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Simple Guide to Dummies

Samples & INDEX


Folding & binding Folding & binding How to order a dummy Paper & envelope sizes Paper sizes Envelope sizes Paper & board types & associated terminology Paper & board types & associated terminology Printing processes Paper care Laser pre-print guidelines Paper problems British paper & board trade tolerances Conversion factors & useful calculations 11 - 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 6-7 8-9 3-4 4

Page no.

Dummies Service
PaperCo provide samples of paper and board to help you and your end customer decide the perfect paper for your job. We supply A4 and SRA2 sized samples from our many thousands of different grades held in stock. These guidelines will ensure that the dummy you order is made exactly to your specification from the actual paper and board grade you intend to use. Our Sample department has commercial finishing equipment to produce a truly accurate mock-up of your project and finish them with wire stitching, perfect binding or wiro binding. Dummies are ideal to develop ideas, calculate mailing costs, present visuals and communicate your ideas. delivery Information For all standard requests received before 4.30pm we aim for next working day delivery by Royal Mail 1st class (most arrive within 24 hours). Courier deliveries up to 30kg are all tracked for next day delivery by 5.30pm latest. If you request non-stocked paper grades or oversized perfect bound items these may take up to 72 hours to fulfil. Quantities Supplied A4 SRA2 Flat Sheets Dummies Service Information Our sample department is open weekdays : Monday to Friday 8.00am to 6.30pm. Contact your local branch for all sample and dummy requests. Please see back cover for contact details. up to 10 sheets up to 20 sheets up to 10 per request

www.paperco.co.uk

Folding & Binding

FOLDING & BINDING

4 page single fold

6 page gate fold

8 page gate fold

6 page concertina fold

6 page standard fold

8 page parallel double fold

8 page concertina fold

broadsheet SRA2 double folded to A4

6 page gate fold with flip

8 page parallel map fold

8 page reverse map fold

10 page concertina fold

12 page standard letter fold

12 page concertina letter fold

endorsement fold

portrait (upright)

landscape (wide)

6pp cover with text throw-out at front/back

cover, flysheet and text

cover with two text sections

perfect bound

folder diagonal pockets

folder horizontal pocket

folder vertical pocket * French fold, Wiro binding & Loop stitching is also available (limited service) Please call for information See next page for more information

folder with L shaped pocket

saddle stitched

stab stitched

wiro bound

loop stitched

FOLDING & BINDING

(x)

All dummies produced on weights above 170 g/m2 are scored. Scoring creates a debossed ridge along the fold. The ridge or hinge should be on the inside of the fold to reduce paper stretch and give a smooth outer edge. This requires an extra allowance in the dimension of the cover to accommodate the fold (x) when heavy cover weight papers are used. Where the contents are too bulky for a single fold, a double fold is needed to create a boxed spine. Additional score lines may be added to reduce pressure on the spine of the dummy and to keep pages in place.

HOW TO ORDER A DUMMY


Identify the 1 brand name,materials(ifyou want to use, colour applicable) and grammage or caliper. Detail final 2 millimetres.dimensions of dummy in example: Cover - 4pp / Text - 24pp pp indicates the number of printed sides. Omitting pp suggests number of leaves and therefore doubles the quantity of paper. Specify the 6 Wiro bound,type of binding you require: perfect bound, wire stitched, stab stitched, loop stitched.

3 Specify the format required:


Portrait - spine is the longest dimension Landscape - spine is the shortest dimension

4 Clearly identify cover and text material.


Detail number 5 pagesseparately the for both of printed (pp) required the cover and the text:

example of dummy order Cover - 9lives 55 gloss 300gsm Text - 9lives 55 silk 150gsm Dimensions - 297mm x 210mm Portrait Cover - 4pp / Text - 24pp Binding - Saddle Stitched

Paper & Envelope Sizes

PAPER SIZES

A0 SIze

A1

A3

A5 A7 A6 A4 A2
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PAPER SIZES
In 1959, the British Standards Institute adopted a standardized system of sizes for printing and writing papers. This new standard was based on the International Standards Organisation (ISO) sizes in use in most other countries. This practical and economical system is based on a rectangle with an area of one square metre, referred to as AO (841 x 1189mm). In addition there are two other series of sizes included in the system - B and C. The B series of sizes are based on a basic sheet size of 1000 x 1414mm and these are used mainly for posters, wall charts and some maps. The C series of sizes are based on a basic sheet size of 917 x 1297mm and are used for envelopes. These C series envelope sizes are formulated to take A series paper exactly. For example, C4 for A4, C5 for A5 and C6 for A6. One of the most popular envelope sizes, DL, is however an exception to this. The DL designation is derived from the German DIN Lang, DIN being the German equivalent of the ISO standard, and Lang meaning long. All A series paper sub-divisions denote the actual finished size of the sheet. Printers often prefer to print on paper that is a little larger than these A sizes to allow printing and finishing machines to grip the sheet and allow trimming, to clean up the end product without reducing the final trimmed size. These larger sizes are prefixed R. Some work needs even larger sheet sizes to allow printed images to bleed off the trimmed size or for large grip allowances, or to allow quality control images to be printed in the trim margins. These sizes are prefixed SR. A number of derivatives of these standard international sizes are becoming increasingly popular for the economical production of particular formats. This can be a problem i.e. 707 x 1000mm, 720 x 1000mm and 720 x 1020mm can all be described as B1. Avoid confusion by specifying dimensions required. A SerIeS - FOr TrIMMed WOrK A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 841 x 1189mm 594 x 841mm 420 x 594mm 297 x 420mm 210 x 297mm 148 x 210mm 105 x 148mm 74 x 105mm 52 x 74mm 37 x 52mm 26 x 37mm 331/8 x 463/4 233/8 x 331/8 161/2 x 233/8 113/4 x 161/2 81/4 x 113/4 57/8 x 81/4 41/8 x 57/8 27/8 x 41/8 2 x 27/8 11/2 x 2 1 x 11/2 MeTrIC eQUIVALenT OF TrAdITIOnAL SIzeS (Limited Availability) book Papers 960 x 1270mm Quad Royal Quad Demy 890 x 1130mm Quad Large Crown 876 x 1056mm business Papers Double Cap Large Post General Print Double Medium Double Crown 6pp A4 12pp A4 B2 B1 B0

430 x 685mm 420 x 535mm

585 x 910mm 508 x 762mm 340 x 640mm 630 x 880mm 640 x 650mm 650 x 920mm 520 x 720mm 720 x 1020mm 1040 x 1550mm

b SerIeS - FOr LArGer FOrMATS B0 1000 x 1414mm B1 707 x 1000mm B2 500 x 707mm B3 353 x 500mm B4 250 x 353mm B5 176 x 250mm rA SerIeS - FOr nOrMAL TrIMS RA0 860 x 1220mm RA1 610 x 860mm RA2 430 x 610mm SrA SerIeS - FOr bLed WOrK SRA0 900 x 1280mm SRA1 640 x 900mm SRA2 450 x 640mm

ENVELOPE SIZES
457 x 324mm 18 x 123/4

324 x 229mm 123/4 x 9

229 x 162mm 9 x 63/8

162 x 114mm 63/8 x 41/2

C6
Envelopes may appear to be simple but the range of choices is vast. There is an entire industry dedicated to the production of envelopes and it employs some of the most sophisticated techniques available to manufacture a range of products to meet everybodys needs. The international envelope size range has been developed to accommodate A size sheets the range of envelope sizes is designated the C series.

