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Wisdom Based Computing, Volume 1, Issue 2, August 2011

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R.Ravinder Reddy#1, E.Padmalatha#2, Dr.Y.RamaDevi#3

Computer science Department Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology Gandipet, Hyderabad, A.P, India

#1 #2

#3

multiple points simultaneously. Congestion is one of the most important problems impeding the extensive application of multicast. This paper tackles the congestion control mechanism is only deployed on end systems (source and destinations). Consequently, the only network nodes that can be directly controlled are sources and receivers. We have to derive the needed information approximately from the received packet pattern. This paper assumes the following situation with different restrictions and provides a suitable solution. There is support from receiver side, but only one multicast group is allowed for a multicast session The proposed solution is a Single-rate, End-to-end Multicast Congestion Control scheme called Explicit Rate Multicast Congestion Control (ERMCC). This scheme is based on a new metric, TRAC (Throughput Rate At Congestion). ERMCC can be implemented only at the source and the receivers of the multicast tree. Keywords: Multicasting, congestion, rate adaption

and receivers involved, we wanted to addresses the following challenges. These challenges do not exist for unicast congestion control or are different from those in unicast context. They are used as the scales to check the performance of the proposed solution. 1. 2. 3. Scalability Inter-session Fairness Inter-receiver-Fairness

1. INTRODUCTION IP multicast is efficient for transmitting bulk data to multiple receivers. There are two categories of multicast congestion control. One of them is single-rate, in which the source controls the data transmission rate and all receivers receive data at the same rate. The other is multi-rate (layered multicast congestion control), in which receivers join just enough layers in the form of multicast groups to retrieve data as fast as they can. The single-rate categories easy to implement and deploy, because it does not require support from intermediate nodes beyond standard multicast capabilities, also does not introduce high processing load to them. However, single-rate mechanisms underutilize the network and slow receivers can significantly reduce the quality perceived by faster receivers in the multicast group. The baseline ERMCC scheme we present in this paper can be used for real-time loss-tolerant applications such as multimedia streaming. This paper aims at studying the end-to-end multicast congestion management problem. By only assuming the packet forwarding function on routers according to the IP multicast specification RFC1112 [2], with only source

Therefore, from the aspect of the proposed algorithm, the network is a black box between the source and the receivers (Fig. 1.1).The only assumption it makes about the traffic on the network is that, the traffic is adaptive and generated by such transport layer protocols that control the sending rate according to Additive Increase and Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) policy [3]. These protocols are either different flavors of TCP or TCPfriendly. It also assumes no multicast packets traverse the same link twice, and the route that a multicast packet takes is quasi-static (i.e. it remains unchanged for at least hundreds of round-trip times).

A key approach for developing the single-rate multicast congestion management solutions is most congested path approach, with which dynamic mapping of the multicast tree in question to the unicast path between the sender and the most congested receiver, i.e.

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (2), August 2011 the path with the smallest available bottleneck bandwidth, will be done. 2 . CONGESTION CONTROL SCHEMES Since the proposal of IP multiast in, researchers have proposed various solutions for multicast congestion control. They are PGMCC,DeLucia et Schema Using Representatives and MDPCC and many more. Here we are considering the TFMCC which provides best results compare to the others. Since ERMCC is also single-rate, this section compares it with some of the well known schemes in this class.Obviously ,TCP is th most popular and dominant end-to-end unicast congestion control protocol on the internet Still, TFMCC requires receivers to measure RTT, which has some negative effects: (a) The sender needs to send echoes to receivers individually. Let alone the relative complexity (e.g. the echo procedure), the processing overhead of the sender increases constantly with the group size. (b) Although with the one-way delay adjustment mechanism, in a dynamic network environment, receivers may need to send feedback to the source for the sake of RTT measurements relatively frequently. In consequence, traffic going toward the source may grow as the number of receivers increases. 3. EXPLICIT-RATE MULTICAST CONGESTION CONTROL (ERMCC) In ERMCC, receivers send their average TRACs back to the sender whenever necessary, and the sender dynamically chooses a Congestion Representative (CR) out of them and uses only its TRAC to adjust the sending rate. The key idea of ERMCC is to base the scheme on a new metric, TRAC (Throughput Rate At Congestion), which is the throughput rate measured by receivers when congestion is detected. ERMCC is practical because, (i) at the source and receivers, O(1) state is maintained, and only simple computations are required; (ii) there is no need to measure RTTs from all receivers to the source, and (iii) we do not make any assumption on network topology and intermediate nodes beyond standard multicast capabilities. It is also effective because (1) it successfully addresses the well-known problems of slowest receiver tracking, TCP-friendliness, and drop-tozero; and (2) the feedback suppression mechanism works very effectively by suppressing over 95% feedback under normal situations. The general concept of our scheme is as follows: The source dynamically selects one of the slowest receivers as Congestion Representative (CR), and only considers its feedback for rate adaptation. The slowest receivers are those with the lowest average TRACs. Each receiver keeps measuring its TRAC when it detects congestion and updates its average TRAC by means of a smoothing technique such as Exponentially Weighted Moving

