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Fuzzy Logic Control - A Quick Review


R. Rajesh, Member, IEEE
Abstract Fuzzy logic provides a foundation for a methodology of computing with words. And in turn, computing with words provide a framework for modeling the ability of the human mind to manipulate perceptions - perceptions of distance, weight, colour, time, taste and likelihood among others. This feature of fuzzy logic makes it a prominent component in the emerging discipline of Computational Intelligence. This paper presents a quick review on fuzzy logic control. Index Terms Fuzzy logic, fuzzy control, softcomputing.

UZZY logic is based on the theory of fuzzy sets [162], [163], [165], [167], [168], [169], [170] and, unlike classical logic, it aims at modeling the imprecise (or inexact) modes of reasoning and thought processes (with linguistic variables) that play an essential role in the remarkable human ability to make rational decisions in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision [88]. This ability depends, in turn, on our ability to infer an approximate answer to a question based on a store of knowledge that is inexact, incomplete, or not totally reliable. Because fuzzy sets are a generalization of classical set theory, the embedding of conventional models into a larger setting endows fuzzy models with greater exibility to capture various aspects of incompleteness or imperfection (i.e., deciencies) in whatever information and data are available about a real process. Fuzzy logic provides a foundation for a methodology of computing with words (CW) [166]. And in turn, computing with words provide a framework for modeling the ability of the human mind to manipulate perceptions - perceptions of distance, weight, colour, time, taste and likelihood among others [164]. This feature of fuzzy logic makes it a prominent component in the emerging discipline of Computational Intelligence. Fuzzy systems are gaining widespread acceptance in a large variety of elds, from engineering to commercial, from forecasting to articial intelligence, etc [21], [29], [88], [101], [109], [116], [160]. The reason for such an increasing interest resides in their intrinsic generality, exibility and good performance in many applications where other methods either end to fail, or become cumbersome. Among various elds, fuzzy rule-based models have emerged as useful tools for modeling and design of control systems [29], [32], [78]. This discipline is one of the most active and fruitful areas for research on intelligent control systems [143], [160], [161]. The essential part of a fuzzy logic controller is a set of linguistic control rules related by the dual concepts of fuzzy implication and compositional rule of inference. Fuzzy logic control provides an algorithm which can convert the linguistic strategy based on expert knowledge into an automatic control strategy [143].
Dr. R. Rajesh, Assistant Professor (on leave), Dept. of Computer Applications, Bharathiar University is currenlty with NeST, Thiruvananthapuram

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The application of fuzzy logic in control system was pioneered by Mamdani [93], who successfully carried out a pilot study on a model steam engine using fuzzy systems. His study showed that fuzzy systems may protably and easily be used by control engineers. A number of successful control applications have also been reported [88], [98], [92], [126], [160] which includes heat exchange process [105], steam engine control [94], [74], trafc junction control [95], cement kiln control [49], control strategy for an unmanned helicopter [129], control of robot system [102], [58], [131], etc. Although many applications have appeared in systems science, especially in modeling and control, there is no systematic procedure for fuzzy system design. Usually the linguistic rules are generated by converting the human operators experience into linguistic form directly or by summarizing the sampled inputoutput pairs of the systems to be dealt with. Unfortunately, it is difcult for systems designers to obtain optimal fuzzy rules because these are most likely to be inuenced by the intuitiveness of the operators and the systems designers. Moreover, some information will be lost when human operators express their experience by linguistic rules. This results in a set of less than optimal linguistic rules. One of the most successful approaches have been the hybridisation attempts made in the framework of soft computing, where genetic algorithm (GA) is used to provide learning capability for fuzzy systems called genetic fuzzy systems (GFS) [3], [25], [48], [110], [121]. GAs are derivative-free search algorithms, based on natural genetics, that provide robust search capabilities in complex spaces, and thereby offer a valid approach to problems requiring efcient and effective search processes [38], [125], [117]. The methodological background and terminology of genetic algorithms (as well as of all other evolutionary algorithms - EA) are rooted in the so called neo-Darwinian paradigm, whose elements were taken from Darwins evolutionary theory, genetics and population genetics. Genetic learning processes cover different levels of complexity according to structural changes produced by the algorithm [27], from the simplest case of parameter optimization to the highest level of complexity of learning the rule set of a rule based system. When considering rule based system and focusing on learning of rules, there are three main approaches that have been applied in the literature. The rst one is Pittsburgh [124] approach which is characterized by representing an entire rule set as a genetic code (chromosome), maintaining a population of candidate rule sets and using selection and genetic operators to produce new generations of rule sets. The second approach is Michigan [50] approach which considers a different model where the members of the population are individual rules and a rule set is represented by the entire population. The third approach is iterative rule learning [144] method where chromosomes code individual rules, and a new rule is adapted and added to the rule set, in an iterative fashion, in every run of the GA. The design of a fuzzy controller is computationally expensive and involves the determination of large number of rules in different regions of the input domain