C5
SIZE C3 To take: A3 297 x 420mm unfolded Uses: computer printouts, brochures, calendars, showcards SIZE C4 To take: A4 210 x 297mm unfolded A3 297 x 420mm folded once Uses: brochures, booklets and general printed matter, A4 size flat

C4

C3
SIZE C5 To take: A4 210 x 297mm folded once A5 148 x 210mm unfolded Uses: small brochures and letterheads, A4 folded in half SIZE C6 To take: A4 210 x 297mm folded twice A5 148 x 210 folded once Uses: general correspondence, invoices, etc.

ENVELOPE SIZES

110 x 220mm 41/4 x 85/8

DL

110 x 220mm 41/4 x 85/8

DL

A5 sheet

A4 sheet

SIZE DL To take: A4 210 x 297mm folded twice A5 148 x 210mm folded once Uses: all general correspondence, letters, invoices, etc. SIZE B4 To take: larger sizes than the more popular C4 size SIZE B5 To take: larger sizes than the more popular C5 size

HOW WINDOWS ARE MEASURED Windows (unless special) are always landscape, and are measured long edge first. The position is determined by the position of the window in relation to the left hand side of the envelope, and the bottom of the envelope. 35 x 90mm window size

19mm IN 18mm UP

Paper & Board Types & Associated Terminology

PAPER & BOARD TYPES & ASSOCIATED TERMINOLOGY


This listing is intended as a guide to some of the terms used to describe different grades of paper and board. Other industry jargon is also included as related terminology. AnTIQUe LAId Antique papers, but with feint laid lines which can be seen when holding a sample to the light. AnTIQUe SPeCIAL FUrnISH Antique papers made from a mixture of different raw materials. For example, chemical woodpulp and esparto grass. AnTIQUe WOOdFree Antique papers made from pulps manufactured by the chemical process, rather than mechanical or groundwood pulps. ArCHIVAL PAPer (See Acid Free Paper) ArT General term for high quality off-machine coated papers and boards; one and twoside coated; gloss and matt; used for high quality reproduction. common use for commercial purposes, such as dictionaries, where many pages are required in small volume. bLAde COATInG A method by which coating is applied to base paper. The coater consists of a large back-up roll around which the paper passes and at the base of which is the coating pan with an applicator roll applying coating to the paper. The surplus coating is metered off by a steel doctor blade that also serves to smooth the coating before the wet web passes into the drying section. Gives good smoothness with low coating weight. bLeACHed PULP Pulp which is chemically treated to give high whiteness, thus improving print contrast. bLISTer PACK This term describes a packaging system which is a combination of board and plastics. The board, usually of the cheaper variety made from the lower grades of waste paper, can be lined on one or both sides, to carry a printed message or advertising. The product is sealed to the board by a transparent plastic film. This system is often used for packaging small products or difficult shapes and sizes. bLOTTInG Highly absorbent papers which may be watermarked, white or in colours. bLUe AnGeL A German environmental label, which covers many products, including paper. It takes a cradle to grave approach, considering manufacture and disposal as well as product use.

A
ACId-Free Papers having a pH of 7.0 or more which do not contain the free acids that cause faster ageing which results in the premature deterioration of documents and books. AIr KnIFe COATInG A method by which coating is applied by an applicator roll revolving in a pan of coating and applying heavy coating to the base paper which then passes round a backing roll where an air doctor (knife) smoothes and meters the coating to give the required coating weight. The process is normally used for high quality, heavily coated papers, and sometimes as the second unit for double coating, when it might follow blade or roll coating. AIrMAIL Papers made in the lightest grammages (usually below 40 g/m2) for reasons of postage costs, but with strength and a good surface. AnTIQUe A good quality bulky paper, almost totally opaque, with a rough surface finish. The term comes from the period when paper was hand made, and was used to describe colour and finish. It can be made in white or in colours, be deckle-edged, and either laid or wove. It is often used for more expensive books.

B
bAnK & bOnd Descriptive of a wide range of white and tinted uncoated printings and writings, usually woodfree furnish - higher grades with rag or cotton content. Banks are grammages less than 60 g/m2. Widespread usage - letterhead, stationery, office and business, copy work etc. bASe PAPer Paper made for conversion by the application of a surface coating. bIbLe PAPer Very thin printing papers, strong and opaque. Originally made for bibles and prayer books, this grade is also now in

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bOArd A paper substrate in heavier grammages. The demarcation line between paper and board varies but generally in the UK it is accepted as being 160 g/m2 or 170 g/m2. bOOKJACKeT PAPer The term applied to the printed dust cover or wrapper used to cover books or similar publications. Usually a strong, high quality one-side coated grade. In fact, this grade may be virtually any type of paper which happens to attract the designer of the book. brISTOL bOArd A fine quality paperboard which may be made solid by pasting two or more sheets together. brOKe A paper mill term for paper waste arising from the manufacturing process. Usually recycled as part of the manufacturing process. brUSH COATInG A method by which coating is applied by a cylindrical brush, roll or spray, whilst the web is supported. Produces papers with a heavy and smooth coating, a process now replaced by faster air knife and blade coaters. bULKY MeCHAnICAL A mechanical content paper made to a specific caliper as opposed to a fixed grammage. This type of paper is used predominantly for paperback books. reduces the thickness and increases the density. Papers are subjected to smoothing and polishing between stacks of highly polished steam heated rollers, either forming part of the paper machine (calendered/machine calendered) or as an off-machine process (supercalendered). Calender rolls on a supercalender may be arranged so that friction as well as pressing is created, resulting in friction glazed papers. CArbOnLeSS COPY PAPer Self-copy or no carbon required paper comprises two sheets of paper, the underside of the top sheet being coated with a mixture containing colourless dye in minute gelatine capsules. The underneath sheet is coated with a mixture containing a special reactive clay which changes to black when penetrated by the colourless dye. Pressure applied to the top sheet causes the gelatine capsules to break and the black dye appears on the underneath sheet. CArbOn bALAnCed PAPer Paper for which the carbon impacts of production and distribution have been estimated and balanced (offset) by the World Land Trust (WLT), an international conservation charity. Through land purchase of ecologically important standing forests under threat of clearance, carbon is locked that would otherwise be released. These protected forests are then able to continue absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. CArTrIdGe Papers originally used to form the tube section of a shotgun shell. Because of its strength this class of tough, rough surfaced paper is used for a variety of purposes, including drawing, envelopes, and for covers. Offset cartridge is of special dimensional stability for offset printing. Coated cartridge is a cartridge paper coated with china clay for a wide variety of printing purposes. It is given the minimum of calendering to smooth the natural roughness of the coating, but not enough to provide a gloss. CAST COATed PAPer & bOArd Papers or boards having an extremely high gloss finish for top quality printing. The finish is obtained by the coating mix solidifying whilst in contact with a heated, polished surface. CHAIn OF CUSTOdY Chain of Custody standards allow credible tracking of certified wood and wood products from certified forests through trade and manufacturing to committed retailers and consumers. In the paper industry this means being able to trace paper from the forest of origin, through pulp and paper mill, paper merchant and printer to the end user. A third party audits Chain of Custody systems, as with the FSC and PEFC schemes. CHeQUe & SeCUrITY PAPer Papers which have been specially treated or sensitized during manufacture, in such a way as to prevent unauthorised alteration of documents. CHIPbOArd A board made from waste paper used mainly in packaging, especially with a white liner and coating, but also for making the covers of case books. CHLOrIne bLeACHInG A method used for 200 years for whitening paper fibres, now being replaced by other bleaching methods such as oxygen bleaching, as some of the chlorine compounds like dioxin are considered to be environmentally unfriendly.

