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biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350

Available at www.sciencedirect.com

http://www.elsevier.com/locate/biombioe

Response of Jatropha curcas L. to water deficits: Yield, water


use efficiency and oilseed characteristics

Abdrabbo A. Abou Kheiraa,*, Nahed M.M. Attab


a
Water Management Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621/5, Egypt
b
Oil and Fat Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

article info abstract

Article history: Field experiment was carried out at Enshas Experiment Station; Jatropha was transplanted
Received 4 March 2007 and treated after the second year of the transplanting by different amounts of water stress,
Received in revised form viz. 125%, 100%, 75% and 50% of potential evapotranspiration (ETp). The study aims to
8 April 2008 ensure the multiple benefits of Jatropha and its suitability under Egypt’s climate in unused
Accepted 27 May 2008 lands under scarce water conditions. The results revealed that the average water
Published online 22 August 2008 consumption rate of Jatropha is 6 L week1 throughout the growing season, which means
that Jatropha can survive and produce full yield with high quality seeds under minimum
Keywords: water requirements compared to other crops. The yield of extracted oil was 28.69, 58.39,
Renewable energy 30.17 and 22.15 kg ha1 at 125%, 100%, 75% and 50% of ETp, respectively. The lowest values
Deficit irrigation of total lipid (oil) (25% and 24.5% of Jatropha seeds) were recorded with Jatropha trees that
Water stress were irrigated by 125% and 50% of ETp, respectively. On the other hand, the treatment that
Oil chemical and physical properties was irrigated by 100% of ETp (control) recorded the highest value of total oil in the seeds
Biodiesel (29.93%). The results also revealed that there are no significant differences among the
Renewable resources values of the determined oil characteristics due to different water stress ratios. From the
Plant oil results, it could be concluded that the highest characteristics of Jatropha seed oil were
Fatty acid recorded with 100% of ETp. In addition water stress had no significant effect on the fatty
acid composition of Jatropha seed oil.
ª 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction self-sustainability and alleviate poverty in women, elderly,


children, men, tribal communities and small farmers. It can
One of the main crops currently being promoted for biodiesel help as well to increase income from plantations and agro-
production in several countries, globally, is Jatropha curcas industries [1].
(Linnaeus). There have been substantial political and social Jatropha oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and
pressures to promote the growing of such crops in many potassium and can be used as organic manure [2]. The Jatropha
countries of the world, as a means of economic empower- oil can be used for soap and cosmetics production in rural
ment, social uplifting and poverty alleviation within margin- areas and all parts of the plant have traditional medicinal uses
alized communities. Jatropha is a valuable multi-purpose crop (both human and veterinary purposes) that are being scien-
to alleviate soil degradation, desertification and deforestation, tifically investigated. The oil is a strong purgative, widely used
which can be used for bio-energy to replace petro-diesel, for as an antiseptic for cough, skin diseases, and a pain reliever
soap production and climatic protection, and hence deserves from rheumatism. Jatropha latex can heal wounds and also
specific attention. Jatropha can help increase rural income, has antimicrobial properties. Jatropha oil is an important

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ202 42189458; fax: þ202 42189561.


E-mail addresses: khalidaa23@yahoo.com, abdo@ksu.edu (A.A. Abou Kheira).
0961-9534/$ – see front matter ª 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.05.015
1344 biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350

