc file and answer the following question.
What is the function of the rc file?

7. Stop, and let your instructor know that you have completed this exercise.
End of Exercise

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Health
Maintaining Health and Performance

Module 17. Maintaining Health and Performance

Maintaining Health and


Performance

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module you will be able to:


– Verify correct operation of hardware, software, and
networking components using Data ONTAP
commands and options
– Identify system performance indicators
– Identify commands and options for obtaining
configuration and status information
– Use reboot command to return the system to use
after configuration, maintenance, or failure events
– Interpret Autosupport listings and command output
to pinpoint useful information
– Understand how latency and throughput relate to
performance measurement

This module provides information about commands, procedures, and features you can use to
check the health and performance of your storage appliance. While this module focuses
specifically on storage appliances, much of the information is applicable to any system running
Data ONTAP.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Maintaining System Health and


Performance

Check or monitor:
Hardware components
Software versions
Connectivity issues (MAC, TCP/IP, protocols)
Performance measures

Checking the System


Good performance is the result of hardware, software, and communication protocols working
together at their optimal limits. The failure or underperformance of one element in the system
can negatively impact others. Constantly monitoring the system and using NetApp’s set of
command tools will enable you to adjust your system to reduce latency, improve data
throughput, and achieve optimal performance.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Monitoring Hardware Health and


Performance

Use the following commands and options to


obtain key hardware information:

Command: sysconfig
Command Function
sysconfig Provides a brief summary.(Runs automatically with “setup.”
sysconfig –a Displays very detailed information about each I/O device.

sysconfig –c Checks system hardware configuration. (The –c option runs


automatically during boot (ONTAP 6.0).)
sysconfig –d Shows the disks on the system.
sysconfig –t Shows the tape drives on the system.
sysconfig –v Shows everything on the screen: Data ONTAP version, all devices in PCI
slots, and the memory.

Using the sysconfig Command


The first command to consider when investigating your hardware health is sysconfig -v.
The sysconfig command provides the most comprehensive view of hardware status
information.

Questions that can be answered by this command’s output include:

• Is memory correct?

• Are the shelves shown?

• Is the tape drive shown?

• Are the NICs shown?

• Is anything that is supposed to be a part of the system NOT shown?

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking Hardware Components

Monitor performance and condition of the


system hardware components:
CPU
Disks
Power system

Checking Hardware Components


In addition to general configuration information, you will need to gather more specific
component-related information using additional commands. For example, there are commands
that allow you to check CPU usage and speed of performance, disk performance and status, and
power system function.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking CPU Status and Performance

Check CPU status


– Use sysstat command to view CPU utilization
– Use System Status feature on FilerView
– Use Filer-at-a-Glance feature on FilerView
Improve CPU performance
– Adjust CPU-related options

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking CPU Status Using sysstat

sysstat 1

Checking CPU Status Using the sysstat Command


The best command for viewing CPU utilization is sysstat [interval]. (Specify the
incremental interval in seconds). For example: sysstat 1 specifies an update every second.
(Default is updated every 15 seconds.)

The statistics displayed by this command should help to answer questions such as:

• Is the usage steady or does it fluctuate?


• Is the CPU percentage high without corresponding input/output activity?
Interpreting sysstat Results
• The first column (CPU:) shows how busy the CPU is. Acceptable percentages are 70-80%
with occasional peaks. Consistent high percentages might indicate a problem. Also look at
the other statistics in the row with the CPU busy. Are there sufficient disk activities or NFS
operations to justify the CPU usage?
• The fifth column Net Kb/s, shows the network traffic in kilobytes per second. This will tell
you how much network traffic the storage appliance is handling, how constant the network
traffic is, and if the system is maxing out.
• The sixth column, Disk Kb/s and Disk I/O: shows disk write data. Storage appliances use
NVRAM to stash write data and limit write traffic to disk and they use RAM to cache read
data. Disk reads will happen if the data is not in cache. Ideally, disk writes should occur
every 10 seconds; therefore, 10 out of 11 output lines should be zero, followed by a big write.
Constant writes increase the CPU load, which slows down the write response.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Viewing System Status Using FilerView

Viewing System Status Using FilerView


Use the Show System Status feature on FilerView to display system statistics. Another FilerView
feature provides a more graphical view of real-time system usage:

1. Point your browser to the storage appliance’s address to access FilerView. Select the Filer
Node and then open Show System Status.

2. Select the number of iterations (rows) in the report and how frequently the statistics should
be captured.

3. Click Summary to display lines for each column.

4. Click Run and scroll down to see results.

Note: The Summary shows minimum, average, and maximum values for each column. This
additional statistical analysis is useful for establishing performance baselines.

17-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Viewing Current System Status Using


FilerView

Viewing Current System Status Using FilerView


You can also view current system status by using the Filer-At-A-Glance function on FilerView:

1. Point your browser to the storage appliance’s address to access FilerView. Select the Real
Time Status Node and then open Filer At-A-Glance.

2. Select the refresh rate from the drop down menu. Here, the default is every 10 seconds.

The graphs provide a visual illustration of Network file operations and CPU performance. You
can get more detail by clicking on a graph.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Using Options to Adjust CPU Performance

options

vol options vol0 maxdirsize

Using CPU-related Options to Adjust Performance


There are several configurable CPU-related options that can be adjusted to optimize CPU
performance.

Enter the options command to view a list of the current settings for the storage appliance. Use
the vol options volume_name command to display volume-specific settings.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

CPU-Related Options

Example Result
options The amount of CPU used determines the speed
raid.reconstruct.perf_impact of RAID reconstruction. If storage appliance
medium performance during reconstruction is more
important, you can adjust this option setting
down. If the speed of reconstruction is more
important, adjust the setting up. This option
also controls CPU utilization for the disk scrub
function.

options raid.scrub.enable on RAID scrubbing can affect the CPU


performance. By default, RAID scrubbing
happens at 1:00 am on Sunday. However, if
RAID scrubbing interferes with late-night
processing, you can use this option to turn off
automatic RAID scrubbing. You can run it
manually by using the disk scrub start
command or schedule it to run at a different
time.

options vol.copy.throttle 1 If the vol copy command is being used, the


value for vol.copy.throttle can be
adjusted, similar to the value for
raid.reconstruct_speed. The value
shown in the sample (1) is lowest, highest
speed setting is 10.

options wafl.maxdirsize Allows you to specify a maximum directory


size.

vol options vol1 maxdirsize Allows you to specify a maximum


subdirectory size on a specific volume.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Memory

sysconfig -v

sysstat 1

Checking Memory
To verify that the memory displayed is the right amount for the storage appliance, use
sysconfig –v . This command displays the size of the system and NVRAM memory.

Checking the Output for the NVRAM Slot


To learn more about memory-related statistics you should check, use sysstat.

Interpreting sysstat Results


Disk kb/s and Disk I/O: Huge volumes of write data will fill up the NVRAM cache before the
10-second consistency point trigger, and the system will be forced to flush to disk. Serial
consecutive disk writes are acceptable. However, if writes are occurring every second, the
storage appliance is running at its write performance limit, which slows down write response. In
this case, it might be worthwhile to check whether your storage appliance can increase its
NVRAM memory or put the storage appliance on a smaller network pipe. This could ease the
bottleneck.

Cache: The Cache column displays the RAM cache age. The number represents how many
minutes the oldest data has been in cache. A low cache age means that the storage appliance is
retrieving information from the disk, instead of from memory. If the values in this column were
consistently below five, it would be beneficial to upgrade to a storage appliance with more
RAM.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking Card Slots

sysconfig -v

Checking Cards
To verify the cards installed on the PCI bus, type sysconfig –v and review the items that are
installed in each slot. The output provides slot number and a description of the hardware in that
slot. One by one, verify that all cards are where they should be.

At boot time or when you use the sysconfig –c command, you might see messages that
expansion cards must be in certain slots. To improve performance, follow these
recommendations.

Note: The System Configuration Guide on http://now.netapp.com is a very useful reference for
determining whether cards are installed in the correct supported configuration.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise
Exercise
Check System Status and CPU Performance

17-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking Disk Status

Perform the following tasks associated with disk status:


 Verify loops and SCSI ports for disks
 Perform scsi test on the drives
 View last Autosupport for possible scrubbing errors
 View messages file for disk errors
 Verify fibre channel shelves
 Check LEDs
 Check status of volumes
 Check the disk distribution in volumes and RAID
groups

Checking Disk Status


There are several things you can do to check the status of the disks. In addition to visually
inspecting the shelves, connections, and cabling, the following procedures can help discover and
prevent problems.

Verify loops and SCSI ports for disks:

Check and record the number of SCSI ports and fiber loops that are being used.

Perform a scsi test on the drives:

Enter the scsi test [device_name] command to issue a “test unit ready cdb” to
the drive. Drives that are up and ready will reply with a good status. Drives that are in the
process of getting ready, or are spun down, may generate a check condition and return
sense data about their current state.

View last autosupport for possible scrubbing errors:

If there are bad spots on a disk, they will usually be part of the RAID scrubbing log. It
could mean that the disk or controller is having problems.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Viewing /etc/messages for Disk Errors


Using CLI

rdfile /etc/messages

Viewing Messages File Using CLI


Check previous system messages to see if any disk errors have been recorded. There are three
ways to do this:

• Use the CLI to review the contents of the /etc/messages file

• Use the FilerView interface to view the Syslog Messages

• Use the Syslog Translator feature on the NOW site to interpret the messages

Using the CLI to review the contents of the /etc/messages file


Enter the rdfile [filename] command to bring up the file.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Viewing Syslog Messages Using FilerView

Viewing the Syslog Messages Using FilerView


The Syslog Messages can also be viewed from FilerView. Follow these steps:

1. Point your browser to the storage appliance’s address to access FilerView. Select the Filer
node and then open Syslog Messages.

2. Scroll through the messages for the date and time of concern to see if any error messages
have been logged that might point to possible problems.

3. Select a message and it will open the Syslog Translator on the NOW site and provide a more
thorough explanation of the Syslog messages that appear on the console of your NetApp
appliance

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Interpreting Syslog Messages Using


Syslog Translator

Using the Syslog Translator to Interpret Messages


The Syslog Translator interprets the message and provides more user friendly information. In
this case, the syslog message was generated when the system administrator issued a command to
remove the disk, which caused it to be spun down by the driver.

17-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Verifying Fibre Channel Shelf Connections

shelfchk

yes

yes

Verifying Fibre Channel Shelf Connections


Use the shelfchk command to confirm proper connection between the storage appliance and
the Fibre Channel shelves. The shelfchk command verifies that the host adaptors on the
storage appliance are communicating with the disk shelves. The command prompts you to verify
if specified LEDs are on or off. Since you will need to see the LEDs, enter the command from a
nearby console.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Disk LED Function

priv set advanced

led_on 7b.16

led_off 7b.16
priv set admin

Checking Disk LED Function


Run led_on and led_off tests to verify that the LEDs are working on all disks. This is one
way to identify which disk is at which address, for future reference.

