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AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONAL

INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION

ACI
ON
COUNCILINTERNATIONAL INTIONAL AIR TRANSPORT

IATA

APRON MARKINGS & SIGNS HANDBOOK


First Edition 2001

AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONAL

INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION

ACI
ON
COUNCILINTERNATIONAL INTIONAL AIR TRANSPORT

IATA

APRON MARKINGS & SIGNS HANDBOOK


First Edition 2001

Notice DISCLAIMER. The information contained in this publication is subject to constant review in the light of changing requirements and regulations. No subscriber or other reader should act on the basis of any such information without referring to applicable laws and regulations and/or without taking appropriate professional advice. Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Airports Council International (ACI) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shall not be held responsible for loss or damage caused by errors, omissions, misprints or misinterpretation of the contents hereof. Furthermore the Airports Council International and the International Air Transport Association expressly disclaim all and any liability to any person, whether a purchaser of this publication or not, in respect of anything done or omitted, and the consequences of anything done or omitted, by any such person in reliance on the contents of this publication. No part of the Apron Marking and Signs Handbook may be reproduced, recast, reformatted or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from: Director, Technical/Safety Airports Council International P.O. Box 16 1215 Geneva 15 - Airport Switzerland Director Passenger Services International Air Transport Association P.O. Box 416 1215 Geneva 15 - Airport Switzerland

Apron Marking & Signs Handbook ISBN 92-9171-137-3 2001 Airports Council International and International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved Montreal-Geneva

Copies of this publication are available from: Publications Department Airports Council International P.O. Box 16 1215 Geneva 15 Airport Switzerland Tel. +41 22 717 8585 Fax. +41 22 717 8888 Email: aci@airports.org

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION RECOMMENDED COLOURS APRON MARKINGS AND SIGNS Stand lead-in line Taxi side stripe markings and apron edge lines Stand identification Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Basic aircraft stop line Multiple aircraft stop line Basic marshaller/towing stop line Multiple marshaller/towing stop line Stand safety line Tractor push-back line and push-back limit line Power out turn bar and alignment line Equipment parking line No parking area Airbridge wheel position Underground services including fuel hydrant markings Service road and centre line Pedestrian crossing Service road running alongside an aircraft stand Service road running alongside a vehicle limit line Taxiway crossing sign/marking Typical apron signage Typical service road signage Typical emergency signs FOD bin marking 5 67 9 10 - 11 12 - 13 14 - 15 16 - 17 18 19 20 - 21 22 - 23 24 - 25 26 - 27 28 - 29 30 - 31 32 - 33 34 - 35 36 - 37 38 - 39 40 - 41 42 - 43 44 - 45 46 - 47 48 - 49 50 - 51 52 - 53 54 55 56

Example of an apron layout (showing use of markings and signs)


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INTRODUCTION
This handbook presents a series of apron markings and signs, based on a study of current best practice. These markings and signs were devised by representatives of a number of airport operators, airlines and other organisations, meeting under the auspices of ACI and IATA. ACI and IATA recommend this handbook to airport operators to foster uniformity of markings and signs. Greater uniformity should in turn improve recognition of hazards and increase the reliability and safety of aircraft and vehicle traffic on aprons. This document is intended to complement the ACI Apron Safety Handbook (2nd Edition, 1996), updating chapter 3 of that document, and ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1 (3rd edition 19994th edition,2004), sections 5.2.12 and 5.2.13section 5.2.13 and 5.2.14.. The proposals in this handbook have been submitted to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) with a view to their inclusion in future amendments to ICAO Annex 14 and the related manuals. A small working group composed of representatives from ACI, IATA and other organisations will continue to review these markings and signs and add new ones as required. ACI and IATA would like to recognise the significant contributions of Trevor Jones, Ani Ketch and Peter Snelling of the former Federal Airports Corporation (FAC), Australia in the initial preparation of this document. In addition, ACI and IATA are grateful for the financial support provided by the FAC in the preparation of drafts of this document, over an extended period. This handbook represents the first step in a process which must also include promoting awareness of apron markings and signs and enhancing the training of personnel using apron areas, including awareness of potential hazards. It is intended for the use of: - planners of apron areas; - all staff working on aprons; - pilots; - air traffic controllers; and - apron controllers. We commend this handbook.