product from the plant for meeting the cooking and lighting moisture (6.20%), protein (18.0%), fat (38.0%) carbohydrates
needs of the rural population, boiler fuel for industrial (17.0%) fiber (15.5%) and ash (5.3%) [2].
purposes or as a viable substitute for diesel [3]. The overall goal of this study is to investigate the
Jatropha is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and is potential of cultivating and disseminating of Jatropha as
hardy. Being drought tolerant, it can be used to reclaim eroded a promising source of biodiesel in Egypt. The specific
areas, grown as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid and objectives are to study the effect of water stress on the
semi-arid areas [3–5]. While Jatropha grows well in low rainfall yield and water use efficiency of Jatropha and to measure
conditions (requiring only about 200 mm of rain to revive) it can oilseed physical and chemical characteristics as affected by
also respond to higher rainfall (up to 1200 mm) particularly in hot deficit irrigation.
climatic conditions. In Nicaragua for example, Jatropha grows
very well in the countries under hot climate with rainfall of
1000 mm or more. Jatropha is found in the tropics and sub-tropics 2. Materials and methods
and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures
and can withstand a light frost. Jatropha water requirement is The field experiment was conducted at Enshas Experiment
extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by Station (EES), Water Management Research Institute (WMRI),
shielding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss [2]. National Water Research Center (NWRC), Ministry of Water
Jatropha can handle dryness very well and it is possible to Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), Sharkiya Governorate,
live almost entirely off humidity in the air [1]. Differences are Egypt.
expressed in what is optimum rainfall as some readings say
600 mm and some say 800 mm, while some areas in India 2.1. Experimental site
reported good crops with rainfall of 1380 mm. Under irrigation
1500 mm, 500–600 mm of rainfall is the limit; below which the The experimental site had the following characteristics:
production depends on the local water condition in the longitude 31.35 E, latitude 30.24 N and altitude 25.5 m. The
ground. It will also survive for long periods without water – up soil texture is sandy with field capacity of 8.04%; wilting point
to 2 years – and then grow again when rain occurs. During 3.7%, soil bulk density of 1.49 g cm3 and infiltration rate
a dry period, the crop is irrigated at 7–15 day interval 12.47 cm h1. The irrigation water source was surface water
depending on the requirement. Though the weekly irrigation (Al-Esmaliya Canal). The chemical analysis of irrigation water
is preferable, a fortnight interval is compulsory. Drip irrigation is presented in Table 1 and soil physical and chemical prop-
is not ideal as it induces too much vegetative growth [6]. erties are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
The number of Jatropha trees per hectare of planting will
range from 1600 to 2200; wider spacing is reported to give 2.2. Experimental procedure
a larger yield of fruit, 794 kg ha1 and 318 g shrub1 [7]. In
equatorial regions where moisture is not a limiting factor (i.e., Jatropha transplantings were obtained from the Ministry of
continuously wet tropics or under irrigation), Jatropha can Agriculture, Egypt, where the transplanting department
bloom and produce fruit year long. A drier climate has been cultivated the Jatropha cuttings in small pots under a green-
found to improve the oil yield of the seeds, thought to with- house and then moved it to the open field. The Jatropha
stand times of extreme drought. The Jatropha plant will shed transplant height was 1 m before transplanting. Jatropha was
leaves in an attempt to conserve moisture, which results in transplanted on 12/3/2003 and was irrigated by Microsprinkler
somewhat decreased growth [8]. irrigation system, one sprinkler for each tree (Fig. 1). Jatropha
Analysis of the unsaponifiable matter of Jatropha oilseed by trees were treated by different irrigation water amounts,
GLC technique shows that it contained 40.40% and 32.05% which were 125%, 100%, 75% and 50%, of the potential
total hydrocarbons and 59.60% and 64.63% total sterols in first evapotranspiration (ETp). The trees were planted 2 m apart on
and second harvest, respectively. However, the squaline the row with 2 m in spacing between rows. The trees were
compound was the highest amount of total hydrocarbons irrigated directly after transplanting. The recommended
(17.75% and 14.88%) while b-sitosterol was the major compo- dozes of fertilizer, weed and pest control by the Ministry of
nent or compound of total sterols (46.78% and 43.57%) in first Agriculture were applied to the trees, where farmyard manure
and second harvest, respectively. The predominant unsatu- and NPK were added to the planting hole and yearly top
rated fatty acid of Jatropha oilseed was oleic acid also and the dressings of fertilizers. The weeds controlled manually and
major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acids [9]. The chemical the recommended dozes of the pesticides were applied two
composition of Jatropha seeds cultivated in Egypt was times during flowering and at the end of the season. Each

Table 1 – Chemical analysis of the water used in irrigation of Jatropha during the growing season of 2005 at Enshas,
Sharkiya, Egypt.
pH EC (dS m1) Cations (meq L1) Anions (meq L1) SARa

Ca2þ Mg2þ Naþ Kþ CO


3 HCO
3 Cl SO2
4

7.55 0.38 1.8 0.67 1.04 0.15 – 3.38 0.56 0.13 0.99

a SAR ¼ sodium adsorption ratio.


biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350 1345

Table 2 – Soil physical properties of Experiment Station during the growing season of 2005 at Enshas, Sharkiya, Egypt.
Soil depth Bulk Field Particle size distribution (%) Wilting Hydraulic Soil texture
(cm) density capacity (%) pointa (%) conductivity
(g cm1) Sand Silt Clay Organic (cm s1)
matter

0–15 1.40 9.60


15–30 1.52 8.80 87.6 5.3 5.8 1.3 3.7 3.5  103 Sandy
30–45 1.51 7.90
45–60 1.54 7.56
Mean (0–60) 1.49 8.04 87.6 5.3 5.8 1.3 3.7 3.5  103 Sandy

a calculated on volume basis.

treatment contains three trees, each tree was considered as potential evapotranspiration, (mm d1), which can be calcu-
a replicate. The fruits were picked up for all treatments and lated from Eq. (1), related to the locally measured metrological
seeds of each treatment were collected in September, 2005 to station and pan evaporation data; Kc ¼ the crop factor
analyze and measure the physical and chemical characteris- according to the months within the growing season; Kr ¼ re-
tics of Jatropha oilseed and the suitability of cultivating of duction factor of minimum of Gc/0.85 where, Gc is the area
Jatropha under Egypt climatic conditions. Fruit weights were shaded by the crop as percentage of the total area percentage,
recorded for each tree and the total yield for each treatment in this study Kr was taken as 30% for trees; Ea ¼ the irrigation
was obtained. application efficiency in % (85% of microsprinkler irrigation);
and Lr ¼ the extra amount of water needed for leaching, it can
be calculated according to FAO irrigation and drainage paper
2.3. Crop water requirement calculation
(No. 29) [12] as follows:

The evaporation pan (class A) was placed beside the experi- Lr ¼ Ecw=maximum Ece ðunitÞ (3)
ment to provide a measurement of the integrated effect of where Ecw ¼ salinity of the applied irrigation water, (dS m ); 1

radiation, wind, temperature and humidity on evaporation and Ece ¼ average soil salinity tolerated by the crop as
from a specific open water surface. In a similar fashion the measured on a soil saturated extract.
plant responds to the same climatic variables but several
major factors may produce significant differences in loss of
2.4. Water use efficiency
water [10]. Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETp) can be
obtained from the following equation:
Water use efficiency was used to evaluate various irrigation
ETp ¼ Kp Epan (1) amounts which produce maximum yield per unit of water
consumed by the crop or applied in the field. The crop water use
where Epan ¼ pan evaporation in mm d1 and represents the
efficiency (CWUE) is expressed as kg fruits m3 water applied
mean daily value of the period considered and Kp ¼ pan
for Jatropha [13].
coefficient (0.7). ETp was calculated from Eq. (1) and has been
used in calculating the gross irrigation requirements (IRg)
from the following equation given by FAO Irrigation and 2.5. Extraction of Jatropha oil
Drainage Paper (No. 36) [11] as follows:
Jatropha seeds were crushed twice using grinder model (MF10
IRg ¼ ðAðETpÞKc Kr þ Lr Þ=Ea (2)
microfilm grinder drive). The crushed sample was soaked in
where IRg ¼ gross irrigation requirements, (L d1); A ¼ the pare n-hexane for 24 h. The miscella were collected and
total area allocated to each tree, (m2 plant1); ETp ¼ average filtered. This process was repeated three times using fresh

Table 3 – Soil chemical properties of Experiment Station during the growing season of 2005 at Enshas, Sharkiya, Egypt.
Depth (cm) pH EC (dS m1) Cations (meq L1) Anions (meq L1) SARa

Ca2þ Mg2þ Naþ Kþ CO


3 HCO
3 Cl SO2
4

0–15 7.5 0.15 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.01 – 1.00 0.64 1.17 0.35
15–30 8.2 0.15 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.01 – 1.10 0.64 0.07 0.35
30–45 8.1 0.82 6.6 3.0 0.3 0.03 – 2.15 0.88 6.90 0.14
45–60 7.7 0.75 6.5 1.5 0.3 0.03 – 4.73 0.80 2.81 0.15
60–75 7.4 0.67 5.4 1.8 0.4 0.01 – 2.15 0.96 4.51 0.21
75–90 7.3 0.54 6.0 0.6 0.6 0.05 – 1.27 0.64 5.35 0.33
Mean (0–90) 7.7 0.51 4.33 1.40 0.37 0.02 – 2.07 0.76 3.47 0.25

a SAR ¼ sodium adsorption ratio.


