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WBMP Compression
R. Rajeswari, R. Rajesh
Abstract Wireless Application Protocol Bitmap (WBMP) images are widely used in Wireless Application Protocol devices. This paper presents an overview of various lossless compression algorithms and discusses the compression of WBMP images using these algorithms. Index Terms Image Compression, WBMP

I. I NTROUCTION
The goal of digital image compression techniques is to reduce the space necessary to encode, store or transmit digital images by changing the way those images are represented. The image compression techniques are widely used in teleconferencing [1], medical imaging [2], image archiving [3], remote sensing [4], preservation of historical documents [5], etc. Image compression techniques can be lossless or lossy. Lossless compression techniques like run-length coding [6], Huffman coding [7], arithmetic coding [8], Limpel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) coding [9] etc. are widely used in compressing medical and satellite images as they retain all information from the original image. Lossy compression techniques like Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) [10], Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) [11], Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) [12] transform the image data to a different domain and quantize the coefcients. These techniques give higher compression ratios. They are used in compressing natural images where loss of image data is not signicant. The above said compression algorithms are widely used in many applications having medium and large size images. But considering the current scenario of having small digital equipments there is a high necessity of compressing, transmitting and displaying images in small sized windows. Wireless Application Protocol Bitmap (WBMP) image le format is the one which is used most popularly for wireless applications which contains only graphical information which is used by a variety of handsets especially mobile phones [13]. This paper deals with the compression of WBMP images using lossless compression algorithms. This paper is organized as follows. Section II gives a brief overview of various lossless compression techniques. Section III discusses the compression of WBMP images using these techniques. Section IV deals with conclusion.

II. COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW


A two-state Markov model specied in [6] is the basis for run-length coding. In run-length coding the length of 0s and 1s are coded instead of coding the
Dr. R. Rajesh and R. Rajeswari are with School of Computer Science and Engineering, Bharathiar University

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color of each pixel. The color of a run can be determined either by specifying the color of the rst run or by assuming that the image starts with a white or black run [14]. In Huffman coding [7], we order the probabilities of symbols and combine the lowest probability symbols into a single symbol. This process is repeated until we are left with two symbols. Then codes are assigned to symbols starting with 0 and 1 for the last two symbols. For the symbols which were combined to generate one symbol, one is identied by appending 0 and the other by appending 1. This is repeated until we have assigned codes to all the symbols. In LZW coding [9], a dictionary is initialized with all the symbols of the source alphabet. The encoder reads the input into a pattern p as long as the pattern is in the dictionary. If reading a letter a gives a pattern p*a which is not in the dictionary, the index of p is sent and the patter p*a is added to the dictionary. Next pattern is started with the letter a. The modied Huffman (MH) coding is a compression technique specied in the Recommendation T.4 [15]. Separate tables containing code words for black and white runs are used. The run-length r is expressed as 64 * m + t, where m ranges from 1 to 27 and t ranges from 0 to 63. m is called the make-up code and t is called the terminating code. Terminating code is used if the run-length is less than 63. Both terminating code and make-up code are used for runs from 64 to 1728. The rst run of every line is considered to be white. If rst pixel is black white run of length 0 is assumed [15, 17, 18, 20]. The modied READ (MR) coding scheme, is a two-dimensional scheme for coding binary images [15]. In this technique instead of coding the run-lengths, the location of changing pixel on the coding line is coded. The position of the changing pixel is considered either with respect to previous line or with respect to the preceding changing pixel on the same line [15, 17, 18, 19]. In the two-dimensional scheme encoding a line is done based on the previous line, so error in one line can be propagated to all other lines. To restrict this propagation of errors, T.4 recommends that after coding each line based on onedimensional coding remaining K-1 lines from a block of K lines must be coded based on the previous line. This requirement reduces compression. To maximize compression this requirement was removed in the recommendation T.6 [16]. The modied version of MR is the modied modied READ (MMR) coding scheme which does not have the one-dimensional coding scheme [16, 17, 18, 20].

III. ON THE COMPRESSION OF WBMP IMAGES


This section deals with the compression of WBMP images using lossless compression algorithms like RLE, Huffman coding, LZW coding, MH coding, MR coding and MMR coding. In this study we have used 12 WBMP images. Table I shows the size in bytes for the above said images based on various compression algorithms. Table II shows the corresponding compression ratios. The plot of compression ratios of various compression algorithms for the WBMP images are shown in Figure 1. This clearly indicates that MMR coding and MR coding techniques perform much better than RLE, Huffman, LZW and MH coding techniques.

