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CIVIL ENGINEERING

M.E. (HYDRAULICS, COASTAL AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING)


HCH – FOUR SEMESTER COURSE
SCHEME OF INSTRUCTION AND EXAMINATION

I – SEMESTER
Scheme of
Scheme of Examination
Instruction Credit
Code No. Course title Total
Duration of Exam. Theory/ s
Lec. Tut/drw. Sess.
(hrs) Lab./Viva
HCH 1.1 Advanced Mathematics 4 -- 3 70 30 100 4
HCH 1.2 Advanced Fluid Mechanics-I 4 -- 3 70 30 100 4
HCH 1.3 Nearshore Oceanography & 4 -- 3 70 30 100
4
Littoral Processes
HCH 1.4 Wave Hydrodynamics 4 -- 3 70 30 100 5
HCH 1.5 Hydraulic Structures 4 -- 3 70 30 100 4
HCH 1.6 Computer Programming and -- 4 -- 50 50 100
3
Numerical Techniques
Total 20 + 4 = 24 400 200 600 24

II – SEMESTER
Scheme of Instruction Scheme of Examination
Credit
Code No. Course title Lec. Tut./drw Duration of Theory/ Sess. Total
s
Exam. (hrs) Lab./Viva
HCH 2.1 Advanced Fluid Mechanics-II 4 -- 3 70 30 100 4
HCH 2.2 Free Surface Flow 4 -- 3 70 30 100 4
HCH 2.3 Siting and Planning of Port & 4 --
3 70 30 100 4
Harbour Installations
HCH 2.4 Design of Onshore 4 --
3 70 30 100 5
Structures
HCH 2.5 Sediment Transport & 4 --
3 70 30 100 4
Dredging
HCH 2.6 Hydraulics & Coastal -- 4 --
50 50 100 3
Engineering Lab.
Total 20 + 4 = 24 400 200 600 24

III – SEMESTER
Scheme of Instruction Scheme of Examination
Credit
Code No. Course title Tut./ Duration of Theory/ Total
Lec. Sess. s
Drg. Exam. (hrs) Lab./Viva
HCH 3.1 Design of Offshore
4 — 3 70 30 100 5
Structures
HCH 3.2 Hydrology & Water
4 — 3 70 30 100 4
Resources Engineering
HCH 3.3 Seminar --
— 4 50 50 100 3
HCH 3.4 Thesis — — —
Total 8 + 4 = 12 190 110 300 12

IV-SEMESTER
HCH 4.1 Credits:
Thesis/Dissertation
20
GRAND TOTAL 1500 80
CIVIL ENGINEERING
M.E. (HYDRAULICS, COASTAL AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING)
HCH – FOUR SEMESTER COURSE

HCH 1.1 Advanced Mathematics HCH 1.1 and GT 1.5 Common to Hydraulic Engineering / Coastal &
Harbour Engineering and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Special Function (2 Questions):


Bessel functions of order ‘n’ of first and second kind values of Jn(x) and Yn(x) for large and small values of x-
Expression for Jn(x) when n is half or an odd Integer – Bessel functions of order n of their kind or Hankel functions of
order functions of second kind – generating function or Pn(x) – Orthogonality of Pn(x).

Partial Differential Equations (1 Question):


Laplace equation, Wave equation and Heat equation in cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems and
their simple solutions.

Integral Transforms:
Fourier transform – Sine and Cosine transform – Transforms of derivates – Finite Fourier transforms – Multiple
Fourier transforms – Application of transform techniques to solve differential equations.

Numerical Analysis (3 Questions):


Approximate solutions of first order ordinary differential equations – Euler’s method – Error propagation – Runge
Kutta method – Simultaneous ordinary differential equations – Multistep method – Predictor corrector methods –
Boundary value problems – Simple parabolic differential equations – types of boundary conditions – explicit form of the
difference equation – convergence of the implicit form – Solution of equations resulting from implicits method –
Consistency – Crank Nicolson scheme for time stepping.