C
CALendered & SUPerCALendered A method of using rollers during paper making, to impart a finish or smoothness. It

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PAPER & BOARD TYPES & ASSOCIATED TERMINOLOGY


CHrOMO A term used to describe papers and boards that are heavily brush coated. Coating may be applied to one or both sides, depending on end use. COATed PAPer Paper (or board) coated on one or both sides with a mixture of china clay, latex and other loadings to fill up surface pits and improve the printing surface. There are a variety of coating methods, the most common on-machine coating method being roll coating. Off-machine processes include blade coating, air-knife coating, the traditional brush coating, or combinations of these types. A very high quality form of offmachine coating is cast coating. COnTAIner MIddLeS Multi-ply boardmaking for use in solid fibreboard case manufacture (see also Liner). COnTInUOUS STATIOnerY A grade widely used for computer printing. The paper is in reel form printed and perforated. May be in duplicate and/or Manifold. A particular use is for invoices, delivery notes, statements and similar documents. COPIer/LASer PAPer Lightweight grades of good quality and dimensionally stable papers used for xerographic copying and laser printing. COVer PAPer & bOArd A grouping of substrates which may be plain, embossed coated etc., and which offer a very wide choice of materials for printing booklets, box coverings and many other purposes. Many cover papers are characterised by strength, flexibility and durability. CSr Corporate Social Responsibility is the commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large, including the environment. dISPLAY PAPer & bOArd A wide range of coated papers and boards used for display and exhibition purposes. Some grades may be metal lines or laminated. drAWInG PAPer & bOArd The best grades are tub-sized, air-dried, with sheet surface textures varying according to use. dUPLeX PAPer & bOArd Grades made from two different webs (often different colours) combined whilst still moist during the manufacturing process, without the use of adhesive. dUPLICATOr PAPer Unsized and semi-sized, these papers have a built-in quick drying facility and are used on stencil duplicating machines.

D
dAndY rOLL A metal roll formed by a wire mesh which is used on a papermaking machine to close up the sheet while it is in a wet state. This improves the look-through of the finished paper. There are two basic designs for the mesh, wove and laid. The dandy roll also carries the watermark when required. deCKLe The maximum practical width the paper web can be made on the papermaking machine. deCKLe edGe The four feathery edges on sheets of hand or mould-made paper, or the two feathery edges on machine made paper which are normally trimmed off before the paper is reeled on the end of the papermaking machine. dIMenSIOnAL STAbILITY The behaviour of paper and board with respect to its dimensions and flatness with variations in moisture content. dIOXIn Aromatic chlorine compound. Its presence has been detected in the effluent systems of mills using the chlorine bleaching process.

E
eCF (elemental Chlorine Free) Pulp which has been bleached with Chlorine Dioxide rather than Chlorine gas. Produces enormously reduced levels of Organochlorides and virtual elimination of Dioxins. eMAS Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. The European Unions regulated environmental management system. Similar to ISO14001 but also requires public reporting. eMbOSSInG A process whereby a relief image is formed on the paper or board surface by placing it under pressure between male and female un-inked dies. Usually done as a separate operation after printing, but is also done on plain paper, and the embossed image can be a printed or unprinted area (in the latter

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case it is known as blind embossing). As the paper is distorted in the raised area, it must be sufficiently strong to prevent rupturing. eUGrOPA reCYCLed MArK Similar to the NAPM scheme but only requires 50% of fibre to be recycled. For use Europe-wide but the uptake has been limited. as tin, aluminium, and gold leaf may be used. Foil papers are used for box making, labels which carry printing, wrapping and decoration. Aluminium foils used for packaging purposes may be laminated to greaseproof papers, glassine, tissue, kraft etc., depending on end use. FOLdInG bOXbOArd Although box boards can vary in quality from grey board to high class board made from virgin fibre, the term today is usually taken to mean white lined boards made from a top quality furnish, coated, impregnated or laminated. A feature is that such boards have exceptional scoring and folding properties. They are used in the manufacture of high class cartons for a variety of purposes, and where outstanding printing surfaces are required. FSC Forest Stewardship Council is an international organisation promoting responsible forest management. FSC has developed principles for forest management which may be used for certifying the management of forest holdings, and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood products which originate from FSC-certified forests (Chain of Custody). FSC papers contain fibre certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The FSC is a non-profit organisation committed to the promotion of environmentally, socially and economically responsible forest management. PaperCo is an FSC Chain of Custody certified supplier - certificate number TT-COC-002075. FUrnISH The nature and proportions of the materials used in making paper.

G
GrAIn dIreCTIOn A term applied to the machine direction of papers and boards, as opposed to the cross direction. GrAMMAGe (Substance) The weight of paper or board expressed in grams per square metre (g/m2) as determined under standard test conditions. GreASePrOOF Papers which have a high resistance to penetration by grease or fats found in various foodstuffs. The paper is produced by prolonged beating in the pulp stage, providing an end product which is close and to a degree transparent. Sizing adds the greaseproof characteristic. Widely used for wrapping foods. GreYbOArd A board made entirely from waste paper. It may be lined or unlined and is use for a variety of packaging purposes. GUMMed PAPer A variety of different qualities are available, depending on the end use. Suitable body papers are web coated with various types of adhesive, which will adhere to different surfaces.

F
FILLer (Loading) Mineral matter (china clay, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, etc) which is added to the fibre content of paper to improve printing quality, whiteness and opacity. FInISH The kind of paper surface imparted in the course of manufacture, e.g. antique, matt, machine or gloss finished. FLOCK PAPer Something between a paper and a textile. The paper is the base on which flocking materials (e.g. wool, cotton, rayon or other fibres) are built up to achieve various finishes - suede, baize, velvet or plush. FLUOreSCenT PAPer & bOArd A white base paper or board coated with a mixture of fluorescent pigment and binder, the latter being used to key the former to the surface. The coating is activated by ultra violet light, either by exposure to an actual ultra violet lamp or indeed to natural daylight. FOIL PAPer & bOArd A strong body or base paper is coated with an adhesive and a fine bronze powder, and subsequently burnished. Other metals such

H
HAnd MAde PAPer Super quality papers made by the hand mould principle; tub sized and loft dried. Chiefly rag furnish (see also Mould-Made).

