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Department of Environment and Natural Resources

MINES AND GEOSCIENCES BUREAU


Geological Sciences Division

Region XII
Koronadal City Tel. No. (083) 228 61 30 & 31

GEOHAZARDS IN REGION XII


JAIME G. FLORES, MS ERM Chief Geologist Mines and Geosciences Bureau Region XII

ADMINISTRATIVE MAP

PROVINCE

TOTAL MUN/CITY

TOTAL BRGYS

AREA, sq. km

SOUTH COT

11

199

3,689.69

NORTH COT

19

591

14,227.85

SULTAN KUD

12

248

4,755.89

SARANGANI

166

4,636.48

TOTAL

50

1,204

27,309.91

ACCESSIBILITY

ROAD NETWORK

SLOPE MAP

PHYSIOGRAPHIC MAP OF REGION XII


Four Major Landforms of Region XII 1. The Cotabato Basin at the center (Marshland) have less rainfall compared to the others due to elevation 2. The Lanao-Bukidnon Highland on the north 3. Daguma Mountain Range 4. Central Cordillera on the east 5. . Sarangani Peninsula on the southeast

DRAINAGE SYSTEM and WATERSHED AREAS


Code Watershed Run Off Volume, m3 River Discharge , m3/sec
47.41 8.45 8.20 7.00 Maitum Gensan/Maasim

Jurisdiction

W1 W2 W3 W4

Allah River Banga River Kalaong River Seguil River

8.3 x 108 2.7 x 108 2.6 x 108 2.2 x 108

AVLDA

W5
W6 W7 W8

Marbel River
Silway-Clinan River Buayan-Maribulan River Lun Grande River

2.1 x 108
1.9 x 108 1.3 x 107 5.2 x 106

6.74
6.16

Kor City, Tupi, Tampkan


Polomolok, Tboli, Gensan Gensan & Alabel Alabel & Malapatan

W9
W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15

Maitum-Kiamba River
Maasim River Big Glan River Margus Grande River Malapatan River Makar River Sinawal River

3.9 x 106
3.5 x 106 3.4 x 106 2.2 x 106 1.9 x 106 1.3 x 106

Maitum & Kiamba


Maasim Glan Glan Malapatan Gensan Gensan

W16

Ticulab River
MalitubogMaridag o River Kabacan River Pulangi River

1.2 x 106

Maitum
North Cotabato North Cotabato Central Mindanao

Watershed is defined as A NATURAL SYSTEM THAT CAN BE LOCATED ON THE GROUND BY TRACING THE RIDGELINE THAT SEPARATES THE FLOW OF WATER AND DRAINS TO A COMMON OUTLET

W17 W18 W19

GEOLOGIC MAP
Mt Ragang

Mt. Apo

Mt Matutum

Mt. Parker

CLIMATE

ITCZ

Rainfall Classification

RAINFALL RUNOFF PATTERN


(SOUTH COTABATO BASIN)

Mean Annual Rainfall (mm)

Mean Annual Runoff (mm)

RAINFALL RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS


Rain is produced when warm and moist air strikes mountain ranges (orographic effect) causing to rise to the atmosphere at condensation point to form droplets of water falls free under pull of gravity to the earth while the sizes of rain drops increase by coalescence. It is noted that rainfall intensity is high at Daguma Range and low at the surrounding areas of Liguasan Marsh.
Rainfall has its depth measure either in inch or mm duration in 1 hour or 1 day, distribution with respect to geographic position in earth and pattern reflected in dry and wet seasons.

Runoff is water that flow rapidly from the hill and mountain slopes down to the stream during rainfall. It is directly influenced by rainfall pattern Runoff depth refers to water flowing represented in inch or millimeter.

The Allah Valley Landscape


AVL is delineated based on the watershed principle stating that any total land area contributes to the flow of a particular waterbody (river, creek, or stream) and drains to a common outlet. AVL is a natural system and its boundary can be located on the ground by connecting all the highest elevations near and around the said waterbody thereby tracing the ridgeline that separates the flow of water from one river to another. Its landscape boundary line is traced between peaks connecting ridges of Daguma and RoxasMatulas ranges The landscape with common outlet at Sapakan forms NW trending area enclosing Allah and Banga rivers that joins at Kapingkong before reaching Liguasan Marsh.