Stochastic Process (3 Questions):


Concept of random variable – Distributions and density functions conditional distribution and density functions –
Functions of one and two random variables – Many random variables – Concept of Stochastic Process – Stationary and
ergodic process – Transformation of Stochastic processes.
Statistical Methods and Stochastic Process – Correlation – Regression Analysis.
Axioms of Probability, Addition and Multiplication Theories with Random Concept.

Discrete Distributions: Bionomial, Poisson Distribution.


Theoretical Distribution: Normal Distribution.

Reference Books:
1. Applied Mathematics for Engineering and Physicists by Louis
A. Pipes.
2. The use of Integral Transforms by I.N. Sneedon.
3. Probability (SI (Metric)) edition Schaums outline series by Semmour Lipschutz.
4. Numerical Methods by S. Arumugam, A. Thangapandi Isaac and A. Somasundaram – Scitech Publications
5. Engineering Maths by S. Arumugam, A. Thangapandi Isaac and A. Somasundaram.
HCH 1.2 Advanced Fluid Mechanics – I

1. Basic concepts: Introduction – Role of Fluid Properties in Fluid Motion – Flow Variables – Continuum –
Equation of Continuity – Boundary Conditions – Equations of Stream lines, Path lines and streak lines.
2. Kinematics of Flow: Translation, Deformation and Rotation of a Fluid Element – Vorticity and Circulation –
Mathematical Notion of Irrotational Motion – Definition and Properties of Stream Functions – Definition and
Properties of Velocity Potential Functions – Definition and Characteristics of Flow Nets – Method of
Construction – Seepage Flow Nets for Confined and Unconfined Flows – Numerical Analysis – Experimental
Analogies, Membrane, Electrical and Viscous Flow Analogies.
3. Dynamics of Ideal Fluid Flow: Eulers Equation of Motion for a Nonviscous Fluid – Bernoullis Equation –
Velocity and Pressure Distribution – Energy Considerations – Determination of Flow Patterns.
4. Two dimensional Irrotational Flow: Standard Pattern of Two Dimensional Flows – Uniform flow, Source, Sink,
Vortex and Doublet – Spiral Vortex – Flow Past a Half Body – Flow Past a Cylinder with and without Circulation
– Flow Past a Rankine Body.
5. Three Dimensional Irrotational Flow: Spherical and Cylindrical Coordinates – Stokes Stream Function – Velocity
Potential Function – Standard Irrotational Axisymmetric Flow Patterns (Uniform Flow, Source, Doublet, Line
Source) – Flow Past a Half Body – Flow Past a Sphere – Flow Past a Rankine Body – Flow Past a Stream Lined
Body.
6. Principle of Conformal Transformation: Complex Numbers – Functions of a Complex Variable – Cauchy
Riemann equations – Complex Velocity – Theory of Conformal Transformations – Application of Conformal
Transformations to Single Cases (Uniform Flow, Source, Vortex, Doublet, Source and Sink, Flow near a Corner,
Flow Past a Cylinder with and without Circulation).

Reference books:
1. Applied Hydrodynamics – H.R. Vallentine
2. Engineering Fluid Mechanics – Ed. S. Narasimhan.
HCH 1.3 Near Shore Oceanography and Littoral Processes

Beach and shoreline development – Deltas and Estuaries – Water movement in near shore area – Wave climate in
near shore area. Wave generation – Wave decay – Wave reflection – Wave refraction – Wave diffraction – Wave
forecasting for deepwater waves – SMB wave spectra or PNJ method for forecasting.
Sources and characteristics of materials – Littoral transport – Contribution by streams – Contribution by erosion
or coastal formation. Modes of Littoral Transport – Depths at which material moves – Determination of direction and
direction variability – Rates of Littoral Transport – Losses of Littoral Material.
Corrosion and corrosion prevention – Fouling and fouling prevention on Marine Material.

Reference Books:
1. Shore Protection Manual C E R C (US Army).
2. Handbook of Ocean and Under Water Engineering by J.J. Myers.

