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IDAC - lJb.

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This report is presented as received by IDRC from project recipient(s). It has not been subjected to peer review or
other review processes.

This work is used with the permission of Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute.

© 1995, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute.

SPONGE/CAST IRON TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER


(EGYPT)

ANNUAL TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL REPORT

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE (IDRC)


REGIONAL OFFICE, CAIRO

CENTRAL METALLURGICAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE


(CMRDI)

CAIRO, EGYPT

DEC. 1995

H
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research was carried out under grant from the


International Research Centre (IDRC) - Ottawa, Canada.

The research team of the Gent ral Metallurgical


Research and Development Institute (GMRDI) is gratefri to
this generous assistance and would like to express the
deepest gratitude to their counterparts from IDRC, Ottawa,
Canada and the Regional Office staff in Cairo.
CONTENTS

Page No.

I. INTRODUCTION 1

H. PROJECT STAFF 3

III. ACTIVITIES PROGRAMMED AND EXECUTED 4

IV. OUTSTANDING RESULTS 8

Production of Ductile lron Castings in Selected Foundries


Using Sponge Iron

1. Rubex for MetaL Products 9


2. Industrial Engineering Co. for Casting and Metal Work 17
3. Industrial Progress Company 30
4. Super Gray 39
5. United Company for Iron Castings 46

ANNEXES:

1. Seminar Conducted by CMRDI Research Staff for


the Selected Companis to Introduce Sponge Iron
Technology to Produce Ductile Iron

2. Sand Moulding Studies in Industrial Progress Company

3. Sand Moulding Studies in Rubex for Metal Products


I. INTRODUCTION

In 1988, the former Earth and Engineering Science Division funded a project

entitled "Cast Iron Production from Sponge Iron (88-1058)". This project was

successfully carried out by the Central Metallurgical Research and Development

Institute (CMRDI), in cooperation with the Research and Productivity Council (RPC) of

New Brunswick. The project was focussed on the development of appropriate industrial

practices suitable to small scale foundries in Egypt for the production of ductile iron

made from sponge iron.

The main results obtained during the above mentioned project could be

summarized as follows

(1) High purity pig iron, very low manganese, phosphorous and sulfur is suitable

for the production of ductile iron. It was successfully produced using up to 50%

of sponge iron in combination with steel scrap, Egyptian pig iron or imported

pig iron.

(2) High quality ductile iron castings were produced from charges containing

sponge iron as the main charge constituent. The mechanical properties of the

castings were equivalent to those produced from conventional materials.

Different grades of ductile iron as well as abrasion-resistant, alloyed iron

casting were also successfully produced.

An economical assessment of the processes used showed that the cost of

production of one ton of high purity pig iron using sponge iron was about 570

L.E., compared to 950 L.E. when using imported high purity pig iron.
(4) The resulting new process was successfully introduced in three Egyptian

foundries. Ductile iron rolls of different grades produced in weights up to 2.5

tons showed excellent performances in steel rolling mills.

The present project is concerned with transferring the resulting technology to

small and medium size enterprises in Egypt and in other developing countries

producing sponge iron (India, Peru, Malaysis, Mexico, Indonesia, Venezuela, Argentina

and Brazil). In Egypt it will widen the scope for implementing the technology to a

minimum of 10 small and medium size foundries around the country.

Approved date 23 May 1993.


:

Initiated date: 1 June 1993.

The period covered by this report 2nd Stage of actvities from


: 1 June 1994 to

Dec. 1995.

—2—
II. PROJECT STAFF

Prof. Dr. Adel Nofal project Leader

Dr. Ibrahim Moustafa Researcher

Eng. Mohamed Mourad Ass. Researcher

Eng. Massoud Ibrahim Ass. Researcher

Eng. Ramadan Ibrahim Research Engineer

Eng. Said Emam Research Engineer

Eng. Mohamed Ramadan Technician

Mohamed Mansour Technician

Magdy Moustafa Technician

Fareid Moustafa Technician

AshrafAbd El - Khalik Skilled Labourer

SaIlah Mansour Skilled Labourer

3
III. ACTIVITIES PROGRAMMED AND EXECUTED

A group of 10 foundries was selected and divided into 4 main groups


each group contains 2 or 3 foundries . This selection was based on the
foundry technological level, human resources, marketing and investment
capabilities

For the first two foundries a seminar was held, introducing the
technology and identified the problems that the foundries are presently facing
in producing ductile iron and quality castings with existing material such as

high purity pig iron , steel and cast iron scrap, locally produced pig iron. The
increasing price of low- phosphorous and sulfur pig iron is considered to be
the main problem facing the ductile iron production

From each foundry, 1 to 2 castings with special quality requirements


were selected. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the
castings were determined and the actual production cost was calculated.

Together with the foundries personnel, a best practice technology for


each selected casting was determined as follows

- Alloy specifications, chemical composition and metallurgical features,

- Raw materials and charge calculations,

- Melting technique, furnace type, lining, sequence of melting and


alloying, special treatment of liquid iron,

- Moulding and core- making processes

4
Training program for engineers and technicians of participating
foundries to utilize the sponge iron as the main constituent in production of
ductile cast iron was carried out in CMRDI experimental foundry ( pilot scale
produced by the new technology as compared to the conventional one .the
basic principles of utilizing sponge iron in induction and cupola furnaces were
summarized in seminars given to Egyptian Foundries(see Annex 1 )

The different properties of produced castings were evaluated as follows:

- surface quality and internal soundness,


- Specific properties required during services, e.g. tensile
strength and ductility, corrosion abrasion and high temperature
resistance.
- Comprehensive techno- economic evaluation for each of the
castings produced by the new technology was compared to the
conventional one

The Mobile Foundry Laboratory ( MFL)


Using the mobile foundry laboratory ( MEl ), equipped with the
following facilities

- Liquid metal temperature measurements.


- Sampling device for spectrographic analysis.
- Testing of moulding and coresands, e.g. moisture- content,
Compactability, gas - permeability, mould hardness.
- Non- destructive testing of casting soundness, e.g. ultrasonic,
dyepanetrant, eddy- currents ... ect., the operating practices,
and process control procedures have been demonstrated and
monitored in all foundries in which sponge iron technology was
utilized.
Some of specified measurements such as
properties and precise spectro - analysis have been carried out
in laboratories of CMRDI
Apart from useful role of MFI in foundries evaluation, it has

provided an actual support to small and medium size foundries


that cannot afford to have their own control facilities.

- In addition, the sand moulding studies were performed in two

foundries representing the general trends in sand technology in


Egyptian foundries.

(A) Research

(1) Diagnostic Studies and Methodology

For the technology transfer of utilizing sponge iron instead of imported


pig iron ( Sorel ) in the production technology of ductile iron in Egyptian

foundries with technical capabilities to produce ductile iron were selected to


,

adapt and apply this economical technology. The second stage of this project
began at 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1995. The period is covered in this report.
Some castings with special importance in those foundries such as
soundness, surface finishing and mechanical properties were determined to
control the best technological conditions of the applied process.

(2) Justification and Evaluation of Alternative Production System

The economics of the new technology was assessed in cooperation


with the technical personnel of the selected foundries, in companies with the
conventional process of using imported pig iron.

()
(B) Training

(1) A seminar about utilization of.the sponge iron technology in the field
of ductile iron production was conducted by the CMRDI, Foundry and
Casting staff, see Annex 1.

2) A technical training course to use sponge iron with different additions


starting from 10 up to 30%, was conducted in the experimental foundry
of CMRDI (pilot scale). This training course covers both the theoritical
and practical considerations in this technology. The participants were
chosen from every foundry ( 2-5 persons) representing engineers, and
technicians( foundrymen, furnace operators).

7
IV. OUTSTANDING RESULTS

Due to the special nature of this project, and because of the variety of

technical data of the selected castings, it was decided to study the production

technology conditions of five foundries. These selected foundries are

(1) Rubex for Metal Products.

(2) Industrial Engineering Co. for Casting and Metal Work.

(3) Industrial Progress Company.

(4) Super Gray.

(5) United Company for Iron Castings.

Some castings with special importance produced in these foundries were

studied using the following technology sheets

(1) The foundry technical sheet,

(2) Practice technology using sponge iron sheet,

(3) Quality control sheet,

(4) Charge calculation sheets 1,2 for conventional and with using sponge

iron.

—8—
1. RUBEX FOR METAL PRODUCTS
FOUNDRY TECHNICAL SHEET

FOUNDRY NAME: RUBEX for Metal Products

CASTING: (1) Shoulder (Pandrol)


(2)

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIRED

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.7 2.6 0.2 0.01 0.02 0.05

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness, BHN

0.2 proof
500 stress (mm) 7 170-24 1
320

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

1)
2)

—9—
PRACTICE TECHNOLOGY USING SPONGE IRON

ALLOY SPECIFICATIONS:

1) Chemical Composition:

C% Si°!0 Mn% S0!0 P% Mg% Other Elements

Brand
Cast 3.7 2,6 0.2 0.01 0.02 0.05
Shoulders .

2) Metallurgical Features:

- Spheroidal graphite
- 80% Ferritic matrix
- 20% Pearlitic max.

RAW MATERIAL AND CHARGE CALCULATIONS:

See sheet 2.

MELTING TECHNIQUE:

1) Furnace Type: Induction Furnace

2) Lining: Quartizite

3) Sequence of Melting and Alloying:

- In the bottom of furnace, add, carburizer


- Addition of retume and steel scrap
- Temperature measurement 1430CC.
- Sponge iron addition and deslagging.
- Addition of Fe-Si

4) Treatment of Liquid Iron:

- By using segma method, add FeSiMg


- Inoculation by FeSi.

—10—
MOULDING AND
CORE-MAKING
PROCESSES:

1)
Moulding: Green sand

2) Core:

CASTING DESIGN
(GATING AND
RISERING SYSTEMS):

HEAT TREATMENT:

Fig. (1) Ban droll


metallic pattern.

—11-
QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

EVALUATION OF PRODUCED CASTINGS:

(1) Chemical Composition:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements


Cast 1 3.49 2.59 0.217 0.016 0.022 0.045

(2) Mechanical Properties:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness, BHN


500 320 7 190

(3) Surface Quality:

Bad Satisfactory Good Very Good


'I,

(4) Microstructure:
.,

•# I—.

