18 views

Uploaded by bardaris

- 8-4 Graphs of Sine and Cosine (Presentation)
- Relation between Taylor and fourier series
- 4037_s05_qp_1
- 13_6_int_trig_fns
- Textbook Chapter on Introduction to Fourier Series
- Signals and Systems
- HW2011_2_ch11
- EngMath(4)2012_2_HWsol_Chap11_11.1_11.4
- b.tech Chemical Engineering
- 23_2
- CalcIII_MultipleIntegrals
- week5.pdf
- Chapter 8
- 1-s2.0-0013794483900048-main.pdf
- Graphing Form of Sine and Cosine Functions
- Fieldwork
- Sec+4.1+to+4.4+Review+Questions
- 41ext13
- Form 5 Additional Maths Note
- Civil-UG-FT

You are on page 1of 20

Fourier Series

• Vector decomposition

• Even and Odd functions

• Fourier Series definition and examples

All rights reserved.

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 1

Review of Vector Decomposition

Q

y = [0 1] r = [1.3 0.75]

I

x = [1 0]

a set of appropriately weighted

orthonormal basis vectors

• Example:

Calculation of Vector Weights

Q

y = [0 1] r = [1.3 0.75]

I

x = [1 0]

basis vectors

• Example:

The Basis Vectors are Not Unique

Q

x=[ 1 1 ]

2 2 r = [1.3 0.75]

y = [ -1 1 ]

2 2

I

Observations on Basis Decomposition

• We can consider any vector as a sum of

weighted orthonormal basis vectors

• The weights are determined by an inner

product calculations (also known as projections)

– Consist of element-by-element multiplications

followed by addition of the resulting products

x=[ 1 1 ]

2 2 r = [1.3 0.75]

• Inner product calculations:

y = [ -1 1 ]

2 2

I

Can We Decompose Functions?

• Consider a periodic function such as a square wave

weighted sum of basis functions?

• If so, what would be a good choice for such basis

functions?

• How would we calculate the weights?

Consider Sine Wave Basis Functions

• Suppose we consider sine waves of progressively

increasing frequencies as our basis functions

sin(ωot)

sin(2ωot)

t

sin(3ωot)

t

– Available at: http://www.falstad.com/fourier/

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 7

Issue: Sine Waves Are Limited

• A sine wave corresponds to an odd function

sin(ωot)

odd function

Consider Cosine Wave Basis Functions

• Even function definition:

cos(ωot)

cos(2ωot)

t

cos(3ωot)

t

Combine Cosines and Sines

• If we use both cosine and sine waveforms as basis

functions, we can realize both even and odd

functions (and any combination)

Even Odd

t t

cos(ωot) sin(ωot)

t t

cos(2ωot) sin(2ωot)

t t

cos(3ωot) sin(3ωot)

t t

The Fourier Series

• A periodic waveform, x(t), with period T can be

represented as an infinite sum of weighted cosine

and sine waveforms

x(t)

Intuition for Fourier Series

• Compare Fourier Series to vector decomposition:

Vector Decomp. Fourier Series

calculations are analogous to vector inner products!

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 12

Sine Wave Example

Ksin(ωot) K T

t

-K

(DC Average is 0)

Graphical View of Fourier Series (Sine)

Ksin(ωot) K T

t

-K

index or frequency

an af

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 14

Fourier Series of Cosine

Kcos(ωot) K T

t

-K

an af

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 15

Fourier Series of Cosine with DC component

K(cos(ωot)+1) 2K T

an af

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 16

Fourier Series of Phase-Shifted Cosine

K T

t

-K

• Using a well known trigonometric identity:

an af

Kcosθ Kcosθ

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

Ksinθ Ksinθ

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 17

Vector View of Phase-Shifted Cosine

K T

t

-K

• Using a well known trigonometric identity:

Q = sin(ωot)

Kcos(ωot - θ)

Ksin(θ)

θ

I = cos(ωot)

Kcos(θ)

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 18

Square Wave Example

x(t)

A T/2

t

-A

• By inspection:

T

– DC average = 0 ⇒ a0 = 0

– x(t) is odd ⇒ an = 0 (n ≥ 1)

Summary

• Vector decomposition provides a nice starting point

for understanding Fourier Series

– Vector decomposition into a sum of weighted basis vectors

an infinite sum of weighted cosine and sine functions

– We can look at waveforms either in ‘time’ or ‘frequency’