1346 biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350

Lateral line 16 mm
Treatment of 125% of ETp

Treatment of 75% of ETp


From water
Manifold 32mm
source

Main line 50mm

Control unit
Jatropha tree
Treatment of 100% of ETp

Treatment of 50% of ETp


Microsprinkler

Fig. 1 – Schematic diagram and the experimental procedure of Jatropha under microsprinkler irrigation and water stress.

solvent each time. The solvent was evaporated under vacuum 2.9. Physical and chemical properties
at 40–45  C in a rotary-evaporator. The oil was dried over
hydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, stored in dark brown bottles Refractive index. Refractive index of the oil was determined at
without any further purification and then kept at 5  C until 25  C according to AOAC [15] by using a refract meter (NYRL-3,
analysis [14]. Poland). Acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, specification
value and unsaponifiable matter were measured according to
the method described in AOAC [17].
2.6. Chemical composition of Jatropha seed

The moisture content, total lipids, crude protein, crude fiber 2.10. Spectroscopic characteristics
and ash content were determined according to the method
described in Ref. [15]. Ultraviolet and visible spectra were measured using a pye
Unicom double beam recording spectrophotometer model SP
2.7. Total carbohydrates 1600 as described by Kates [18]. The smacks were dissolved in
freshly distilled cyclohexane and the absorption was taken at
Total carbohydrates were estimated by difference. 232 and 270 mm.

2.8. Mineral content of Jatropha seed 2.11. Fatty acid composition

Mineral contents were determined in the dilated solution of  The fatty acid methyl esters were prepared using trans-
ash samples by using the plasma optical emission-mass etherification with a cold metabolic solution of potassium
spectrometer thermoelemental described in AOAC [16]. hydroxide [19].
biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350 1347

Table 4 – Water requirements (L treeL1) of Jatropha trees throughout the growing season of 2005.
Stages of growing seasonb Growing stage Water applied (L tree1)

125% of ETp 100% of ETp 75% of ETp 50% of ETp

From 1/2/2005 to 15/3/2005 43 d Initial 46.1 36.9 27.7 18.5


From 16/3/2005 to 15/5/2005 60 d Development 64.3 51.4 38.5 25.6
From 16/5/2005 To 15/6/2005 30 d Flowering 32.2 25.7 19.2 12.8
From 16/6/2005 to 12/9/2005 75 d Harvest 80.4 64.3 48.2 32.2

Total water applied (L tree1) 223.0 178.3 133.6 89.1


Total water applied (m3 ha1)a 557.4 445.5 333.9 222.8

a Hectare ¼ 2.38 feddan.


b Jatropha tree dropped down its leaves during dormancy stage (01/10/2005 - 31/10/2005).

 Identification of fatty acid methyl esters was carried out by Jatropha under Egyptian conditions and the environmental
GC-capillary column. requirements were studied and discussed as follows.

3.1. Water requirements of Jatropha trees


2.12. Analysis of unsaponifiable matter by GLC
The growing season of Jatropha trees was divided into four
 Separation of unsaponifiable matter: stages, which are initial, development, flowering and har-
vesting stages. Table 4 shows water applied for each tree
The unsaponifiable matter was separated from the Jatropha during each stage and total water applied for the unit of area
seed oil at room temperature according to the method of (ha). The presented results showed that, the water
AOAC [15]. consumption during initial, development, flowering and har-
vesting stages are 20.67%, 28.83%, 14.44% and 36.05% from the
 Identification of unsaponifiable matter portion: total water application for all treatments. The highest
percentage of water consumption during the harvesting stage
Identification of hydrocarbon and sterol contents of the (36.05%) was due to an increase in the rate of growing of the
unsaponifiable matter was carried out by comparison of their Jatropha fruits that needs a lot of water compared with other
retention times and in conjunction with anathentic reference stages. The presented data in Table 4 showed that the average
compound, based on peak area integration. water consumption rate of Jatropha is 6 L week1 throughout
the growing season, which means that Jatropha can survive
and produce full yield with high quality under minimum
3. Results and discussion water requirements compared to other crops, the water
applied during the growing season depends on only the
Jatropha is a plant traditionally used for medicine, pesticides, climatic conditions and the soil status besides the rate of
cosmetics and hedges. But recently its potential as an energy Jatropha growing.
plant was realized: tests of its oil indicate that it is a potential
substitute for diesel fuel. As a fuel wood substitute it has far 3.2. Seed and oil yields of Jatropha trees
reaching and positive implications in forest conservation.
Since it can be cultivated on poor soils and in low rainfall The relationship between water application rate and the seed
areas, Jatropha may be one answer to bringing wastelands yield and the extracted oil of Jatropha were similar, where the
under production. Therefore, the suitability of cultivating yield of Jatropha seed and extracted oil decreased as the water