HCH 1.4 Wave Hydrodynamics

1. The basics for the application of potential theory to water wave problems – General governing equations –
Bernoulli’s generalized equation and general boundary conditions.
2. Approximating the governing equations based on physical reasoning – solutions of linear equation for progressive
and standing waves – Pressure velocity fields – Surface profile and dispersion relationship – Principle of super
position – wave energy, energy flux and energy principle – Group velocity.
3. Various perturbation schemes for solving water wave problems – stokes’ wave – Derivation of second order
governing equations and outline of their solution – Mass transport and the momentum principle (radiation
stresses) – Limitations of the Stokes’ solution – Cnoidal waves and Solitary waves – Wave breaking Criteria.
4. Wave refraction – Graphical techniques – wave diffraction around breakwater and through breakwater gaps.
5. Wind generated wave – Some Statistical aspects, Rayleigh distribution wave heights, the wave spectrum and
Mathematical spectrum models – PM, JANSWOP etc. – Wave forecasting using SMB’s significant wave height
method and PNJ wave spectrum method.
6. Wave forces on piles – Basic assumptions – Values of the inertia and drag coefficients and their dependence on
the wave theory used.

References:
1. Shore Protection Manual, U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Centre.
2. Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics: Ippen.
3. Coastal Engineering Vols. I & II: Sivester.
4. Oceanographical Engineering Structures: Minikin
5. Winds, Wave and Maritime Structures: Minikin.
6. Coastal Hydraulics: A.M. Muir Wood & Fleming.
HCH 1.5 Hydraulic Structures

1. Dams: Types, choice of type of dam, forces acting on dams, requirements of stability, causes of failure.
2. Gravity dams: Non-overflow and overflow types, single step and multistep design, different types of spillways
and their design principles, stress concentration around openings in dams.
3. Arch dams: Types, loads on arch dams, cylinder theory – constant radius, constant angle, variable radius types,
principles of elastic theory and Trial load method of analysis.
4. Buttress dams: Components, advantages and disadvantages, types, forces, theory of buttress design, buttress
spacing and buttress construction details.
5. Earth dams: Requirements of safety, seepage, construction of seepage line for different conditions, seepage
control methods, stability analysis for different conditions, factor of safety against foundation shear, details of
method of construction of earth dams, maintenance and treatment of common troubles in earth dams.
6. Appurtenance works: Design principles of various types of crest gates, stilling basins, and drainage galleries.
7. What hammer analysis and design of surge tanks, penstocks, draft tubes and scroll cases.

Texts / References:
1. Creager, Justin and Hinds – Engineering for dams, Vols. I, II & III.
2. Davis and Soresen – Hand Book of Applied Hydraulics, Third Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co.
3. Varshney, R.S., Gupta, S.C., Theory and Design of Hydraulic Structures, Vol. I & II, Second Edition.
4. Khushlani, K.B. and Khushalani, M., Dams Part I & II, Third Edition. Oxford of IBH Publishing House, New
Dehli.
HCH 1.6 Computer Programming and Numerical Techniques

1. Introduction to Programming and Flow Charts: Digital and analog computers functional organisation of a digital
computer – counting – techniques binary – binary – numbers storage and retrieval of information – programming
language – applicability of Fortran – flow chart concept – few examples.
2. Arithmetic Expressions and Statements: Arithmetic expressions – Fortran constants – Integer, real and complex
constants – Fortran variables – Integer and real variables – rulef regarding the meaning of variables and use of
operation of symbols – Hierarchy of arithmetic operations – Use of parenthesis and rules regarding parenthesis –
Arithmetic statements built-in functions.
3. Input Output and Format Statements: Input output devices – rules punching a card – the data card – Read
statement Data initialization statement – Specification statement varieties – F, E, I and A Formats – Blank field
specification – carriage control – punching of format statements – Use of conding sheets.
4. Control Statements: Unconditional and conditional fication of control statements- Unconditional and conditional
control statements – small programmes.
5. Subscripted Variables: Subscripted variables – rules regarding subscripted variables – Dimension statement –
general form – Do statement – general form – continue statement – rules regarding do statements and nested do
loops – Equivalence statements – small programmes.
6. Sub-Programming: Subroutines sub-programme statements – rules regarding subroutine subprogrammes – call
statements – common statement – rules regarding common statement – examples with small programmes.
7. Some Aspects of for train IV: Declaration statements – logical constants and variables – relational operators and
expressions – logical operators and expressions – logical assignments – statements – logical IF statement –
complex variable and expressions – library functions – control cards – Examples with programmes.
8. Fortran applied to Numerical Methods: Calculation of mean, variance and correlation coefficient – linear
regression – simple linear programming – Matrix inversion by Partitioning method linear interpolation – Teylor’s
series – Real roots by iteration – Newton Repsan method – Von Misses method – Chordes method – Bisection
method.