1. Set command privileges to advanced (you must enter the advanced mode to use these
commands).

2. Turn on the LEDs for a specific disk. Enter led_on and the device name.

3. Go and physically locate the disk on the shelf and verify that the LEDs are lit.

4. Turn off the LEDs for the device. Enter led_off [device name].

5. Return command privileges back to basic administration mode. Enter priv set admin.

17-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking Volume Status Using CLI

vol status -v

sysstat –u 1

Checking Volume Status Using CLI


Use the vol status –v command to view all details about the volumes. If you have a
single-volume storage appliance, use the sysstat –u or sysstat –x command to
determine the fraction of time that the busiest disk is active. If the fraction is greater than 80%,
add disks to the volume using the vol add command.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Volume Status Using FilerView

Checking Volume Status Using FilerView


The status of volumes and RAID groups can also be viewed from FilerView. Follow these steps:

1. Point your browser to the storage appliance’s address to access FilerView. Select the
Volumes node and then Manage.

2. Click on a volume name to view information about the volume.

3. Select Show RAID to view disks in the volume.

17-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking Hardware Using Advanced Disk


Commands

Use the following advanced commands to


analyze the performance and health of disks:
disk fail|unfail [disk_name]
disk shm_stats [disk_name]

Using Advanced Disk Commands


• Use disk unfail [disk_name] to recover a failed disk as a spare.

Example: disk unfail 8a.40

• Use disk shm_stats [disk_name] to view information collected by the Storage


Health Monitor.

Example: disk shm_stats 8a.40

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Removing and Returning Disks from Service


Using the disk fail|unfail Command

sysconfig -r

disk unfail 3.12

sysconfig -r

Using the disk fail|unfail Command


The disk fail | unfail command is commonly is used in conjunction with the
sysconfig –r command. This command shows you the configuration of the disks in the
system, including broken disks.

• Enter sysconfig –r and find the section reporting broken disks. Note the device number
of any failed disks --in this case 3.12.

• Disks that are marked as “failed” can be returned to the system as spares by using the disk
unfail command. Do this only with disks that you know are good.

• Check sysconfig -r again to verify the disk has been returned as a spare.

17-24 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Reading Current Disk Status Using the


disk shm_stats Command

disk shm_stats

disk shm_stats 4.11

Using the disk shm_stats Command


The Storage Health Monitor (SHM) runs in the background, automatically reporting events to the
system log. The data is reset at power cycle or reboot and at varying counter thresholds as
determined by the SHM software.

This advanced command reads information updated by the SHM every 10 seconds. You can
view current status for all disks or for individual disks at any time.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Power System Status

Check the power system components:


 Inspect main chassis power
 Check NVRAM card batteries
 Test the LEDs

Checking Power System Status


These tasks should be done to check the status of the power system:

• Physically inspect the main chassis power: a fan should be blowing on the main power
supply; the CPU fan should also be spinning.

• Check the voltage levels for the NVRAM card batteries: enter the sysconfig –v
command and locate the section showing the NVRAM slot—battery condition is indicated
there.

• Test the LEDs: LEDs should be lit that indicate correct power to the shelves. While in
advanced command mode, enter the shelfchk command and observe the LEDs. When
prompted, verify that the LEDs are lit.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Exercise
Exercise

Checking Drives and System Power

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Software

Ensure optimum performance by validating


software:
Check software version
Check firmware version
Check license status

Checking Software
Performance problems can crop up if you have the wrong or different versions of software and
firmware installed and if you lack the proper licenses for software. If you are not sure of the
storage appliance’s status regarding these characteristics, you may need to perform the tasks
above.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Checking Software Version and License


Status using CLI

NetApp1> sysconfig -v
NetApp Release 6.5R2: Tue Mar 16 13:53:42 PST 2004
System ID: 0084166726 (NetApp1)
System Serial Number: 3003908 (NetApp1)
slot 0: System Board 599 MHz (TSANTSA D0)
Model Name: FAS250
Part Number: 110-00016
Revision: D0
Serial Number: 280646
Firmware release: CFE 1.2.0
Processors: 2
Processor revision: B2
Processor type: 1250
license
Memory Size: 510 MB
NVMEM Size: 64 MB of Main Memory Used

NetApp1> version
NetApp Release 6.5R2: Tue Mar 16 13:53:42 PST 2004

Checking Software and License Status Using CLI


Check Software Version: You can check the software version by using the sysconfig or
sysconfig -v command or by using the version command. It is important to verify the
version, because administrators could boot from a specific version of software from the floppy
and then forget to upgrade the version on the disks. One-way to verify the version on the disks is
to change to the /etc/boot directory and check what the link in that directory points to.

Check Firmware Version: There are two primary ways of checking the firmware version: one
is by using sysconfig –v; the other is by halting the storage appliance and typing version
from the OK prompt. Make sure the firmware version on your system is what it should be, and
make sure that you have the most current version of the firmware for your platform.

Check License Status: Use the license command to verify that all licenses are listed for
your storage appliance. The licenses that are displayed in the autosupport log are encrypted
versions of the actual licenses. If not all authorized licenses are displayed by this command,
contact Network Appliance.

Note: You can also access the license information through FilerView. Under the Filer node,
select Manage Licenses.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Monitoring Connectivity Issues:


MAC Level

Maintain network performance by monitoring


connectivity issues:
MAC
– ifconfig
– ifstat
– rdfile /etc/messages
– arp
TCP/IP
Protocols

Monitoring Connectivity Issues: MAC Level


Connectivity problems can arise with functions at the MAC, TCP/IP, and protocol layers. At the
MAC level, you can use the following commands to check various statistics and settings for
connectivity.

Commands to Use for Checking MAC Protocol Issues

Example Result
ifconfig -a Does a real-time check on interface UP status, the MTU size,
and Ethernet address of all interfaces. Make sure these values
ifconfig e1 are what they are supposed to be for each interface.

Enter the interface name to view individual interface data:

ifstat –a Displays status information for all interfaces. On an individual


basis, type ifstat [interface name] for each interface
ifstat ns1 (ifstat ns1).

Ask: are any of the bad numbers (such as collisions, CRCs, or


runt frames) high? If so, this could suggest a problem with the
mediatype or card.

rdfile /etc/messages Displays the messages file to see if the storage appliance has
logged any MAC-related messages, For example, if a duplicate

17-30 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Example Result
MAC address appears on the network, a message will be
logged. You can also use FilerView to view the syslog
messages.

arp This command set allows you to display the contents of the
address resolution table (hostname/IPaddress) so they can be
modified. They may also help identify duplicate MAC
addresses.

arp –a Displays all current contents of the table.

arp -d Deletes or flushes a bad MAC address from the ARP table.

arp –s Adds a new entry.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Monitoring Connectivity Issues:


TCP/IP Level

Maintain network performance by monitoring


connectivity issues:
MAC
TCP/IP
– /etc/rc and /etc/hosts files
– ifconfig
– ping
– arp
– netstat -r
Protocols

Monitoring Connectivity Issues: TCP/IP Level


At the TCP/IP level, you can view the following files and use the following commands to check
various statistics and settings for connectivity.

Commands to Use for Checking TCP/IP Protocol Issues

Example Result
rdfile /etc/rc View the /etc/rc file for the host IP. Look at the ifconfig
rdfile /etc/hosts statements in the /etc/rc file. Do they specify an IP address or do
they reference a host listed in the /etc/hosts files? If they
reference a host, review the /etc/hosts file to verify the correct IP
address for the host. Does everything match up? Are there any
redundant or incorrect entries in the host’s file?
ifconfig -a Reissue the ifconfig -a command and make sure that the
IP addresses are correct for each interface.
ping Test TCP/IP connectivity by pinging the storage appliance, first
by its hostname and then by its IP address, from an external
client.
arp Issue the arp -a command to review the ARP tables on the
storage appliance. Perform a sanity check on all entries. Are any
of them incorrect? Do all IP addresses have the correct Ethernet
addresses, etc.?

17-32 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Example Result
netstat –r Issue a netstat -r command to verify that all gateways are
set correctly.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Monitoring Connectivity Issues:


Protocols Level

Maintain network performance by monitoring


connectivity issues:
MAC
TCP/IP
Protocols
– nfsstat
– exportfs
– cifs stat
– nbtstat
– cifs testdc

Monitoring Connectivity Issues: Protocols Level


At the Protocol level, you can use the following commands to verify CIFS, NFS, and HTTP
performance.

Commands to Use for Checking Protocols Connectivity Issues

Command Purpose
nfsstat View the output of nfsstat from the storage
appliance and the client. Look for bad calls or client
nfsstat -l mis-configuration. For example, if all clients are using
NFS version 3, and version 3 is not enabled, there will
be performance problems.
nfs.per_client.stats.enable
Use nfsstat –l to display usage per client (if the
NFS statistics per client option is on). Using
nfsstat -l can show you how evenly (or
unevenly) dispersed the NFS traffic is.

exportfs View the output of this command and verify that


directories and files are being exported as expected.

cifs stat Use the cifs stat command to view cumulative


statistics for all CIFS clients. The default form of this
command (no interval or options specified) displays

17-34 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Command Purpose
counts and percentages of all CIFS operations as well
as a number of internal statistics that may be of use
when diagnosing performance and other problems.

nbtstat Name resolution delays can slow user access to the


storage appliance. Use this command to help diagnose
NetBIOS resolution issues. The nbtstat command
displays information about the NetBIOS over TCP
(NBT) connection for the storage appliance. Output
comprises the IP addresses associated with the
interfaces, the broadcast IP mask, the IP addresses of
the WINS servers in use, and information about the
registered NetBIOS names.

cifs testdc The cifs testdc command tests connectivity


between the storage appliance and domain controllers
in its NT Domain. The output of this command is
useful in the diagnosis of CIFS-related network
problems.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise
Exercise

Verifying Software, Licensing,


Connectivity and Troubleshooting

17-36 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Measuring Performance

Optimum
Performance

Take baseline and


Monitor and ongoing Make adjustments
adjust performance as required
components measurements

Measuring Performance
Monitoring and adjusting the components of a data system must be done in tandem with ongoing
measurements of system performance. Results from such measurements tell you if your efforts
have been successful and where you should focus more attention and resources to improve
performance. This section describes tools to use to measure the performance of NFS and CIFS
operations so you can identify where latencies occur and track data throughput.

Terminology
Latency: the interval of time one component in a system waits for another component. Examples
include the time it takes to locate the proper sector of a disk under a read/write head; the time
between successive accesses to a memory chip; and, the time it takes for a packet to travel from
source to destination on a network. It all adds up to wasted time.

Throughput: the amount of data processed or transferred (without loss) in a given time interval.
Also called data transfer rate. The throughputs of disk drives and networks are measured in bits
per second (Kbps, Mbps, Gbps). In a complex system, many factors can affect throughput.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-37


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Measuring NFS Performance

Solaris NFS Output - Command: nfsstat -l

Measuring NFS Performance


Administrators can track the performance of each NFS server by routinely collecting statistics in
the background across all subnets. The important task is to capture response time for each NFS
operation (such as writes, reads, lookups, and getattr) so the data can be analyzed by server and
by file system. You can get statistics for NFS operations by server by enabling the per-client
stats option and running nfsstat -l. Once you establish site-specific baseline measurements,
you can compare your system’s performance against optimum benchmark configurations or
against its own performance at different times during the week. Changes from the baseline may
indicate problems requiring further analysis and attention.

You can use the sysstat and nfsstat commands to measure NFS performance.

• Enter the sysstat 1 command to display real-time NFS operations every second on your
console (or view the output using FilerView).

• On Solaris NFS clients, you can run nfsstat -m to focus the output on response time
related counters.

ƒ Use nfsstat –z to reset the statistics and counters to zero.

ƒ Use nfsstat -m to display average (mean) response times since the statistics were
reset.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Measuring CIFS Performance

Measuring CIFS Performance


You can use the sysstat and smb_hist commands to measure CIFS performance.

• Enter the sysstat 1 command to display CIFS operations per second on the console (or
use FilerView).