Table 5 – Seed yield (g treeL1) of Jatropha trees throughout the growing season (12/9/2005).
Yield Water treatment

125% of ET 100% of ET 75% of ET 50% of ET

R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3

First harvest (g tree1) – 14.0 42.1 16.5 8.2 48.1 13.1 19.3 13.4 21.7 – 16.4
Second harvest (g tree1) 53.2 15.3 13.0 21.0 73.5 66.8 54.3 15.3 8.2 29.9 15.1 25.3
Total yield (g tree1) 53.2 29.3 55.2 37.5 81.7 114.9 67.4 34.6 21.6 51.7 15.1 41.7
Total seed yield (g treatment1) 137.7 234.1 123.6 108.5
Total seed yield (kg ha1)a 114.75 195.08 103.00 90.42
Total extracted oil (kg ha1) 28.69 58.39 30.17 22.15

a Hectare ¼ 2.38 feddan.


1348 biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350

application rate decreased and increased from the optimal


Table 6 – Seed yield in (kg haL1)a and water use efficiency
water requirements of Jatropha trees (100% of ETp). The data (WUE) in (kg mL3) for all treatments.
presented in Table 5 illustrated that the highest values of seed
Treatments Seed yield Oil yield Seasonal Water use
yield at 100% of ETp was 195.08 kg ha1 followed by
(kg ha1) (kg ha1) water efficiency
114.75 kg ha1 with 125% of ETp and 103.00 kg ha1 with 75% applied (WUE)
of ETp. In addition the minimum value of the seed yield was (m3 ha1) (kg m3)
recorded with 50% of ETp (90.42 kg ha1). The same trend was
Seeds Oil
followed for the yield of the extracted oil at different water
stress ratios, where the yield of extracted oil was 28.69, 58.39, 125% of ETp 114.75 28.69 557.4 0.21 0.05
30.17 and 22.15 kg ha1 at 125%, 100%, 75% and 50% of ETp, 100% of ETp 195.08 58.39 445.5 0.44 0.13
75% of ETp 103.00 30.17 333.9 0.31 0.09
respectively. Decreasing applied water by 25% of ETp led to
50% of ETp 90.42 22.15 222.8 0.41 0.10
decreasing seed and oil yields of Jatropha by 47.20% and
48.33%, respectively. Also, decreasing the applied water by a Hectare ¼ 2.38 feddan.
50% of ETp led to decreased seed and oil yields of Jatropha by
53.65% and 62.07%, respectively. In addition, increasing water
applied by 25% of ETp resulted in decreased seed and oil yields
29.93% of total oil in the seeds; while the Jatropha trees, irri-
of Jatropha by 41.18% and 50.86%, respectively. The obtained
gated by 75% of ETp achieved approximately the same value of
results concluded that the highest decrease in the seed and oil
total lipid of the control treatment (100%, 29.29%). Total
yields of Jatropha were 53.65% and 62.07%, respectively, at 50%
protein was decreased to 16.22% and 14.71% in the seeds
of ETp while, the lowest decrease in the seed and oil yields of
irrigated with 75% and 50% of ETp, respectively, but recorded
Jatropha were 41.18% and 48.33% occurred at 125% and 75% of
a slight increase (18.27%) in the seeds irrigated with 125% of
ETp, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
ETp. On the other hand, Jatropha seeds irrigated with 125%,
optimal water applied is 6 L week1 (100% of ETp), the rec-
75%, and 50% of ETp achieved an increase in fiber as compared
ommended average water applied for the irrigation of Jatropha
to control treatment (100%).
in sandy soils in Egypt.
The values of physical and chemical characteristics of
Jatropha seed oil (such as the refractive index, acid, peroxide,
3.3. Water use efficiency of Jatropha trees
iodine values, diene at 230 mm, triene at 270 mm and unsa-
ponifiable matters) under different water stress ratios (125%,
Both the obtained yield and WUE parameters were signifi-
100%, 75% and 50% of ETp) on the Jatropha trees throughout
cantly affected by the variation of the water applied. Table 6
the growing season under Egyptian climatic conditions are
and Fig. 2 represented Jatropha seeds and extracted oil yields
shown in Table 8. The results revealed no significant differ-
(kg ha1) and water use efficiency (kg m3) for the different
ences among the values of the determined characteristics due
treatments. It showed that the highest value of water use
to different water stress values. From the results, it could be
efficiency of seed and oil yields of Jatropha (0.44 and
concluded that the highest characteristics of Jatropha seed oil
0.13 kg m3), respectively, were achieved at 100% of ETp fol-
were recorded with 100% of ETp.
lowed by 50% of ETp (0.41 and 0.10 kg m3), respectively. The
The data presented in Table 9 showed that all treatments of
lowest value of water use efficiency of seed and oil yields of
water stress had no significant effect on the fatty acid
Jatropha (0.21 and 0.05 kg m3), respectively, was achieved at
composition of Jatropha seed oil. The data presented in
125% of water application rate. The results concluded that the
Table 10 indicated the irrigation of Jatropha plants with 125%
water use efficiency of seed and oil yields of Jatropha decreased
and 75% of ETp had increased in total sterols and decreased in
with decreasing and increasing the water application rate
total hydrocarbonates of oil extracted from seeds of Jatropha
from the optimal applied water (100%). Decreasing the total
trees. Furthermore different irrigation treatment of water
seasonal water application rate negatively affected the crop
water use efficiency. The comparison between water stress
ratios, from the view point of seed and oil water use efficien-
0.50 0.14
cies, revealed that 50% of ETp has an advantage in the
Seeds water use efficiency (kg/m3)