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PAPER & BOARD TYPES & ASSOCIATED TERMINOLOGY


HArdWOOd PULP Short fibred pulp obtained from deciduous trees (e.g. birch, eucalyptus & poplar) which gives good printing quality and imparts high bulk, compressibility, and good opacity to the paper. HeATSeAL PAPer A body paper coated with an adhesive material which is activated by the application of heat. Sometimes known as heatfix papers, this grade is used largely for labels, and can be made to adhere to materials ranging from paper to metal. scrim-lined, used for special packaging purposes. LIner Top layer of a vat-made board which is often the printing surface with a better furnish than the other layers. LOnG GrAIn Indicates the longest dimension of a sheet of paper, corresponds to the direction the paper travelled on the papermaking machine. When paper takes up or gives off moisture, it expands or contracts more in the cross direction, so Long Grain paper minimises the total distortion, and is of great benefit for litho printing, but not exclusively so (see Short Grain). LOnG LIFe PAPer (See Acid Free Paper)

L
LAbeL PAPer A large variety of various types of plain or coloured body papers which have been gummed or to which a self-adhesive material has been applied, and subsequently cut into a vast number of shapes and sizes depending on end use and surface application. LAId Papers with a ribbed appearance produced by a mould or dandy roll which has wires parallel to each other and not woven. The closely spaced lines parallel to the papers machine direction are laid lines, and the widely spaced ones in the opposite direction are chain lines (see also Wove). LedGer PAPer Strong (fully hard) sized paper, traditionally rag containing, often azure in tint and watermarked. Intended primarily for recordkeeping. Strength and proof against discolouration are important characteristics. LIGnIn Non-cellulose material found in wood and other cellulose plants. In the groundwood methods of pulp production the lignin is softened but not removed, and the papers made from groundwood pulp are weaker and more inclined to discolour on exposure to the atmosphere. In the chemical pulp making process most of the lignin is dissolved and the resulting papers are stronger and suffer less from discolouration.

I
IndeX bOArd This grade is usually a strong pulp board manufactured with a good surface suitable for printing and writing. IVOrY bOArd High quality board of one or more laminations of identical quality and having characteristic features of transparency and rigidity. Used for visiting cards and similar high-class printed work.

M
MACHIne COATed Paper or board, which is pigment coated on the end of the paper or boardmaking machine. MACHIne dIreCTIOn (Grain Direction) The direction of paper and board corresponding with the flow of fibres on the papermaking machine, and having greater stiffness than the cross direction. Traditionally the machine direction on a sheet of paper was parallel to the second dimension when written, e.g. 640 x 900mm is long grain, but 900 x 640mm is short grain. The latest agreement is to place the letter M after the dimension running parallel to the machine direction, e.g. 640 x 900mm (M) is long grain, and 640 (M) x 900mm is short grain. MACHIne FInISHed (MF) Paper which is calendered on the papermaking machine, but is not

K
KrAFT PAPer Used mainly for wrapping purposes, it takes its name from the German word Kraft, meaning strength. Made from virgin fibre, providing a high mechanical strength, it can be bleached or unbleached and may be unglazed, ribbed, machine glazed or treated by a process which provides increased stretch and softness. There are also grades which are bituminised and

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subsequently super-calendered to give a very smooth finish or gloss. Has good bulk which is of value for book work. MACHIne GLAzed (MG) Paper which is dried on the papermaking machine by a very large cylinder with a polished surface, sometimes referred to as a Yankee drier. When being dried, the wire side of the paper, which is in contact with the cylinder, takes on a reproduction of the highly polished surface. The paper has a smooth and a rough side. MG papers are used for wrapping papers and posters (see also Poster). MAnIFOLd PAPer Bank paper quality, usually weighing less than 44 g/m2 (generally between 28-44 g/m2). MAnILLA Papers and boards used for making tags, high strength cartons, correspondence folders and many other articles where strength is at a premium. Furnish usually contains hemp rope pulp , and the product is usually machine glazed. MArbLe PAPer Special effect papers used largely as end papers in bookbinding; also in paper boxmaking and other purposes, such as designer work. MATT PAPer A coated paper with a dull, smooth finish. MeCHAnICAL Papers containing fibres only from the mechanical (i.e. groundwood) pulping processes (see also Woodfree). MeCHAnICAL WOOdPULP Produced by mechanical means and the cheapest of wood pulps, although having good printing qualities, high bulk and opacity. Failings are low strength and shade, the latter deteriorating quickly when exposed to light. Currently available with improved qualities, e.g. in strength (by thermo-mechanical treatment), shade (by bleaching) and with less shive (by more refining), and can now be used for better quality paper when mixed with chemical treated pulps. MF PrInTInGS & WrITInGS Papers calendered on the paper machine through a stack of metal rolls. Gives good bulk of value for bookwork (see also SC Printings & Writings). MeTALLISed MATerIAL Materials coated with an extremely thin layer (about 0.05 micron) of metal, usually aluminium, deposited from a vapour source under very high vacuum. Almost any substrate can be metallised, but for thin sheet materials polyester or polypropylene films are most commonly used, also paper and, more recently, cartonboard. MIddLeS All waste furnish board used for laminating to make solid fibre board cases. MILL bOArd A high grade board, brown in colour, made from rope and other materials. Very hard, tough, with a good finish. Is used for covers of better quality account and other books. MILL brOKe Offcuts and rejected material that has not left the paper mill. Broke is routinely repulped and the fibre used in the production of new paper. Mill broke is not normally considered to be true recycled fibre. MOULd-MAde PAPer Not to be confused with paper made by hand via a hand mould, these quality papers are made on a mechanical mould-making machine, producing papers with two genuine deckle edges plus possibly two imitation deckle edges (see also HandMade Papers). MULTI-LAYer bOArd These are boards manufactured from two or more layers at the same time and on the one multi-wire paper machine, sometimes using the same stock, but usually where a middle layer is included a different stock is used. The grade is of particular benefit where rigidity is important as well as a good print surface, for example, display cartons and covers (see also Triplex Board).