By Using Imported Pig Iron By Using Sponge Iron

—12—
CHARGING CALCULATION TO PRODUCE DUCTILE IRON WiTHOUT USING
SPONGE IRON (SHEET 1)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials Other Price Other Price


C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in
Name % % °h % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Pig iron 60 3.7 2.6 0.2 0.01 0.02 2.22 1.56 0.12 0.006 0.012
Return 20 0.1 0.15 0.4 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.08 0.006 0.006
Sponge iron 20 4.0 0.1 0.1 0.03 0.03 0.80 0.02 0.02 0.006 0.006
3.04 1.61 0.22 0.018 0.024

Name %

Silicon
Manganese
Other Elements

, 3.04 1.61 0.22 0.018 0.024


Melting Loss
Carbon 10% -0.304
Silicon 10% -0.161
Manganges 10% -0.02
Carburiser 0.964 X 100/99 X 100/90 = 1.08% +0.964

. 3.7 1.431 0.2 0.018 0.024


Calculation of the
Mg = 4.8% +1.100 0.05 .
required quantity of FeSiMg = 2.64 Si = 45%,
alloy lnoculant (FeSi) = 0.3% Si = 75% +0.200

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.7 2.749 0.2 0.018 0.024 0.05
CHARGING CALCULATION TO PRODUCE DUCTILE IRON USING
SPONGE IRON (SHEET 2)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials .
Other Price Other Price
C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Pig iron 60 3.7 2.6 0.2 0.01 0.02 2.22 1.56 0.12 0.006 0.012
Return 20 0.1 0.15 0.4 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.08 0.006 0.006
Sponge iron 20 .1.2 - - 0.03 0.03 0.24 - - 0.006 0.006
2.46 1.59 0.20 0.018 0.024

Name %

Silicon
Manganese
Other Elements

2.46 1.59 0.20 0.018 0.024


Melting Loss
Carbon 10% -0.246
Silicon 10% -0.159
Manganges 10% -0.02
Carburiser 1.486 X 100/99 X 100/90 = 1.66% +1.486
'
. 3.7 1.431 0.18 0.018 0.024
Calculation of the
required quantity of FeS1Mg = 2.64% 1.100 0.05
alloy !noculant (FeSi) = 0.3% 0.200

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.7 2.731 0.18 0.018 0.024 0.05
Fig. 2 : Addition of sponge iron to the induction furnaces.

-15-
I

Fig. 3 : Melting of sponge iron in induction furnace.

r melting of sponge iron.

1 6-
2. THE UNITED COMPANY FOR IRON CASTING
FOUNDRY TECHNICAL SHEET

FOUNDRY NAME: The United Company for Iron Castings


(Aly Foad)

CASTING: (1) Pipe fittings


(2) Synatory parts

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIRED:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.74 1.31 0.67 0.07 0.05 -


Cast 2 3.7 2.6 0.3 0.02 0.03 0.05

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

kgImm2 Y.S., kgfmm2 Elongation, % Hardness

25 - - 210
50 45 7 200

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

1)
2)

—17—
PRACTICE TECHNOLOGY USING SPONGE IRON

ALLOY SPEC1FICATIONS:

1) Chemical Composition:

C°!0 Si°!0 Mn0!0 S% P% Mg°!o Other Elements

Casting 1 3.74 1.31 0.67 0.07 0.05 -


Casting 2 3.7 2.6 0.3 0.02 0.03 0.05

2) Metallurgical Features:

Gray Cast Iron Ductile Iron

- Gray cast iron - Nodular graphite


- Flaky graphite - 75% ferritic matrix
- 75% ferritic - 25% pearlitic
- 25% pearlitic

RAW MATERIAL AND CHARGE CALCULATIONS:

See sheet 2 and 3.

MELTING TECHNIQUE:

1) Furnace Type: Cold blast cupola

2) Lining: Acidic

3) Sequence of Melting and Alloying:

- Charging of coke
- Charging of metal charge and ferro alloys
- Charging of lime stone
- Mg treatment
- Pouring into a green sand moulds (casting 2)

4) Treabnent of Liquid Iron:

Mg-treatment by using ladle treatment method with FeSiMg


(9% Mg and 50% Si).

Stream inoculation.

-18—
MOULDING AND CORE-MAKING PROCESSES:

1) Moulding: Green sand mould

2) Core: Sodium silicate + sand + carbondioxide

CASTING DESIGN (GATING AND RISERING SYSTEMS):

see Fig. (5)

HEAT TREATMENT:

No heat treatment required for the castings.

—19—
QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

EVALUATION OF PRODUCED CASTINGS:

(1) Chemical Composition:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements


Cast 1 3.612 1.331 0.635 0.042 0.0621 -
Cast 2 3.522 2.553 0.354 0.02 1 0.053 0.05

(2) Mechanical Properties:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness HV


1.26 - - 270
2.52 45 9 180

(3) Surface Quality:

Bad Satisfactory Good Very Good


v,

(4) Microstructure:

Gray Cast Iron Ductile Cast Iron

—20—
CHARGING CALCULATION IN PRODUCING GRAY CAST IRON (SHEET 1)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials . Other Price Other Price


C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( )
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Pig iron 75 4.2 1.56 0.80 0.07 0.05 3.175 1.175 0.60 0.525 0.038
Return 25 3.7 1.3 0.6 0.07 0.05 0.925 0.325 0.15 0.018 0.013

4.1 1.5 0.75 0.07 0.05

Name %

Ni
Silicon
Manganese
Other Elements
. 3.6 1.375 0.125 0.049 0.037
Melting Loss
Carbon 10% -0.4
Silicon 10% -0.15
Manganges 10% -0.08
Carburiser
'
. 3.7 1.35 0.675 0.07 0.05
Calculation of the
required quantity of
p.g alloy

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.7 1.31 0.67 0.07 0.05


CHARGING CALCULATION TO PRODUCE GRAY CAST IRON USING SPONGE
IRON (SHEET 2)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials . Other Price Other Price


C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Pig iron 50 4.2 1.56 0.8 0.8 0.07 2.1 0.78 0.4 0.04 0.03
Return 25 3.7 1.3 0.6 0.6 0.05 0.925 0.325 0.15 0.017 0.013
Sponge iron 25 1.2 - - - 0.03 0.30 - - 0.007 0.007
3.325 1.105 0.55 0.064 0.05

Name %

NJ Silicon 0.316 FeSi = 0.316 x 100/60 x 100/90 = 0.585% +0.316


N.)
Manganese 0.175 FeMn = 0.175x100/82x100/90 = 0.237% +0.18
Other Elements

3.325 1.421 0.725 0.064 0.05


Melting Loss .
.

10% . -0.333
Carbon
Silicon 10% -0.111
Manganges 10% -0.06
Carburiser Coke = 0.708x1 00/90x1 00/40 = 1.96% +0.708

3.7 1.31 0.67 0.064 0.05


Calculation of the•
required quantity of
alloy

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.7 1.31 0.67 0.064 0.05

Every charge 300 kg 50%: P.1., 25% Return, 25% Sponge iron.
CHARGING CALCULATiON TO PRODUCE DUCTILE IRON USING SPONGE
IRON CSHEET 3)

Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials . Other Price Other Price


C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( )
% % % % for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton
Name % %

Pig iron 40 4.2 1.56 0.8 0.07 0.05 1.68 0.624 0.32 0.028 0.02
Return 25 3.7 1.3 0.6 0.07 0.05 0.925 0.325 0.15 0.017 0.016
Sponge iron 35 1.2 - - 0.03 0.03 0.42 - - 0.011 0.011
3.025 0.949 0.47 0.056 0.043

Name % .

Silicon 0.458 FeSi = 0.458 x 100/60 x 100/90 = 0.848% +0.458


Manganese +0.18
Other Elements .

3.325 1.421 0.725 0.064 0.05


Melting Loss .

Carbon 10% 0.3


Silicon 10% -0.095
Manganges 10% -0.05
Carburiser Coke = 0.974x100/90x100/40 = 2.7% 0.975

3.7 1.312 0.423 0.055 0.043


Calculation of the
required quantity of FeSiMg = 1.83% 0.913 -0.03
Inoculant = 0.5 0.375 '
alloy

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.7 2.6 0.423 0.055 0.02

Every charge 300 kg


CASTING DESIGN

78

Riser
Ingate
Sprue

Runner

Foundry united Co. for Iron Castings


Name
Part Name Pipe fittings
Material Ductile Cast Iron
Dimension, Sprue Runner Riser
cm2 e
Area 7.7 11.6 5.8 9.6cm
Fig. 5: Casting design of selected product.
No. 1 1 1 3
I

- •
-
'-

:Zm. - - -.. - - .- -
-—
I

1
r

(a)

Fig. 8 : Pouring of grey cast iron using flaskless method.


—26—
CO

;i.-'
Fig. 11: Pouring of ductile iron.

—28—
\
-
r —

t)

'•

-1'-' " \
k

Fig. 12: Grey cast iron castings.

Fig. 13: Ductile iron castings.


3. INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS COMPANY
FOUNDRY TECHNICAL SHEET

FOUNDRY NAME: Industrial Progess Co.


(Mohamed Khamis) - Zagazig

CASTING: (1) Pipes fitting.


(2)

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIRED:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.6 2.5 0.2 0.02 0.03

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED :

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness

50 45 7 200

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

1) Good machineability
2) Enough toughness to resist impact.
3) Corrosion resistance.

—30—
PRACTICE TECHNOLOGY USING SPONGE

ALLOY SPECIFICATIONS:

1) Chemical Composition:

C0!0 Si°!0 Mn°!0 S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.6 2.5 0.25 0.02 0.03 0.05

2) Metallurgical Features:

- Nodular graphite
- 90% ferritic matrix
- 10% pearlitic

RAW MATERIAL AND CHARGE CALCULATIONS:

See sheet 2.

MELTING TECHNIQUE:

1) Furnace Type: Cold blast cupola

2) Lining: Acidic

3) Sequence of Melting and Alloying:

- Charging of coke
- Charging of metal charge and ferro alloys
- Charging of lime stone
- Tapping
- Mg-treatment and stream inoculation
- Pouring into a green sand moulds.

4) Treatment of Liquid Iron:

- Mg-treatment using ladle method with materials (FeSIMg 9% Mg


and 50% Si).

- Stream inoculation.