Numerical differentiation and integration – Simpson’s 1/3 rule, trapezoidal rule – Milne’s predictor corrector
method to solve first and second order differential equations – Runge Kutta method.

Reference Books:
1. A text book on “Computer Programming” by S. Ramani, N.V. Koteswara Rao, R. Nagarajan.
2. Principles of Computer Programming by V. Rajaraman.
3. Numerical methods in Fortran by John M. Msccormic & M.G. Salvadori.

HCH 2.1 Advanced Fluid Mechanics – II

1. Laminar Flow: Introduction – Transformation – Relationship among Stresses – Relationship between Stresses and
Deformations- Navier Stokes equations – Simple Examples of Exact Solution – Poiseuille Flow – Couette Flow –
Combination of Poiseuille and Couette Flow – Establishment of Simple Flows – Non linear Exact Solutions –
Flow between Convergent and Divergent Plates – Flow against a Normal Wall – Approximate Solutions – Flow
past a sphere – Laminar stability Parameter – Analysis of laminar stability – Experimental investigation on
laminar stability.
2. Laminar Boundary Layer: Introduction to the boundary layer – Thickness – Displacement, momentum and energy
thickness – Boundary layer equations – Boundary layer along a Flat Plate with Zero Pressure Gradient (Blassius
Solution) – Boundary layer Integral Momentum Equation – Transition of Turbulence.
3. Turbulent Flow: Definitions – Wall Turbulence and Free Turbulence – Isotropic and homogeneous Turbulence –
Turbulence intensity and scale and their measures – micro scale and integral scale – Correlations – Lagrangian
and Eulerian description of the flow field – Reynolds Equations – Energy and Momentum Equations and
Illustration of their Application by the example of Hydraulic Jump – Phenomenological theories – Turbulent
Boundary Layer Along a Flat Plat – Momentum Equation – Turbulent flow in pipes – Pipe Resistance Factor –
Boundary Layer Separation – Wake Behind Cylinder – Simple Example of Free Turbulence Shear Flows.
4. Lift and Drag: Circulation and Magnus Effect – Lift and Drag of a Rotating Cylinder – Lift and Drag of the airfoil
– Polar Diagram.

Reference Books:
1. Engineering Fluid Mechanics – Ed. S. Narasimhan.
2. Boundary layer theory – H. Schlichting.
3. Elementary Mechanics of Fluid – Rouse.
HCH 2.2 Free Surface Flow

1. Derivation of the general one-dimensional equations of continuity, momentum and energy used in open channel
flow analysis.
2. Steady non-uniform flows, channel transitions and controls, hydraulic jumps surges.
3. Surface profile for gradually varied flow.
4. Unsteady flow in open channels, Method of characteristics, surge formation. Kinematics of waves, flood routing
and overhead flow.
5. Inland navigation: Introduction, Various Requirements of Navigable Waterways, Various Measures Adopted for
Achieving Navigability, India’s Navigable Waterways.
6. River Engineering: Classification of Rivers, Causes of Meandering, The Aggrading type of River, Degrading type
of River, Cutoffs, River Training, Types of Training Works.