Airports Council International International


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Air Transport Association

RECOMMENDED COLOURS
The proposed colour coding of apron markings is shown opposite. The rationale for the use of yellow (in particular) conforms to paragraph 5.2.1.5 of ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, which specifies that taxiway markings and aircraft stand markings shall be yellow. However ICAO has no standards for colours of apron safety lines and roadways, as yet. Yellow Yellow lines are universally accepted for the regulation, control and movement of aircraft (see ICAO Annex 14, paragraph 5.2.1.5). Double yellow lines are normally used for taxi side stripe markings, delineating the boundary between full and low strength pavement (including a pavement edge). These may be used on either taxiways or aprons. White lines relate to the regulation, control and movement of vehicles, as opposed to the regulation, control and movement of aircraft. Double white lines indicate that a vehicle should not cross unless circumstances require and it is safe to do so. This marking follows common international practice for roads, and is especially used to mark the side of service roads which adjoin a taxiway or taxilane. Red is universally seen as a colour representing danger. In this context, it is appropriate within the aviation industry to continue this practice. It is especially used for aircraft stand safety lines, which must never be crossed while an aircraft is manoeuvring into or out of a stand.

Double Yellow

White Double White

Red

All markings in this book may be used with a contrasting border, if required.
To increase their visibility at night and in low visibility conditions, and where necessary because of the colour of the pavement, the markings may have a border on either side in a contrasting colour, as follows: 1) 2) Yellow or white markings may have a black border on light coloured pavement (e.g. concrete). Red markings may have a white border, on dark coloured pavement (e.g. bitumen).

RECOMMENDED COLOURS

APRON MARKINGS & SIGNS

Stand lead-in line

Taxiway centre line markings are clearly defined in ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1 (third edition,19994th edition, 2004) section 5.2.8. Stand lead-in lines are effectively a continuation of taxiway centre lines, and should have the same width. Their function is to allow an aircraft to taxi under its own power or to be towed whilst maintaining the necessary clearances from obstacles. It is recommended that a contrasting colour (black) be used when taxiway or stand centre lines are painted on concrete. The minimum acceptable width specified by ICAO for a stand lead-in line is 15cm (see ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, paragraph 5.2.8.7), but ACI and IATA recommend a 20cm minimum width, in order to give increased visibility, as shown on the facing page.

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Stand lead-in line

ON BITUMEN

ON CONCRETE

Note: all diagrams in this handbook may be used with a contrasting border, if required (as shown above).

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Taxi side stripe markings and apron edge lines

Taxi side stripe markings and apron edge lines are used to delineate the boundary of a taxiway or apron area where the edge of the full strength pavement cannot be easily discerned, or when a low strength shoulder adjoins the full strength pavement.

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Taxi side stripe markings and apron edge lines

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Stand identification - Option 1

This is the preferred option for a stand identification marking. This marking assists the pilot of an approaching aircraft to identify the appropriate stand position, prior to initiating the turn. ACI and IATA believe that placing the identifiers adjacent to the line is an enhancement of the current ICAO recommendation in ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, paragraph 5.2.12.4,5.2.13.4, which increases the visibility of the stand number to the pilot in the approaching aircraft. A stand identification marking is an information marking replacing a direction or destination sign. Following ICAO standards for the manoeuvring area, a marking of this nature should be in black on a yellow background (see Annex 14, Volume 1, paragraph 5.2.16.425.2.17.6(b)). Regarding the size of the characters, paragraph 5.2.16.65.2.16.8 recommends a height of 4m on the manoeuvring area. The form of the characters is shown in Appendix 3 to Annex 14, Volume 1. ACI would support a study of character sizes required for optimum pilot visibility of such markings from the cockpit of aircraft of varying sizes, and at typical taxying speeds in the vicinity of aprons.

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Stand identification - Option 1

(suggested dimensions) (not to scale)

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Stand identification - Option 2

This marking is a variant of the preferred option, for use when aircraft approach from a single direction.

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Stand identification - Option 2

(not to scale)

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Stand identification - Option 3

This marking is similar to those illustrated in the ICAO Doc 9157 Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4 - Visual Aids (3rd edition, 19934th edition, 2004), section 2.3 (Apron Markings), with the stand number displayed on the lead-in line. ACI does not believe that cockpit over centre line markings are generally necessary for manoeuvring on to aircraft stands, as pilots are very experienced at the low speed manoeuvres necessary to align an aircraft with the stand centre line.