Hazard maps and responsible agencies


Agencies MGB, PAGASA MGB PAGASA Hazards Flood Rain-induced landslide Storm surge

PHILVOLCS

Earthquake-related: ground rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, earthquakeinduced landslide, tsunami


Volcanic hazards: ashfall, lava flow, pyroclastic flow, lahar

PHILVOLCS

FLOOD DEFINED
Flooding is defined by PAGASA as abnormal rise in the water level of stream that may result in overflowing by the water of the normal confines of the stream with subsequent inundation of area, which are not normally submerged.

Major Contributing Factors to High Incidence of Flooding


Rainfall Slope Intense ranging 45 to 100 mm/hr in 2 to 3 hours Flat lying area having 0-3% gradient floodplain terrain

Drainage System & Watershed


Soil/Rock Types Land Use Cover

Area of watershed and capacity of channel ways to contain its runoff peak discharge
Rocky/Clayey/ soil Low infiltration, high runoff Barren and poor vegetation/Kaingin Low infiltration, high runoff

REGION XII FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP

SOUTH COTABATO PROVINCE FLOOD RATINGS MUN/CITIES TOT BRGYS HIGH MODERATE LOW WATER BODIES

Koronadal City
Gen Santos Banga Lake Sebu Norala Polomolok Sto Nino Surallah Tampakan Tantangan T'boli Tupi TOTAL

27
26 22 19 14 23 10 17 14 13 25 14 224

11
7 13 2 8 3 2 9 3 7 1 3 69

10
4 8

6
15 1 17

Buloc Crk and Marbel rivers


Silway, Makar, and Buayan rivers Banga River Alah-Gao River Banga River Polomolok Crk Banga River

5 1 8 6 3 6 3

1 19

2 8

Alah-Sapali River Taplan River Buluan Lake & Sarcon Crk

20 12

Alah River Palian River

54

101

NORTH COTABATO PROVINCE MUN/CITIES Alamada Aleosan Antipas Arakan Banisilan Carmen Kabacan Kidapawan City Libungan Magpet Makilala Matalam Midsayap Mlang Pigkawayan Pres. Roxas Pikit Tulunan Cotabato City TOTAL TOT BRGYS 17 19 13 28 20 28 24 40 20 32 38 34 57 37 40 25 42 29 37 580 FLOOD RATINGS HIGH MODERATE 6 3 4 1 LOW 8 14 13 28 20 17 4 40 6 31 38 23 20 16 17 28 6 20 349 WATER BODIES Libungan River System Libungan Marsh

11 17 14 3 4 18 7 10 1 5 2 57 3

Pulangi-Kabacan River Kabacan River & Liguasan Marsh Libungan River System Malasila River Malasila River Liguasan Marsh Liguasan Marsh Kimarayag River & Libungan Marsh Kabacan River System Rio Grande River Liguasan Marsh Tamontaka & Rio Grande rivers

6 18 14 13 1 31 7 37 179

SULTAN KUDARAT PROVINCE FLOOD RATINGS MUN/CITIES Bagumbayan Columbio Esperanza Isulan Kalamansig Lambayong Lebak Lutayan Palimbang Pres. Quirino Sen. Ninoy Aquino Tacurong City TOTAL TOT BRGYS 19 16 19 17 15 26 27 11 39 19 20 20 248 73 6 20 99 78 HIGH 8 3 4 7 1 16 9 9 10 2 12 7 5 11 8 2 13 19 14 17 10 MODERATE LOW 11 11 3 3 9 WATER BODIES Alah River Alip River Alah River Alah River Limulan River Alah River Salaman & Tran rivers Buluan Lake Kraan River Buluan Lake Kulaman River Alah River

SARANGANI PROVINCE FLOOD RATINGS WATER BODIES MUN/CITIES Alabel Glan Kiamba Maasim TOT BRGYS 12 31 18 16 HIGH 4 3 5 1 MODERATE 2 LOW 6 23 9 14 Molo-Ladol Creek Glan River Tual, Badtasan, Tambilil rivers Maligang & Cablacan rivers Big Lun, Little Lun, Tuyan & Malaptan rivers Saug, Kalaong & Pangi rivers Buayan, Mateo, Mainit & Malungon rivers