N
nAPM reCYCLed reCOGnITIOn The National Association of Paper Merchants scheme for designating a paper as recycled. To qualify, a grade must contain at least 75% recycled fibre. Converters waste, printers waste and post consumer waste (from homes and offices) are all allowed (printed or unprinted) but not mill broke - the waste has to have left the mill. The remaining 25% can be mill broke or virgin fibre. neUTrAL SIzInG Internal sizing with a synthetic size giving the paper a pH of 7.0 which is essential for long life paper and those containing calcium carbonate. Depending on the use of the paper it will be hard, medium, or soft sized to control the degree of water absorbency. neWSPrInT One of the cheapest printing papers produced largely from mechanical pulp or groundwood supplied in both reels and sheets. The standard substance is in the

16

PAPER & BOARD TYPES & ASSOCIATED TERMINOLOGY


range of 45 to 48 g/m2. nOrdIC SWAn An environmental label encouraging production methods that create minimum environmental impact. Evaluation for paper is based upon strict limits for emissions and effluent from pulp and paper mills. largely for wrapping purposes, there are also grades of imitation parchments which are less impervious. Similar to greaseproof papers. PASTe bOArd Contains two or more laminations of paper having a middle of lower quality. PeFC The PEFC Council (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes) is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation, founded in 1999 which promotes sustainably managed forests through independent third party certification. The PEFC provides an assurance mechanism to purchasers of wood and paper products that they are promoting the sustainable management of forests. PaperCo is a PEFC Chain of Custody certified supplier - certificate number BMTPEFC-0187. pH VALUe The pH scale ranges from 0-14 units. Values below 7 indicate increasing acidity, whilst values above 7 denote increasing alkalinity. pH 7 is neutral. Because the scale is logarithmic, one unit change in pH value will indicate a ten-fold change in acidity or alkalinity. When reporting pH the testing method must be stated, as the results are dependent on the ratio of paper to water and test conditions. For litho printing the pH by Tappi hot extraction should not be below pH 5.0. With pH 9.0 and above (found with some coated papers) the fountain solution could be neutralised, causing plate scumming. Paper with a low pH can retard the drying of the ink. PIGMenT Used both as fillers and for coating. Mineral pigments such as calcium carbonate, clay, titanium, and pigmented dyes are used in paper. POST-COnSUMer WASTe Woodfree printed waste that has been used and discarded by the end user, typically homes and offices. POSTer MG Litho paper with quick-drying surface. Used for outdoor poster work. Rough underside lends itself to rapid pasting. Can also be coated on both sides, the unprinted side including a dye to improve opacity. Pre-COnSUMer WASTe Unprinted waste paper and board that has left the mill but has not reached the end user. Typically trimmings and rejected material from printers, envelope converters etc. PreSSPAHn This is a German word widely used to describe a grade of board used for a variety of purposes, often industrial. It is of a light weight, glazed and extra hard, rolled and friction glazed. PULP bOArd Made from pulp as a homogenous sheet on a cylinder machine.

O
OCr PAPer (Optical Character Recognition) Paper which is specially made for reading machines, having a tight specification on brightness, opacity and smoothness. Must be speck-free. OFFICe PAPer Good quality lightweight papers, may be glazed or unglazed, used for correspondence and other documents in the office. OFF-MACHIne COATed (Process Coated) Base paper which is coated as a separate operation from the actual papermaking. OPAQUe Papers of a substance or type which prevent the passage of light. For example, a sheet with good opacity is one where the printing on one side cannot be seen from the other side under normal conditions.

R
rAG PAPer Old cotton or linen garments or clothing are one source for obtaining fibres for rag papers. The merit of using rag fibres, or part of the fibre furnish, is because they are a long fibre imparting dry and wet strength for special purpose papers, and also giving them a long life.

P
PArCHMenT Parchment, or parchmentised papers, have a high resistance to the penetration of grease and atmospheric humidity. Used

17

PAPER & BOARD TYPES & ASSOCIATED TERMINOLOGY


reeLS A continuous length of paper wound on a coil, irrespective of diameter, width or weight. Reels may thus be rewound into smaller reels or slit into coils. reLATIVe HUMIdITY (RH) The percentage of the maximum amount of moisture the atmosphere can hold at a given temperature. With a constant amount of moisture in the atmosphere, raising the temperature will lower the relative humidity and lowering the temperature will make it higher. rOSIn SIzInG (Resin Sizing) Internal sizing used to control water being absorbed by the sheet and spreading across its surface. Depending on the paper type the degree of sizing used is hard, medium or soft, the first being most resistant to water. With its use, alum is necessary, making the finished paper acid and therefore unsuitable for papers containing calcium carbonate, which is decomposed by acid and is equally unsuitable for long life papers. side and a good surface suitable for printing on the other side. The adhesive is protected by a laminate which enables the sheet to be fed through the printing machine, the laminate subsequently being stripped when the label is applied. SeLF COPY PAPer Another name for carbonless papers. SHOrT GrAIn Paper or board sheet with the longest dimension parallel to the papers cross direction. It is not suitable for printing colour registered work by sheet fed offset litho, when the sheet has to pass through the press for each side printed, e.g. four colour work on a single or two colour press. SILUrIAn A class of papers where the pulp is coloured separately with fast dyestuffs, darker fibres being added to produce a mottle-like appearance. SIzInG (Engine Sized) Additional materials added to paper fibres in order to resist the spontaneous penetration of aqueous liquids, particularly writing ink (see Neutral and Rosin Sizing). SOFTWOOd PULP Pulp obtained from softwoods (long fibre) such as from coniferous trees, which imparts the strength properties to the paper. SPeCIAL FUrnISH GrAdeS This is a category of papers and boards which contain very high grade pulps, a percentage of which will be rag, cotton or other non-wood pulps. The product is also likely to contain a proportion of chemical pulp (woodfree) often associated with quality letterheads, textured and some embossed qualities. SPeCIALITY PAPer & bOArd This is a paper trade definition applied to such grades as off-machine coated, laminated, impregnated etc., as distinguished from printings and writings etc., and other grades which do not require further processing. Speciality papers and boards are often the raw materials for use by other industries. The electrical and instrumental industries are examples. STOCK A term loosely applied to paper making material in all its stages, but usually referring to the wet pulp before it is fed on to the paper making machine. STrAWbOArd Board made from straw pulp. Used principally for case book covers, cheap account books and rigid box-making. Not readily available nowadays. SUrFACe SIzed Sizing of paper web in the course of the paper making machine run (by size press). Opposite to engine sizing where size is added at the pulp stock stage. SYnTHeTIC PAPer Materials made from synthetic fibres which have the characteristics of paper, but which are infinitely stronger. They may be printed and are often impervious to grease, oils, moisture etc. One important use for these usually expensive materials is in maps.

S
SC PrInTInGS & WrITInGS Papers which receive superior finish (matt and gloss) by passing through off-machine supercalender stack of chilled steel, granite, and soft rolls. SeCUrITY PAPer Various grades of paper incorporating special identification features to assist in the detection and prevention of fraud. SeLF AdHeSIVe PAPer Used essentially for labelling purposes, the grade has a self-adhesive coating on one

T
TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) Pulp which has been bleached with agents such as Oxygen or Hydrogen Peroxide, which contains no Chlorine compounds at all. Produces no detectable levels of Dioxins

