You are on page 1of 66

Submitted by

ANSTINE MATHEW AUGUSTINE


(32208101006)
ARUN KRISHNAN. U
(32208101009)
MAHESH. J
(32208101029)
VETRI SELVAN. S
(32208101057)
Military aircraft designed to attack ground
and sea target by dropping bombs on
them.

Strategic bombers are designed for long-


range bombing missions against strategic
targets to damage enemy nations war
effort .
Light bombers
Medium bombers
Dive bombers
Fighters bomber
Ground attack aircraft
Multi role combat
aircraft
Major type of aircraft
designs
• Conceptual design

• Preliminary design

• Detailed design
Conceptual design
• It depends on what are the major factors for designing
the aircraft.
• (a) Power plant Location:
• The Power plant must be located in the wings.
• (b) Selection of Engine:
• The engine should be selected according to the power
required i.e., thrust required.
• (c) Wing selection:
• The selection of wing depends upon the selection of
• (1) Low wing
• (2) Mid wing
• (3) High wing
- For a bomber the wing is mostly high wing
configuration and anhedral.
- Sweep may be required in order to reduce
wave drag.
2. Preliminary design:
 
Preliminary is based upon number of
factors like Loitering.

3. Detailed design:
 
In the detailed design considers each & every
rivets, bolts, paints etc. In this design the
connection & allocations are made.
 To design a bomber aircraft
 Range of 20000 km & must carry 75000 kg+
of bombs & missiles.
 At supersonic & subsonic regimes
 To operate at regional bases with low cost of
operation & maintenance
 The aircraft must also be capable of single
pilot operation scenario.
 Due to long range pilot work load must be
reduced
 The aircraft must be all weather , all terrain
operation capable including the airbase.
 To take up a load factor +8g to +7.5g to
-3.5g.
• Collect data of existing aircraft of similar
purpose i.e., bomber.
• The basic factors of aircrafts performance
viz. Weight, Cruise velocity ,Range ,Wing
area & Engine thrust.
• The performance data of various bomber
aircraft with payload capacity between 5000
& 56600 kg was collected.
• Mirage IIIE
• Mirage IVA
• F-111F
• F-111F swept
• Tu-22R
• Tu-85/1
• YB-60
• B-2A etc
Preferred
Configuration:
From
Comparison
Parameters Values
• Max takeoff weight (kg) • 500000
• Thrust to weight ratio • 0.28
• Aspect ratio • 8.4
• Wing loading (N/sq.m) • 7848
• Span to height ratio
• 5
• Span to length ratio
• 1.5
• Combat radius (km)
Pay load capacity (kmph)
• 5000

• Max Speed (kmph) • 75000
• Service ceiling (m) • 1000
• Max Speed (m/s) • 15000
• 277.77
General rough
estimate
  Mass Fraction
Payload 0.15
Fuel 0.45
Structure 0.32
Power plant 0.07
Fixed equipments 0.01
Total 1.00
Redefined Mass
h

 
Estimation 6’ 9000 km 7’

2 10000 km    
3
     
 
1000 km 1/2 hr
 
2’ 8’
R    
1000 km
     
3’ 4’ 5’

     
10’
0 1 9’
     
 
     
 
   

Mission profile for Strategic bombing


Analysis of mission
profile
TSFC values for Bomber
Cruise Loiter

0.5 0.4
Comparative data of
Engines
Engine Selection
Name of the Engine GP-7000
Manufacturer Engine Alliance
Type Turbofan 2 Shaft
Length (m) 4.74
Diameter (m) 3.16
Wet weight (kg) 6800
Dry Weight (kg) 6712
Maximum Thrust (kN) 363
Overall Pressure Ratio 43.9
Thrust to Weight Ratio 4.73
Fan Diameter (m) 2.95

The above engine has been selected from a list


of engines.
Redefined Thrust to
weight ratio
AIRFOIL SELECTION
content
• Airfoil nomenclature
• Lift coefficient
• Drag coefficient
• Types of airfoil
• Formula used
• Airfoil
AIRFOIL NOMENCLATURE
The cross-section shape obtained by
the intersection of wing with the
perpendicular plane is called airfoil.
 The major design feature of an airfoil
is the mean chamber line ,which is
the locus of points halfway between the
upper and lower surface ,as measured
perpendicular to mean chamber line itself
.
The most forward and rearward points
of the mean chamber line are the leading
and trailing edge respectively.
THE FORWARD AND REARWARD POINTS OF THE
MEAN CAMBER LINE ARE THE
LEADING AND TRAILING EDGES.

CHORD LINE
THE STRAIGHT LINE CONNECTING THE LEADING &
TRAILING EDGES.

MEAN CAMBER LINE


THE LINE BETWEEN UPPER &LOWER SURFACES.

CHAMBER
MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEET THE MEAN
CAMBER LINE & THE CHORD LINE.
LIFT COEFFICIENT
• The lift coefficient (CL or CZ) is a dimensionless
coefficient that relates the lift generated by an
aerodynamic body such as a wing or complete
aircraft, the dynamic pressure of the fluid flow
around the body, and a reference area
associated with the body. It is also used to refer
to the aerodynamic lift characteristics of a 2D
airfoil section, whereby the reference "area" is
taken as the airfoil chord. It may also be
described as the ratio of lift pressure to dynamic
Drag Co-efficient:
The drag coefficient (commonly denoted as
Cd, Cx or Cw) is a dimensionless quantity
that is used to quantify the drag or
resistance of an object in a fluid environment
such as air or water. It is used in the drag
equation, where a lower drag coefficient
indicates the object will have less
aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The
drag coefficient is always associated with a
particular surface area.
TYPES OF AIRFOIL
• CHAMBERED AIRFOIL

• SYMMETERICAL AIRFOIL
CHAMBERED AIRFOIL

• It is also called as unsymmetrical airfoil .


• Upper surface of the airfoil is not equal to
lower surface.

SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL:

• Surface above the chord line and below


the chord line are equal.
FORMULA USED
FORMULA USED
6. Airfoil selection and Wing
Geometry estimates
• Main Parameter Selection:
• Wing Loading:
Thickness based Reynolds
Number

Flap selection:
Wing geometry
Critical Mach number for the
airfoil
LANDING GEAR

TYRE SELECTION

• Load Distribution

• Typical load of aircraft while landing ;WL=WT


-O.8WF

• While aborting mission ; WL=WT-O.1WF

• During static condition ; WL=WT


CONTACT AREA

• Ww=Ap x P

• Ap=2.3 √ dwww(dw/2-Rt)

• Rt=(dw/2-Ap/(2.3 √dwww))

*RUN WAY LOADING


Runway loading=load on each wheel/area of
contact
Runway Loading
DIMENSIONAL ESTIMATES

• Span to height ratio=b/ha ≈5

• Span to length ratio=b/la ≈ 1.5

• CONFIGARATION OF TAIL

• Horizontal stabilizer

• Horizontal stabilizer sizing 15% of wing area;sh/s=0.15

• Vertical stabilizer geometry

• Vertical stabilizer sizing 9% of wing area ;sv/s=0.09


Configuration of
tail
Airfoil NACA 0012
• PREPARATION OF LAY OUT

• Wing location and C.G estimation


Wfuselage X fuselage + W wing (X +X
wing) = (Wfuselage+Wwing) (X+Xfinal)

• Where X is the location of wing root


L.E from the nose fuselage and Xfinal is
the reaction of cg from the L.E at root

• X final=0.35(Xcr - Xct)
Wing Detail for cg
estimation
Three views of
Aircraft
Front view
Side view
DRAG POLAR

• Drag equation for entire


Aircraft:Cd=Cdwing+Cdothers+KCL^2

• *wetted surface area

• Fuselage =Wfuselage*hfuselage

• Engine =4* π/4d^2

• Nose landing gear=dw*Ww*4

• Main landing gear=dw*Ww*12

• Main landing gear=dw*Ww*8

• Flap=Lflap * Wflap
• Take off performance
=Cdpermanent+CdLG+Cdflap+Cdwing

• Landing
performance=Cdpermanent+CdLG+Cdflap+Cd
wing

• Cruise performance=Cdpermanent+Cdwing
Drag polar
Lift to Drag Ratio
Performance
Calculations
• Thrust required and Thrust available
analysis:
• W1= 25% of Fuel and 100 % of Payload
• W1= 3185533.292 N
• W2= 50% of Fuel and 100 % of Payload
• W2= 3784962.23 N
• W3= 75% of Fuel and 100 % of Payload
• W3= 4384391.173 N
Thrust scenarios at Sea level for
different weights
Thrust scenarios at 11 km altitude for
different weights
Thrust scenarios at 25 km for
different weights