—31—
MOULDING AND CORE-MAKING PROCESSES:

1) Moulding: Green sand mould

2) Core : Sodium silicate sand + carbondioxide

CASTING DESIGN (GATING AND RISERING SYSTEMS):

See Fig. (14)

HEAT TREATMENT:

—32—
QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

EVALUATION OF PRODUCED CASTINGS:

(1) Chemical Composition:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.562 2.428 0.227 0.021 0.042 0.05

(2) Mechanical Properties:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness HV

48 42 10 175

(3) Surface Quality:

Bad Satisfactory Good Very Good

(4) Microstructure:
- Nodular graphite in ferritic matrix.

p.

—33--
IVMI t.ItIML I I
(WITHOUT SPONGE IRO) (SHEET I)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials .
. Other Price Other Price
C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in
Name % % % % % % ments for 1 ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Pig iron 75 4.2 1.5 0.1 0.07 0.05 3.15 1.125 0.075 0.052 0.03
Return 25 3.6 2.5 0.3 0.03 0.02 0.9 0.625 0.1 0.007 0.005
4.05 1.750 0.175 0.059 0.035

Name %

Silicon
Manganese
Other Elements

2.922 2.78 0.685 0.277 0.061


Melting Loss 0

Carbon 10% 0.4


Silicon 10% -0.2
Manganges 10% -0.01
Carburiser

3.6 1.55 0.16 0.059 0.035


Calculation of the
required quantity of FeSiMg 1.7% 0.85
alloy Inoculant 0.5% 0.375

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.6 2.77 0.16 0.059 0.02

Every charge: 300 kg


Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials . .
Other Price Other Price
C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( )
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Pig iron 50 4.2 1.5 0.1 0.07 0.05 2.1 0.75 0.05 0.035 0.025
Return 25 3.6 2.5 0.3 0.03 0.02 0.9 0.625 0.075 0.007 0.005
Sponge iron 25 1.2 - - 0.03 0.03 0.4 - - 0.007 0.007
3.4 1.375 0.125 0.049 0.037

Name %

Li.) Silicon
Manganese
Other Elements

3.6 1.375 0.125 0.049 0.037


Melting Loss 0

Carbon -0.34
Silicon -0.1
Manganges -0.01
Carburiser Coke = 0.54 x 100/90 x 100/400 = 1.5 +0.54

3.3 2.6 0.625 0.277 0.061


Calculation of the
required quantity of FeSiMg = 1.7% 0.85
alloy Inoculant = 0.5% 0.35

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.6 2.59 0.115 0.04 0.02

Every charge 300 kg.


—7'-----

CASTI\G DESIGN

b
e
12
d

Ingate
Runner Extension
Runner
ç Mold parting S prue

0 Foundry Industrial progress Co.


Name I

Part Name Pipe Fitting


D . I
Dimension. Sprue Runner Irigate Riser
cm2 .

Area 2.67 4 2 7.1


Fig. 14 : Casting design of selected casting. 1 1. 2
No. 3
Fig. 15: Tapping of molt en metal from cupola furnace (2.5 tonslhr)

Fig. 16 : Mg treatment of molten metal.

—37—
Fig. 17: Pouring the molten metal (ductile iron) into mould cavities.

-'

Fig. 18 : Machining of casting (the company has two machining workshops one of
them is very old - since 1886,
see the picture. It is still working uptill now, the other is modern one.

—38-
4. SUPER GRAY
FOUNDRY TECHNICAL SHEET

FOUNDRY NAME: Supper Gray

CASTING: (1) Plumbing parts


(2)

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIRED:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.2-3.4 2.5-2.7 0.4-0.7 0.06 0.3 - -

MECHAN ICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

T.S., kglmm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness

25 180

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

1) Good strength
2) Good corrosion resistance.

—39—
PRACTICE TECHNOLOGY USING SPONGE IR6N

ALLOY SPECIFICATIONS:

1) Chemical Composition

C0!. SW. Mn°!. S0!0 P0!0 Mg% Other ELements

Cast 1 3.2 2.5 0.4


0.06 0.3
Cast 2 3.4 2.7 0.7

2) Metallurgical Features:

- Flaky graphite
- Pearlitic matirx

RAW MATERIAL AND CHARGE CALCULATIONS:

See sheet 2.

MELTING TECHNIQUE:

1) Furnace Type: Cold blast cupola 1 ton/hr

2) Lining: Acidic

3) Sequence of Melting and Alloying:

- Charging of coke
- Charging of metal charge and ferroalloys
- Charging of lime stone
- Tapping
- Pouring

4) Treatment of Liquid Iron:

No heat treatment required.

—40--
MOULDING AND CORE-MAKING PROCESSES:

1) Moulding: Green sand mould

2) Core: -

CASTING DESIGN (GATING AND RISERING SYSTEMS):

See casting design (Fig. 19)

HEAT TREATMENT:

No heat treatment required.

—41—
QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

EVALUATION OF PRODUCED CASTINGS:

(1) Chemical Composition:

C% Si% Mn°!0 S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.234 2.513 0.512 0.08 0.08 0.5 -

(2) Mechanical Properties:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness HV

27 . - 200

(3) Surface Quality:

Bad Satisfactory Good Very Good

v/

(4) Microsfructure:
- Flaky graphite in a pearlltic matrix accompanied with some
non-metallic inclusions.

—42—
USING CONVENSIONAL RAW MATERIAL (SHEET 1)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials
Other Price Other Price
C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in (
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Cast iron scrap 20 3.2 2.5 0.8 0.5 0.08 0.64 0.5 0.16 0.1 0.016
Steel scrap 20 0.16 0.15 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.032 0.03 0.12 0.006 0.006
Pig iron 30 4.2 1.8 0.8 0.07 0.05 1.26 0.54 0.24 0.021 0.015
Return 30 3.3 2.6 0.55 0.5 0.08 0.99 0.78 0.165 0.15 0.024
. 2.922 1.85 0.685 0.277 0.061

Name %

Silicon 0.93 FeSi = 0.93 x 100/60 x 100/90 = 1.722% +0.93


Manganese
.
Other Elements

2.922 2.78 0.685 0.277 0.061


Melting Loss
Carbon -0.3
Silicon -0.18
Manganges 0.06
Carburiser Coke = 678 x 100/90 x 100/40 0.678
'
3.3 2.6 0.625 0.277 0.061
Calculation of
.
required quantity of
alloy

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.3 2.6 0.625 0.271 0.061

9 kg coke/i 00 kg 1 kg FeSi
CHARGE CALCULATION USING SPONGE IRON (SHEET 2)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials . . •
Other Price Other Price
C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Cast iron scrap 20 3.2 2.5 0.5 0.5 0.08 0.64 0.5 0.16 0.1 0.016
Steel scrap 20 2.1 - - 0.03 0.03 0.42 - - 0.006 0.006
Pig iron 30 4.2 4.2 0.8 0.07 0.05 1.26 0.54 0.24 0.021 0.015
Return 30 3.3 3.3 0.55 0.5 0.08 0.99 0.78 0.165 0.15 0.024
3.31 1.82 0.565 0.277 0.061

Name %

Silicon 0.93 FeSI 0.96 X 100/60 X 100/90 = 1.77% +0.96


Manganese
Other Elements

3.31 2.7 0.565 0.277 0.061


Melting Loss
Carbon
Silicon -0.18
Manganges 0.05
Carburiser
.,.

. 3.31 2.6 0.515 0.277 0.061


Calculation of the
required quantity of
p.g alloy

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.31 2.6 0.515 0.277 0.061


LJLSI(IN

Sprue Vents

IL___
0

Runner

Runner Extension

Ingate
Foundry Supper Gray
Name
Part Name Plumbing parts
Material Gray cast Iron
Dimension, Sprue Runner Ingate Riser
2
cm
Fig. 19 Casting design of selected casting. Area 7.7 11.6 5.8 --
No. 1 1 2 '—
5. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING COMPANY
FOR CASTING AND METAL WORKS
FOUNDRY TECHNICAL SHEET

FOUNDRY NAME: Industrial Engineering Co. for Castings and Metal Works.

CASTING: (1) High pressure water valves.


(2) Pipes fittings

MATERIAL: Grey cast iron

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIRED:

C% Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.5 1.85 0.32 0.08 0.4 - -


Cast 2 3.5 1.85 0.32 0.08 0.4 - -

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness

25 - - 280

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED:

1) Good machinability
2) Corrosion resisance.

—46—
PRACTICE TECHNOLOGY USING SPONGE IRON

ALLOY SPECIFICATIONS:

1) Chemical Composition:

C°!0 Si% Mn% S°!0 P% Mg% Other Elements

1 3.5 1.85 0.32 0.08 0.4 - -


2 3.5 1.85 0.32 0.08 0.4 - -

2) Metallurgical Features:

- Flaky graphite
- Pearlitic matirx

RAW MATERIAL AND CHARGE CALCULATIONS:

See sheet 2.

MELTING TECHNIQUE:

1) Furnace Type: 1 ton/hr cupola furnace

2) Lining : Acidic lining

3) Sequence of Melting and Alloying:

- Charging of coke
- Charging of metal charge (steel scraps, returns)
- Charging of sponge iron
- Charging of lime stone

4) Treatment of Liquid Iron:

No Mg treatment.

—47—
MOULDING AND CORE-MAKING PROCESSES:

1) Moulding: Green sand mould

2) Core: Cemented sand core

CASTING DESIGN (GATING AND RISERING SYSTEMS):

See Fig. (20)

HEAT TREATMENT:

no heat treatment required.