• For CIFS throughput statistics, follow the steps below.:

1. Set command privileges to advanced.


2. Enter smb_hist –z to zero the counters.
3. Wait long enough to get a good sample.
4. Enter smb_hist to view CIFS statistics generated since reset.
5. Review first section of output.
6. Take a look at the first part of the smb_hist output. In this example, there were
13,715 operations that happened in less than .5 milliseconds, 17,752 operations that
happened in the 0.5 milliseconds to 1.5 milliseconds window, and 5,111 operations that
took place in the 1.5 milliseconds to 2.5 milliseconds window, etc. In normal situations,
as the interval window gets larger, the number of operations that take that long decreases
to zero.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-39


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Performing a
Warm Reboot

17-40 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Conditions for Warm vs. Cold Reboots

AAwarm-reboot
warm-rebootoccurs
occursunder
underthe
the AAcold-reboot
cold-rebootoccurs
occursunder
underthe
thefollowing
following
following
followingconditions:
conditions: conditions:
conditions:
rebootcommand
•• reboot commandisisexecuted
executed •• power
powerisiscycled
cycled
•• aapanic
panicoccurs
occursininsoftware
software •• aapanic
panicoccurs
occursduring
duringthe
theboot
bootprocess
process
•• error
error occurs duringinterrupt
occurs during interrupthandling
handling •• system halt command is executed
system halt command is executed
•• instruction
instructionfault
faultoccurs
occurs

Conditions for Warm vs. Cold Reboots


The reboot command starts the storage appliance and then restarts it. The reboot process is
commonly used to allow modified configuration files to take affect or to run newly installed
versions of Data ONTAP. It is often desirable for the storage appliance to be rebooted to recover
from situations that may occur during various system related events. In many cases, the recovery
from the event does not require (nor is it desirable) a full cold-reboot, which would require a
significant amount of time.

Starting with the Data ONTAP 6.0 release, a warm-reboot operation is available that greatly
reduces the reboot time on the storage appliance. Whether the system undergoes a warm reboot
or a cold reboot depends on conditions such as those listed above.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-41


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Processes Skipped During Warm Reboots

 Memory (DRAM) testing on the storage


appliance
 Memory zeroing
 Data ONTAP Kernel text and data reloading
from disk
 LCD self-testing
 SIO start-up testing (Serial I/O device)

Processes Skipped During Warm Reboots


The warm-reboot operation requires much less time for the storage appliance to restart. This
happens because the boot operation is abbreviated as certain processes of the normal cold-reboot
operation are skipped, including those listed above.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Using the reboot Command

Command Options:
reboot –d halt_string
reboot –t minutes

Using the reboot Command Options


To do a warm reboot, simply enter the reboot command at the storage appliance prompt.

Example Result
reboot -d installed Data Dumps system core before rebooting. The halt string
ONTAP on test1 server should indicate the reason why the system was rebooted.

reboot –t 120 Reboots after 120 minutes (2 hours).

Using the reboot command logs a message describing the reason for the system halt. Display
the /etc/messages file to view these messages.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-43


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Obtaining Autosupport
Information

17-44 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Using Autosupport

Autosupport Listing
What is it?
– Comprehensive status and configuration report
Where does the data come from?
– Compilation of results from system commands
(such as sysconfig, statit, etc.)
How do you get an Autosupport listing?
– Sent automatically via email to either Netapp or
address you specify

Configuration Information in Autosupport Reports


An Autosupport listing is a convenient tool to use in identifying elements of a storage
appliance’s configuration. Autosupport messages are requested by the user and arrangements to
do so are made on the NOW site.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-45


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

AutoSupport Contents

Autosupport Message Contents


Depending on which release of Data ONTAP you are running, each Autosupport email message
sent to Network Appliance contains different information. (Check the NOW site for a complete
list of contents.)

This chart lists most of the console commands whose output appears in the Autosupport report.

17-46 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Excerpt from Autosupport Listing

Sample Autosupport Listing

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-47


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise
Exercise

Booting, Autosupport and Write


Performance

17-48 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Planning the Drive


Configuration

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-49


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Optimizing Drive Configuration

Factors to Consider
– Traditional Volumes
• Single file system with a single or dual parity
disks
• File system can be expanded with the addition of
new disks
– Additional Considerations for Flexible Volumes
• Can be as small as 20Mb
• Can be increased or decreased in size
• Can be cloned

Traditional Volumes
A file system has either single or dual parity disks for raid data protection. Dual parity is the
more protective of the two but requires an additional disk. The file system on a traditional
volume can be increased by adding additional physical disks to the volume.

Additional Flexible Volume Considerations


A flexible volume is a virtual file system in an aggregate and can co-exist with other flexible
volumes in the aggregate. Its size can be as small as 20Mb. Beyond that, the size of a flexible
volume can be increased or decreased by adding or decreasing space available from the
aggregate to which it belongs. The size of an aggregate is increased by adding more physical
disks and single or dual parity protection is determined at the aggregate level. Therefore
multiple flexible volumes in an aggregate share in the parity protection and available disk space
at the aggregate level. A traditional volume on the other hand, has its own unique parity disks
and disks for its file system.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Optimizing Drive Configuration

Data ONTAP supports multiple volumes and


RAID groups:
– Multiple volumes enable:
• speedier processing
• efficient administration
– Multiple RAID groups allow:
• storage of large amounts of data
• high level of protection against data loss
Maintaining both data protection and good
performance requires good disk configuration
strategy.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-51


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Researching Write Performance:


Commands

Use these commands to research write


performance:
Command Function
sysstat Displays current system
statistics.
statit Displays disk utilization
data.
wafl_susp Displays performance
data for various system
operations.

Commands for Researching Write Performance


Planning a drive configuration that optimizes write performance requires choices based on
thorough knowledge of current system performance, user needs, and resource constraints. The
first step in any plan is research.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Gathering Data About Write Performance:


Using sysstat
NetApp*> sysstat -c 10 -s 5
CPU NFS CIFS HTTP Net kB/s Disk kB/s Tape kB/s Cache
in out read write read write age
2% 0 0 0 0 0 9 23 0 0 >60
0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >60
5% 0 0 0 0 0 21 27 0 0 >60
1% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >60
5% 0 0 0 0 0 20 28 0 0 >60
1% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >60
4% 0 0 0 0 0 21 26 0 0 >60
1% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >60
5% 0 0 0 0 0 22 27 0 0 >60
0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >60
--
Summary Statistics (10 samples 5.0 secs/sample)
CPU NFS CIFS HTTP Net kB/s Disk kB/s Tape kB/s Cache
in out read write read write age
Min
0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >60
Avg
2% 0 0 0 0 0 9 13 0 0 >60
Max
5% 0 0 0 0 0 22 28 0 0 >60
NetApp*>

Gathering Data About Write Performance: sysstat Command


Use output from sysstat to check current performance. A system under a moderate
performance load usually writes data within the10-second consistency point interval. In a heavy
write environment, NVRAM may become full, forcing reads and writes to/from disk rather than
from cache. In that case, sysstat output would show continuous writes.

Note the Summary lines showing minimum, average, and maximum values for each column.
This additional statistical analysis is useful for establishing performance baselines.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-53


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Gathering Data About Write Performance:


Using FilerView

Gathering Data About Write Performance: sysstat


Command
Use the Show System Status feature on FilerView to display write operation statistics.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Gathering Data About Write Performance:


Using statit
disk ut% xfers ureads--chain-usecs writes--chain-usecs cpreads-chain-usecs greads--chain-usecs gwrites-
chain-usecs
/vol0/plex0/rg0
v0.0 3 1.36 0.00 .... . 0.80 1.55 0 0.56 1.14 31250 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
v0.1 1 0.60 0.00 .... . 0.28 1.00 21429 0.32 1.25 18000 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
v0.2 1 0.36 0.00 .... . 0.16 1.00 35000 0.20 1.00 30000 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
v0.3 1 0.44 0.00 .... . 0.24 1.33 38750 0.20 1.00 28000 0.00 .... . 0.00 ....
v0.4 1 0.36 0.00 .... . 0.20 1.00 30000 0.16 1.00 32500 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
v0.5 1 0.56 0.00 .... . 0.32 1.25 23000 0.24 1.50 30000 0.00 .... . 0.00 .... .
Aggregate statistics:
Minimum 1 0.36 0.00 0.16 0.16
0.00 0.00
Mean 1 0.60 0.00 0.32 0.28
0.00 0.00
Maximum 3 1.36 0.00 0.80 0.56
0.00 0.00

Gathering Data About Write Performance: statit Command


Use the output from the statit command to review disk and interrupt utilization statistics. The
statistics from this command will also show when a particular disk is being over utilized.

• ut% is the percent of time the disk was busy (utilized).

• xfers is the number of data-transfer commands issued per second. (xfers = ureads +
writes + cpreads + greads + gwrites chain is the average number of 4K blocks per
command).

• usecs is the average disk round-trip time per 4K block.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-55


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Gathering Data About Write Performance:


Using wafl_susp

Which example indicates a storage appliance


at its write performance limit?

cp_from_timer
cp_from_timer == 1202
1202 cp_from_timer
cp_from_timer == 202
202
cp_from_log_full
cp_from_log_full == 81
81 cp_from_log_full
cp_from_log_full == 1300
1300
cp_from_cp
cp_from_cp == 00 cp_from_cp
cp_from_cp == 3327
3327

A B

Gathering Data About Write Performance: wafl_susp


Command
Use the wafl_susp command to check for write performance limitations. Output from this
command can be used to determine whether the storage appliance’s write performance is being
limited by its own functions or by network or client-based factors. To get this data:

1. Identify a time period when there seem to be more performance problems.

2. At the beginning of that time period, run wafl_susp –z to clear statistics. (This is an
advanced command.)

3. At the end of the period, run wafl_susp –w to write the output to the console.

4. Examine the results, focusing on the following three values: cp_from_timer,


cp_from_log_full, and cp_from_cp

Answer: The storage appliance (B) is running at its limit.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Determining Volume Configuration Needs

When planning drive configurations:


 Identify likely growth areas
 Identify areas that may decrease or vary in
size over time
 Assign separate volumes for ease of
administration
 Start with a base estimate of two disks per
volume

Determining Volume Configuration Needs


Anticipating future needs is important when making your plan. If you expect a group’s data set
will grow to require its own storage appliance, you can start off with that data on its own volume,
adding disks (and RAID groups) to accommodate growth, and eventually moving the volume to
a new storage appliance. If your volume is going to decrease or vary in size over time, then
consider a flexible volume that can grow or decrease with your needs. You can also configure
multiple volumes and apply different options to various file systems. For example, volume-
specific options such as RAID size, maximum files, and Snapshot scheduling can be tuned for
the type of data the volume will hold.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Relationship Between Traditional Volumes,


Aggregates and RAID Groups

Relationship Between Traditional Volumes, Aggregates and


RAID Groups
• Each traditional volume or aggregate has at least one RAID group (rg0).

• Each RAID group belongs to only one traditional volume or aggregate (physical file
system). Each volume has its own rg0, rg1, and so on.

• When a new traditional volume or aggregate is created, a new RAID group (rg0) is
also created with one or two parity disks and at least one data disk.

• New RAID groups are automatically created in a traditional volume or aggregate


when disks are added that exceed the specified or maximum RAID group size.

• The RAID group size for traditional volumes can be increased or decreased using the
vol options volume_name raidsize option. The RAID group size for
aggregates is increased or decreased using the aggr options command

• Adding RAID groups increases the Mean Time To Data Loss (MTTDL).

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Maintaining Health and Performance

RAID Group Sizes


Maximum and default RAID group sizes vary according to the NetApp platform and type of
RAID group protection provided. The default RAID group sizes are the sizes that NetApp
generally recommends.