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and the parameters including the size, shape and position of membership functions in the antecedent and consequent parts. Genetic algorithmic design studies on Mamdani type fuzzy controllers fall into one of the following categories: learning fuzzy membership functions with xed fuzzy rules (fully dened if-then rules) [69], [70], [71], learning rule consequents only [23], [111], [138], learning fuzzy rules with xed fuzzy membership functions [174], learning fuzzy rules and membership functions in stages (evolving good fuzzy rule conclusions using xed membership functions and premises + ne tuning membership functions under xed good fuzzy rule sets) [75], [142], and learning fuzzy rules and membership functions simultaneously with xed number of rules [15], [33], [51], [56], [86], [89], [114], [136], [154]. Design studies of Mamdani controllers aimed at achieving rule optimization based on the simultaneous learning of rules and membership functions later appeared in the literature. The genetic algorithmic design of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy controllers fall into one of the following categories: identifying consequent parts only, identifying antecedent part and consequent part in stages [46], design of consequent part with stability [81]. Rule optimization, determination of antecedent parts, and simultaneous consideration of design and stability analysis of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy controllers are later reported. Another important concept concerning the properties of fuzzy control system is the stability of the fuzzy system. Stability analysis of fuzzy control systems is difcult because fuzzy systems are essentially nonlinear systems. In recent years, many signicant research works have been carried out to study the stability problems [55], [63], [156]. Even though stability analysis of Mamdani systems are difcult, some fruitful stability analysis of Mamdani systems are carried out very recently. These include the direct method of Lyapunov for the stability of fuzzy linguistic control systems [83], stability analysis of fuzzy dynamic systems through cell-state transitions in fuzzy hypercubes [67], stability theorem with theory for single input single output (SISO) systems [40], stability theory for many input-many-output (MIMO) Mamdani type systems [41], passivity approach to the stability analysis of Mamdani systems [13], stability of fuzzy systems expressed by fuzzy rules with singleton consequents [127], numerical stability analysis of fuzzy control systems via quadratic programming and linear matrix inequalities [72], piecewise quadratic stability of fuzzy systems [64] and stability conditions for continuous Mamdani-type fuzzy systems [128]. One of the remarkable efforts in this eld are the theorems presented by Tanaka and Sugeno [133] on the TakagiSugeno fuzzy systems, which gives sufcient condition for the asymptotic stability of a fuzzy system. This condition is determined in the sense of Lyapunov through the existence of a common Lyapunov function for all the subsystems. Further developments are the robust stability conditions of systems with premise-parameter uncertainty developed in [73], [134], [132]. Stability analysis and design problems of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models are considered in [20], [76], [133], [137], [145]. Parallel distributed compensation [133], [145] is used to design fuzzy control rules where the designed fuzzy controller shares the same fuzzy sets with the fuzzy model in the premise parts. It has been shown in [133] that if one can nd a common positive denite matrix P such that the Lyapunov inequalities based stability conditions are satised then the fuzzy control system would be stable. The

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problem of nding such a common positive denite matrix P can be numerically solved via convex optimization techniques for linear matrix inequalities (LMI) [9], [65]. Applying the PDC method, the LMI-based fuzzy controller design has been developed for continuous [135], [151] and discrete [135], [145] fuzzy systems, respectively. Recently type-II fuzzy logic system have also gained wide acceptance in the fuzzy logic control community.

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