– Useful tool: even and odd functions

– Fourier Series definition covered today is not very compact

• We will look at a simpler formulation based on complex

exponentials

– Fourier Series only deals with periodic waveforms

• We will introduce the Fourier Transform to deal with non-

periodic waveforms

- 8-4 Graphs of Sine and Cosine (Presentation)Uploaded bySandra Miller
- Relation between Taylor and fourier seriesUploaded byKarlos Vergara
- 4037_s05_qp_1Uploaded bymstudy123456
- 13_6_int_trig_fnsUploaded byJohn
- Textbook Chapter on Introduction to Fourier SeriesUploaded byscribean
- Signals and SystemsUploaded byMuthe Murali
- HW2011_2_ch11Uploaded byYoon Jae Hyun
- EngMath(4)2012_2_HWsol_Chap11_11.1_11.4Uploaded byHeather Johnson
- b.tech Chemical EngineeringUploaded bychetanmale
- 23_2Uploaded byMayar Zo
- CalcIII_MultipleIntegralsUploaded bySiti Zulaiha Uyub
- week5.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- Chapter 8Uploaded byTri Phương Nguyễn
- 1-s2.0-0013794483900048-main.pdfUploaded byshashank soni
- Graphing Form of Sine and Cosine FunctionsUploaded byfristy lasty
- FieldworkUploaded byJethro Lemosnero
- Sec+4.1+to+4.4+Review+QuestionsUploaded byMulkrinkendov
- 41ext13Uploaded byapi-3706821
- Form 5 Additional Maths NoteUploaded byEric Wong
- Civil-UG-FTUploaded byVineet Vikram
- Trig_graphs_sin_and_cos2(1).ppsUploaded byKG
- Chapter 24Uploaded byghoshtapan4321
- 4037_w03_qp_2Uploaded bymstudy123456
- Maths Exam.docxUploaded byKhaing26
- 2012 Edexcel Higher C Paper 2Uploaded byBrenda Walters
- AppaUploaded byJoshua Igana
- D-eng-vt97Uploaded byEpic Win
- CalculusUploaded bySchreiber_Dieses
- Intro to MechUploaded byJChris Esguerra
- Precalculus_Teacher_Edition_Sample_Chapter.pdfUploaded byJason Orolfo Salvadora HL

- Low Power Real Time S Band ImagerUploaded bybardaris
- RF PIN SWITCH - 19720003204Uploaded bybardaris
- MOSFETHBridge.pdfUploaded bySamSharma
- 390782Uploaded bybardaris
- 20110913Uploaded bybardaris
- ant_prop_magazine_1998.pdfUploaded bybardaris
- High Frequency VCO Design and SchematicsUploaded bybardaris
- UM9601Uploaded bybardaris
- Noise on Vcc Webinar 092413 FinalUploaded bybardaris
- Radome Optimisation for Airborne JammersUploaded bybardaris
- 2593-1-5978-2-10-20170520Uploaded bybardaris
- Application Note en 20161110Uploaded bybardaris
- Si5338-EVB-5199Uploaded bybardaris
- CCI Radome Whitepaper 190813Uploaded bybardaris
- awp_mitUploaded byArchek Praveen
- 16.08.10 QM-RDK QuickstartUploaded bybardaris
- 1304696084Uploaded bybardaris
- An-05 Pulsed Operation K-LCxUploaded bybardaris
- Eval Adf4158eb1zUploaded bybardaris
- Radar Fundamentals Power Point PresentationUploaded byVIKALP KULSHRESTHA
- EV-RADAR-MMIC2_UG-866-938712Uploaded bybardaris
- Gigatronics Radar Reference eBookUploaded bybardaris
- 16.09.28 QM-RDK Lesson GuideUploaded bybardaris
- An 04 TypicalSignalAmpUploaded byIka Dhivtyasari
- Datasheet K HC1Uploaded bybardaris
- VMDK TO VHDUploaded bybardaris
- An 03 RadomeUploaded bybardaris
- 240dollar Railsar NotesUploaded bybardaris
- ApplicationNote AppliationNote Michael ZitoUploaded bybardaris
- Qm-rdk User Manual Rev 1.2.0Uploaded bybardaris

- 060214 Governor Brewer Letter to President ObamaUploaded byJ. Swift (The Bulwark)
- Understanding Fruit Sugar.pdfUploaded byBob
- 2010 10 10 Ion Chromatography TheoryUploaded byDedew Cliquers
- 04 Chapter4 SealUploaded byTrần Anh Đức
- Abdominal CalcificationsUploaded bydziban
- 0197160sby-b-sd500-15-2l-perkinsUploaded byDheeraj Yadav
- Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research studies.pdfUploaded bydrnareshchauhan
- 26ForwordengUploaded byghostamir
- Essential of Hydraulics by Et-Nick ResearchUploaded byDominic Ustari
- fall 2017 swk 331 practice iUploaded byapi-374842636
- PRO R4 KellensUploaded byharrysan69
- Food RecipesUploaded byImran M. Shaikh
- CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES.pptUploaded byCristina Maria
- OISD STD 127.pdfUploaded byAlvin Smith
- RR 02-01Uploaded bysaintkarri
- IRGSCWP17 Locust Outbreak Sumba IndonesiaUploaded byJuan M. Nava Davila
- Umblachery CattleUploaded byGangaSudan
- 3-Day Gen Open 112003 2a [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byapi-3703348
- The Catering Shop MenuUploaded byPhillip Scott
- ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 2015 - Fact Book - IHSUploaded bystavros7
- 15 Current Environmental Problems That Our World is Facing - Conserve Energy FutureUploaded byKavisa Ghosh
- L-07(SS)(IA&C) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMarvin Bayanay
- Stub EndUploaded byMOHAMMAD ASIF
- englishmajorpaper2 1Uploaded byapi-317906943
- Test 6 Advanced 2 With Answers Cae 2016Uploaded byVGA89
- atomic model researchUploaded byapi-208353412
- 135634 Mark Scheme Unit b741 02 Unit 01 Modules c1 c2 c3 Higher Tier JuneUploaded byDiana Murphy
- The Gerstein ReportUploaded byxumino
- s-1078977.pdfUploaded byLazuwar Bayfanany
- 04353647Uploaded byFong EeMay