References Books:
1. Open Channel Flow – Henderson.
2. Open Channel Hydraulics – Chow.
3. Engineering Hydraulics – Rouse.
4. Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures – Santhosh Kumar Garg.
5. Irrigation and Water Power Engineering – DR. B.C. Punmia, Dr. Pande B.B. Lal.
HCH 2.3 Siting and Planning of Port and Harbour Installations

1. History of port growth – Factors affecting growth of port.


2. Classification of Harbours – Planning of a port – Ship characteristics as they relate to port planning – Need and
economic justification of a port – Volume and type of commerce – Hinterland studies and growth.
3. Meteorological, Hydrographic and oceanographic data required for port design – Determination of best location of
a harbour to afford maximum protection, minimum maintenance and facilities for expansion.
4. Size and shape of harbour and turning basin – Type, location and height of Breakwaters – Location and width of
entrance to harbour – Depth of harbour and navigational channel – Number, location and type of docks or berths
or jetties.
5. Shore facilities for Marine terminals and fishing harbours.

Reference Books:
1. Dock and Harbour Engineering by Cornick.
2. Design & Construction of ports and Marine structures by Alanzo De F.Quinn.
3. Port Engineering by Perbrun.
HCH 2.4 Design of On-Shore Structures

1. Introduction.
2. Coastal Protection works – Seawall – Groins – Structural aspects – Sand dunes – Vegetation – Beach
nourishment.
3. Break waters – Types – Selection of site and type – effects on the beach – Design principles of Rubble mound,
vertical wall and composite Breakwaters – Stability of Rubble Structures.
4. Wharves and Jetties – Types – Materials of Construction – Design Principles – Deck for fenders – Types –
Design.
5. Dolphins – Mooring Accessories.

References:
1. Shore Protection Manual.
2. Design and Constructional of Ports and Marine Structures by A.D.F. Quinn.
3. Dock and Harbour Engieering Vols. I – IV by A.D.F. Quinn.
4. Foundation Design by V.C.W. Teng.
5. Coastal Engineering Vols. I & II by R. Silvester.
6. Port Engineering – Perbrun.
HCH 2.5 Sediment Transport & Dredging Sediment Transport

1. Mode of transport of sediment in open channel – Properties of sediment, critical velocity concept, critical shear
stress, lift force mechanism, shield’s criterion.
2. Regimes of flow: Description, types of regimes importance of regimes of flow, resistance to flow in alluvial
streams, velocity distribution in alluvial streams.
3. Bed load: Du Boy’s, Meyer Peter Muller’s Equation, Einsteins Theory of bed load movement, Garde and
Albertson’s Equations.
4. Suspended load: Diffusion – dispersion model, Lane’s and Einstein’s approaches.
5. Total load: Einsteins bed load function, Modified Einstein’s procedure, Laursen’s method of estimation of Total
load.
6. Dimensional Analysis as applied to sediment transport phenomenon.
7. Sediment samplers and sampling: Bed load sampling, suspended load sampling and computation of total load.

Definition: Objectives of dredging, types of dredging, dredgers and their classification, Mechanical dredgers – Bucket
dredger, Grab dredger, dipper dredger, rock breaker, back hoe dredger. Hydraulic dredgers: Plain suction dredger, cutter
suction dredger, wheel dredger, trailer suction dredger. Pneumatic dredger, special dredger equipments, underwater
drilling and blasting. Improving the efficiency of surface blasting. Disposal of dredged materials.

Texts / References:
1. Garde, R.J. and Ranga Raju, K.G., Mechanics of Sediment Transportation and Alluvial steam problems, Second
Edition, Wiley Eastern Limited, 46254/21, Daryaganj, New Delhi.
2. Graf, H.W., Hydraulics of Sediment Transport, McGraw Hill Book Co. New York 1971.
3. Raudkivi, A.J., Loose Boundary Hydraulics, Pergamon press, Landon 1967.
4. Copper Practical Dredging.
5. Cormick, Vol. I & II, Dock and Harbour Engineering.
6. Seetharaman, S. Umesh Publication, 5 – B, Nath Market nai Sarkar, Delhi.
HCH 2.6 Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory

1. Pressure distribution and D/S profiles over a spillway.


2. Measurement of velocities is using a Pitot tube and current meter in open channel.
3. Calibration of a venturiflume.
4. Measurement of wave height, wave length and wave period.
5. Measurement of wave reflection from beach.
6. Measurement of wave force on a cylindrical member.
7. Measurement of displacement of a floating body under waves.
HCH 3.1 Design Offshore Structures

1. Introduction: Offshore definition, Purpose of Offshore Structures, Classification and Examples, Various types of
Offshore Structures – Jacket Platforms, Semi submersibles, Tension Leg Platforms, Gravity Platforms Guyed
Towers, Articulated Towers.
2. Load Calculations:
I. Environmental loads on offshore structures due to
a) Wind b) Wave c) Current d) Ice e) Earth quake
II. Functional loads.
III. Buoyant Forces
IV. Installation forces, Soil structure interaction.
Wave force calculation on a Jacket platform and Semi submersible.
3. Analysis of Offshore structural member using matrix methods, plane truss, plane frame and space frame.
Analysis of Jacket plat form under wave loading.
4. Introduction to dynamic analysis and calculation of responses of semisubmersible and TLP’s under wave loading.
5. Preliminary design aspects of offshore structures. Construction, Towing and installation procedure of Jacket
platforms and Gravity platforms.

Reference Books:
1. Hydrodynamics of Offshore structures by: S.K. Chakravarthy.
2. Offshore Structural Engineering by: Thomas H Dawson.
3. Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore structures by: Turgut Sarpkaya & M. Issacson.
4. API code.
HCH 3.2 Hydrology & Water Resources Engineering
PART – A
(Hydrology)

1. Runoff: Runoff process – Unit hydrograph – Derivation and analysis – S-hydrograph – Synthetic unit hydrograph-
Instantaneous Unit hydrograph – methods of determining IUH – conceptual models of IUH – Formulation of
models – concept of linear reservoir, Nash and Dooge’s and Kulendaiswamy’s model. Nolinearity of runoff-
distribution – Overland flow steam flow – Flow duration and mass curves and Time series analysis.
2. Floods: Importance of flood studies – definition – causes of floods – seasonal distribution of floods – design flood
– factors affecting flood flow – magnitude and frequency of floods – empirical, probability and unit hydrograph
methods. Flood control Measures: Flood control reservoirs – Types location – size – levees and flood walls –
stage reduction and reduction in peak discharge flood routing through reservoirs.
PART – B
(Water Resources Engineering)

1. Introduction to Water Resources – Hydrological – Characteristics – Surface and ground water resources – quality
conservation and flood control.
Water Resources Planning: Purpose of water resources development, classification of water Resources
Development Projects, Functional Requirements of Multipurpose Projects, Process of Project Formulation,
Project Evaluation, Strategies for the Future, Planning Strategies, Management Strategies.
2. Site investigations and design aspects of Water Resources:
i) Surface water resources : 1) Minor tanks
2) Reservoirs
3) Diversion head works
ii) Ground water resources : 1) Tube wells
2) Open wells
Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge of ground water.

2. Application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) in Water Resource: A brief
history of RS, Sensor systems used in RS, RS Satellites, Landsat, and IRS. Remote Sensing applications in Civil
Engineering projects GIS over view, GIS components, Raster data models and Vector data model, Application of
RS and GIS in water resources Engineering.
Books / References:
1. Hydrology by Wisler & Brater.
2. Geo-Hydrology by R.J.M.De Wiest.
3. Hydrology for Engineers by Linskey, Kohler & Paulus.
4. Water Resources Engineering by Linsely & Franzini.
5. Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Santhosh Kumar Garg.
6. Principles of Geographical Information Systems for land resource assessment – P.A. Burrough (Clarendon press,
Oxford).
7. Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering – Kennie, J.J.M., Matthews, M.C.
8. Remote Sensing Principles and Interpretation – Floyd F. Sabims,
Jr. W.H. Freeman & Co.