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TABLE I COMPRESSED SIZES OF THE IMAGES FOR RLE, HUFFMAN, LZW, MH, MR AND MMR CODING SCHEMES Original 406 361 361 316 225 496 271 126 93 139 271 181 RLE 272 288 182 310 202 272 234 58 78 240 280 326 Huffman 440 378 400 322 226 536 276 126 104 168 288 204 TABLE II COMPRESSION RATIOS FOR RLE, HUFFMAN, LZW, MH, MR AND MMR CODING SCHEMES RLE 1.49 1.25 1.98 1.02 1.11 1.82 1.16 2.17 1.19 0.58 0.97 0.56 Huffman 0.92 0.96 0.90 0.98 0.99 0.93 0.98 1.00 0.89 0.82 0.94 0.88 LZW 1.60 1.61 1.64 1.36 1.48 1.82 1.30 1.52 1.24 0.82 1.17 0.90 MH 1.23 1.03 1.58 0.92 0.98 1.54 0.96 1.27 0.91 0.46 0.82 0.51 MR 1.86 2.14 2.96 1.38 1.50 2.12 1.46 2.10 1.26 0.87 1.18 0.69 MMR 2.22 3.17 3.80 1.65 1.91 2.41 1.79 2.68 1.41 1.19 1.36 0.77 LZW 254 224 220 232 152 273 209 83 75 169 232 202 MH 329 349 229 344 230 322 282 99 102 299 331 356 MR 218 169 122 230 150 234 186 60 74 160 230 261 MMR 183 114 95 192 118 206 151 47 66 117 199 234

medcom1 elm26 cartpop38 cartwild58 cartwild6 cartobj42 birds8 eyes nger grump cartobj3 birds25

medcom1 elm26 cartpop38 cartwild58 cartwild6 cartobj42 birds8 eyes nger grump cartobj3 birds25

IV. CONCLUSION
This paper has discussed about various lossless compression techniques like RLE, Huffman coding, LZW coding, MH coding, MR coding and MMR coding. These compression algorithms have been applied to WBMP images and the results show that MMR and MR coding performs much better than RLE, Huffman, LZW and MH coding techniques.

R EFERENCES
[1] Arya V., Mittal A., Joshi R. C., An Efcient Coding Method for Teleconferencing and Medical Image Sequences, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Intelligent Sensing and Information 2005, pp. 8-13, 14-17 December 2005. [2] Wen-Jyi Hwang, Ching-Fung Chine, Kuo-Jung Li, Scalable Medical Data Compression and Transmission using Wavelet Transform for Telemedicine Applications, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 54-63, March 2003. [3] Benedettli A., Scarabottolo N., Towards a Dedicated Compression Pipeline for Document Image Archicing, Proceedings of Workshop on Document Image Analysis 1997, pp. 40-43, 20th January 1997. [4] Yi Sun, Yi-Jin Yang, Phing Zhou, Wavelet-Based Compression of Terrains, Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2003, Vol. 3, pp. 2030-2032, 21-25 July 2003.

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Fig. 1.

Compression Ratio

[5] Mello C. A B., Synthesis of Images of Historical Documents for Web Visualization, Proceedings of 10th International Multimedia Mdelling Conference 2004, pp. 220-226, January 2004. [6] Capon J., A Probabilistic Model for Run-Length Coding of Pictures, IRE Transactions on Information Theory, pp. 157-163, 1959. [7] Huffman D. A., A Method for the Construction of Minimum Redundancy Codes, Proceedings of IRE, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1098-1101, 1952. [8] Abramson N., Information Theory and Coding, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963. [9] Welch T. A., A Technique for High-Performance Data Compression, IEEE Computer, pp. 8-19, 1984. [10] Freeman A. (translator), Fourier J., The Analytical Theory of Heat, Cambridge University Press, 1878. [11] Jayant N. S. and Noll P., Digital Coding of Waveforms, Prentice Hall, 1984. [12] Antionini M., Barlaud M., Mathieu P. and Daubechies I., Image Coding using Wavelet Transform, IEEE Trans. on Image Proc., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 205-220, April 1992. [13] WAP Forum Ltd., WAP WAE Specication - Version 1.1, May 1999. [14] Gonzalez C., Woods E., Digital Image Processing, Second Edition, Pearson Education Inc., 2002. [15] International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT), Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission, Recommendation T.4, 1980. [16] International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT),, Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus, Recommendation T.6, 1984. [17] Hunter R. and Robinson A. H., International Digital Facsimile Coding Standards, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 68, No. 7, pp. 854-867, July 1980. [18] Ronald B. Arps and Thomas K. Truong, Comparison of International Standards for Lossless Still Image Compression, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 82, No. 6, pp. 889-899, June 1994. [19] Yasuda Y., Overview of Digital Facsimile Coding Techniques in Japan, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 68, pp. 830-845, July 1980. [20] Khalid Sayood, Introduction to Data Compression, Second Edition, Elsevier, 2000.