18

PAPER & BOARD TYPES & ASSOCIATED TERMINOLOGY


or Organo-chlorides above natural background levels. TICKeT bOArd Another name for pasteboard, although coated board can be included in this grade which is used for showcards or similar purposes. May be white or tinted. TISSUe PAPer Soft, lightweight papers plain or coloured. Widely used for hygienic and household purposes. May be in more than one ply. Other grades are used for packaging and laminated to such materials as aluminium foil. TITAnIUM dIOXIde A pigment used for a paper filling which has excellent properties for giving good opacity with high brightness. More expensive than clay or calcium carbonate but is invaluable for papers with low grammages that need good opacity, like Bible and/or diary paper. TOP SIde (Felt Side) The side of machine made paper which is not in contact with the wire. It has the better printing surface but the weaker surface strength. There are exceptions on MG, hand and mould-made papers where the wire side may have the better printing surface (see also Wire Side). TOP WIre Is an additional wire added to a conventional Fourdrinier paper making machine. It makes twin-wire paper, but with a difference, in that only one layer of fibre is produced. The top wire is positioned horizontally on the normal wire and the fibre is sandwiched between them. It may have either vacuum or foils to assist in the removal of water, which is its main purpose, and 40% of the total water can be removed. The advantages are that the paper produced is more even-sided and the machine speed can be increased. TrIPLeX bOArd Board manufactured from three stocks, one of which is waste (middle), with a different paper top and bottom. TWIn WIre PAPer The product of a paper machine which has two wires on which separate webs are formed, they are then brought together wire side to wire side before the pressing and drying operations so that the finished sheet has two identical high quality printing surfaces. TWO-SIded The normal characteristics of paper made on a single-wire machine. The two sides of the sheet differ in a number of properties, but when the variation exceeds what is intended or achievable, it will be termed Two-Sided. the paper, and when dry shows through, because it is less opaque. WIre SIde The side of the paper web which was in contact with the wire on the paper making machine. Of the two sides it has the inferior printing quality, but the stronger surface. A wire mark, the patterns of the wire mesh, may be present, but the prominence of this has been much reduced by the use of plastic wires. WOOdFree A term used to describe a paper which is free from groundwood, mechanical or thermo-mechanical woodpulp and which contains no fibres other than those from chemical wood pulp. WOVe Paper produced with a plain wove pattern dandy roll.

V
VeLLUM PAPer Papers with a strong, tough character and a high quality appearance, made to represent the fine smooth finish of a parchment made from animal skin, often used for certificates.

W
WATerMArK A watermark is a design which is impressed into the paper when it is formed on the wire of the paper making machine. The design is carried by the dandy roll and is slightly proud of its surface. The slight pressure which is applied reduces the thickness of

19

PRINTING PROCESSES
drY LITHOGrAPHY Identical to offset lithography but without the use of water, the non-printing areas of a special plate being silicon and nonreceptive to the special inks that are used. FLeXOGrAPHY Printing from a relief image with a rubber or plastic plate using liquid ink, either solvent or water based, plus pigment dyes, and is used mainly for packaging products. GrAVUre (Photogravure) Printing from an intaglio copper plate or cylinder (Rotagravure) where the image is formed by the same size small squares, but of varying depth. The deeper cells producing the greater print density, or as more commonly today by using an invert halftone when the print density range is produced by both the depth and size of dots. The ink is of low viscosity, mainly solvent with pigment, dyes and binder. For good quality printing it requires a smooth paper. InKJeT Non-impact printing process where the image is formed by a continuous stream of ink droplets of the same size and frequency. The position of the dot on the substrate is determined by an electrostatic charge. The unwanted droplets are diverted to a waste tray. LASer Describes the process where digital information from computer is used to generate pulses of light to form images on a light sensitive drum. Thereafter the actual non-impact printing process is xerographic. LeTTerPreSS Printing from a relief printing image of metal, rubber or plastic with a viscous ink direct to the paper. LeTTerSeT Uses a shallow-depth relief letterpress printing plate which transfers the printing image first to an offset blanket then to the paper. LITHOGrAPHY Printing from a planographic metal plate, the printing and on-printing areas being on the same plane, with the non-printing areas only accepting water, and the printing areas only accepting a greasy ink. When the inked image is directly transferred to the paper it is known as direct lithography, but when, as in most cases, the ink is first transferred to a rubber offset blanket and then to the paper, permitting good quality printing on the less smooth papers, it is termed offset lithography. nOn-IMPACT PrInTInG A term used to describe modern printing processes such as Laser and Inkjet printing. These processes are described as nonimpact as there is no direct physical contact between the printing mechanism and the paper. SCreen The printing image is produced through a mesh made by a cut or photographic stencil, the ink being forced through the mesh by a squeegee. The ink film thickness of the printed image is significantly greater than that produced by other printing processes. Can print on a wide range of different material. THerMAL An impact printing process where the image is formed by an electrically heated printing head contacting a special paper, (coated or surface treated), containing a concealed colour dye and an activator which becomes coloured when touched by a heated element, forming a letter or number. Used for recording information on charts and supermarket instant weight and price labels. THerMOGrAPHY A method of imitating the more expensive die stamping, as used for stationery. The printing is as normal for letterpress or lithography, but the wet printed image is dusted with resin and immediately fused by heat, producing a similar relief image to die stamping but without the embossing on the reverse side of the sheet. XerOGrAPHY Non-impact printing using an electrostatic charge to produce a printing image on a drum which then attracts a resinous powder which is transferred to the paper and fused to give the finished print. Now able to produce colour printing.

20

PAPER CARE
STOre YOUr PAPer In A COOL drY PLACe Paper is a living, natural material and its properties may change slightly with variations in humidity and temperature. All paper likes stable conditions and when stored at room temperature in normal humidity, it stays in perfect condition for a long time, always ready to use. dOnT eXPOSe YOUr PAPer TO HeAT Next to a radiator or in direct sunlight is not the place for storing paper. Papers copying and printing properties are affected not only by excessive humidity but also by excessive dryness. ALWAYS STOre PAPer FLAT, In ITS OWn PACKAGInG Boxes and ream wrappings have been designed specifically to protect the paper against moisture, dirt and damage during transport and storage. Keep the paper flat in its own package even if it is not full until it is used. This will ensure you get high class results. PACKAGInG PrOTeCTS THe PAPer The polyethylene seal on ream wrappers offers many benefits. Dirt or plastic particles cannot get on the surface of the paper inside the wrapping, and static electricity does not form. PAPer needS TIMe TO AdJUST TO THe SUrrOUndInG TeMPerATUre And HUMIdITY You will avoid problems with using paper if you let pallets of paper that have been stored elsewhere, possibly in the cold, adjust to a new room temperature and humidity before use. The time it takes for a full pallet of paper to adjust to a new environment depends on the difference in temperature between the storeroom and the new surroundings. The following table gives guidelines for paper brought into a room with a temperature of 20 C.
store hours for room temp. pallet to adjust 20C 15C 10C 5C 0C 0 14 26 38 75 hours for box to adjust 0 3 7 11 21
o

PAPer IS reAdY TO USe STrAIGHT FrOM THe PACKeT To avoid generating static electricity or damaging the precisely cut edges, do not fan the paper or tap a stack of paper on the table to get the end level. Copier and Laser paper is at its best when taken from the ream wrapper and placed straight in the copiers or laser printers paper holder.