—48—
QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

EVALUATION OF PRODUCED CASTINGS:

(1) Chemical Composition:

Si% Mn% S% P% Mg% Other Elements

Cast 1 3.392 1.823 1.823 0.283 0.085 0.414 -

(2) Mechanical Properties:

T.S., kg/mm2 Y.S., kg/mm2 Elongation, % Hardness HV

26.6 - - 190

(3) Surface Quality:

Bad Satisfactory Good Very Good

vf

(4) Microstructure:
- Flaky graphite in
a pearlitic matrix

—49—
CHARGE CALCULATION TO PRODUCE GRAY CAST IRON WITHOUT USING
SPONGE IRON (SHEET 1)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials Other Price Other Price


C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P 5 Ele- in (
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Cast iron scrap 70 3.2 1.7 0.7 0.4 0.09 2.24 1.19 0.49 0.28 0.063
Return 30 3.5 1.6 0.32 0.4 0.08 1.05 0.48 0.098 0.12 0.024
Furnace Additions 3.39 1.67 0.586 0.40 0.087

Name %

Silicon 0.34 FeSi = 0.34 x 10/55 x 100/90 = 0.68% +0.34


LT
C Manganese
Other Elements

339 2.01 0.586 0.40 0.087


Melting Loss
Carbon 10% -0.16
Silicon 10% -0.06
Manganges 10%
Carburiser

3.39 1.85 0.526 0.40 0.087


Calculation of the
required
p.g alloy

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.39 1.85 0.526 0.40 0M87

Charge wt. - 105 kg cast iron scrap. -45 kg return. -15 kg coke. - 1.020 kg FeSi
CHARGE CALCULATION TO PRODUCE GRAY CAST IRON WiTH USING
SPONGE IRON (SHEET 2)
Charge Composition Calculation

Raw Materials
. Other Price Other Price
C Si Mn P S Ele- in ( ) C Si Mn P S Ele- in
Name % % % % % % ments for I ton % % % % % ments for I ton

Cast iron scrap 50 3.2 1.7 0.7 0.4 0.09 1.60 0.85 0.35 0.200 0.045
Sponge iron 30 1.2 - - 0.03 0.03 0.36 - - 0.015 0.015
Return 20 3.5 1.6 0.32 0.4 0.08 0.70 0.32 0.064 0.080 0.016
Furnace Additions 3.39 1.67 0.586 0.40 0.087

Name %

Silicon 0.78 FeSi = 0.78 x 100/55 x 100/90 = 1.57% 0.78


—a

Manganese
Other Elements

2.66 1.95 0.414 0.295 0.076


Melting Loss
Carbon 10% -0.26
Silicon 10% -0.1
Manganges 10% 0.040
Carburiser Coke = 1.1 x 100/90 x 100/40 = 3.1% 1.1

3.5 1.85 0.374 0.295 0.076


Calculation of th.e
required quantity of
alloy .

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3.5 t85 0.374 0.295 0.076

- 75 kg cast iron scrap. - 45 kg sponge iron.. - 30 kg return. - 20 kg coke. - 2.3 kg FeSI


Charge wt.
___________ _______________________________________

I
CASTING DESIGN


Riser *
Riser

S
Ingate

Runner
Runner
Ingate

Foundry Industrial Engineering (o. for casting and \letal


N a iii e

Part Name Valve


Material Gray cast Iron
D i in e fl Si 0 fl. Sprue Runner Ingate Riser
2
cm
Fig. 20: Casting design of selected casting. Area 7.7 11.6 5.8 13.5
No. 1 1 — 2 3
1
Fig. 21: Charging process of I ton/hr cupola furnace.

Fig. 22 : Preparation of moulding to get metallo graphic and tensile samples.

—53—
Fig. 23: Taping of molten metal from the cupola furnace.

Fig. 24 : Pouring of molten metal into sand moulds.


Fig. 25 : Shake out of the casting from flaskiess moulding.

Fig. 26 : Fittling of the casting.

—55—
Fig. 27 : Machining after casting.

'—'. .:
:
Fig. 28 Pipes fittling of 16" sanatary gray cast iron
:
(an example of pig size spare part produced by the company)

—56—
Fig. 29 : Assembly of valves produced by the company in an extended production
area in the company.

Fig. 30: 16" diameter water valves produced by the company.

—5?—
ANNIX I
USAGE OF SPONGE IRON
IN CUPOLA FURNACE

THEORETICAL BASIS

SEMINAR HELD FOR FOUNDRIES,


HAVING ONLY CUPOLA FURNACES
I Introduction

The application of DRI in ferrous.-foundry operations began about 1963, arid

since then, it has proved to be a very desirable material for a number of specific

applications. 1-lowover, it is difficult to make many broad generalizations about the etlüct

of on foundry operations because of the many different types of cast iron and steel

that are made and the wide variety of melting processes that are used to produce the

molten metal. In some instances a material that is ideal for one type of melting process

might be entirely unsuitable for another.

About 70 percent of the ferrous castings produced today are made from gray

on. l)uctilc ii on accounts for about 15 percent and malleable iron for about 5 percent.

[lie ieinuiiiieq it) percent are made from steel.

in years, the use of ductile iron has been increasing, arid this is bound

10 hove a significant effect on the type of charge materials that will be required in the

future. For example, the chromium content of ductile iron must be kept to a minimum on

account of its chill-inducing effect, and in some specifications for fernitic ductile iron, the

content must be kept below 0.35 percent. Tramp elements such as

titanium, tin, lead, arid arsenic, which are often in commercial scrap, must

also be because they inhibit the formation of nodular graphite.

[he melting proCesseS generally used ri foundries include electric arc:

1
furnaces, electric induction furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces (air

furnaces). The cupola furnace is limited to the cast iron grades because it is operated

with a bed of incandescent coke in the hearth. Under this condition, it is impossible to

prevent a high content of carbon from dissolving in the metal. The electric-arc and the

electric-induction furnaces, however, can be used for all the different grades of iron and

steel.

In the manufacture of gray iron castings, the percentage of return material from

the foundry operation included in the charge generally runs from about 8 percent in pipe

casting to about 50 percent in small foundries making castings with heavy risers. The

balance of the charge must come from new iron units. For ductile and malleable iron the

charge will contain about 55 percent return material, and for steel it will be about 60

percent. The new iron units that make up the balance of the charge generally come

from the cheapest source that can be obtained, providing that the chemical composition

of the melt does not include elements that are harmful to the physical properties of the

castings. Generally the cheapest source available is steel scrap; however, it often

contains undesirable tramp elements. In the past when it was necessary to avoid all

types of undesirable contaminants, it was necessary to use pig iron instead of scrap.

Pig iron is the most expensive form of iron units, but it is purchased to strict chemical

specifications and does not contain harmful residual elements. Today DRI can be used

in place of either scrap or pig iron, and like pig iron, DRI can be purchased with a known

chemical composition and can be obtained free from any harmful residuals.

Table ( 1) shows a range of composition typical for one type of DRI pellets

currently available for foundry use. The percentage of carbide or pearlite stabilizers

(e.g. chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, copper, nickel, tin and boron) and the

percentage of nodular-graphite-formation inhibitors (e.g. lead, titanium, aluminium,

antimony, bismuth, arsenic and zirconium) are extremely low. In many foundry

2
,1

operations, it is also very important to have a low titanium and aluminium content to

decrease the chances of the formation of pin-holes in the castings.

Table ( 1): Range of chemical composition of Midrex DRI.

Degree of Metallization 92 or greater


Fe (total) approximately 92%

C* 0.8tol.7%
S102 1.25to2.0%
A1203 0.5tol.2%
CaO 0.31o1.7%
MgO 0.1 to 0.5%
MnO 0.06 to 0.12%
Cr203 0.015 to 0.02%
P 0.007 to 0.04%
S 0.OO2toO.01%
Na20 approximately 0.15%
K20 approximately 0.10%
Ti02 0.01 to 0.46%
V approximately 0.15%
PbO approximately 0.0025%
CuO approximately 0.024%
Sn02 approximately 0.015%
ZnO approximately 0.02%
As203 approximately 0.002%

*higher contents possible.


Degree of Metallization x Fe (total) = Percent Metallic Iron.

In some instances, where the percentage of pig iron used in the charge is fixed

at a relatively low amount because of the carbon content desired in the product, the use

of relatively inexpensive scrap for the balance of the charge is precluded - because of

3
'I
high residuals in the scrap. In such cases the use of DRI pellets with the pig iron might

make it possible to use some inexpensive scrap, and through dilution keep the residuals

in the final melt within an acceptable range.

Low-sulfur DRI is particularly advantageous in electric furnace melting where

considerable time can be saved by not having to remove sulfur in the melting furnace.

In addition to the chemical composition, the physical characteristics of DRI are

also an important consideration in foundry operations because of their influence on

material storage, on handling and charging, and on the operating performance of the

particular type of melting unit involved. DRI is commercially available in the form of

pellets, lumps, mixtures of lumps and pellets, briquettes, and fines. DRI pellets are

spherical and fairly uniform in shape and size, about 6 to 16 mm (1/4 to 5/8 in.) in

diameter. They closely resemble the oxide pellets from which they were produced.

DRI lumps generally has a wider range of particle sizes, ranging from a few

extreme fines up to pieces about 30 mm (1-1/2 in.) in diameter. The fines are caused by

thermal and mechanical degradation of the ore lumps during the reduction process.

Some DRI plants process mixtures of oxide pellets and lump ores and produce a more

heterogeneous material.

Because of the porosity and high specific surface area of DRI pellets and

lumps, they may reoxidize when heated to 200°C (400°F) or remain in contact with

moisture while in storage. Although it is not difficult to keep DRI pellets and lump away

from excessive temperatures, protecting them from moisture requires the use of

covered storage areas.

Another type of DRI is in the form of briquettes. In some plants, DR1 fines and

4
even DRI pellets have been compressed into strong, dense briquettes. The briquetting

is done either hot or cold. In either case, the DRI must be protected from oxidizing

conditions unit after the briquettes are formed. The high density of the briquettes, about

5 to 6 grams per cc (0.18 to 0.22 lb/cu in.), and the low specific surface area increase

the resistance of the briquette to reoxidation. In some briquettes a binder containing

carbon is used, and this makes them very attractive for foundry use.

The major difference between DRI and the conventional foundry charge

materials, such as pig iron and clean scrap, is the relatively high gangue content, about

3 to 6 percent, and the unreduced iron oxide content, about 41012 percent, of the DRI.

The amount of gangue depends almost entirely on the gangue content of the raw

material from which the DRI was made. The amount of unreduced iron oxide, however,

depends on the DRI process, on the type of raw material used, and on the manner in

which the DRI was shipped and stored.

For foundry application it is preferable to have DRI with a very low gangue

content. In the cupola furnace, which is designed for effective separation of liquid metal

and slag, the additional slag volume formed by fluxing the gangue is not particularly

objectionable except that it causes a slight increase in the fuel requirements and a

decrease in melting rate. In the electric arc furnace, a voluminous foamy slag on top of

(he liquid metal is desirable, so long as the slag volume is not excessive, because slag

protects the refractories from the direct radiation of the electric arc. This slag is readily

temoved prior to tapping, but if the amount is excessive, it increases the operating time

and the energy requirements. In foundries using induction furnaces, it has been

reported that the additional slag is objectionable, and that unless the amount of DRI in

the charge is limited to 10 to 15 percent, it is necessary to use an frntermediate

deslagging operation which causes significant delays and increases the energy

requirements.