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Average (EWMA). Receivers detect congestion, when they observe a loss in the data packets. The source considers these average TRACs of the slowest receivers in its decision to select the CR. When there is no CR, all receivers may send feedbacks to the source. An example operation can illustrate how our scheme works more clearly. In Fig. 3.1(a), let us assume that at time t0 the source has chosen a receiver behind the most congested path as CR by comparing average TRACs of receivers. Only the CR will send feedback while other receivers suppress their feedback. These feedbacks are indeed congestion indications (CIs), because they are sent only when congestion is detected dueto packet loss. As shown in Fig. 3.1, the feedback from the current CR is the average TRAC ^(t0) = (^(t0),), where ^(t0) is the TRAC of the current CR at time t0 and ( ) is an EWMA averaging function with being the exponential averaging factor, which will later be defined in detail. In addition, the TRAC, ^(t0), for the current CR is calculated by averaging instantaneous output rate w^(

Assume that, after some time another path becomes the new most congested path. After a while at time t1, those receivers 1. . .k behind that path will see average TRACs lower than that of the current CR (i.e., for all i = 1..k; i(t1) < ^(t0) ^(t0)), and will send feedbacks as shown in Fig. 3.1(b). As a result, one of them will be chosen as the new CR. After that, again,

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (2), August 2011 other receivers will suppress their feedback as shown in Fig. 3.1(c). 3.1RECEIVER OPERATIONS A receiver in ERMCC performs two major functions: (i) calculation and maintenance of TRAC and average TRAC, and (ii) proper generation and suppression of feedbacks to the source. The former function is crucial since TRAC is used to help the source in rate adaptation as well as in deciding which receiver will be the CR. The latter function is also important in that it determines scalability of ERMCC in terms of two well-known single-rate multicast problems: feedback-implosion, and slowest receiver tracking. 3.1.1 Throughput rate at congestion (TRAC): (t), (t), (t) Thus, measurement of average TRAC (t) includes two levels of averaging. The first averaging is done to measure the TRAC, which can be expressed as averaging of instantaneous output rate (t). So, TRAC at receiver i at time t is calculated as

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The second level of averaging is done by a moving average function ( ) (i.e., EWMA) with an exponential weighting factor of . The value of determines importance of the previous TRAC values in the resulting average. So, given that the previous packet loss happened at time t0, average TRAC at receiver i at time t1 is calculated by a recursive relationship i(t1) = ( i(t0), i(t1), ) i(t1) = (1- ) i(t0) + i(t1) (Eq. 3.1) 3.1.2 Feedback handler In ERMCC, as shown in Fig. 3.2(a), feedbacks are generated only when a packet loss is detected. Consider a data packet A at the arrival of which, receiver i detects that some data packets have been lost. The feedback generated by this receiver will contain: (i) the sequence number of the lastly received data packet A, (ii) the TRAC, i(t), measured at the arrival of A, and (iii) the average TRAC, i(t). So, the feedback will be a tuple of three items. When the feedback arrives at the source, the first item will be used for making RTT estimation for CR, the second item will be used for adjusting the transmission rate, and the last item will be used in the decision-making process of CR selection. 3.1.3 Feedback suppression Effective feedback suppression can reduce the risk of feedback implosion, and allow a multicast congestion control scheme to be used for large groups. ERMCC receivers achieve very effective suppression of feedbacks by applying smoothing techniques like