21

LASER PRE-PRINT GUIDELINES

Many of the papers detailed within our Directory of Products and Prices are guaranteed for laser and inkjet printing and others are described as suitable for these processes. Where products are guaranteed the manufacturers produce their own PrePrinting Guidelines and we recommend that these are observed to ensure optimum performance during subsequent laser or inkjet printing. Where products are described as suitable (and even when guaranteed) we recommend pre-production trials and thorough testing to ensure compatibility with the end users non-impact printing equipment and compliance with the machine manufacturers guidance on grammage and use. The following guidelines are offered as common sense advice and in no way should they be viewed as a replacement for the manufacturers guidelines in respect of guaranteed papers. FOr THe OFFSeT PrInTer Prior to printing, leave paper in the press room for at least two days to allow it to reach equilibrium with ambient room temperatures. Keep the paper wrapped until the last minute before printing to avoid moisture pick up or evaporation (possible in conditions of extremely low relative humidity). The relative humidity of laser/copier papers is in the region of 35% which is considerably lower than normal conditions and it is important to maintain this status to avoid problems in the laser printer or photocopier. Print the wire side first. Paper is normally manufactured with a built-in controlled curl, which means that one side is more suitable to be laser printed/copied first this is the under side of the paper - the wire side. Wrapped paper is always presented wire side up when the wrapper joint is uppermost (not relevant with twinwire papers) and some grades are marked with an arrow to indicate the first printing side (or wire side). Bulk packed material is always presented wire side up. Use special laser inks and varnishes (if in doubt ask your ink supplier) to avoid the possibility of ink build-up on the fuser roll of the laser printer. Avoid coldset conductive and rubber based inks. Avoid Thermography and Foil Blocking as these can melt during laser printing, or use alternative thermographic powders and cold foils. Care must be taken if embossing or die stamping, as these finishes may be flattened in the laser process. Minimise damping. When possible use an alcohol damping system. Avoid the use of anti set-off sprays. If required, use should be kept to a minimum to avoid problems during laser printing. Cover paper immediately after offset printing to avoid moisture pick up prior to cutting, conversion etc. Always indicate with an arrow which side is the wire side to ensure trouble free copying or laser printing. Guillotine with care using a sharp blade to avoid subsequent feeding problems during copying or laser printing. Rewrap in moisture proof wrappers when final conversion is completed and mark wrapper clearly to indicate the wire side of the sheet. FOr THe LASer PrInTer Or PHOTOCOPIer USer Leave pre printed paper for 10-14 days to cure ink before laser printing to avoid the possibility of ink build-up on the fuser roll of printer. Store wrapped pre-printed or plain paper for up to two days in the vicinity of the printer to allow it to reach room temperature. Only open wrappers immediately prior to use to avoid moisture pick up. Fan pre-printed sheets taking care not to damage edges. note: it is not necessary to fan un-printed plain paper in manufacturers own wrapper. Print wire side first.

22

PAPER PROBLEMS

The incidence of physical paper problems has decreased steadily in recent years in line with the introduction of sophisticated manufacturing processes, and greatly enhanced quality control procedures. However, as with all mass production processes, things occasionally go wrong. Sometimes, problems can be seen instantly on a plain sheet of paper, but others may only appear during printing, and given the endless variables created by the choice of different inks and printing processes, it can be difficult to identify the root cause of the problem. It is important therefore, that full supporting evidence is gathered to help you to present your case in the best possible way. We aim to resolve all complaints quickly and efficiently, and to this end we offer the following advice: Always notify us at once if you suspect a problem. Always remember to take a note of the making number(s) involved (these are detailed on ream end/pallet labels) as well as pallet or reel numbers. Always collect adequate evidence. Always protect rejected material for subsequent examination or return to the supplier. Always wrap evidence in moisture proof wrappers where possible. Never dispose of any rejected/damaged material until the matter is resolved. Never roll evidence submitted for curl or moisture problems. Never fold sheets submitted for size or squareness variations. Never continue to run on unless the quality is satisfactory to you or you have our agreement. SUPPOrTInG eVIdenCe FOr COMPLAInTS 1. Problems obvious on paper 25 Consecutive sheets (unprinted) 5 Clearly showing the marked fault 2. Problems occurring during printing 25 Sheets plain paper (consecutive) 10 Printed sheets 5. If the problem occurs on the backup: 25 Sheets printed first side 10 Sheets printed backup 3. Stability Misregister Creasing Image Doubling Runnability 5. Problems such as these require specialist instrumental analysis of atmospheres and paper conditions. Specialist assistance should be sought. NOTE: Material evidence for these types of complaint must be preserved in moisture proof wrappers or a sealed polythene bag. 4. Sundry debris Evidence should be removed with sellotape from blanket/plate and fixed to acetate film - not paper 5. Ink and fount solutions will be required to support claims of Mottle Piling Dusting/Chalking Plate Wear 5. These types of complaint usually require specialist assistance.

6. Damaged blankets Must be retained and presented as evidence together with offending sheets and debris. 7. Evidence Evidence of satisfactory performance on similar alternative grades may help to support a complaint. 8. Photographic evidence Photographic evidence can be very helpful in certain cases, i.e. damaged pallets etc.

23

BRITISH PAPER & BOARD TRADE TOLERANCES

This is a summary of some of the most useful trade tolerance customs, extracted and condensed from British Paper & Board Trade Customs (1988 edition). These customs are endorsed by the major British paper trade associations. SCOPe The scope of these customs includes all papers and boards, coated or uncoated, excluding hand and mould-made papers; soft tissue paper; newsprint; and certain special boards for which individual tolerances apply. These customs only apply to perfect paper. Special offer, retree, job and clearance papers are not covered. CUTTInG TOLerAnCeS - SHeeTS For paper guillotine trimmed or precision cut, the permissible tolerance shall be not more than plus or minus 2mm. Sheets not guillotine trimmed or precision cut shall not vary from the ordered measurement by more than the following. a) plus or minus 3mm for measurements up to and including 610mm; b) plus or minus 5mm for measurements over 610mm and up to and including 1245mm; c) plus or minus 6mm for measurements over 1245mm. CUTTInG TOLerAnCeS - reeLS GrAPHIC PAPerS Reels shall not vary from the ordered width by more than the following amounts: a) plus or minus 2mm for reels up to and including 1000mm width; b) plus or minus 3mm for reels over 1000mm width. ALL OTHer PAPerS Reels shall not vary from the ordered width by more than the following amounts: a) plus or minus 3mm for measurements up to and including 610mm; b) plus or minus 5mm for measurements over 610mm and up to and including 1245mm; c) plus or minus 6mm for measurements over 1245mm. GrAMMAGe Grammage readings obtained by the British Standard method of sampling and testing shall not vary from the ordered grammage by more than plus or minus 7.5% under 40 g/m2 or more than plus or minus 5% for 40 g/m2 or over. THICKneSS Thickness readings obtained by the British Standard method of sampling and testing shall not vary from the ordered thickness by more than plus or minus 10% for thicknesses up to and including 100 micrometers or more than plus or minus 7.5% over 100 micrometers. QUAnTITY VArIATIOn Making orders are any orders for paper which are outside the normal stock range of the manufacturer and shall be deemed to be properly executed if the quantity supplied in each size and weight is within the following limits either way of the quantity ordered in each size and weight:
Standard stock quantity and grammage in special sizes Non-standard papers by reason of quantity and grammage