Mean Time To Data Loss (MTTDL)


The result of a calculation indicating when data loss from the failures of two or more disk drives
within the same RAID group will overlap (resulting in double-disk failure), assuming all failures
are independent (that is, not sharing a common cause). These failures need not be concurrent—if
one disk fails and reconstruction begins, the failure of a second disk at any time before
reconstruction is complete will cause loss of data.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Determining RAID Group Size and


Composition

Examples of Poor Configuration Choices:


 Unnecessarily using multiple RAID groups. Why Not?
 Using mixed disk sizes. Why Not?
 Configuring RAID groups with wide variations in
capacity. Why Not?
 Configuring RAID groups with only one or two data
disks. Why Not?
 Configuring RAID groups with a large number of
disks. Why Not?

Determining RAID Group Size and Composition


Sizing the number of drives and RAID groups when initially configuring the storage appliance is
important. The more drives, the more independently seeking disk-drive heads are retrieving data.
Write performance can also benefit from more drives; however, any change may be masked by
the effect of NVRAM and the efficient manner in which WAFL manages write operations.
Configuring multiple RAID groups in a volume should be performance neutral. However,
improper configuration can significantly impact performance.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Examples of Poor Configuration Choices


Unnecessarily using multiple RAID groups.

Why Not? Unnecessarily using multiple RAID groups is a poor choice because one parity disk
is required for each RAID group and storage potential is wasted. For example, configuring two
RAID groups of 36 GB disks (when only one is needed) will waste a 36 GB investment, since a
second, underused parity disk will not be storing data.

Conclusion: Add RAID groups when required by usage; that is, when the applied load is
stressing the drives in the current array.

Using mixed disk sizes.

Why Not? Using mixed disk sizes is a poor choice because it impacts write performance. The
primary issue is variable stripe widths. WAFL writes to all data disks without regard to RAID
group boundaries, using volume-wide stripes. A volume or aggregate with many small disks and
few large disks has two (or more, depending on the mixture of disk sizes) stripe regions with
different characteristics. As WAFL moves through the disk block numbers in sequential order,
performance may be reduced because most of the disks are not used. For example, if there are
many 18Gb drives and a few 36Gb drives, writing in the 18Gb to 36Gb disk block number range
would slow as there would be fewer disks in which to write.

Conclusion: Use disks matched for size to optimize write performance.

Configuring RAID groups with wide variations in capacity.

Why Not? This is not a good idea because it works against WAFL’s write allocation policy.
Suppose you have two RAID groups in a volume or aggregate: one containing 14 disks and a
new RAID group with the minimum of two disks. The single data-disk RAID group can cause
serious performance problems.

Conclusion: Ensure that each RAID group in a volume has approximately the same capacity.

Configuring RAID groups with only one or two data disks.

Why Not? Adding a small number of new disks to a RAID group is a poor choice because it
defeats the read-ahead performance strategy. When writing a large amount of data to a single
file, WAFL attempts to write the data in clusters of 96 KB of data per disk. Because read-ahead
of up to 288 KB is performed, having at least three data disks (3x96=288) to write to maximizes
throughput on reads of large files. If the RAID group has fewer than three data disks, WAFL’s
performance increase strategy will be defeated.

Conclusion: Ensure that each RAID group in a volume or aggregate has at least three data disks.

Configuring RAID groups with a large number of disks.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-61


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Why Not? Usually, adding more disks is a good thing: RAID groups of 8-14 disks result in
increased performance (although, as more disks are added, performance levels off). However,
increasing the number of disks in a RAID group past this limit is counterproductive. Large RAID
groups increase the probability of a failed disk in a RAID group. In fact, doubling the number of
disks roughly quadruples the chance of a double-disk failure. Another drawback to large RAID
group configurations is the increased time required to perform administrative tasks: larger groups
require more reconstruction time should a disk fail; backup and restore operations are lengthier
with larger data sets, etc.

Conclusion: Limit the number of disks in a RAID group to the optimal recommended based on
your system and RAID type. See product documentation for current values.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Recommendations for Initial RAID Group


Configuration

 Use multiple traditional volumes for groups with


distinct data storage needs
 Limit the number of disks in a RAID group to the
recommended numbers
 Ensure that each RAID group in a traditional volume or
aggregate has approximately the same capacity
 Ensure that each RAID group in a traditional volume or
aggregate has at least three data disks
 Use disks matched for size to optimize write
performance
 Use RAID DP (Dual Parity) when protection against
disk failures greater than RAID 4 is required

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Recommendations for Adding Disks to


Existing RAID Groups

 Add RAID groups when the applied load is stressing


the drives in the current array
 Add RAID groups and/or disks before the file system
or aggregate is 80-90% full
 Add disks in groups until striping levels out across all
disks; more disks added, less impact on performance
 Plan data expansion so no fewer than three data disks
are used for any RAID group

Recommendations for Adding Disks to Existing RAID Groups


The exception to the final recommendation is if you have a traditional volume set aside as the
root volume with only the /etc directory and system files. Performance is usually not an issue for
a dedicated root volume. Using fewer disks in this case would be economical. If your root
volume is a flexible volume this recommendation is not applicable.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Topic Review

Which command would you use to display


complete hardware information onscreen?
Which command would you use to view CPU
utilization statistics?
Which command would you use to check the
status of volumes?
Which command would you use to check how
evenly or unevenly NFS traffic is distributed?
Output from several sysstat commands over
several days shows CPU is consistently busy
at 85-95%. What does this tell you?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-65


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

Why would you enter a warm reboot


command?
What’s the difference between a warm and
cold reboot?
Which command would you use to fail the disk
4.12?
How are Autosupport listings received?
In general, when planning your disk
configuration how many disks should you
have?

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Exercise Exercise

Planning a Drive
Configuration

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-67


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Check System Status and CPU Performance


Objectives
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Use commands to check system status and hardware components.

• Obtain CPU performance data.

• Use FilerView to check current system status.

Exercise Overview
The purpose of these exercises is to give you hands-on practice executing the tasks required to
maintain the health of your storage appliance and maximize its performance.

Time Estimate
15 minutes

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Start of Exercise
Check System Status and Hardware Components

The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the storage appliance’s configuration and
component status.

Step Action

1. Enter sysconfig –c to view the system hardware configuration status.

2. Enter sysconfig –a to view I/O interface information.

3. Enter sysconfig –t to find out if there is a tape drive attached to the system.

Obtaining CPU Performance Data.

Step Action
Enter the command to check settings for options on volume vol0:
1.
vol options vol0

What are the current settings for the following options?


2.
raid.reconstruct.perf.impact

raid.scrub.enable

vol.copy.throttle

Enter the command to gather statistical data about CPU performance; set the interval
3.
to 2 seconds.

sysstat 2

4. Roughly, what is the average CPU Busy %?

Does this indicate high, low, or moderate usage?

What is the average cache age?

Based on this figure, does the storage appliance need more RAM?

Type Ctrl-C to end sysstat.

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Using FilerView to Check Current System Status

The purpose of this exercise is to use FilerView features to gain a quick view of current system
status and to obtain more detailed status reports.

Step Action
Check the “Filer-At-A-Glance” feature on FilerView. Point your browser to the
1.
storage appliance’s address to access FilerView:

http://[filer’s IP address]/na_admin

Select the Real Time Status node and then open Filer-At-A-Glance.
2.
Select the refresh rate from the drop-down menu. (Default is every 10 seconds.)
3.
Next, view a system status report on FilerView. Select the Filer node and then open
4.
Show System Status.

Select the number of iterations (rows) in the report and how frequently the statistics
5.
should be captured.

Click Summary to display lines for each column.


6.
Click Run and scroll down to see results.
7.

End of Exercise

17-70 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Exercise: Checking Drives and System Power


Objectives
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Check the status of disk drives.

• Check power system status and test the LEDs.

Exercise Overview
The purpose of these exercises is to give you hands-on practice executing the tasks required to
maintain the health of your storage appliance and maximize its performance.

Time Estimate
25 minutes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-71


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Start of Exercise

Checking the status of disk drives


The purpose of this exercise is to obtain information about all disks (and associated RAID
groups) on the system and manipulate the status of individual disks using CLI commands.

Gather Information about Disks on the Storage Appliance

Step Action

1. Enter sysconfig –d to view a list of all attached disk drives.

2. Enter sysconfig –r to view a list of disk drives in their associated RAID groups.

3. Enter disk shm_stats [device_name] to view current data about the


specified disk. (This is an advanced command.)

priv set advanced

disk shm_stats [one of the disks you viewed using


the sysconfig –r command]

Perform scsi test on One of the Drives.

Step Action

1. While still in advanced mode, enter the scsi test command and the device name
for the disk you chose above. For example: scsi test 0b.20

What happens?

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Maintaining Health and Performance

What are some of the other tasks you might perform to check disk status? ((see page
2.
17 for answer))

Set the console back to Admin level commands:


3.
priv set admin

Check the Syslog Messages to See if any Disk Errors have been Recorded

Step Action
Access FilerView:
1.
http://[filer’s IP address]/na_admin

Select Filer node, then open Syslog Messages.


2.
Scroll down the message display to see if any error messages have been logged.
3.
Click on a message. What happens?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-73


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking power system status and testing the LEDs.


The purpose of this exercise is to use commands to check various components of the power
system, including NVRAM batteries, disk shelves, and LED indicators. Since this exercise
involves observing physical indicators, you either will need to work with a partner or to use a
console located close to the storage appliance.

Step Action

1. Enter sysconfig –v and locate the section showing the NVRAM slot. What is the
storage appliance’s battery condition?

While still in advanced mode, test the LEDs to verify that the disk shelves are
2.
receiving power. Enter: shelfchk and observe the LEDs.

When prompted, verify that the LEDs are lit.


3.

End of Exercise

17-74 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Maintaining Health and Performance

Exercise: Verifying Software, Licensing, Connectivity and


Troubleshooting
Objectives
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Check software and firmware versions and licensing status.

• Check connectivity at MAC, TCP/IP, and protocols levels.

• Identify which commands to use for troubleshooting and problem solving.

Exercise Overview
The purpose of these exercises is to give you hands-on practice executing the tasks required to
maintain the health of your storage appliance and maximize its performance.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Start of Exercise

Checking Software and Firmware Versions and Licensing Status


The purpose of this exercise is to verify that the storage appliance is running the most current
software and firmware and to check which services on the storage appliance are licensed.

Step Action

1. Enter sysconfig command to view the basic system information including software
and firmware release numbers

2. Enter the license command and answer the following questions:

Is NFS licensed?

Is CIFS licensed?

Is HTTP licensed?

What is another way to access the license information?


3.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-75


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking Connectivity at MAC, TCP/IP, and Protocols Levels


The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with various commands used to obtain
information about network connections and protocols.

Step Action
Display information about all interfaces on the storage appliance. Enter:
1.
ifconfig –a

Choose one of the interfaces and check its performance stats. Enter:
2.
ifstat [device_name]

Are there any stats for collisions, CRCs, or runt frames?

Check if the storage appliance has logged any MAC-related messages by displaying
3.
the syslog message file. In advanced mode, enter:

rdfile /etc/messages

Check the TCP/IP connection by pinging the storage appliance from an external client.
4.
Login as the adminhost (instructor has login info) and ping the storage appliance’s IP
address.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Using Commands for Troubleshooting and Problem Solving


The purpose of this exercise is to check your understanding of the various commands used for
gathering information about MAC, TCP/IP, and Protocols issues. Fill in the blanks in the table
below. Refer to the Student Guide material if necessary.

Command Why Use It?


ifconfig –a

ifstat –a

arp –a

netstat –r

nfsstat

exportfs

cifs stat

nbstat

cifs testdc

End of Exercise

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-77


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Booting, Autosupport and Write Performance


Objectives
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Initiate a warm reboot.

• Refer to an Autosupport listing to research storage appliance problems.

• Research write performance using FilerView and CLI commands.

• Identify requirements and recommendations for planning a drive configuration.

Exercise Overview
The purpose of these exercises is to give you hands-on practice executing the tasks required to
maintain the health of your storage appliance and maximize its performance.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Start of Exercise

Initiating a Warm Reboot


The purpose of this exercise is to execute a warm reboot and observe the results.

Step Action
Enter the command to reboot the storage appliance in 2 minutes.
1.
reboot –t 2

Wait 2 minutes and observe what happens.


2.
View the syslog messages.
3.
rdfile /etc/messages

Read the message related to the reboot. What does it say?


4.

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Using an Autosupport Listing to Research Storage Appliance


Problems
The purpose of this exercise is to familiarize you with the contents of the Autosupport report.

Step Action

1. Open the Data ONTAP Fundamentals online course. Go to the Tutorial for Health and
Performance: Identifying Autosupport Information.

2. On page 2 of the topic, click on the “View a sample Autosupport link.” and use it to
answer the following questions:

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-79


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Step Action

3. Who sent the autosupport message?

[exchsrvc@netapp.com]

4. What is the hostname for the storage appliance this message reports on?

5. What interface resides in slot 4?

6. What is the serial number for this system?

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Step Action

7. How many spare disks are there on the system?

8. In the Environment section, what is the status of the fans?

9. For interface e0, how many frames per second is it receiving?

Researching Write Performance.


The purpose of this exercise is to use the CLI commands and FilerView to view system stats,
disk utilization data, and performance data for various system operations. This information is
used in researching ways to optimize system write performance.

Gather Data about the System’s Write Performance using FilerView

Step Action
Access FilerView:
1.
http://[filer’s IP address]/na_admin

Select Filer node, then select Show System Status.


2.
Check the utilization radio button and the Show Summary check box.
3.
Scroll down to see the results. Explain what the results are telling you.
4.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-81


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Gather Data about the System’s Disk Performance and Utilization Statistics Using
CLI

Step Action

1. Enter statit –b to begin capturing data. Wait a couple of minutes.

Enter statit –e to end data capture and display a report.

Review the results.


2.
What percentage of the time were disks busy?

What RAID groups show activity?

Check for Write Performance Limitations Using CLI

Step Action

1. Enter wafl_susp –z to clear statistics. (This is an advanced command.)

2. After a few minutes, run wafl_susp –w to write the output to the console.

Examine the results, what are the stats for the following three values?
3.
cp_from_timer

cp_from_log_full

cp_from_cp

End of Exercise

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Maintaining Health and Performance

Exercise: Planning a drive configuration


Objectives
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Identify requirements and recommendations for planning a drive configuration.

Exercise Overview
The purpose of these exercises is to give you hands-on practice executing the tasks required to
maintain the health of your storage appliance and maximize its performance.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Start of Exercise

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 17-83


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Planning a Drive Configuration


The purpose of this exercise is to check your knowledge of requirements for RAID group size
and composition. Based on the lecture information and the diagram below, answer the following
questions.

Question Answer
1. Which of the volumes would best be used only for administration?

2. Which volume/RAID group contains the maximum number of disks?

3. Which volume/RAID group contains the minimum recommended


number of disks (for a non-admin volume)?

4. Which volume/RAID group contains the default number of disks


assigned when a new volume is created?

5. Which volume/RAID group shows what happens when the system


automatically creates a new RAID group.

6. Which volume/RAID group contains an optimum number of disks?

Based on your understanding from the lecture material, answer these questions:

7. What are the recommendations regarding disk size and RAID group capacity?

8. When should you add RAID groups and/or disks?

End of Exercise

17-84 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Now Site
The NOW Site

Module 18. The NOW Site

The NOW Site

Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:


– Use the Knowledgebase to find answers to
administrative and trouble shooting questions
– Search for known bugs and identify fixes
– Access technical scripts and tools that help
manage products

18-2 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


The NOW Site

http://now.netapp.com

Take a Tour

NOW (NetApp On the Web)


Logging in to the NOW site can provide access to software, documentation, solutions, service,
support and other information as well. New users of the NOW site can take a tour to become
more familiar with what the site has to offer and how to effectively use it.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

NOW PowerSearch function

NOW PowerSearch
Answers to administrative and troubleshooting questions can be found through the NOW
PowerSearch function.
The steps to perform a NOW PowerSearch are:
1. Select the Knowledgebase Solutions and Bugs Online boxes.

2. Select the appropriate product from the drop-down Product box.

3. Type a question or a statement into the question box.

4. Click GO!

Advanced Keyword Search and Search Tips can be used for assistance in selecting more specific
criteria.

18-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


The NOW Site

Using the Search Results

Search Results
A question about a filer overheating might produce the results in the graphic above. To view
more results from the search, click on Show More…

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Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Current Questions Being Asked

Current Questions Being Asked


The NOW site displays a list of questions recently being asked by customers. To view these
questions, look at the “Take a look at what other people are asking” box. When desired, click on
the Go! button to view the question and the associated response.

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The NOW Site

Additional Help

Additional Help
For further assistance the NOW site provides 3 additional methods if your search does not
produce the desired results:
• Click on Submit a Support Case to open a case with NetApp that can be tracked.

• Click on NOW Community Forum to join.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Software Tools on NOW

Software Tools
Finding Bugs Online
Bugs Online is a resource to find answers to questions about bugs and how to solve them.
It is accessed from the main NOW site by clicking on the Bugs Online link under the Technical
Assistance & Documentation heading as shown in the graphic above.
Bugs Online provides a list of software tools on the main screen.
Release Comparison Tool
This tool lets you compare the fixes in multiple releases.
Release Metrics
This tool helps you determine which release to run by providing data calculated based on
Autosupport messages and the CD call center database.
Release Advisor
This tool looks at the bugs you are trying to fix and your current release, and suggests the best
release to fix as many as possible.
Panic Message Analyzer
This tool lets you determine if a release is available to fix a panic message error.
Syslog Translator
The Syslog Translator provides a more thorough explanation of the Syslog messages that appear
on the console of your NetApp appliance. Enter your Syslog message and results will appear for
your software and release.

18-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


The NOW Site

Bug Search Tools

Bug Search Tools


Quick Search
If you have the ID number of a specific bug, enter it here and click Go!
Key Word Search
You can try entering a word that you think might describe a bug and click Go!
Advanced Search
If you get too many responses with the keyword search, you can narrow the search by entering as
much specific information as you have in the fields shown in this area. Click Go! when you are
finished.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Bug Notification

Any1 Anypass
Any1@Anywhere.com

Bug Notification
Bugs Online provides two proactive bug notification tools:
• Bug Watcher Summary allows individuals to see bugs they have placed a watch on.

• New Bug Alerts Profiler allows you to set parameters for bugs you wish to be notified about
via the contact information submitted.

18-10 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


The NOW Site

Downloading Software

Downloading Software
Software can be downloaded from the NOW website by clicking on the Software Download
menu bar. The Software Download page displays a summary of information about each of the
available downloads.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Tools and Utilities

Tools and Utilities


A wide selection of tools and utilities for your storage appliances, NetCache appliance, clients
and hosts is available by clicking on Tools and Utilities on the NOW site.

18-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


The NOW Site

Topic Review

Why would you use the NOW


Knowledgebase?
What kinds of troubleshooting information are
available?
How would you access technical scripts and
tools?

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise
Exercise

The Now Site

18-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


The NOW Site

Exercise: The NOW Site


Objective
When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following:

• Use the Knowledgebase to find answers to administrative and trouble shooting questions

• Search for known bugs and identify fixes

• Access technical scripts and tools that help manage products

Exercise Overview
This exercise accesses the NOW site to accomplish the objectives above. You will use your
NOW user-id and password or a temporary one provided to you by the instructor. Note that the
NOW site is routinely updated and that it is possible that links have been re-titled or even moved.
The NOW site is available to all users. However, information may appear differently depending
on if you are a customer, reseller, partner or NetApp employee.

Time Estimate
20 minutes

Required Hardware, Software, and Tools


Network

• A local Windows workstation with Internet access to the NOW site

Miscellaneous

• Personal or temporary user-id to log on to the NOW site

Start of Exercise

Step Action

1. Open up Internet Explorer and log on to the NOW site. Use the URL below:
http://now.netapp.com/

2. Use the “NOW Natural Language PowerSearch” window and search for, “filer head
migration instructions”.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 18-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

3. Under the heading “All Products: Product Documents” click on Filer Head
Migration Instructions. What information do you see?

Next, locate the NOW Community Forums. Hint: Look in the Technical Assistance
4.
and Documentation section.

What are the different categories to browse?

a) f)
b) g)
c) h)
d) i)

5. Next locate “Bugs Online & Release Tools”. Under “Quick Search” enter the bug
id “23009”. What is the title for the bug id you entered?

6. Finally, in Software Downloads locate “Tools and Utilities” and answer the
following question.
What is the name of the tool that captures performance and configuration statistics.
There are versions for UNIX and for Windows and replaces STATS.?

7. Exit the NOW site and close your Internet Explorer application and let the instructor
know that you have completed the exercise.
End of Exercise

18-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Appendix A
Answer Key

Appendix A: Answer Key


Appendix A: Answer Key.............................................................................................................. 1

Module 1: Overview .................................................................................................................. 2

Module 2: Basic Administration................................................................................................ 3

Module 3: Managing Disks and Volumes ............................................................................... 10

Module 4: Networking............................................................................................................. 13

Module 5: NFS Administration ............................................................................................... 15

Module 6: CIFS Administration .............................................................................................. 16

Module 7: MultiProtocol ......................................................................................................... 18

Module 8: SAN Administration............................................................................................... 19

Module 9: Installation .............................................................................................................. 21

Module 10: Snapshots.............................................................................................................. 22

Module 11: Quotas Administration ......................................................................................... 24

Module 12: Administering Backups ........................................................................................ 27

Module 13: Administering Restores ........................................................................................ 28

Module 14: Administering NDMP .......................................................................................... 29

Module 15: vol copy and aggr copy ........................................................................................ 33

Module 16: Checking Health and Performance....................................................................... 34

Module 17: Maintaining Health and Performance................................................................... 40

Module 18: The NOW Site ...................................................................................................... 51

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-1


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 1: Overview

Topic Review

 What is the primary function of a storage appliance?


– Data Storage
 What are the two main elements of WAFL?
– RAID Manager, NVRAM and Snapshots
 What is a Snapshot?
– Snapshots are “pictures” of an entire file system as it was
when the snapshot was taken
 What File Service Protocols are supported by the
storage appliance?
– NFS CIFS FTP iSCSI FCP DAFS HTTP
 How is NVRAM implemented
– Data is stored in one of a pair of battery-backed up
memory banks and while data isbeing transferred
to disk, the second bank loads.

Topic Review

How is RAID level 4 implemented?


– RAID 4 consists of a parity disk and several data disks. Data is
written in stripes across the data disks; then parity is written
to the parity disk.

How is RAID DP implemented?


– RAID DP consists of a parity disk, a double parity disk and
several data disks. Data is written in stripes across the data
disks; then parity is written to the parity and double parity
disk.

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Answer Key

Module 2: Basic Administration

Topic Review

 How can you access the appliance’s command line?


– TELNET to Appliance (or terminal server), RSH, or direct console access

 What is the URL for FilerView access?


– http://[appliance name or IP]/na_admin

 How can you view a storage appliance’s system


configuration?
– CLI – sysconfig –v or FilerView

 How can you access a storage appliance’s


configuration files from a remote admin host?
– Unix via a mount point to the root directory
– Windows via the \\filer\c$ share

 What command is used to activate the Autosupport


service?
– options autosupport.enable on

Topic Review

Where can you obtain reference information


and support?
– The NOW site
List some of the documentation available at
now.netapp.com
– Manuals, white papers, case studies, data sheets, and
videos

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-3


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Getting Command Information

Step Action
2. Enter either help or ? at the filer prompt. What is displayed?
A complete list of available commands is displayed.

3. How can you get more detailed information regarding commands?

At the cmd line enter man [cmd] to see the man page or access the man pages in
FilerView.
Enter help [cmd] to see man page type information
In addition, there is a link to “Commands: Manual Page Reference” at the NOW site.

System Configuration Information

Step Action
1. Enter sysconfig. What happens?

Displays the configuration information about the filer including the Data
ONTAP(tm) version number and a separate line for each I/O device on the filer
2. Enter sysconfig –d. What happens?

Vital product information about each disk is displayed..


3. Enter sysconfig –r. What happens?

RAID configuration information is displayed.


4. Enter sysconfig –t. What happens?

Device and configuration information for each installed tape drive is displayed.
5. Enter sysconfig –v. What happens?

Detailed information about each I/O device is displayed


6. Enter sysconfig –c. What happens?

A message reporting errors associated with expansion cards in the appropriate slots is
displayed.

A-4 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Volume Status and RAID Group Information

Step Action
1. Enter vol status. What happens?

The options that are set per volume are displayed

2. Enter vol status –r. What happens?

Displays a list of the RAID information for that volume.


3. Enter vol status –v. What happens?

The on/off state of all per-volume options and displays information about each plex
and RAID group within the volume is displayed.

4. Enter vol status –d. What happens?

Displays information about the disks in the specified volume

Disk Space

Step Action
1. Enter df . What happens?

Displays statistics about the amount of free disk space in one or all volumes on the
filer.

2. Enter df –i. What happens?

Displays statistics on the number of free inodes.

Filer Performance Statistics

Step Action
1. Enter sysstat and wait 15 seconds. What happens?

Aggregated filer performance statistics such as the current CPU utilization, the
amount of network I/O, the amount of disk I/O, and the amount of tape I/O is
displayed.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-5


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

2. Wait one minute and enter Ctrl-C to terminate the command.

Displayed data was updated every 15 seconds.

4. How can you display updates every second?

By entering sysstat 1

A-6 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Viewing FilerView Documentation

Step Action
2. Use the documentation to find the following information:

a. Locate the command, in the Commands: Manual Page Reference to display


ONTAP version installed on the filer and record the result NetApp Release 6.5

b. In the System Administration Storage Management Guide-Chapter 2, determine


supported formats for Autosupport messages.

The filer can send Autosupport messages by SMTP, HTTP, or HTTPS (the secure
socket layer [SSL] Internet transport protocol). HTTPS is the default

c. In the System Administration Storage Management Guide-Chapter 2, locate the


section that discusses the contents of Autosupport messages. List three?

Date and timestamp of the message

NetApp software version

Serial number of the filer

Encrypted software licenses*

Host name of the filer*

SNMP contact name and location (if specified)*

Console encoding type

Output of the certain commands

d. In the System Administration File Access Management Guide-Chapter 4, locate the


command to enable ftp options ftpd.enable on

f. Where can you find information on how to set up quotas?

System Administration Storage Management Guide -Chapter 8

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-7


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Viewing FilerView Manual Pages

Step Action
4. List three Autosupport options:

autosupport.cifs.verbose
autosupport.content
autosupport.dafs.verbose
autosupport.doit
autosupport.enable
autosupport.from
autosupport.mailhost
autosupport.minimal.subject.id
autosupport.noteto
autosupport.retry.count
autosupport.retry.interval
autosupport.support.enable
autosupport.support.proxy
autosupport.support.to
autosupport.support.transport
autosupport.support.url
autosupport.throttle
autosupport.to

5. What three Table of Contents topics are always included in the manual pages?

Name

Synopsis

Description

A-8 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Using the FilerView Administrative Tool

Step Action
5. What is the path to configure Autosupport?

FilerView>Filer>Configure Autosupport

6. What is the FilerView path to manage snapshots?

FilerView> Volumes>Snapshots>Manage

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-9


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 3: Managing Disks and Volumes

Topic Review

 What is the minimum disk requirements for RAID4 ?


One data and one parity disk

 What are the rules for mixing disks of different capacities?


Different sized disks require different versions of Data ONTAP
Parity and hot spare disks must be a large as the largest disk in the RAID group

 What is disk drive qualification?


Only certain disk drives for specific manufacturers are supported by NetApp

 How are disks numbered?

Disks are numbered based on a combination of their path_id + device_id

 What is degraded mode?


A single disk failure in a RAID group.

 What is the command to display the disk ID?


sysconfig –r or vol status -r

Creating a new volume.

Step Action
3 Enter vol status –r and view the results.

How many spare disks are available? Answer varies

What raidtype is each volume? Raid4 Raid4

What type of checksum does the volume utilize? Answer varies

4 Enter vol status vol2 –v to view the volume settings.

What is the nosnap option set to? Off___

What is the maxdirsize set to? Answer varies

What is the RAID group named? Answer varies

What is the state of the RAID group? Normal

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Answer Key

Adding a spare disk to a storage appliance.

Step Action
5. If all of the slots are full, there are no hot spares, and all of the disks are assigned to
volumes, can you add a disk to a volume? What must you do?

Yes, but a new shelf must be added, but not beyone the capacity of the appliance.

Adding disks and renaming a volume.

Step Action
2. Enter vol add aggr1–n 2

What output was returned on the console? <Note: Your disk numbers may be
different.>

aggr add aggr1 -d 0b.22 0b.21

Failing a disk.

Step Action
1. At the storage appliance’s terminal, enter vol status vol1 –r or sysconfig
-r to view the disk id numbers for aggr1.

Enter the id of a disk in aggr1 here. Answer varies

3. At the storage appliance’s prompt, enter:

disk fail [device_id from step 1]

What messages were displayed on the console?

NetApp> disk fail 0b.21

*** You are about to fail the following file system disk ***

Disk /vol1/plex0/rg0/0b.21

RAID Disk Device HA SHELF BAY CHAN Used (MB/blks) Phys (MB/blks)

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-11


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

--------- ------ --------------- ---- -------------- --------------

parity 0b.21 0b 1 5 FC:B 68000/139264000 69536/142410400

Really fail disk 0b.21?

4. What would happen if you failed a disk in vol1 with no hot spare available?

The volume would go into degraded mode, a hot spare should be added as soon as
possible.

5. What is the difference between the information provided by the vol status and
the sysconfig command?

If you use each command with the –r switch, the commands are basically the same.
However, if you don’t use the –r command, the outputs will be quite different.

A-12 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 4: Networking

Topic Review

How does a storage appliance resolve


hostnames?
– etc/hosts file, DNS, NIS
What are the limitations of using a storage
appliance as a router?
– A storage appliance is not a router
What does the ifconfig command display?
– Network interface information
What is a virtual interface?
– Aggregate of multiple Ethernet links
What is a VLAN?
– Virtual Local Area Network

Configure Network Adapters

Step Action
7. Record the values below.
Interface name Answer varies
Is the interface up or down Up
IP Address Answer varies
Netmask value 255.255.255.0

Create and Manage a Multi-Mode VIF

Step Action
6. At the command prompt, enter vif status
What is the load balancing policy? IP

How many links are active? 2


What is the vif type? Multi-mode

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-13


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Creating a VLAN

Step Action

4. At the command prompt, enter vlan create –g on MultiTrunk1 test


What occurs when this command is entered?

The command should fail because “test” is not a valid vlan id.

Checking the Network

Step Action
5. What happened and why?

The telnet session should have ended as you are reconfiguring the onboard interface
that your telnet connection is based on.

A-14 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 5: NFS Administration

Topic Review

 What is the format for /etc/exports ?


– Path - export specification
 What are the 5 rules for exports?
– Must export each volume separately
– Storage appliance must resolve hostnames
– Access is granted in a positive way
– Subdirectories of parent exports can be exported with
different option specifications
– Permissions are determined by matching the longest prefix
to the access permissions in the /etc/exports file
 What is the purpose of export options?
– Setting access rights and host access
 Describe some examples of Netgroups
– /vol/vol0 –access=group1,root=adminhost

Topic Review

 Describe some examples of Netgroups


– /vol/vol0 –access=group1,root=adminhost
 How are directories exported to a subnet?
– /vol/vol0 –rw=123.45.0.0/16
 What command would you use to see what is
exported from the storage appliance
– exportfs

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-15


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 6: CIFS Administration

Topic Review

 What 3 methods allow shares to be managed?


– Command line
– Windows computer management
– FilerView

 What 3 methods allow permissions to be managed?


– Command line
– Windows computer management
– FilerView

 What are some of the prerequisites for running CIFS


setup
– CIFS must be licensed on the storage appliance
– Name of the Windows 2000 domain
– IP addresses for up to four Windows Internet Name Services (WINS) servers
(optional)
– Administrator name and password for the Windows domain server
– MultiProtocol or NTFS security style
– Security authentication will be Windows domain, Windows Workgroup, or
UNIX password authentication

Topic Review

What command is used to configure cifs


services
– cifs setup
What is the command for starting and
stopping CIFS services
– cifs terminate
– cifs restart
What command is used to view users and
connections
– cifs sessions

A-16 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Joining a Domain

Step Action
6. At the Storage Appliance prompt, test the cifs setup with the following
command:

NetApp> cifs testdc

NetApp> cifs domaininfo

List preferred DCs Answer varies

List favored DCs Answer varies

List other DCs Answer varies

Terminate a CIFS Session

Step Action
11. What is the difference when comparing the results of step 4 with the results of step
8?

Step 4 will close a session, step 8 will end all sessions.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-17


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 7: MultiProtocol

Topic Review

How do qtrees manage filer access?


– By security styles
What security styles are normally associated
with each protocol?
– CIFS=NTFS, NFS=UNIX
How is user name mapping accomplished in
the multiprotocol environment?
– The /etc/usermap.cfg file

A-18 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 8: SAN Administration

Topic Review

What does acronym SAN mean?


– Storage Area Network

Is the following a supported FCP


configuration?

– Yes

Topic Review

 Is the following a supported iSCSI configuration?

– Yes

 What distinguishes FCP from iSCSI in a SAN


environment?
– FCP uses Fibre Channel technology and iSCSI is an IP-based
protocol

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-19


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

What does the acronym LUN mean and how


does a LUN appear to a host?
– LUN stands for Logical Unit Number and it appears
to a host as a local physical disk
Give an example of a LUN attribute that needs
to specified when creating a LUN
– LUN path, LUN ID, LUN size, Space Reservations
y/n
Name three ways to create a LUN
– lun setup on the storage appliance
– SnapDrive on the Windows host
– FilerView on the storage appliance

A-20 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 9: Installation

Topic Review

What is the the difference between an “out-of-


the-box” installation and a full installation?
– Full installation would require you to boot from
floppies/flashcard and install licenses. Out of the
box only requires to run setup
What happens when the storage appliance
system disks are initialized?
– All data on the disks is destroyed

Topic Review

 Name 3 methods to install Data ONTAP?


– CIFS, NFS, software command
 What is the command to access the storage appliance
for configuration via the HTTP protocol?
– http://storage_appliancename/api
 List steps to prepare for Installation and info needed
to complete the install
– Configuration worksheet
– Type of install you are going to perform
– Complete setup script
– Reboot
– Verify the installation

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-21


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 10: Snapshots

Topic Review

 How do snapshots function?


– When a snapshot is created, it identifies all the blocks in the active
file system.
 What are some of the snapshot commands?
– snap create, snap delete,snap list, snap sched, snap
reserve…
 What option would you use to manually create an
aggregate snapshot?
– The “A” option.
 What are some of the snapshot options?
– vol options volname nosnap
– vol options volname nosnapdir
– options cifs.show_snapshot
 Describe the snapshot schedule syntax
– snap sched vol0 2 6 8@8,12,16,20

Manage snapshots

Step Action
7. What times of day and which days will Snapshots be taken based on the schedule you
entered in Step 2?
8:00, 10:00 A.M. 12:00 P.M. and 2:00 P.M.

A-22 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

View space consumed by snapshots

Step Action
1. Access the storage appliance console and type the following:
NetApp> df
Write the values for vol0 from the df command.
Filesystem kbytes used avail capacity Mounted on
/vol/vol0 ________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/.snapshot

Answer varies
3. At the filer console, type the following:
NetApp> df
Write the values for vol0 from the df command.
Filesystem kbytes used avail capacity Mounted on
/vol/vol0 ________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/
/vol/vol0/.snapshot________ ______ _____ _____ /vol/vol0/.snapshot

Answer varies
Notice the differences in the output from step #1. You should have noticed an increase
in the used space on vol0. The capacity may change based on the size of the disks in
your volume.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-23


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 11: Quotas Administration

Topic Review

 What are the two primary functions of quotas?


– Restrict use of space
– Track usage
 What is the purpose of the /etc/quotas file?
– Contains the quota limit rules to which the system refers
every time it receives a write request
 What information is entered in the /etc/quotas file?
– Quota target, type, disk and file size limits (hard quotas),
threshold limit, disk and file warning limits (soft quotas)
 What command would you enter to turn quotas on for
volume vol2?
– quota on vol2

Topic Review

 What command would you enter to activate changes made to the


/etc/quotas file for vol2?
– quota resize vol2
 What command would you enter to view a list of all users and
their current usage?
– quota report -s
 What command would you enter to make system log entries
every two hours?
– quota logmsg on 120m –v vol2
 In the /etc/quotas file what does the entry,
QUOTA_TARGET_DOMAIN techpubs do?
– Adds the domain name, techpubs as a prefix to quota targets
 Root user and Windows Administrators are exempt from user and
group quotas. What are they not exempt from?
– tree quotas

A-24 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Exercise: Quotas True/False

Question Answer
1. You can modify the /etc/quotas files from either the False
command line or using the FilerView interface but you
must create the file using CLI.

2. User quotas, group quotas, and tree quotas are stored True
in the /etc/quotas file.

3. Tree quotas do not require UIDs or GIDs. True

4. You can enter zero for a UID or GID in the Target False
field

5. The system checks quotas every time it receives a True


write request, so it is important to use a target that
won’t change over time.

6. A tree quota is created in the home directory of a False


volume.

7. The root user and Windows administrators are exempt False


from tree quotas.

8. When entering values in the Disk and File fields you True
can use the abbreviations G, M, or K.

9. You can leave the Threshold field blank if you want to False
track usage rather than applying a limit.

10. If a Threshold limit is exceeded, the write operation True


still succeeds, but a warning is logged to the storage
appliance console.

11. The values for Soft Disk and Disk must be on the True
same line in the /etc/quotas file—otherwise, Soft Disk
will be ignored.

12. The quota target for a qtree should be the qtree name. False

13. To make sense, the value in the Disk field should be False
smaller than the value in the Threshold field.

14. An explicit quota overrides a default quota. True

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-25


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Quota Management and Administration

Step Action

6. When you exceeded the file quota, what message did you receive on your storage
appliance?

Answer: slu2-f2> Thu Apr 29 10:38:43 PDT [slu2-f2:


quota.softlimit.exceeded:notice]: Soft file limit exceeded for tree 3 on volume vol1

Answer: slu2-f2>Thu Apr 29 10:38:46 PDT [slu2-f2: CIFSDispatcher:notice]: tid 3:


tree quota exceed ed on volume vol1. Additional warnings will be suppressed for
approximately 60 minutes or until either a 'quota resize' is performed or usage drops
below the limit.

8. How much disk space is being used by all users on your storage appliance?

Answer: <answer varies>

9. How many files were created on your storage appliance for qtree tree1?

Answer: 4

14. When you exceeded the quota, what message did you receive on your Windows or
UNIX client?

Answer: Yes

15. When you exceeded the file quota, what message did you receive on your storage
appliance?

Answer: Yes

A-26 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 12: Administering Backups

Topic Review

What is the purpose of the dump command?


– Backup a file, directory, qtree, or volume
What backup methods are supported?
– Locally or Net Attached tape, NDMP, non-NDMP
compliant command, dump command
How is backup data organized?
– Based on inodes
How does the dump command use
snapshots?
– Snapshots of the active file system are created
prior to writing to disk

Topic Review

 Which devices are used with the dump command?


– Tape drives or tape stackers attached to the appliance
 What is tape qualification?
– A process by which tape devices are qualified to work with
the appliance
 What must be done prior to executing the dump
command?
1. Local or remote?
2. Data est.
3. Blocking factor
4. Tape file size
5. # of tapes

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-27


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 13: Administering Restores

Topic Review

 Describe the restore command


– The restore command recovers information saved by the dump
command
 What is needed to formulate the restore command?
– Restore level, tape device, destination path, blocking factor.
 How does restoring a qtree compare with restoring a
volume?
– The process is the same.
 What is the the syntax for the restore command?
– restore [options] [arguments] [files]
 What are the steps to restore an entire volume?
– Ensure space
– Verify device, blocking factor,and path
– Enter restore command.

A-28 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 14: Administering NDMP

Topic Review

 What is NDMP?
– Network Data Management Protocol – the standard protocol
for controlling data transfers between primary and secondary
storage devices
 What types of tape devices can be used with NDMP?
– Tape drives, libraries, or stackers
 What is the command to check NDMP status?
– ndmp status [session #]
 What are some limitations of ndmpcopy?
– Cannot copy individual files, increments limited to two levels,
and only works with NetApp storage appliances.
 What is the syntax of the ndmpcopy command?
– ndmpcopy [options] [source] [desitnation]

Turn on NDMP and check NDMP status.

Step Action
2. Type ndmpd status. What happened?

ndmpd OFF.

No ndmpd sessions active.

4. Type ndmpd status. What happened?

ndmpd ON.

No ndmpd sessions active.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-29


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Test NDMP services.

Step Action
2. Telnet to port 10000 on your filer.

telnet [filerx] 10000

or

telnet [IP] 10000

What happened?

Command window prompt changes so something like Ç$☺@uà(☻♦ - indicating a


successful NDMP connection.

Terminate an NDMP session.

Step Action
2. Access the filer console, and, while the telnet session is still active type

filer> ndmpd status

What happened?

Response should be similar to the following:


ndmpd ON.

Session: 2

Active

version: 4

Operating on behalf of primary host.

tape device: not open

mover state: Idle

data state: Idle

data operation: None

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Answer Key

3. What is the session number shown for your telnet session?

Answer will vary – from previous example, session number is 2.

5. What happened?

The filer closed the telnet session.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-31


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Use ndmpcopy on the same filer.

For this section, you may use either the command line or FilerView.

Step Action
4. What happened?

System should respond like the following example:


Ndmpcopy: Starting copy [ 0 ] ...

Ndmpcopy: 270T: Notify: Connection established.

Ndmpcopy: 270T: Notify: dump successful

Ndmpcopy: Transfer successful [ 8 seconds ]

Ndmpcopy: Done

A-32 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 15: vol copy and aggr copy

Topic Review

 What is vol copy?


– The vol copy command enables you to make an identical copy of a file system
 Why use vol copy?
– To migrate data from one storage appliance to another
 What are some considerations for using vol copy?
– Source vol online and dest vol restricted, dest disk space >= source, storage
appliances must both be trusted hosts, RSH enabled, and dest vol is
overwritten
 What is aggr copy?
– The aggr copy command enables you to make an identical copy of a file
system
 Why use aggr copy?
– To migrate data from one storage appliance to another
 What are the syntax differences between the aggr copy command
options and the vol copy command options?
– None, the syntax for the options of both commands are the same
 How is Remote Shell (rsh) access enabled?
– options rsh enable on
 What command allows control of the copy speed?
– options vol copy throttle

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-33


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 16: Checking Health and Performance

Topic Review

 What are the privileged commands for normal


administration used for?
– for disk management, networking and system management,
physical and virtual interface configuration, and related tasks
 How would you display a list of these commands with
brief descriptions?
– At the normal administration privilege level, type ?
 What are some useful normal administrative
commands?
– arp, cf, cifs, config, df, ems exportfs, fcstat,
ifconfig, mt, nbtstat, ndmpcopy, netdiag,
options, priv, rdate, savecore, secureadmin,
source, sysconfig, vif, wcc, ypcat, ypmatch

Topic Review

 What is the function of the statit command?


– To capture statistics and run reports for analysis of system
utilization.
 How would you list the statit command options?
– Enter statit to view syntax and options.
 How would you capture statistics and run an onscreen report?
– Enter statit with –b flag to begin collection; wait at least 30
seconds, then enter statit with –e flag to end collection and
display results.
 What kind of information is reported?
– CPU statistics, Tape statistics, Multiprocessor statistics, Disk
statistics, CSMP domain switches, Aggregate statistics,
Miscellaneous statistics, Spares and other disks, WAFL statistics,
FCP statistics, RAID statistics, iSCSI statistics, Network interface
statistics

A-34 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Topic Review

What tasks can you accomplish using various


options settings?
– Fine-tune systems
– Tailor an environment or application, such as CIFS,
HTTP, or NFS
– Troubleshoot problems
What are some of the characteristics of
options commands?
– Options can be toggled on or off, others require
numeric values, delimited lists, or a value.
How would you get a list of available options?
– Enter the options command.

Topic Review

 How would you access flash boot mode?


– After entering the halt or reboot command, display the special
boot menu by pressing CTRL-C.
 What are the five special boot commands?
– 1) Normal boot, 2) Boot without /etc/rc, 3) Change password,
4) Initialize all disks, 5) Maintenance mode boot
 How can you view the hidden special boot
commands?
– Enter 22/7 command from the boot menu to view a list.
 Under what conditions would you use these
commands?
– These commands should be used only under the guidance of
Network Appliance Technical Support.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-35


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Topic Review

Where would you find the Command


Reference manual?
– in the Data ONTAP documentation
How would you locate the online Command
Reference manuals?
– at the NOW site, download PDF or HTML doc from
the Knowledge section under Data ONTAP
documentation

A-36 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Exercise: Functions of Common Commands

Command Match Function


No.
1. arp 2 Used with Cluster Failover commands
2. cf 21 Used to manage virtual network interface configuration
3. cifs 1 Used to configure IP to Ethernet/FDDI address tables
4. config 12 Transfers directory trees between storage appliances using
NDMP
5. df 16 Sets the system date from a remote host
6. ems 3 Set of commands related to CIFS administration
7. exportfs 17 Save the core dump of the system
8. fcstatL 19 Reads and executes a file of filer commands, line by line. Errors
do not cause termination.
9. ifconfig 23 Prints values from a NIS database whose key matches a given
key
10. mt 13 Performs network diagnostics
11. mbstat 22 Manages the WAFL credential cache
12. ndmpcopy 6 Invokes commands to the Data ONTAP event management
system
13. netdiag 8 Gives disk Fiber Channel statistics
14. options 7 Export or unexport files or directories
15. priv 11 Displays information about the NetBIOS over a TCP connection
16. rdate 5 Displays free disk space in one or more volumes
17. savecore 20 Displays configuration information about a storage appliance
18. secureadmin 10 Controls magnetic tape positioning and control
19. source 15 Controls admin privilege settings
20. sysconfig 9 Configures network interface parameters
21. vif 14 Changes configurable storage appliance software options
22. wcc 4 Allows the user to backup, restore and clone the configuration of
a storage appliance
23. ypmatch 18 A product option that can be configured to provide a secure
channel for administering a Data ONTAP or a NetCache
appliance in a nontrusted environment

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-37


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise Using the statit command

Step Action

5. Review the report results, then type in the appropriate command to return to normal
administrative mode.

What disks on vol0 were showing read activity?