In ERMCC, the source conveys the average TRAC ^(t) and the deviation ^(t) of the CRs TRAC to receivers whenever the CR is updated or ^(t) and ^(t) are changed. The source conveys these statistics about the current CR by attaching them to the data packets. A non-CR receiver will send feedbacks, only if its own average TRAC is less than the current average TRAC of the CR by an amount at least the standard deviation of the CRs TRAC. That is, for receiver i the necessary condition for sending a feedback is i(t) < ^(t) ^(t). Note that we do not use a weaker condition of i(t) ^(t) to be conservative and keep the choice of CR stable. 3.2 SOURCE OPERATIONS In a single-rate multicast congestion control protocol, the source is responsible for several major functions. These include: (i) proper and scalable selection of the CR that represents the slowest receiver(s) in the multicast session, (ii) proper adaptation of the transmission rate so that available bandwidth utilized as much as possible while assuring that the slowest receiver(s) is not overloaded, and (iii) estimation and maintenance of necessary statistics such as RTT. In order to perform the first function, ERMCC employs a set of CR Selection criteria as well as a CR Mode Control module that operates at every RTT. Similarly, to perform the second function, ERMCC has a Rate Increase module that operates at every RTT and a Rate Decrease module that operates at every congestion indication from the receivers. 3.2.1 CR selection: tracking of the slowest receiver ERMCC compares average TRAC of all receivers to locate the slowest ones, and chooses one of them as the Congestion Representative (CR). By using a metric like TRAC (which is based on explicit output rate), it avoids computing TCP throughput formula [4, 5] which requires per receiver RTT and packet loss rate.

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4^(t), we assume that bottleneck becomes fully loaded and start to count. Let the current time be t0. At a later time t1, suppose the first feedback from the CR arrives at the source. Then, t1 - t0 is a sample of T and we update the average and deviation of T again with EWMA just like we did for the TRAC. Tmax is the average value of T plus eight times its deviation, i.e., Tmax = E[T] + 8T .

3.2.3 Rate adaptation Since TRACs are measured at receivers upon packet losses, they indicate how much bandwidth a flow can get out of the fully loaded bottleneck, assuming congestion is the only reason for packet losses. The less it can get, the more congested the bottleneck is. Therefore, we choose one receiver with the lowest average TRAC as the CR, and let the source only consider the feedbacks from that receiver for rate adaptation. ERMCC is a rate-based scheme, using the policy of additive increase and multiplicative decrease (AIMD). Thus, adaptation of the source rate (t) is done according to the following AIMD-like method: no feedback, (t1)= (t0) + s/RTT, min ((t0), ^(t0)), feedback with ^(t), Where the feedback ^(t) arrives at source between t0 and t1, i.e., t0 < t t1. The rate reduction factor is an important parameter of ERMCC. The larger the , the more aggressive is ERMCC. According to theoretical analysis, to keep ERMCC TCP-friendly, must be at least 0.5. Moreover, the exact value of depends on how ERMCC is implemented. According to the simulation and experiment results, we suggest = 0.65. 3.3 KEY FEATURES OF ERMCC As we can see from the details above, ERMCC has the following features: O(1) Memory complexity: The amount of memory needed to maintain the state information at source and receivers is O(1). That is, the number of states is constant and independent of the number of receivers in a multicast session.

ERMCC receivers help the source to select a receiver with the lowest average TRAC by sending in feedbacks only if their average TRACs is low enough to qualify them as CR. It is imperative that the receivers do not send more than necessary or less than enough feedbacks, which necessitates proper and effective suppression of feedbacks. Details of how receivers suppress the feedbacks were already covered in the above. Thus, to make selection of the slowest receiver as the CR, two types of comparisons take place in the system: Comparison at receivers: Each receiver checks whether it thinks itself as a potential CR. If so, it sends feedback to compete for being the CR. Comparison at the source: The source compares the feedbacks from those receivers who think they are qualified, and makes the final decision of which should be the CR. 3.2.2 CR mode control To determine whether or not the selected CR is active, the source uses two measures: (i) an estimate of the time when the bottleneck becomes fully loaded, and (ii) Tmax, an estimate of the time it would maximally take the current CR to respond during congestion. To see this mode control process on a timeline, let us look at Fig. 3.5. When the CR is still active, we measure samples of T at the source, using feedback packets only from CR. When the transmission rate reaches ^(t) +

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (2), August 2011 Practical operations: Operations of source and receivers are all simple, without requiring intense computation. In particular, there is no need to do per-receiver RTT estimation. Effective feedback suppression: With our non probabilistic-timer-based feedback suppression mechanism in place, the amount of feedbacks is independent of the total number of receivers.