Up to and including 1 tonne Over 1 tonne and not exceeding 5 tonnes Over 5 tonnes and not exceeding 10 tonnes Over 10 tonnes and not exceeding 20 tonnes Over 20 tonnes

10%

15%

5%

10%

5%

7.5%

3.75% 2.5%

5% 2.5%

24

CONVERSION FACTORS & USEFUL CALCULATIONS


Inches to Millimetres Millimetres to Inches Tons to Tonnes x 1.016 Tonnes to Tons x 0.9842 x 25.4 x 0.0394

To find weight in kilos per 1000 sheets given g/m2 and size in millimetres g/m2 x length x breadth 1,000,000 To find g/m2 given weight in kilos per 1000 sheets and size of sheet in millimetres Kg/1000 x 1,000,000 length x breadth To find the price per tonne given the price per 1000 sheets and Kg weight per 1000 sheets price per 1000 sheets x 1000 Kg weight per 1000 sheets To find the price per 1000 sheets given the price per tonne and the Kg weight per 1000 sheets Kg weight per 1000 sheets x price per tonne 1000 COnVerSIOn TAbLe Thousandths of an inch to microns Inches .001 .002 .003 .004 .005 .006 .007 .008 .009 .010 .011 .012 Microns 25 51 76 102 127 152 178 203 229 254 279 305 Inches .013 .014 .015 .016 .017 .018 .019 .020 .030 .040 .050 Microns 330 356 381 406 432 457 483 508 762 1016 1270

25

PAPERCO LOCATIONS DONALD MURRAY PAPER


Aberdeen Unit C Minto Avenue Altens Industrial Estate Aberdeen AB12 3JZ Tel: 01224 898 039 Fax: 01224 873 352 beLFAST Units A & B 9 Michelin Road Mallusk Newtownabbey Co. Antrim BT36 4PT Tel: 028 9084 3161 Fax: 028 9084 0119 brISTOL Unit R1D Rockingham Gate Cabot Park Poplar Way West Avonmouth Bristol BS11 0YW Tel: 0117 923 5195 Fax: 0117 923 5196 edInbUrGH 11-13 Sciennes House Place Edinburgh EH9 1NN Tel: 0131 667 7111 Fax: 0131 667 1329

PaperCo Locations

PAPERCO LOCATIONS
GLASGOW 211 MacLellan Street Kinning Park Glasgow G41 1RR Tel: 0141 427 1271 Fax: 0141 427 6999 TYne & WeAr 1 Brooklands Way Boldon Business Park Boldon Tyne & Wear NE35 9LZ Tel: 0191 537 7055 Fax: 0191 537 7056 LeTCHWOrTH Camfield House Avenue One Letchworth Garden City Herts SG6 2WW Tel: 01462 689 689 Fax: 01462 689 550

SOUTHERN PAPER
SHOreHAM-bY-SeA Apex House Dolphin Way Shoreham-by-Sea West Sussex, BN43 6NZ Tel: 01273 440 000 Fax: 01273 440 322 SOUTHAMPTOn 3 Nelson Industrial Park Herald Road, Hedge End Southampton S030 2JH Tel: 01489 789 222 Fax: 01489 789 214

NORTH WEST PAPER


PreSTOn 182 Walton Summit Centre Bamber Bridge Preston PR5 8AJ Tel: 01772 311 593 Fax: 01772 627 032

DIXON & ROE


LOndOn Unit 2 Bricklayers Arms Mandela Way London SE1 5SP Tel: 020 7231 0044 Fax: 020 7252 0583

ROTHERA & BRERETON


LeedS Fairfield House 186 Armley Road Leeds LS12 2QH Tel: 0113 263 2541 Fax: 0113 387 4820 nOTTInGHAM Fairfield House Glaisdale Parkway Bilborough Nottingham NG8 4GP Tel: 0115 928 0071 Fax: 0115 928 8976 SHeFFIeLd Fairfield House Tyler Street, Sheffield S9 1DH Tel: 0114 244 5192 Fax: 0114 263 7510

REEL PAPER
CASTLe dOnInGTOn Central House Willow Farm Business Park Castle Donington Leicestershire DE74 2UB Tel: 01332 817 950 Fax: 01332 817 951

MASONS PAPER
bIrMInGHAM Unit 8 Junction 6 Industrial Estate Electric Avenue Birmingham B6 7JJ Tel: 0121 326 1020 Fax: 0121 326 1021 IPSWICH Island House Nacton Road Ipswich IP3 9RR Tel: 01473 711 123 Fax: 01473 270 109

27

COPY THIS FORM AND USE IT TO FAX YOUR REQUEST


Title (Mr/Mrs/Ms) Name Text material 1 and colour

Position

Text material 2 and colour

Company name

Text weight (gsm)

Building name or number

Number of cover pages

Street

Number of text pages

Town/City

Number of dummies required

County

Postcode

Enter any further information, or a full description of the dummy you require

Telephone

Fax A faxed diagram will help to eliminate any confusion Email

Nature of business
Advertising Marketing Design Printing Digital Screen Printing
Please tick

Please supply your dummy details below and right


Final dimensions (width mm)

Sign Making & Display Publishing Government Agency Local Authority Office Supplies Other

Final dimensions (height mm)

Format
Landscape Portrait
Please tick

Cover material and colour

Landscape folder Portrait folder

Cover weight (gsm)

Binding type
Perfect bound Stab stitched
Please tick

Wire stitched Loop stitched

Wiro bound No binding

PLEASE FAX BACK TO YOUR LOCAL BRANCH

Aberdeen beLFAST bIrMInGHAM brISTOL CASTLe dOnInGTOn edInbUrGH GLASGOW IPSWICH LeedS LeTCHWOrTH LOndOn nOTTInGHAM PreSTOn SHeFFIeLd SHOreHAM-bY-SeA SOUTHAMPTOn TYne & WeAr

Donald Murray Paper Donald Murray Paper Masons Paper Donald Murray Paper Reel Paper Donald Murray Paper Donald Murray Paper Masons Paper Rothera & Brereton Masons Paper Dixon & Roe Rothera & Brereton North West Paper Rothera & Brereton Southern Paper Southern Paper Donald Murray Paper

Tel: 01224 898 039 Tel: 028 9084 3161 Tel: 0121 326 1020 Tel: 0117 923 5195 Tel: 01332 817 950 Tel: 0131 667 7111 Tel: 0141 427 1271 Tel: 01473 711 123 Tel: 0113 263 2541 Tel: 01462 689 689 Tel: 020 7231 0044 Tel: 0115 928 0071 Tel: 01772 311 593 Tel: 0114 244 5192 Tel: 01273 440 000 Tel: 01489 789 222 Tel: 0191 537 7055

www.paperco.co.uk

Text printed on 9lives 55 Silk 170g/m2 Cover printed on 9lives 55 Silk 250g/m2

TPC 07/10