Answer: Varies depending on number of disks for vol0

What disks on vol1 were showing write activity?

Answer: All disks on vol1 should show generally the same write activity

Exercise Accessing and Modifying options Settings

Option/Sub-Command Definitions and Settings


Answer: Triggers an autosupport. A text word
entered as the option is sent in the notification
autosupport.doit
subject line and should be used to explain the
reason for the notification.

Answer: Sets the type of delivery desired for


autosupport.support.transport notifications to Network Appliance. Values are
https, http or smtp.

Answer: This option controls how many


simultaneous operations the filer reports that it can
cifs.max_mpx
process. The approved values for this parameter
are 126, 253, and 1124.

Answer: This option enables the use of NetBIOS


cifs.netbios_over_tcp.enable over TCP, which is the standard protocol used for
CIFS prior to Windows 2000. It defaults to "true".

Answer: Sets the DNS domainname to the


dns.domainname
specified domainname.

dns.enable Answer: Enables DNS client on the filer.

Answer: Specifies the complete pathname of the


httpd.rootdir root directory that contains files and subdirectories
for HTTP access. The default for this is 'xxx'

A-38 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Answer: Sets the time in hours, as a number greater


than or equal to 1, that the system will run after a
raid.timeout
single disk failure has caused the system to go into
degraded mode. The default is 24.

rsh.access Answer: Restricts rsh access to the filer.

Answer: Specifies the timed synchronization


timed.sched schedule. There are several pre-defined schedules:
hourly, multihourly and daily.

Answer: Specifies the default security style


assigned to a new volume. All qtrees created on the
volume get this as their security style. Legal values
wafl.default_security_style for this option are 'unix', 'ntfs', or 'mixed'. The
default value for this option is 'unix', unless the
filer is an NTFS only filer, in which case the
default is 'ntfs'.

Exercise Using the Command Reference Manual

Step Action

4. Locate information about the cifs setup command and answer the following
question.

What is the function of the cifs setup command?

Answer: The cifs setup command performs the initial configuration of the filer for
CIFS

5. Locate information about the netdiag command and answer the following
question.

What is the purpose of the –b option when used with the netdiag command

Answer: This option provides non-interactive usage. The command will not prompt
for user input.

6. Locate information about the rc file and answer the following question.

What is the function of the rc file?

Answer: The rc command script file is executed as part of system initialization.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-39


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Module 17: Maintaining Health and Performance

Topic Review

Which command would you use to display


complete hardware information onscreen?
– sysconfig -v
Which command would you use to view CPU
utilization statistics?
– sysstat
Which command would you use to check the
status of volumes?
– vol status -v
Which command would you use to check how
evenly or unevenly NFS traffic is distributed?
– nfsstat -l

Topic Review

 Output from several sysstat commands over several


days shows CPU is consistently busy at 85-95%. What
does this tell you?
– There might be a problem. Are there sufficient disk activities
or NFS operations to justify the CPU usage?
 Why would you enter a warm reboot command?
– To quickly return the system to use after configuration,
maintenance, or failure events.
 What’s the difference between a warm and cold
reboot?
– They occur under different conditions.
– Warm reboots skip certain testing processes, resulting in
faster completion.
 Which command would you use to fail the disk 4.12?
– disk fail 4.12

A-40 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Topic Review

How are Autosupport listings received?


– Via email to address you specify.
In general, when planning your disk
configuration how many disks should you
have?
– Recommendation is 8-14 disks
– Minimum is 2 (if using volume for administrative
purposes)

Exercise: Check System Status and CPU Performance


Check System Status and Hardware Components

Step Action

1. Enter sysconfig –c to view the system hardware configuration status.

Answer varies

2. Enter sysconfig –a to view I/O interface information.

Answer varies

3. Enter sysconfig –t to find out if there is a tape drive attached to the system.

Answer varies

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-41


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Obtaining CPU Performance Data.

Step Action
What are the current settings for the following options?
2.
raid.reconstruct.perf.impact

raid.scrub.enable

vol.copy.throttle

Answer varies in all cases

4. Roughly, what is the average CPU Busy %?

Does this indicate high, low, or moderate usage?

What is the average cache age?

Based on this figure, does the storage appliance need more RAM?

Answer varies in all cases

A-42 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Exercise: Checking Drives and System Power

Checking the status of disk drives


Perform scsi test on One of the Drives.

Step Action

1. While still in advanced mode, enter the scsi test command and the device name
for the disk you chose above. For example: scsi test 0b.20

What happens?

The device responded with “device ready”

What are some of the other tasks you might perform to check disk status?
2.
Loop and SCSI ports

Autosupport for scrubbing errors.

Check the Syslog Messages to See if any Disk Errors have been Recorded

Step Action
Scroll down the message display to see if any error messages have been logged.
3.
Click on a message. What happens?

You will be directed to the NOW site and after login, the syslog translator will explain
the message.

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-43


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Checking power system status and testing the LEDs.

Step Action

1. Enter sysconfig –v and locate the section showing the NVRAM slot. What is the
storage appliance’s battery condition?

Answer varies

While still in advanced mode, test the LEDs to verify that the disk shelves are
2.
receiving power. Enter: shelfchk and observe the LEDs.

Answer: all LEDs should be on

A-44 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Exercise: Verifying Software, Licensing, Connectivity and


Troubleshooting

Checking Software and Firmware Versions and Licensing Status

Step Action

3. Enter the license command and answer the following questions:

Is NFS licensed?

Is CIFS licensed?

Is HTTP licensed?

Answer varies in all cases

What is another way to access the license information?


4.
Use FilerView

Checking Connectivity at MAC, TCP/IP, and Protocols Levels


The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with various commands used to obtain
information about network connections and protocols.

Step Action
Display information about all interfaces on the storage appliance. Enter:
1.
ifconfig –a.

Answer varies

Choose one of the interfaces and check its performance stats. Enter:
2.
ifstat [device_name].

Are there any stats for collisions, CRCs, or runt frames? Answer varies

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-45


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Using Commands for Troubleshooting and Problem Solving

Command Why Use It?


ifconfig –a To check on interface UP status, the MTU size, and Ethernet address of all
interfaces.

ifstat –a To view information for all interfaces.

arp –a To view current contents of the address resolution table


(hostname/IPaddress).

netstat –r To verify that all gateways are set correctly.

nfsstat To look for bad calls or client mis-configuration..

exportfs To verify that directories and files are being exported as expected.

cifs stat To view cumulative statistics for all CIFS clients, including counts and
percentages of all CIFS operations as some internal statistics that may be
of use when diagnosing performance and other problems.

nbstat To help diagnose NetBIOS resolution issues. To display information about


the NetBIOS over TCP (NBT) connection for the storage appliance. To
see the IP addresses associated with the interfaces, the broadcast IP mask,
the IP addresses of the WINS servers in use, and information about the
registered NetBIOS names.

cifs testdc To test the connectivity between the storage appliance and domain
controllers in its NT Domain. To help diagnose CIFS-related network
problems.

A-46 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Exercise: Booting, Autosupport and Write Performance

Initiating a Warm Reboot


The purpose of this exercise is to execute a warm reboot and observe the results.

Step Action
Read the message related to the reboot. What does it say?
4.
Date/time varies:
Fri Apr 30 07:54:59 PDT [mgr.boot.reason_ok:notice]: System rebooted after a reboot
command.

Using an Autosupport Listing to Research Storage Appliance


Problems

Step Action

3. Who sent the autosupport message?

exchsrvc@netapp.com

4. What is the hostname for the storage appliance this message reports on?

Answer varies

5. What interface resides in slot 4?

Answer varies

6. What is the serial number for this system?

Answer varies

7. How many spare disks are there on the system?

Answer varies

8. In the Environment section, what is the status of the fans?

Answer varies

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-47


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Step Action

9. For interface e0, how many frames per second is it receiving?

Answer varies

Researching Write Performance.


Gather Data about the System’s Write Performance using FilerView

Step Action
Select Filer node, then select Show System Status.
2.
Answer varies

Check the utilization radio button and the Show Summary check box.
3.
Answer varies

Scroll down to see the results. Explain what the results are telling you.
4.
Answer varies

Gather Data about the System’s Disk Performance and Utilization Statistics Using
CLI

Step Action
Review the results.
2.
What percentage of the time were disks busy? Answer varies

What RAID groups show activity? Answer varies

A-48 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Check for Write Performance Limitations Using CLI

Step Action

Examine the results, what are the stats for the following three values?
3.
cp_from_timer Answer varies
cp_from_log_full Answer varies
cp_from_cp Answer varies

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-49


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

Exercise: Planning a drive configuration

Question Answer
1. Which of the volumes would best be used only for administration? (vol0)

2. Which volume/RAID group contains the maximum number of disks? (vol1,rg0)

3. Which volume/RAID group contains the minimum recommended (vol2, rg0)


number of disks (for a non-admin volume)?

4. Which volume/RAID group contains the default number of disks (vol0, rg0)
assigned when a new volume is created?

5. Which volume/RAID group shows what happens when the system (vol1, rg1)
automatically creates a new RAID group.

6. Which volume/RAID group contains an optimum number of disks? (vol1, rg1)

7. What are the recommendations regarding disk size and RAID group capacity?
Each RAID group in a volume should have approximately the same capacity.
Disks should be matched for size to optimize write performance.
8. When should you add RAID groups and/or disks?
Before the file system is 90-90% full.

A-50 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide


Answer Key

Module 18: The NOW Site

Topic Review

 Why would you use the NOW Knowledgebase?


– to find answers to administrative and trouble shooting
questions
 What kinds of troubleshooting information are
available?
– Descriptions of known bugs
– Status of bugs
– bug fixes, solutions
– Information from other users
 How would you access technical scripts and tools?
– Choose the Bugs Online link from the Technical Assistance &
Documentation section
– Go to the Download software section

Exercise: The NOW Site

Step Action

3. Under the heading “All Products: Product Documents” click on Filer Head
Migration Instructions. What information do you see?

Answer: Links to upgrade procedures for filers and NetCache appliances

4. Next, locate the NOW Community Forums. There are 7 different categories to
browse. What are they?

a)NearStore f) Networked Storage Grid


b)NetApp filer (NAS) g)SAN-FCP
c)NetApp gFilers h)SAN-iSCS
d)NetCache appliance i) Software and Applications

Student Guide Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 A-51


Data ONTAP Fundamentals

5. Next locate “Bugs Online & Release Tools”. Under “Quick Search” enter the bug
id “23009”. What is the title for the bug id you entered?

Answer: FilerView applet problems with IE5

6. Finally, locate “Tools and Utilities” and answer the following question.

What is the name of the tool that captures performance and configuration statistics.
There are versions for UNIX and for Windows and replaces STATS.?

Answer: Perfstat

A-52 Do Not Duplicate – February 2005 Student Guide