Malapatan
Maitum Malungon TOTAL

12
19 31 139

1
6

6
9 31

20

98

Most destructive earthquakes Source:


OCD, PHIVOLCS, SEASEE
Date Mag Location Dead Injured Missi Total ng Casualty 1263+ Remarks

June 3, 1863

Manila

876+

387+

Building collapse Tsunami Houses destroyed tsunami

Aug 15, 1918 Apri 1,1955 Feb 2, 1968 Aug 17, 1976 July 16, 1990 Nov. 15, 1994

8.3

SouthCot

100

7.5 7.3 7.9

Lanao Casiguran Moro Gulf

291 270 3,792

713 600 9,240

1,004 870 1,937 14,969

Houses Damaged Building Damaged Building Damaged

7.8

Central Luzon Oriental Mindoro

1,283

2,786

321

4,390

7.1

83

430

521

Buillding Damaged, Landslide, Liquefaction, Ground Rupture Building damage Tsunami, Liquefaction, Ground rupture

Liquefaction
transformation of buried sediments to a liquid-like paste by intense groundshaking, causing lateral ground spreading, subsidence and sandboils

Tilting/Settlement

Lateral Spreading

Ground Oscillation

Buoyant rise of buried structures

Tilting/Settlement

Characteristics of liquefaction prone areas

Localities prone to liquefaction are: a)water-saturated (shallow water table), lowlying b) Have loose (unconsolidated), sandy or silty deposits river banks, abandoned rivers, flood plains Coastlines swamps

Liquefaction Susceptibility Map (PHIVOLCS)

Areas Highly Vulnerable to Ground Shaking and Tsunami due to the presence of Cotabato Trench 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cotabato City Lebak, Sultan Kudarat Kalamansig, Sultan Kudarat Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat Kiamba, Sarangani Maitum, Sarangani Maasim, Sarangani

Tsunami
Giant sea waves due to large-scale displacement of the sea floor Overview of

TSUNAMI/STORM SURGE RATINGS MUN/CITIES Bagumbayan Columbio TOT BRGYS 19 16 HIGH MODERATE LOW

Esperanza
Isulan Kalamansig Lambayong Lebak Lutayan Palimbang Pres. Quirino Sen. Ninoy Aquino Tacurong City TOTAL

19
17 15 26 27 11 39 19 20 20 248 48 22 15 11

TSUNAMI/STORM SURGE RATINGS

MUN/CITIES
Alabel Glan Kiamba Maasim Malapatan Maitum Malungon TOTAL

TOT BRGYS
12 31 18 16 12 19 31 139

HIGH

MODERATE

LOW

10 11

27

CONCLUSION
Geologic hazards such as EARTHQUAKE, VOLCANIC ERUPTION, TSUNAMI, LANDSLIDE AND FLOODING are geological or natural processes in the formation of the earth. They become HAZARDS when lives, properties, infrastructures, growth of economies are at RISK.

The RISK is HIGH when the location & time of human activities, properties and growth of economies are incompatible with presence of HAZARDS.

CONCLUSIONS
Natural hazards such as flooding and landslide recur in a given place, condition and pattern with magnitude. It can be determined, calculated, mapped in terms of vulnerability and forecasted in terms of probability. The forces of natural hazards are strong and potentially fatal to lives of the people, damaging to properties, structures, and economy if located in a highly vulnerable areas. The impact of hazards is rapid and the chances of saving life of the people, the cost of properties, structures and economy is through effective preparation and quick response.

CONCLUSIONS
Barangays with o-3% and located near bank of major river channels are highly vulnerable to flooding Barangays with slope greater than 18% slope are highly vulnerable to landslide according to Bennet and Doyle (1997), control and limitation, abatement and adjustment are the three principal approaches in dealing with flood hazards The choice of management options for mass movement hazards includes: 1) do nothing and accept the loss; 2) remove the problem; 3) avoid the site; and 4) mitigation works and careful building design (Bennet & Doyle, 1997).