Oil Water use efficiency (kg/m3)

0.45 Seeds Oil


beneficial use of water. This is because of the higher values of 0.12
0.40
seed and oil water use efficiencies recorded with 50% of ETp. 0.35 0.10
This may be due to the lower moisture content in the seeds. 0.30
0.08
0.25
3.4. Oilseed characteristics of Jatropha 0.06
0.20
0.15 0.04
The chemical composition of Jatropha seeds, collected from 0.10
0.02
Jatropha trees irrigated with different water stress (125%, 100%, 0.05

75% and 50% of ETp) throughout the growing season, is shown 0.00 0.00
125% of ETp 100% of ETp 75% of ETp 50% of ETp
in Table 7. These treatments of water stress showed that the Water applied (%)
lowest values of total lipid (oil) (25% and 24.5% of Jatropha
seeds) were recorded with Jatropha trees that were irrigated Fig. 2 – The relationship between water applied ratio (%)
with 125% and 50% of ETp, respectively, compared to the and seeds’ and oil water use efficiencies of Jatropha.
treatment irrigated by 100% of ETp (control), which recorded
biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350 1349

Table 7 – Effect of water stress on the chemical Table 9 – Effect of water stress on the fatty acid
composition of Jatropha seeds. composition of Jatropha oilseeds.
Chemical Water stress (%) Fatty acid Water stress treatments
composition composition (%)
(%) 100% of 125% of 75% of 50% of 100% of 125% 75% 50%
ETp (control) ETp ETp ETp ETp (control) of ETp of ETp of ETp