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Stand identification - Option 3

(not to scale)

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Basic aircraft stop line

This marking should be used where an aircraft is positioned on a stand without marshalling, where the transverse bar indicates the cockpit stop position. The marking should be suitable for the critical aircraft (usually the largest aircraft) which will use the stand. The same markings are used on either a power through position or a power in, push out position. The dimension X shown is believed sufficient to ensure visibility by the pilot in command.

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Basic aircraft stop line

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Multiple aircraft stop line

\\\
These markings should be used where an aircraft is positioned without a marshaller, but in association with an airbridge, or where fuel hydrant positions are critical, so that different cockpit stop positions are necessary for the different aircraft types to be accommodated. The dimensions of the markings are as shown on the preceding page, including the dimension labelled X, which varies according to the maximum aircraft size to be accommodated. Some airport operators may prefer to mark each of the different stop positions with a letter or a number (e.g. A, B or 1, 2), rather than an aircraft type. In this case, the control tower would inform the pilot which stop line should be used. The word STOP shown in the illustration above and on the facing page may be regarded as optional, and would be omitted where the markings for different aircraft sizes would be too close together. These markings may be supplemented by some form of Visual Docking Guidance System for the use of pilots. This handbook does not set out to provide information on such systems.
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Multiple aircraft stop line

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Basic marshaller/towing stop line

The marking opposite should be used where an aircraft, either under power or tow, is positioned on stand by a marshaller. The transverse bar indicates the nose wheel stop position to the marshaller. The same marking is used on either a power through position or a power in, push out position. The design of the marking is dependent on the critical aircraft for the stand

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Basic marshaller/towing stop line

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Multiple marshaller/towing stop line

The markings opposite should be used where an aircraft, either under power or tow, is positioned by a marshaller, but in association with an airbridge or where fuel hydrant positions are critical, so that different nose wheel stop positions are needed for the different aircraft types to be accommodated. The dimensions of the markings should be sufficient to be readily visible to the marshaller or tug driver. Characters should be a minimum of 50cm high, it is suggested. The number and position of the markings are determined by the number and type of aircraft using the stand. Some airport operators may prefer to mark each of the different stop positions with a letter or a number, rather than an aircraft type. In this case the marshaller should be informed as to which stop position should be used.

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Multiple marshaller/towing stop line

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Stand safety line

This line depicts the area that must remain free of staff, vehicles and equipment when an aircraft is taxiing (or being towed) into position or has started engines in preparation for departure. Once all engines have been shut down and the area is safe, vehicles may then cross the line to service the aircraft. ICAO Annex 14 paragraph 5.2.13.45.2.14.4 recommends that the minimum acceptable width of a stand safety line is 10cm, but ACI and IATA recommend a 20cm minimum width. The size of this area depends on the type of aircraft using the stand position. The area should be dimensioned to allow for a safety zone around jet engine intakes which must be kept free to avoid suction dangers. Aircraft manufacturers give guidance on safety zones required around engines operating at ground idle. A similar safety zone should also be taken into account on stands used by propellor-driven aircraft.

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Stand safety line

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Tractor push-back line and push-back limit line

This line marking is for the use of a tractor (tug) driver when pushing back an aircraft from a stand. It may be used to ensure sufficient obstacle clearance, on stands where clearances around manoeuvring aircraft are restricted. A transverse bar indicates the position where the aircraft (nose wheel) is to be stopped, prior to being disconnected from the tractor (tug). A width of 10 cm is considered sufficient to be visible to tractor drivers; greater width may prove distracting to pilots. The white colour used, and the broken line, should avoid confusion with markings for ircraft. Note: the black border shown is only required on light-coloured pavement.

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Tractor push-back line and push-back limit line

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Power out turn bar and alignment line

The turn bar is used to advise the pilot of the position where the aircraft should commence turning when it leaves the stand. The alignment line allows the pilot of a widebody aircraft to align the aircraft on the centre line prior to bringing the aircraft to a stop or when the aircraft is under power, prior to leaving the stand.