5
In general, a high degree of metallization is desirable for DRI used in foundries

because additional energy is required to reduce the unreduced iron oxide. When the

charge contains 3.0 to 4.0 percent carbon, the degree of metallization should be at

least 95 percent. However, in steel foundries where the carbon level is 1.0 to 1.5

percent, 90 percent metallization may be sufficient.

Because of its desirable chemical composition, increasing availability and

favorable cost, DRI is taking an increasingly important place in foundry operations. DRI

with a high degree of metallization, a low gangue content and freedom from undesirable

tramp elements is particularly well suited for the production of ductile iron and high-

grade cast iron that must meet stringent quality requirements.

2.2. Melting of Sponge Iron in Cupola Furnaces

A cupola is a vertical, shaft furnace in which the major fuel is metallurgical

foundry coke. A burden of solid material, charged into the top, descends counter

current to a flow of hot gases that transfer heat to the burden until the metal and slag

melt and flow into the hearth.

The cupola is started with a bed of coke onto which scrap, return foundry

material, and at times pig iron are batch charged in layers alternately with layers of coke

and flux. Air blown in through tuyers, near the bottom of the cupola, burns the coke

above the hearth and produces the hot gases. The coke burned near the tuyers is

replaced by the charged coke that descends from the top of the furnace.

In this process the size of the DRI is very important, and large lumps or large

briquettes are definitely preferred. Fines are of practically no value if they are not

briquetted because they would be carried out of the furnace top with the flow of gases.

6
Small DRI pellets can cause operating problems because they trickle down through

voids in the material charged below them and melt in advance of the layer of material

with which they were charged. This causes the upper layers to become depleted in DRI

pellets. To obtain a uniform silicon content in the metal when this occurs, it is necessary
to readjust the ferroalloy addition at the beginning and the end of each new run to

compensate for the melting of the DRI pellets in advance of their respective charges.

With larger size DRI material this readjustment is not necessary.

Another problem with DRI pellets is that they pack more tightly in the charge

layers than conventional charge materials and cause a higher pressure drop and a

slight increase in wind-box pressure. This may limit the melting rate if the wind-box

pressure is already at the upper limit of the blower.

The residual iron oxide content of the DRI is also a matter of great concern

because in cupola operations all of the iron oxide is reduced to metallic iron. Because

the reduction of iron oxide requires additional coke, both as a reductant and a fuel, the

operator must determine how much additional fuel is required, before the material is

charged into the furnace so that the proper burden to coke ratio can be used in the

charge. The higher coke requirement with DRI pellets results in a corresponding

decrease in cupola melting capacity.

The unreduced iron oxide in the DRI causes some loss of silicon and

manganese from the other materials in the charge. Furthermore, DRI contains no silicon

or manganese. Consequently, when DRI is used in the cupola charge for gray iron,

there is a deficiency of silicon and manganese unless additions of these elements are

made to maintain adequate amounts in the metal. Fig. ( 1) shows the.decrease in

melting capacity and the increase the silicon deficiency as a function of the increase in

percentage of DRI briquettes (containing 80 percent metallic iron) used in the charge.

7
111

'S

The additional slag obtained from melting with DR1 in the charge is not a

problem when operating with an acid slag. The cupola furnace is designed to make an

effective separation of liquid metal and slag, both of which are discharged continuously

during tapping. However a slight increase in labor is required to dispose of the larger

quantity of slag.

When the cupola is operated with a basic slag, the amount of slag produced is

higher than with an acid slag.

With DRI in the charge, it becomes even higher because more bases must be

added to flux the acid gangue of the DRI. Unless the gangue content is low, the use of

large percentages of DRI in basic cupola operations will be very limited. Fig. ( 2)

shows the increase in slag volume for an experimental basic cupola run where DRI

briquettes were increased to 60 percent of the charge.

Because of its low content of trace elements, DRI is being used to replace pig

iron wherever practical for diluting the tramp elements that are introduced with scrap

and cause casting problems.

It is obvious that with a short term feed of sponge-iron into cupola furnaces no

definite information could be obtained on the melting process, operating data, and cast-

iron composition and quality. This reverts to the fact that in the continuously-operated

cupola furnace, changes due to a new feed mixture are reflected only after a period of

transition. Additionally, it is known that shaft furnaces react in a relatively sluggish

manner to any changes. Thus, for a short time use of sponge-iron, the real conditions

and effects cannot be recorded with sufficient accuracy. Therefore, during the trials

discussed herein, the cupola furnaces were generally run for on full day with an

identical mixture to the normal operating pattern.

a
Sponge-iron was charged like the other feed materials during the test runs. In

most cases, the sponge-iron had been made of oxide pellets which, due to their

spherical shape and diameters of 10-16 mm, had very good flow properties.

As a result, a proportion of the sponge-iron pellets were trickling down through

holes in earlier charges, thus running ahead of the charge to which they were originally

added. The degree of this downward migration is determined by the relationship

between sponge-iron dimension and shape and the number and size of holes between

the mixture components. It should be reduced if sponge-iron from lump ore is used.

Such material is being produced in increasing amounts. In order to avoid changes of

composition and temperature, a certain migration of sponge-iron should always be

taken into consideration when calculating the charge.

The earliest reports on the use of prereduced materials in cupolas dealt with R-

N briquettes charged into a basic hot blast cupola at Witten, W. R-N

briquettes contained 94 to 96% total iron, approximately 94% of which was in the

metallic state. During the test, the furnace burden was changed from Witten's standard

charge of 70% steel scrap and 30% Krupp Renn Luppen to steel scrap and R-N

briquettes: The percentage of briquettes was increased in steps to observe the

influence of the change in burden on cupola performance. Particular attention was

given to metal chemistry and temperature and to the change in blast pressure. It was

reported that no specific difficulties were encountered during melting of more than 900

tons of R-N briquettes, that control of the highly basic slag was possible at all times,

that the blast pressure increased only slightly and that only a small additional amount of

coke was necessary to compensate for the gangue content in the briquettes.

The first results establishing the feasibility of using metallized pellets for the

production of grey and ductile iron in the cupola were possible in Heats

9
conducted in 60-in experimental cupola, in which steel scrap had been replaced by

increasing amounts of prereduced pellets demonstrated that changes containing up to

70% sponge iron could be melted in an acid cupola. Two full-scale heats in a 108 in

production cupola confirmed those results. The main results obtained may be

summarized in the followings:

- no excessive windbox pressures were created and general cupola

operation was not adversely affected.

- additional coke was required to slag-off siliceous gangue in the pellets (30-

35%) increase in coke consumption when 50-60% sponge iron was used

in the charge.

- as the composition of the gangue made it self-fluxing, no additional

limestone was necessary.

- although the slag volume increased by 140%, this presented no problem

in cupola operation but increased labor to dispose of larger volume of

slag.

- the slag produced was acidic and it would have been impractical to use

this sponge iron in a basic cupola.

-. due to the dilution effect, the percentage of all tramp elements, except Ti,

decreased when steel scrap in the cupola charge was replaced by the

high purity prereduced pellets with approximately 94% total iron; 98% of

which was in the metallic state.

Later T. Makiguchi et melted charges consisting of 80% partially reduced

iron with 78.05% total iron, 29.65% metallic iron, 52.84% FeO, 10.46% Fe203 and 3.9%

carbon together with 20% pig iron in :

i) a hot blast cupola without refractory lining with coke ratio of 40% and

10
combustion ratio of 0.29. The iron yield was 97% but the S-content was

0.159%, too high to be used for actual castings.

ii) a cupola of CO-enriched atmosphere with basic lining. Melting was made

at a coke ratio of 49% and a combustion ratio of 0.13. The iron yield was

98% and the S-content could be reduced to 0.088%.

The analysis of irons melted in both cupolas is shown in the following table

C Si Mn P S

Conventional 3.46 0.20 0.09 0.022 0.159

CO-enrichment 4.25 0.51 0.20 0.052 0.088

The conventional hot blast seems to be advantageous to the CO-enriched one

in the following

a) it has high efficiency of combustion with lower coke ratio.

b) it can be operated without refractory lining.

c) the liningless cupola can be continuously run for a long time without

repairing.

d) slag control is made with ease due to little erosion of refractory lining.

Therefore the authors concluded that the conventional hot blast cupola will be

preferable to the CO-enriched cupola if the desuiphurisation could be easily made

either by trough or ladle treatment.

Metallized pellets containing 92.8% iron were melted with automobile scrap in a

small hot blast cupola, having an inside diameter of 1 It was found that pellets

with a low gangue content and high metallization can be used successfully with

11
automobile scrap in 50-50 ratio: with 100% pellet charge no difficulty was experienced

either. Because of a higher pressure drop with the smaller pellets, a slight increase in

windbox pressure and a 9% increase in coke rate were necessary, and both resulted in

no significant change in production.

At the Rheinstahi Foundry, Muelheim/Ruhr, W. Germany, sponge iron bri-

quettes were charged into a cupola with a 39-in (1000-mm) hearth For

months, 20% of the cupola charge consisted of briquettes (density 5.3 g/m3) containing

1.78% carbon and 92% total iron, approximately 95.5% of which was in the metallic

state. During special the amount of briquettes was increased in steps to

60%.

Figure ( 3) shows the approximate compositions of the charges. The

increased demand for coke to compensate for the roughly 10% oxides in the briquettes

was realized by a corresponding reduction in the metallic charge: this way, the charge

volume was kept constant. As a result, the melting capacity of the furnace decreased

(Fig. 2.1) and the slag volume increased (Fig. 2). The latter did not cause problems

but additional energy is necessary to dispose of the slag.

Up to the 40% level of sponge iron briquettes in the charge, the simplex

operation was used to produce directly regular cast iron (GG-20 quality). No change in

metallurgical structure or strength could be determined during increasing additions of

briquettes. Because of the low Mn content of the sponge iron briquettes, the liquid iron

from charges with higher percentages (50 and 60%) of briquettes was used as a base

for the production of ductile cast iron using the duplex method. It was found that the

sponge iron briquettes are particularly well suited for this application.

In general, it was concluded that sponge iron briquettes are extremely well

12
suited a charge material for cupolas. As in the case of steel scrap, the reliability of the

composition of liquid cast iron obtained during the simplex melting procedure is lower

than with pig iron as the furnace charge. High carbon contents of the sponge iron and

the always uniform and low content of tramp elements are advantageous. If the duplex

technique is being used, the final results become very reliable.

Another deals with the use of sponge iron as a charge material for

cupolas producing malleable and ductile cast iron. Three acid-lined hot blast cupolas

were used, one with a 90-in. (2300-mm) and two with 110-in. (2800-mm) hearth

diameter, having, respectively, 59-in. (1500-mm), 87-in. (2200-mm), and 47-in. (1200-

mm) melting zone diameters. The sponge iron consisted of pellets, lump ore, and

briquettes with 0.7-1.6% carbon and 90 to 95% total iron, 92-96% of which was in the

metallic state.

Figure ( 4) shows the additional coke consumption in relation to the amount of

sponge iron in the charge. Curve 1 was obtained with a constant wind temperature of

approximately 840°F (450°C) during the production of white, malleable cast iron (GTW).

Curve 2 represents results from another furnace during the production of black,

malleable• (GTS) and nodular (GGG) cast iron. In this furnace, the wind temperature

was changed in steps from normally 300°F (150°C) with 0% sponge iron to 840°F

(450°C) with 20% and more sponge iron. The difference between curves 1 and 2

represents the energy introduced with the hot wind. If an adjustment of the wind

temperature would not have been possible, curve 2 would be identical with curve 1. The

lower part of Fig. ( 4) indicates the corresponding decrease in melting capacity for

case 1 (GTW).

When sponge iron pellets were used, the iron temperature and composition

varied and a large amount of viscous slag was produced during the startup period. The

13
reason for this behaviour is that the smaller pellets drop through the open space of

lower charges and melt several charges in advance of the charge to which they were

originally added. The upper charges become increasingly depleted in pellets. This result

In agreement with earlier findings by Hafner and To obtain a uniform Si level,

it is necessary to adjust ferroalloy additions at the beginning and end of the heat to

compensate for the melting of pellets in advance of their respective charges. K.

Hornung et determined that with sponge iron briquettes the this problem does not

exist.

No additional wear of the furnace lining was determined during the production

of black, malleable and nodular cast iron with prereduced material. Lining wear was on

the high side even with only small amounts of sponge iron in the cupola charge if white,

malleable cast iron was made (Fig. 5). The amount of slag increased in all cases as

expected.

Figure ( 6) shows the changes in C and Si content of the cast iron at different

proportions of metallized pellets in the charge. In all cases, the C-content, which was on

the high side if no sponge iron was used, could be lowered with attention advantages in

melting and positive results in respect to strength and hardness due to a changed C to

Si relationship. The variation of the composition, represented by the standard deviation

(S in Fig. 9), increased with pellets but was not changed if briquettes were used.

In the USA, among others, Newbury and Talladega foundries, both in

Talladega, Ala., used sponge iron in their basic cupola In all cases, pellet

additions to the charge were limited to 5, 10, or 15%. It has been reported that at those

levels excellent results were obtained. In agreement with the trials described in more

detail above, the coke requirement increased slightly, the basicity of the slag decreased

(which could be offset by the addition of limestone), the dilution effect lowered the

14
content of tramp elements (especially P and Mn), and ferrosilicon was added most of

the time ahead of the charge containing pellets to compensate for pellets dropping

through lower layers. The increased slag volume could be separated and handled

without difficulty.

M.G. Geck and W. investigated the effect of replacement of

steel scrap by sponge iron in cupolas with different operating parameters and

production programs shown in Table ( 2).

Table 2): Data relating to cupola furnaces charged with Midrex sponge -iron.

Cupola Furnace Cupola Furnace Cupola Furnace


(1) (2) (3)

Hearth diameter (mm) 2,100 1,950 1,100


Nozzle distance (mm) 1,400 1,250 300
Maximum wind quantity
(cu.m. permin.) 190 150 100
Wind pressure
(mmH2O) 800to 1,000 700to 800 650to 700
Maximum blast tempera-
ture (°C) 600 500 Cold blast
02-addition (%) - - up to 4
Batch weight (kg) 1,200 1,200 600
Coke rate (kg per ton) 190 125 130
Output (tons per hr.) 12.5 12 8 to 9
Basicity of the slag 1.9 1.0 0.5
% CaO + % MgO/% Si02
Production programme Ingot-mould s.-g. iron Grey
special iron, (Duplex process) cast-iron
s.-g., iron.

15
The impact of increasing sponge iron addition has been studied on the

following parameters

- melting characteristics.

- cast iron composition.

- slag quantity

- sulfur content

- metallic yield.

(a) Melting Characteristics

Figure ( 7) shows the coke ratio, melting performance and the temperature of

the cast iron as a reference of sponge iron proportion. As shown, the coke ratio

increases by approximately 6 kg per ton for a 10% increase of sponge-iron in the

charge. Compared with published this increase in coke consumption is

low. However, the melting and charging conditions have to be considered. Correspond-

ing to the relatively low increase in coke consumption, the melting performance change

is insignificant. Due to the small size of the pellets and their large specific surface,

which is about 20 times larger than that of pig-iron, pellets heat up with a considerably

higher speed in the upper part of the shaft. Consequently, heat utilization is more

favourable. Therefore a slightly improved performance with a reduced coke rate is quite

possible. As shown, the temperature of the cast-iron in the launder remainded almost

unchanged under the circumstances described above.

(b) Chemical Composition

Figure ( 8) depicts the variation of some essential elements in the cast-iron

and the slag as a function of the sponge-iron added. Fig. ( 8a) shows that up to an

16
addition of 10% of sponge-iron, the carbon content remained unchanged and dropped

slightly at 25 percent. The values representing the iron content of the slag do not

depend upon the sponge-iron content; they are scattered in the range of 0.2%. This

means that at the operating conditions of this furnace, the residual iron oxides added

with the sponge-iron have been reduced almost completely. As in the case of carbon, a

significant reduction of the silicon content only occurs at a sponge-iron addition of 25%

(Fig. 8b). Fig. ( 8) also shows the sulfur contents of the cast-iron. Also indicated are
the basicities B which, in agreement with the literature, were calculated as B = %CaO +

MgO/Si02. Here it is also evident that, with up to 20% of sponge-iron in the charge, no

substantial change occurs. Even the higher sulfur content at 25% addition of sponge-

iron seems to revert to a reduction in basicity rather than to the effect of the sponge iron

itself.

(c) Slag Quantity

Figure ( 9) shows the change in the specific slag quantity as sponge-iron in

the charge is increased. The gangue content of the sponge-iron was approximately

3.6%, mainly Si02 and A1203. In furnaces with a basic lining, Si02 content must be com-

pensated to obtain the required slag basicity. In this case, the silicon content of the

coke must be determined at the increased coke rate. In the three cupola furnaces, the

different basicities of the slag lead to very different quantities of basic slag. They were

in the range of 25 kg. per ton for cupola furnace 3 (B = 0.45-0.6), 45 kg. per ton for

cupola furnace 2 (B = 0.95-1.20), and 90 kg per ton for cupola furnace 1 (B 1.65-2.05),

respectively. As expected, the increase of slag quantity is lower in acid than in basic

furnaces. As shown in Fig. ( 10), the method of operation and the slag basIcity in the

cupola bears very heavily upon silicon slagging. Generally, silicon slaggirig increases

with growing amounts of sponge iron whereby silicon together with carbon shares in the

reduction of the residual iron oxides. lt is also understandable that silicon slagging

increases with higher slag basicities.

17
Figures ( 11) and ( 12) compare the test results of all three cupola furnaces.

These figures show that, apart from the influence of the sponge-iron addition,

characteristic differences in the operating methods of the furnaces under investigation

do exist. Such differences are also apparent in the carbon and sulfur contents of the

cast-iron and, to a smaller extent, in the iron-oxide content of the slag (see Fig. 11).

The levels of these elements are determined by the operating method and differ slightly

with increasing sponge-iron in the charge.

The highest decrease in carbon content was found in the acid cold-blast cupola

furnace in which the carbon level is low anyway. Despite constant temperature of the

launder iron (1 ,485-1 .520°C), carburization was less favourable in this furnace.

(d) Sulfur Content

The average sulfur contents are determined by the slag basicity (Fig. 1 ib). In

hot-blast cupola furnaces with basicities of approximately 1.0 and 1.9, higher sulfur

contents may be expected with an increasing sponge-iron addition.

The oxide content in the slag, which is generally low, confirms the high degree

of reduction of residual oxides. For this reason, the iron yield of the three furnaces was

in excess of 99.9%. Since carbon and sulfur content of cast-iron are most heavily

influenced by the furnace operation, they were studied in detail.

Figure ( 12a) shows, as a function of the sponge-iron added, the approach of

the actual carbon content to the equilibrium value, calculated according to the following

relation

% C equilibrium = 1.3 + 2.57 . T (°C) - 0.305 . % Si + 0.03 % Mn

- 0.36 . % S - 0.337 . % P

18
Figure ( 12a) shows that despite constant iron temperatures, the conditions of

carburization deteriorate from furnace 1 to furnace 2 and down to furnace 3.

Introducing the value as a measure for the approach, with = analytical

%C equilibrium and plotting this value in Fig. (. 12b), as a function of the basicity B, it

means that the approach to the equilibrium and, consequently, the carbon content grow

with increasing basicity. It appears to be more likely that kinetic factors cause this

phenomenon, since nothing is known so far about any effect of the slag composition on

the carbon saturation with surplus solid carbon carriers being present. In the case

represented by Fig. ( 12b), the values are somewhat smaller with sponge-iron addition

than without.

Sulfur content plays a decisive role in the production of ductile iron, since in the

cupola, sulfur containing coke is used as fuel, carburizing, and reducing agent and

brings in more than 80% of the sulfur, the low sulfur content of the sponge-iron has no

effect. Therefore, in order to reach a low sulfur content, desulphurization inside or

outside of the furnace is necessary. If desuiphurization is to be carried out in the cupola

furnace, a high slag basicity must be provided for.

In Fig. (' 13) the sulfur content of the iron (Fig. 13a) and the sulfur

distribution ratio (Fig. 13b) are plotted as a function of the basicity B. The influence of

sponge-iron addition appears to be insignificant. The values are in the range of the

lower scatter.

Since slag separation in cupola furnaces can be accomplished without

difficulty, the increased slag quantity causes no trouble when using sponge-iron. The

melting rate is only influenced to an insignificant degree when using this material. The

additional consumption of coke, limestone, and alloying elements does not only depend

19
on the percentage of sponge-iron input, but also on the operational method of the

furnace. Fig. ( 14) represents calculated values which clearly show that both the slag

basicity and the combustion ratio determined the increased expenditure. Furthermore,

consumption figures are influenced by whether pig-iron or scrap are to be replaced by

sponge-iron. In the calculation, neither the utilization of the chemically bound heat by

recombustion of the top gas nor the better heat transfer into the smaller sponge-iron

pieces have been taken into consideration.

(e) Metallic Yield

Since, in cupola furnaces, nearly 100% of the residual iron oxides are being

reduced, this factor does not affect the metallic yield. However, it must be considered

that with both increasing iron-oxide content and increasing gangue content, the cake

and limestone consumptions will grow according to the calculated relationships shown

in Fig. ( 15). The combustion ratio of the too gas, in regard to coke consumption, and

the slag basicity, in regard to gangue content, represent important parameters.

Nevertheless, sponge-iron with a high degree of metallization as generated by the

Midrex process is a desirable feed material for the cupola furnace.

The input cost advantages resulting from the cost relation between pig-iron and

sponge-iron are in favour of sponge-iron, and are almost completely exploited, since the

excess consumption of coke and limestone is very low. For the tests with 25% sponge-

iron input, the cost reduction for the charge material was calculated to be approximat&y

8%.

Sponge-iron has been recently utilized as foundry charge material in

Indian Foundry industry. To date, the total number of foundries in India is over

5000 which are scattered all over the country. Even these foundries are not

sufficient to meet the requirements for some sophisticated and intricate

20
castings, which have to be eventually imported. Furthermore the capacity
itilization of the existing foundries is poor because of a variety of reasons the

chief among them being shortage of power and raw materials. Whenever the

production is not throttled by power shortage, it is either shortage of raw

materials quantity as well as qualitywise (e.g. pig iron, scrap, coke, etc.) and/or

their high prices, which have been responsible for the poor performance of the

foundries. This situation is rather similar to that of the foundry industry in

Egypt.

The first sponge melting trials in a cupola in Indian gave rise to the

following conclusions

I) Up to 25% sponge iron can be easily used in a cupola charge (to replace

pig iron) without causing any significant operational difficulties with higher

percentages of sponge iron in the charge, however, the permeability of the

charge decreases and as a result, the gas flow experiences greater

resistance. This causes increased air pressure in the wind box and

decreased air flow, with 25% sponge, the air pressure increased by about

30% in this case.. Care has to be taken to study this aspect before using

significant percentages of sponge iron in cupolas.

ii) Sponge iron should not be included in the first 6 to 8 charges - if added in

the earlier charges, it causes difficulty in tapping out the liquid iron. This

also ensures that when sponge iron reaches melting area, its temperature

is sufficiently high.

iii) The slag volume of the cupola furnace increases with increasing amounts

of sponge iron in the charge - so more care should be taken in slagging.

With 25% sponge iron, the slag volume increased by about 15-20% in this

trial.

21
iv) The liquid iron temperature is not affected by iron addition.

v) The smelting capacity of the furnace is expected to go down with sponge

iron in the charge - this depends on its gangue content and degree of

metallisation. It is therefore necessary to choose sponge iron with a low

gangue content and as high a degree of metallisation as possible for use

in cupolas.

vi) Like carbon silicon content of the cast iron also goes down, but in this

case the rate of decrease is more rapid.

vii) Titanium content of cast iron melts containing sponge iron is definitely

lower as compared to the normal melts.

The authors expected that in India also sponge iron will be used in greater

amounts in cupola furnaces - as large quantities of sponge iron would be available in

the Indian market. Economic considerations would of course play a role but present

indications are that sponge iron usage would also be economically viable. This would

definitely reduce the titanium content of cupola cast iron in India which should help in

making the production of SG iron in India more popular.

22
(1) R.W. Shields, K.W. Roessing an(1 IL. Bishop, Thermochemical Model of a Basic
I

I-lot-Blast Cupola, Proc. Symp. Process Simulation and Control in Iron and Steel
Making", AIME, p. 167-195 (1966).

(2) S. Tunder, Vetwendung von Fischschwamm bei der in


baischen Heisswiridkupolofen, (Use of Sponge Iron for Pig Iron Production in tho
Basic Hot Blast Cupola), Proc. Congr. ml. sur Ia production el l'utilisalion dos;
minerals reduits, Evian (Mai 1967).

(3) RH. Hafner arid S.C. Glow, Melflnq Iron-ore Pellets in the Cupolu
Proc. Amer. Fouridrymen Society, p. 53-59 (1968).

(4) 1. Makiguchi. T. Tanaka, T. Baha and Ch. Fukuda, 'Utilization of Partial ly


Reduced Iron Ore br Cupola Molting", Proc. 35th International 1-oundry
Kyoto, p. 28-1 to 26-6 (Oct. 1966).

(5) 1. Makiguchi and T. Tanaka, "Utilization of Partially Reduced Iron Ore for Cupola
Melting", Trans. Nat. Res. Inst. Metals, Vol. 11, No. 1, p. 11/19 (1969).

(6) NB. Melcher, W.M. Mahan, "Production of Foundry Iron with Scrap Pro
reduced Pellets", Proc. ICSTIS Suppl. Trans. ISIJ, Vol. 11, Sec. 1 (111) (1971).

(7y H. Motz, Fisenschwammbriketts als Einsatzstoff im Kupolofen und Eigenschaften


des dabei erzeugten Gusseisens, (Sponge Iron Briquets as Charge Material for
the Cupola and Characteristics of the Cast Iron Produced Herewith) Giesserel,
Vol. 62, No. 23, p. 593-599 (1975).

(8) K. Hornung, R. Linkett, H. Schmidth and L. Wilhelm, Eisenschwamrn als


EinsatzstofI fuer Temperguss und Gusseisen mit Kugelgraphit im Kupolofen,
(Sponge Iron as Charge Material for Cupolas for the Production of Malleable and
Nodular Cast Iron), Gieswerei, Vol. 62, No. 23, p. 599-603 (1975).

(9) Anonymous, Use of MIDREX Sponge Iron in the Basic Cupolas of


Talladega Foundries, Tallaclega, Alabama, unpublished reports, Georgetown
Ferreduction Corp., Georgetown, S.C. (1975).

23
(10) MG. Geck and \A/ 'Usc of MIDREX Sponge Iron in Induction and
Cupola Furnaces", Foundry .1 rade pp. 969-989, (Nov. 25, 1976).

(11) MG. Geck and VV. Maschlanka, "Melting of MIDREX Iron in the lnductton and
Cupola Furnacus of Foundries", Indian Foundry Journal, 28 (13), pp. 1

(Oct. 1982).

(12) R. Singh, S. A. Chatteijee, "Melting of Sponge Iron in a Cupola Studies at


11SCO: loot and Alloy Steels", 16, (/), Pp. 235241 (July 1982).

24
E

C
C

'1,
U
•1
0
C
U C
C, 0
C U

0 TO 20 30 40 50 60

% Sponge iron

Fig. ( 1): Melting capacity and silicon loss in relation to the amount
of sponge iron brique ties added to the charge.

14

12

10

C,
C
8

0
C
0 6
E

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Sponge iron briquettes


Fig. ( 2): Amount of slag in relation to the amount of sponge iron
briquetteS to the charge.

25
cc

.1
0.
E

00 u
B

§ oF- 01—
6
4)
E
:o
-J

15 10.5
4)

0
U 14

9.5
.13

N
0) 12 8.5
C
% Sponge iron

4-
C
0
F mOot mould
C Scrap
di Cast Iron;.-
>
4-.
C
di

10 20 30 40 Furnace copocity
0

% Sponge iron briquettes

capacity in relation to
of the test charges. Fig. 4): Coke consumPtion and furnace to the charge.
Fig. 3): ApproXimate compositions the amount of sponge iron added
Fig. ( 5): Lining wear of furnace
401 during the product/on
of white, malleable cast
iron.

50 100 150 200 250

Throughput (T)/16h

3.5

3.0

Fig. ( 6): Carbon and silicon contents 2.5


In relation to the amount of
sponge Iron added to the
charge. The results are re-
presented by the arithmetic
mean x and the standard V 2.0
C
deviation = S. 0
U

1.5

1.0

0.5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Sponge kon

27
220
H
41 04 £
LI
200
— E
C

02
U
80 U
IL
U
:: 0

13

11
g
u
N 12
0

09

1550

LI
U
1500
4- I
a 0
I-U
E 0
V
F-

25 30 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 25

Sponge iron proportIon In %


Sponge Iron proportion in %

remaining burden:
remaining burden ' oppr 5% circulating, 70 to 95% steel scrap
• oppr. 5% circuloting 70 to 95% steel scrap
o oppr. 10% cast iron scro 65 to 90% steel scrap
10% circulating, 65 to 90% steel scrap

coke consumption, Fig. ( 8): Effect of sponge iron on the composition of cast iron
Fig. ( 7): Effect of sponge iron proportion on (cupola No. 1).
Melting capacity, and iron temperature and slag (cupola No. 1).
120
CaO.MgO
Cupola Ii I 1.65-2.05
100
g
—S
*1

80
.->-

60 CaO.MgO
Cupola (/ 2 0.95-1.20
Si02

•1

U 40 CoO +MgO
Cupola 11 3 0.45-0.60
Si02

I 20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Sponge Iron proportion In %

Fig.( 9): Effect of sponge iron in the cupola


charge on the quality of slag.

12 I
I I I
CaO+MgO
* Cupola C 1
= 1.65-2.05
——
Si01
10 *— — —

— —. — —
*
— — — K
8 - — — CoO +MgO
. Cupola (/ 3
SiO
= 0.45-0.60

U
6 S

0 I Cupola 1/ 2
CoO. MgO
0.95-1.20
4
C
C,
C,
a
0
2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Sponge Iron proportion in %

Fig. ( 10) : Effect of sponge iron in the cupola


charge on the slagging of silicon.

29
B T(°C)

42 185 1505

C
4'
Br 1.65-2.05
38
"H 105 1510 H
a
34
E
060 1505
B :0.96-1.20
-a
30
B 0.45-0.60
a-
4'
060 1505 U
. 0 10 20
sponge Iron proportion in %
a
"H 0 90
L) cii —. . p
C 105 a b)
— a
- — , 0
185 1505 0 -
a- fr_ ,- 1• C V
0. a C,
C
0
a 80 -___ a.
I 5)
U 0)
C
• 0 0
,* a. 0
2 /
-S 1/- -c
- 3:
L'S 3: K

0
S 70 y*_
U 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 20 2.4
10 15 20 25 soig baslcity B
5
C
- analytic.
- Sponge Iron proportion Irs Temperature 1480 to 1525 °C
rIG..
C
2, x 1! 1, 8 = Slag basicity equiltbrium
Cupola II 3, o Cupola II Cupola

Fig. ( 12): Approximation to carbon equilibrium as a function


Fig. ( II): Effect of sponge iron on the carbon and sulphur content of of a proportion of sponge iron, b, slag basicity.
casi iron and on the iron content of the slag.
0.25
25

0.20 8=2 ]n =0.25


B 0.5

0.15
8=2 in =0.5
B
C

0. 0

U
Id B = 2 r18 0.25
u.S 10
-c 0.05
C-
B 2 r18 0.5
0
. With sponge Iron < 25%, x Without sponge Iron
IOU Replacing

50 025 Pig It-on


15 0.5
0.25
0.5
C, 20
g
10

I-
Sn 5
-C

-c
p
C- 2

V) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300


-C Sponge Iron input in kgc/ton oF cast iron
0 02 04 06 08 1.0 1.2 1.4 L6 1.8 2.0 CoO.M00 Co,
Slog bosicity B ;
Saig bosicity B Si01 CO

Fig. ( 13): Effect of slag basicity on the sulphur content of the cast Fig. ( 14): Effect of sponge iron on the additional
iron, and on the distribution of the sulphur. consumption of coke and limestone at
different levels of slag basicity (B) and
cornpustion condition in the cupola.
I?

1500°C

S : 2 0.25

B 2 ri 0.5

0.5
8:0.5

Proportion of oxidized Iron in Proporticxi of gangue in

Fig. ( 15): Effect of the proportion of iron oxide and gangue content
on additional coke consumption.

32
ANNEX U
SAND MOULDING STUDIES
IN
RUBEX COMPANY
FIRST REPORT ON OF
THE SAND MIXTURES USED IN DISA
MOULDING LINE IN RUBEX COMPANY

RUBEX foundry used DISA machine for moulding which has the following
advantages:

- Cooling of the return sand before entering the mixture.


- Eliminating of dust and dead clays.
- Separation of shell sands (core sands).

Sand Specifications

The properties of the new as well as the used sand are measured at CMRDI
laboratories and are listed in the following table compared to the sand standard
properties recommended by DISA:

Test Result Standard Value for DISA

(a) NewSand:
64-70 80-100
AFS No. 0.33 mm 0.16-0.2 mm
Average grain size 1.2% 1.5-3.0%
Clay content

(b) Used Sand:

Total clay content 17% 11-13%


Active clay content 9% 7-8%
Dead clay 7% 34%
Loss in igination 5.2% 3.5-4.5%
G.C.S. 1.16 kg/cm 1.7-2.1 kg/cm
Permeability 50 > 50.
Compactability 36% 35-45%
Moisture . 2.8% .. 2-4%

1
1. Grain Size Distribution

The clay free sand samples were screened using a set of sieves belong to
serious "RiO" according to the standard methods.

The mean particle size for moulding sands are of medium size, this suitable for
cores rather than for moulds.

AFS for the used sand is small compared to that standard values suitable for
DISA.

2. Clay Content

Using standard method, the total clay content could be determined and by using
metheline blue test, the active clay part was measured and accordingly the dead clay
was calculated.

(a) Active clay : An accurate percentage (7%) helps to get suitable green
compression strength with good gas permeability, and good compatability, by
increasing bentonite and water addition in the mixture, the moulding parameter
could be deteriorated.

(b) Dead clay content: is very high especially in the backing sand, where this high
content causes a decrease of gas permeability and also decrease of the green
compression strength.

3. Gas Permeability

Due to an increase of the total clay content there is a decrease in gas


permeability of the mixture.

4. Green Compression Strength

Compared with the standard value suited for DISA machine, the G.C.S. is small,
this due to high clay content in the sand mixture.

2
Generally

The apparent deviation of sand properties from the standard values needed for
the proper operation of DISA machine may be attributed to:

- The properties of sand are not regularly monitored.


- The sand drum unit is not in operation.

3
SECOND REPORT ON
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE SAND MIXTURES
USED IN DISA MOULDING LINE IN
RUBEX COMPANY

Test Results Standard Values for DISA

1. Total clay content 15.0% 11-13%


2. Active clay content 9.3% 7-8%
3. Dead clay 5.7% 3-4%
4. Loss on ignition 4.0% 3.5-4.5%
5. G.C.S. 1.4 kg/cm2 1.7-2.1 kg/cm2
6. Permeability 65 > 50

7. Compactability 38 35-45
8. Moisture content 2.8% 2-4
9. Wet tensile strength 12 g/cm2 > 20 g/cm2

Analyses proved that most measuements are within the accepted ranges for
DISA requirements. The relatively higher values of total and active clay contents are in
contradiction with the considerably low wet tensile strength. This may be attributed to
the prese'nce of relatively high contents of free ions (salts) in the used water. These
ions are accumulated in the sand mixture during the refreshment process and act as a
flocculant.

Recommendations

1. Used water should be analysed, looking at the types and percentages of the
present ions (cations and anions).

2. If the previous analysis showed a positive result (as expected), deionized water-
tnstead of tap water could be used in the moulding machine.

4
ANNEX III
•1

SAND MOULDING STUDIES


IN
INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS CO.
SAND MOULDING STUDIES IN
INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS CO.
(A) ANALYSIS FOR BASIC SANDS

By studying two types of sand in the company, the first type is used for facing
sand and chemically bonded sand, the second type for backing and pit moulding.

(1) Grain Shape

The microscopic examination reveals that the two types used have nearly the
same shape, semispherical shape, but the second type has about 5-7% metal oxides
and solid materials with average size from 2-5 mm. These percent of course particles
lead to produce castings with rough surface.

(2) Fineness Content

Using standard method, the fineness contents, were determined for the three
types of sand used in the company.

Type of Sand Facing (1) Bcking (2)


Finess content 14.1% 25.2%

Types (1) and (2) have very high fineness contents, this deteriorates gas
permeability of the sand mixtures and produce casting defects.

(3) Grain Size Disfribution

The clay free sand samples were screened using a set of sieves belongs to the
series "R10" according to the standard methods.

From the results, the following parameter can be obtained:

Degrading of
Sand Type AFS Mean Particle Size
Ii niformity
Type (1) 54 0.315mm 57%
Type (2) 54.2 0.240 mm 47%

1
The results indicate that:

(1) The mean particle size is of medium size.

(2) The degree of uniformity is relatively small for the two types of sand
especially the second type, where the value of the degree of uniformity
must be within the range from 60-70%. These lower values highly
decrease the gas permeability of the sand mixture.

(3) AFS for the two types of sand is relatively high for making facing and
backing mixtures, whereas the optimum values must be between 35-45
to get good gas permeability.

(B) SAND MIXTURE

(1) Clay Content

Using standard method, the total clay content could be determined and by
using Metheline Blue Test, the active clay part was measured and accordingly the dead
clay part can be calculated. This can be shown in the following table:

Sand Type Total Clay Active Clay Dead Clay


Facing (1) 14.1% 12.5% 1.6%
Backing (2) 25.2% 17% 8.2%

From this table, the following results could be concluded

(a) Active clay content is very high especially in type (2), this percent must
be decreased to 9-10% for the local bentonite and to 7% for the
important one. An accurate percentage helps to get suitable properties,
by increasing bentonite and water additions in the mixture the moulding
parameter could be deteriorated.

(b) Dead clay content is very high in backing sand (type 2). These high
values cause a decrease in gas permeability and green thmpression
strength. This is the reason of increasing active bentonite in the sand
mixture to raise green compression strength.

2
(2) Specification of the Sand Mixtures

By re-using the sand of the two types 1 and 2 in our laboratory mixer with
different additions of water results show that

(a) Gas permeability

Due to the high clay content in the sand mixtures, the gas permeability is highly
decreased.

(b) Green compression strength (G.C.S.)

Types (1) and (2) of the sand mixtures have high G.C.S., 2 and 2.7 kg/cm2 at
6% water. This increase in G.C.S. is due to the high active clay content in the mixtures.

(c) Shatter index

The lower values of the two mixtures lead to form fraiable mould (of lower
moisture content). At higher moisture content the shatter increase but the gas
permeability decreases and also the riddel density. This leads to form hard moulds,
which makes difficulty when the pattern removed from the mould without any failure or
breakdown of the shaped edges of the mould cavity.

(d) Wet tesnile strength (W.T.S.)

The two types (1) and (2) of sand mixtures have very low W.T.S., where the
value limit must not be than 20 g/cm2 this decrease in W.T.S. is due to the high
increase of active and dead clay in the sand mixtures. These decreases in W.T.S. lead
to some casting defects such as buckling, scabs and rat-tails.

NOTES

(1) Return sand must be sieved to avoid any metal oxides or any solid
materials in the mixtures, using 0.63 mm opening sieve.
(2) Benonite contents must be controlled to avoid these problems.
(3) The sand system must be controlled to get good quality castings.

3
(2) Specification of the Sand Mixtures

By re-using the sand of the two types 1 and 2 in our laboratory mixer with
different additions of water results show that

(a) Gas permeability

Due to the high clay content in the sand mixtures, the gas permeability is highly
decreased.

(b) Green compression strength (G.C.S.)

Types (1) and (2) of the sand mixtures have high G.C.S., 2 and 2.7 kg/cm2 at
6% water. This increase in G.C.S. is due to the high active clay content in the mixtures.

(c) Shafter index

The lower values of the two mixtures lead to form fraiable mould (of lower
moisture content). At higher moisture content the shatter increase but the gas
permeability decreases and also the riddel density. This leads to form hard moulds,
which makes difficulty when the pattern removed from the mould without any failure or
breakdown of the shaped edges of the mould cavity.

(d) Wet tesnile strength (W.T.S.)

The two types (1) and (2) of sand mixtures have very low W.T.S., where the
value limit must not be lower than 20 g/cm2 this decrease in W.T.S. is due to the high
increase of active and dead clay in the sand mixtures. These decreases in W.T.S. lead
to some casting defects such as buckling, scabs and rat-tails.

NOTES

(1) Return sand must be sieved to avoid any metal oxides or any solid
materials in the mixtures, using 0.63 mm opening sieve.
(2) Benonite contents must be controlled to avoid these problems.
(3) The sand system must be controlled to get good quality castings.