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4. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTATION RESULTS To show the effectiveness of the multicast congestion management solution proposed in this thesis, it is needed to evaluate its performance. As it assumes the network to be a black box, the analytical study of the performance of multicast congestion control schemes is intractable. Consequently, simulations and experiments are used as the major methodology for performance evaluation. However, it does provide some theoretical analysis for several aspects of the scheme ERMCC, after making some simplifying assumptions. The scales against which the performance evaluation of this scheme is to be made are those challenges (e.g. feedback traffic, drop-to-zero, TCP-friendliness etc.) listed at the beginning of the thesis. We have run simulations on ns-2 to validate the performance of ERMCC. The ns-2 simulations checked the following aspects: 1. TCP-Friendliness 2. Drop-to-zero avoidance 3. Feedback suppression We got the ns-2 simulation results for TFMCC [1] from [6] and compared the performance of our scheme with theirs. For ERMCC, we used ns2.1b7a. In all simulations, the data packet size is 1000 bytes, the bottleneck buffer size is 50K bytes, the initial RTT is 100 ms. 4.1 TCP-FRIENDLINESS AND DROP-TO-ZERO AVOIDANCE TEST We used a star topology (Fig. 4.1) to generate asynchronous and independent congestion on different paths. There are 129 end nodes in the topology. Between each pair of source i and receiver i (i = 1. . . 64), there are one TCP Reno flow and one single-receiver ERMCC flow. Furthermore, there is a multi-receiver ERMCC flow from source 65 to all 64 receivers. Therefore, on a path between the router and any receiver, the multireceiver ERMCC flow competes with a TCP flow and a single-receiver ERMCC flow. We simulated the above topology by writing tcl script files 4.2 FEEDBACK SUPPRESSION TEST To check the effectiveness of the feedback suppression mechanism in ERMCC, we refer back to the simulation of TCP-friendliness and drop-to-zero avoidance. From the result of the above simulation, we counted the total number of feedbacks sent by all receivers, that is 981 and the total number of suppressed feedbacks is 31309. The average number of feedbacks

would have been sent by a receiver without suppression, is (31309 + 981)/ 64 504. According to theory, realistic measurement error can lead to a little bit more feedbacks. Since 981 < 2504, we can still say that the overall feedback volume with suppression is approximately equal to that from a single receiver if without suppression. The high ratio of feedbacks suppressed, 31309/(31309 + 981)100% = 96.9%, shows that our feedback suppression is very effective. Results of the above tests:

Fig. 4.2. Output of the TCP-friendliness and Drop-To-Zero avoidance test for 64 receiver star topology with TCP background traffic. Simulation time : 1000 sec Total Number of nodes: 129 Scale: X- axis: 1 unit = 100 sec, Y- axis: 1 unit = 5 Kbps

Feedback suppression test results for 64 receiver star topology with TCP background traffic:

Receiver at 66.3 statistics: CI sent = 9 , CI suppressed = 508 Receiver at 67.3 statistics: CI sent = 11 , CI suppressed = 506 Receiver at 68.3 statistics: CI sent = 19 , CI suppressed = 490 Receiver at 69.3 statistics: CI sent = 4 , CI suppressed = 476 Receiver at 70.3 statistics: CI sent = 75 , CI suppressed = 470 Receiver at 71.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 470 Receiver at 72.3 statistics: CI sent = 12 , CI suppressed = 483 Receiver at 73.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 466 Receiver at 74.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 530 Receiver at 75.3 statistics: CI sent = 9 , CI suppressed = 503 Receiver at 76.3 statistics: CI sent = 4 , CI suppressed = 525 Receiver at 77.3 statistics: CI sent = 4 , CI suppressed = 527