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Power out turn bar and alignment line

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Equipment parking line

This marking is used to delineate the area within which vehicles and equipment can park freely without infringing any stand areas or taxiways, including taxiway strip surfaces. The shape is purely indicative.

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Equipment parking line

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No parking area

A no parking area for vehicles is indicated by red hatchings as shown opposite. Once again the shape shown is purely indicative.

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No parking area

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Airbridge wheel position

The area under an airbridge has to be kept free of vehicles and equipment to ensure the safe operation of the airbridge. Wheel positions are recommended for the airbridge itself, using either a square or circle, to locate the airbridge in a position that allows aircraft to enter the stand.

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Airbridge wheel position

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Underground services including fuel hydrant markings

This marking is indicative of the markings recommended for use with all underground services. The size and shape of the marking depends on the size of the service opening. Clearly marked reflective warning flags should also be placed adjacent to an open and/or lifted underground service. Any above-ground projection, such as a lift-up hydrant connection system or cover, should preferably be painted red. Markings used for fuel hydrants may include the word FUEL painted in white on the cover of the opening.

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Underground services including fuel hydrant markings

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Service road and centre line

Each lane of a service road should be of the minimum width to accommodate the widest equipment in use at that location e.g. emergency vehicles or ground support equipment. It is important to mark roads on apron areas, to keep vehicle traffic clear of aircraft, taxiways and to minimise the risk of vehicle-to-vehicle accidents. The side of the road on which vehicles drive and the dimensions of markings should conform to national highway traffic regulations.

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Service road and centre line

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Pedestrian crossing

White is the suggested colour for a pedestrian crossing, although colour and design should conform to the standard usage on roads outside the airport environment. The dimensions on the facing page are indicative only.

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Pedestrian crossing

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Service road running alongside an aircraft stand

This diagram shows that when markings are located alongside other markings, both individual markings should still be shown in full.

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Service road running alongside an aircraft stand

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Service road running alongside a vehicle limit line

Where a service road is also the limit of vehicle activity on an apron, this should be shown with a double white line. This indicates DO NOT CROSS. The reason for the limitation may be varied, although the most common limitation is to provide adequate clearance for adjacent taxiing aircraft.

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Service road running alongside a vehicle limit line

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Taxiway crossing sign/marking

The drawing opposite shows the recommended marking where a service road crosses a taxiway or aircraft stand taxilane. A separate sign may indicate that vehicles are only required to stop IF an aircraft is in movement on the taxiway. The vehicle stop line (double white line) should be located at a safe distance from the taxiway centre line, according to the wingspan of the largest category of aircraft using the taxiway (see ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, table 3.1). For example, for a code E aircraft (wingspan up to 65 meters) ICAO recommends a 23 meters taxiway width, i.e. centre line to edge distance of 11.5 meters, whereas the recommended centre-line to object distance for this code of aircraft is 47.5 meters. It will be noted that the diagram facing is not to scale.

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Taxiway crossing sign/marking

(not to scale)
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Typical apron signage

Road signage and/or road markings should follow the applicable road traffic regulations in each country. A series of typical signs appear on the following pages.

Jet blast
It is recommended that jet blast signs or painted markings on the ground should be placed at appropriate locations such as on service roads.

Noise hazard
It is recommended that noise hazard signs should be placed at appropriate locations such as staff doors to apron areas, building walls, etc.

Road traffic signage


Signage on airport service roads should be in accordance with national road traffic regulations. Typical examples are shown on the following pages.

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Typical apron signage

Jet blast sign/marking

Noise hazard area


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Typical service road signage

No smoking

Pedestrians ahead

No entry

Max speed

Max Vehicle height


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Mandatory turn

Typical emergency signs

(this is typical of the signage and system used where fuel shut-off points are provided on an apron)
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FOD bin marking (to be placed on or near aircraft stand)

F.O.D.

Safety on the apron does not end with signs and markings. Foreign Object Damage (FOD) is an ever present hazard to aircraft. Appropriately marked bins, as depicted, can assist in reducing this hazard by reminding staff of their obligation to collect and dispose of FOD correctly. They should be placed on or near each aircraft stand.
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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Example of an apron layout


(showing use of markings)

The diagram on the following page shows the use of some of the markings specified in this handbook in the context of the entire apron area. It may assist in the design of suitable marking schemes at specific airports.

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Example of an apron layout


(not to scale)

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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK