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Assignment on Water consumption of health care facilities

Assignment in order of Assignment submitted by

Ato alemu tamiso Abdi mulatu RHE/001/03

Apr 2003

Water consumption of health care facilities


Hospitals and other healthcare facilities are significant users of water. Adopting better water management practices can have a significant impact, especially in populated areas where water treatment and distribution, and wastewater treatment infrastructure, are often barely capable of meeting demand. This section highlights various uses of water at healthcare facilities, and identifies practices and technologies that can significantly reduce their water use. Water intake of a certain health care facility depends up

on the following factors     The number of beds in the health center The type of water inputting apparatuses The geographic canopy of the site of location The purpose in which the plant is built for

Healthcare Facility Water Use Healthcare facility water use varies widely depending on type, size, geographical location, and water use equipment/practices. A water use study published in 2002 showed a range of water use from 68,750 to 298,013 gallons per year per bed for hospitals in the size range of 133 to 510 beds. The same study indicated that hospitals typically have the following broad breakdown of water use:

CASE EXAMPLE: NORWOOD HOSPITAL An illustration of the success of implementing WEMs is demonstrated through a case example. The focus of this document is to offer a strategy to facility personnel who are considering initiation of a Water Management Plan. A Water Management Plan is developed by facility staff as an action program for efficient water use. In addition to discussing the significant measures implemented in the hospital with regard to costs and savings, the following study summarizes the steps one facility manager has taken for successful implementation of a Water Management Plan. NORWOOD HOSPITAL 1991 USE AND 1994 SAVINGS Water Use in 1991: Water Use in 1994: Reduction in Use: 51.2 Million Gallons 36.6 Million Gallons 29%

Surety and quality of water supply are vital for hospitals, which use large quantities of potable water. Water is used in hospitals for a range of purposes, including:
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sterilisation infection control personal hygiene and washing of patients cleaning cooking plant & equipment (medical & engineering) laundries gardens in some instances.

Basic water in taking areas and ways of efficient use


Health facilities account for about five per cent of Sydneys business water use or 21 million liters of water every day. Sydney Water has developed basic water use benchmarks for hospitals to see if your hospital is water efficient or not. Benchmarks for hospitals
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Use these

Larger hospitals (>400 beds) should be aiming for a benchmark water use of 500 litters or less per bed per day (averaged over a year) Smaller hospitals (<400 beds) should aim for 350 liters or less per bed per day.

How to save water in hospitals and health facilities

Water audits show the main areas of water use and potential waste in hospitals are:
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amenities (toilets, urinals, basin taps, showers) air conditioning cooling towers leaks from toilets, basin taps, dripping showers and underground pipes overflow from cooling towers, header tanks and flusherette tanks equipment washers and sterilisers

The most practical ways of saving water in hospitals are:


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fitting at least 3-Star WELS rated shower heads and flow regulators replacing single flush toilets with dual flush models conducting preventative maintenance of your amenities to prevent leaks and overflows

Installing water meter monitoring systems is also vital to manage complex water systems in hospitals and detect hidden leaks. Proper maintenance of air-conditioning cooling towers, boilers and sterilisers will also save money and water. Other water savings ideas for hospitals include:
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reusing water purification (reverse osmosis) waste streams to flush toilets and top up cooling towers capturing and return of steam condensate to boilers replacing water-using liquid ring vacuum pumps with dry running waterless models replacing older pan sanitisers and dishwashers with more water efficient equipment capturing rainwater for irrigation and cooling tower top up repairing leaks from pools

Many of these water saving ideas can be applied in smaller health facilities as well. To find out how the EDC Business Program has helped hospitals and health facilities to save water see our case studies.