Receiver at 78.3 statistics: CI sent = 11 , CI suppressed = 470 Receiver at 79.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 441 Receiver at 80.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 501 Receiver at 81.3 statistics: CI sent = 40 , CI suppressed = 465 Receiver at 82.3 statistics: CI sent = 10 , CI suppressed = 509 Receiver at 83.3 statistics: CI sent = 37 , CI suppressed = 463 Receiver at 84.3 statistics: CI sent = 78 , CI suppressed = 458 Receiver at 85.3 statistics: CI sent = 6 , CI suppressed = 523 Receiver at 86.3 statistics: CI sent = 6 , CI suppressed = 481 Receiver at 87.3 statistics: CI sent = 9 , CI suppressed = 495 Receiver at 88.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 492 Receiver at 89.3 statistics: CI sent = 49 , CI suppressed = 456 Receiver at 90.3 statistics: CI sent = 70 , CI suppressed = 437 Receiver at 91.3 statistics: CI sent = 4 , CI suppressed = 544 Receiver at 92.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 510 Receiver at 93.3 statistics: CI sent = 14 , CI suppressed = 458 Receiver at 94.3 statistics: CI sent = 92 , CI suppressed = 394 Receiver at 95.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 518 Receiver at 96.3 statistics: CI sent = 12 , CI suppressed = 446 Receiver at 97.3 statistics: CI sent = 44 , CI suppressed = 465 Receiver at 98.3 statistics: CI sent = 4 , CI suppressed = 479 Receiver at 99.3 statistics: CI sent = 15 , CI suppressed = 538 Receiver at 100.3 statistics: CI sent = 18 , CI suppressed = 501 Receiver at 101.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 502 Receiver at 102.3 statistics: CI sent = 10 , CI suppressed = 508 Receiver at 103.3 statistics: CI sent = 3 , CI suppressed = 467 Receiver at 104.3 statistics: CI sent = 9 , CI suppressed = 500 Receiver at 105.3 statistics: CI sent = 14 , CI suppressed = 568 Receiver at 106.3 statistics: CI sent = 6 , CI suppressed = 522 Receiver at 107.3 statistics: CI sent = 31 , CI suppressed = 447 Receiver at 108.3 statistics: CI sent = 4 , CI suppressed = 491 Receiver at 109.3 statistics: CI sent = 11 , CI suppressed = 487 Receiver at 110.3 statistics: CI sent = 15 , CI suppressed = 480 Receiver at 111.3 statistics: CI sent = 7 , CI suppressed = 472 Receiver at 112.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 462 Receiver at 113.3 statistics: CI sent = 12 , CI suppressed = 521 Receiver at 114.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 468 Receiver at 115.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 499 Receiver at 116.3 statistics: CI sent = 18 , CI suppressed = 449 Receiver at 117.3 statistics: CI sent = 6 , CI suppressed = 495 Receiver at 118.3 statistics: CI sent = 11 , CI suppressed = 517 Receiver at 119.3 statistics: CI sent = 47 , CI suppressed = 478 Receiver at 120.3 statistics: CI sent = 39 , CI suppressed = 461 Receiver at 121.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 491 Receiver at 122.3 statistics: CI sent = 9 , CI suppressed = 486 Receiver at 123.3 statistics: CI sent = 33 , CI suppressed = 512 Receiver at 124.3 statistics: CI sent = 5 , CI suppressed = 474 Receiver at 125.3 statistics: CI sent = 3 , CI suppressed = 498 Receiver at 126.3 statistics: CI sent = 8 , CI suppressed = 516 Receiver at 127.3 statistics: CI sent = 7 , CI suppressed = 499 Receiver at 128.3 statistics: CI sent = 11 , CI suppressed = 500 Receiver at 129.3 statistics: CI sent = 10 , CI suppressed = 541

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In a typical PGMCC simulation with the same configuration, the total number of feedback packets received by the source is 74830 (NAK 55222, ACK 19608); for TFMCC, it is 5344 [6]; and for ERMCC, it is 981 (details given in test results above). Their feedback volume is much larger than ERMCC. In that way we conclude that feedback suppression is very effective in ERMCC than PGMCC and TFMCC.

6. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, we have proposed a single-rate multicast congestion control scheme, which uses a conventional concept of representative named Congestion Representative (CR). However, by leveraging a new metric TRAC, the ERMCC scheme is capable of effectively addressing the problems of TCPfriendliness, drop-to-zero, slowest receiver tracking and feedback suppression. The states maintained by source and receivers are O(1); operations of source and receivers are all simple without requiring intense computation. In particular there is no need to measure RTTs between all receivers and the source. ERMCC also shows that non-probabilistic-timer-based feedback suppression is highly effective. REFERENCES

1. Jorg Widmer, Mark Handley, Extending Equation-based Congestion Control to Multicast Applications, SIGCOMM 2001, Aug. 2001. 2. S. Deering, Host Extensions for IP Multicasting, RFC 1112, August 1989. 3. D. Chiu and R. Jain, Analysis of the Increase/Decrease Algorithms for Congestion .Avoidance in Computer Networks, Journal of Computer Networks and ISDN, Vol.17, No. 1, June 1989, pp. 1-14. 4. Jitendra Padhye, Victor Firoiu, Don Towsley, Jim Kurose, Modeling TCP Throughput: A Simple Model and its Empirical Validation, SIGCOMM, Aug. 1998. 5. Matthew Mathis, Jeffrey Semke, Jamshid Madhavi, and Teunis Ott, The Macroscopic Behavior of the TCP Congestion Avoidance Algorithm, Computer Communications Review, vol:27, no:3, Jul 1997. 6. Jiang Li, Murat Yuksel and Shivkumar Kalyanaraman, "Explicit Rate Multicast Congestion Control", Computer Networks, Elsevier Science, Volume 50, Issue 15, pages 2614-2640, October 2006.

= 31309

5. COMPARISON WITH TFMCC In this section, we compare the above results with the PGMCC and TFMCC results [6]. These results are also drawn with the same simulation configuration. Results in Fig. 5.1 show that the average rates of TFMCC multicast flows deviate more from the corresponding unicast flows than what ERMCC does. In that way, it is concluded that ERMCC is more TCP-friendly and avoids drop-to-zero better than PGMCC and TFMCC.

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