Moisture 08.81 09.18 06.14 04.90 Palmitic acid (C16:0) 13.45 13.62 13.16 13.79
Oil (lipid) 29.93 25.00 29.29 24.50 Palmitoleic acid (C16:1) 00.78 00.79 00.81 00.79
Protein 17.92 18.27 16.21 14.71 Stearic acid (C18:0) 07.24 07.54 07.02 07.37
Ash 03.06 03.95 03.92 03.76 Oleic acid (C18:1) 47.29 46.34 45.58 45.79
Fiber 23.63 30.32 31.50 33.30 Linoleic acid (C18:2) 30.68 32.14 32.85 30.80
Carbohydrates 16.65 13.28 12.94 18.83 Linoleic acid (C18:3) 00.28 00.28 00.26 00.26
Arachidic acid (C20:0) 00.28 00.28 00.25 00.26
Total 100 100 100 100
Total saturated fatty 20.97 20.67 20.45 21.44
acids
Total unsaturated fatty 79.03 79.33 79.55 78.56
stress (125%, 75% and 50% of ETp) led to disappearance and acids
appearance of some hydrocarbon compounds, i.e. C14 and C16
(disappeared) and C26 (appeared). Meanwhile C22 of the
sample oil increased and C30 increased with deficit irrigation,
75% and 50% of ETp. On the other hand, stigmasterols, 4. Conclusion
campsterols and B-sitosterals of previous oil samples were
greater than those for the control treatment (100% of ETp). Jatropha’s ability to grow or cultivate successfully and easily on
Results in Table 11 showed that Mg was the predominant arid lands with poor quality soils and scarce water in Egypt
mineral in Jatropha seed meal, which recorded 641.4 mg makes it an ideal plant for successfully revegetating waste-
100 g1 sample, and also K and Na were the most abundant lands. Jatropha must be recognized for more than its tradi-
minerals in Jatropha seed meal, which were 373.06 and tional value as a hedgerow species or as a local source of
341.09 mg/100 g sample followed by Ca 40.26 mg/100 g sample medicine in many areas in the world. Undeniably there exists
and finally, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu of Jatropha seeds were present in value in its potential for revegetating degraded lands with
low quantities; the concentration of these minerals were 2.95, what is an economically and socially valuable crop. These new
1.61, 0.78 and 0.73 mg/100 g sample, respectively. However, ideas regarding the use of Jatropha must be looked at objec-
Mg and Na minerals of Jatropha seed meal recorded a higher tively when determining priorities for increased efforts and
decrease due to treating Jatropha trees throughout the growing financial inputs into Jatropha establishment. It can be
season by 50% and 75% of ETp. On the contrary, the increasing concluded that Jatropha is a promising source of biofuel in
or decreasing rate of irrigation water (125, 75% and 50%)
caused a higher increase in the concentration of minerals, Ka,
Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu of Jatropha seed meal compared with
optimal irrigation (100% of ETp).
Table 10 – Effect of water stress on the unsaponifiable
matter of Jatropha oilseeds.
Unsaponifiable Water stress treatments
matter
100% of 125% 75% 50%
Table 8 – Effect of water stress on the physical and ETp (control) of ETp of ETp of ETp
chemical characteristics of Jatropha oil.
Hydrocarbons: C14 04.23 – – –
Physical and Water stress treatments Hydrocarbons: C16 03.74 – – –
Chemical Hydrocarbons: C20 01.56 02.83 00.04 00.95
Characteristics 100% of 125% 75% 50%
Hydrocarbons: C22 04.49 10.32 09.78 06.32
ETp of ETp of ETp of ETp
Hydrocarbons: C26 – 01.20 – 01.49
(control)
Hydrocarbons: C28 – – – –
Refractive index 1.470 1.47 1.47 1.47 Hydrocarbons: C30 03.69 01.48 06.38 07.98
at 25  C Squaline 14.88 15.56 12.36 16.11
Acid value 8.190 4.37 4.61 5.59 Unknown – 00.75 02.99 01.44
(mg g1 oil) Unknown – 01.41 01.28 01.32
Peroxide value 0.270 0.47 0.40 0.32 Unknown 03.32 00.90 01.80 01.56
(meq kg1 oil) Stigma sterol 05.47 05.71 06.57 05.68
Iodine value 109.49 111.46 112.06 108.27 Camp sterol 06.69 07.12 06.75 07.11
(I2 100 g1 oil) B-sit sterols 43.57 49.43 47.01 46.45
Diene at 230 (nm) 2.116 2.33 1.59 2.49 D-7 Avenosterols 08.90 03.39 05.04 03.59
Triene at 270 (nm) 0.350 0.43 0.28 0.45
Unsaponifiable 1.340 1.49 1.62 1.04 Total hydrocarbons 32.05 31.39 28.56 32.85
matters (%) Total sterols 64.63 65.65 65.37 62.83
1350 biomass and bioenergy 33 (2009) 1343–1350

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