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Wisdom Based Computing, Volume 1, Issue 2, August 2011

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38

P.Gani Raju

Associate Professor, EEE OPJIT, Jindal Knowledge Park gani_raju@rediffmail.com, gani.raju@opjit.edu.in

Abstract Power Quality (PQ) has become an important topic of discussion and research, especially in a deregulated environment. As per IEEE 519 std. these parameters of power quality measurement, are four in number, of which Total Harmonic Distortion is most widely used. Semiconductor switching devices which are generally used in converter circuits produce significant harmonic voltages as they chop voltage waveforms during the transition between the conducting and cutoff stages. The diode bridge rectifiers/converters are considered as a major contributor to the power system harmonics and the consequences are varying from components overheating to communication interference. Our work links the field of electrical power conversion and electrical drives (DC), where these power converters find applications. Electric drives play an important role in industry as well as our day-to-day life. They are use the electrical power input and provide mechanical work as output. They are also an indispensable part of our daily lives. The applications of DC drives make it undesirable when used in deregulated environment. Hence power quality issues matter a lot in these cases. We extend our work to higher pulse converters (upto 48 Pulse) and determine the power quality parameters in each case. Various reduction methods like LC Passive Filters, Shunt Active Filter, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation are applied in each case and a clear comparison before and after application of techniques will be brought out. Keywords- Power Quality, Total Harmonic Distortion, Fast Fourier Transformation Theory (FFT), modeling

Veda Kumar.N

Electrical & Electronics Engineering Graduate K.L.College of Engineering, Vijayawada, India. vedeverywhere@gmail.com Analysis of the system response is important because the system impedance vs. frequency characteristics determine the voltage distortion that will result from the dc drive harmonic currents. A simplified version of the situation is shown in Figure

Figure 2: Non Linear Load If the system is infinitely strong (no impedance), there will never be any voltage distortion. It is the harmonic currents generated by the dc drives passing through the system impedance that causes voltage distortion. Filters are the means used to control the system response. II. MODELING OF A SEPARATELY EXCITED DC

MOTOR

To perform the simulation of a system, an appropriate model needs to be established. Therefore, a model based on the motor specifications needs to be obtained.

I.

HARMONIC ANALSYSIS

For the purposes of harmonic analysis, the dc drive loads can be represented as sources of harmonic currents. The system looks stiff to these loads and the current waveform is relatively independent of the voltage distortion at the drive location. This assumption of a harmonic current source permits the system response characteristics to be evaluated separately from the dc drive characteristics. The representation of the drives as harmonic current sources is shown.

Figure 3: Equivalent Diagram for Separately Exited DC Motor Assuming magnetic linearity, the basic motor equations are T = K f I f Ia = KmIa (1)

E a = K f I f m = K m m

Figure 1: Example Application

(2)

39

Where ratio

(3)

equation

T (S ) = K m I a (S ) E a = K m m (S )

component in the power system and equipment such as induction motors, power electronic converters and drives. Unbalance in load current leads to excessive neutral currents, poor power factor, increased losses, and reduction in overall efficiency.

Vt = E a + I a Ra + Laq

dI a dt

(5)

( )

Laq Ra

( ) (

Where

a =

Figure 4: Block Diagram of SAF IV. COMPLETE SOLUTION The problem of eliminating harmonics in switching converters has been the focus of research for many years. The Selective harmonic elimination (SHE) PWM based methods can theoretically provide the highest quality output among all the PWM methods. SHE offers several advantages compared to traditional modulation methods including acceptable performance with low switching frequency to fundamental frequency ratios, direct control over output waveform harmonics, and the ability to leave triplen harmonics uncontrolled to take advantage of circuit topology in three phase systems. These key advantages make SHE a viable alternative to other methods of modulation in applications such as variable speed drives, or dual frequency induction heating. This method is sometimes called a programmed PWM technique. However, the drawback of these methods is a heavy computational burden and a complicated hardware. The main challenge of solving the associated nonlinear equations, which are transcendental in nature and therefore have multiple solutions, is the convergence. It is generally accepted that the performance of an inverter, with any switching strategy, can be related to the harmonic contents of its output voltage. Power electronics researchers have always studied many novel control techniques to reduce harmonics in such waveforms.The Fourier series expansion of this output voltage waveform is V(t)=4 Vdc /

sin(nwt ) (11) (1 2 cos(n1 ) + 2 cos(n 2 ) 2 cos(n 3 )) n n =1,3,5...

T (S ) = JS m (S ) + B m (S ) +T L (S )

From above equations T (S ) TL (S ) K m I a (S ) TL (S ) m (S ) = = B(1 + S m ) B 1+ S J B

(8)

(9)

Where m = J

I a (S ) =

V t (S ) E a (S ) V t (S ) K m m (S ) = R a (1 + S a ) R a (1 + S a )

III.

Under non sinusoidal supply conditions, any attempt to achieve unity power factor results in a non- sinusoidal current, which increases the total harmonic distortion (THD). On the other hand, any attempt at getting harmonic free current may not yield unity power factor because of the harmonics present in the voltage waveform. In a 3- power distribution system, imbalance in voltage or current is a matter of concern for both the consumers and the utility. Wide spread use of power electronic circuits in recent times has compounded the problem by inducing harmonics (waveform distortion) into the system. These nonlinear loads, apart from injecting harmonic current into the system, also cause low power factor. The resulting unbalanced, non-sinusoidal supply voltage and current adversely affect every

Given a desired fundamental voltage, the problem here is to find the unknown switching angles.

1 2cos ( 1 ) + 2cos ( 2 ) 2cos( 3 ) = m 1 2 cos( 5 1 ) + 2 cos( 5 2 ) 2 cos( 5 3 ) = 0 1 2 cos( 7 1 ) + 2 cos( 7 2 ) 2 cos( 7 3 ) = 0 m V1 (12) (13) (14) (15 )

(4V dc / )

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (2), August 2011 This is a system of three transcedental equations in three unknowns. This is the case which is used to eliminate 5th and 7th harmonics. V. MULTIULSE CONVERTERS Adjustable speed AC drives are mainly made up of two power sections, i.e., a rectifier section and an inverter section. The AC source voltage is converted into a DC voltage by the rectifier circuit, and then the DC voltage is converted again into a PWM controlled variable voltage AC output by the inverter circuit. The six-diode bridge rectifier is most widely used as an AC-to-DC converter. This diode rectifier has a nonlinear (i.e. non-sinusoidal) load characteristic causing harmonic currents flow into the power source and results in line voltage distortion.

40

Figure 7: Block Diagram of 6 Pulse Converter with Passive Filter. THD after application of Passive Filter = 4.167 Application of Shunt Active Filter for Harmonic Reduction:

Figure 8: Application of Shunt Active Filter to 6 Pulse Converter. After Application of Filter, THDV = 2.074, THDI = 0.9047

Figure 5: Performance of Multi Pulse Converters The combined higher pulse number will result in lower harmonics in the power line. It is understood that the individual power supplies will each exhibit 6-pulse input performance, the resulting lower order harmonics (5th,7th) will circulate between it and its phase-offset neighbors. VI. RESULTS

Figure 9: Block Diagram of 6 Pulse Controlled Converter. Before application of PWM Signals THDV = 1.462, THDI = 0.4179

Figure 10: After application of PWM Signals THDV = 0.6052, THDI = 0.2038 Selective Harmonic Elimination:

Figure 6: Block Diagram of 6 Pulse Converter. THD before application of Filter = 15.3

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (2), August 2011 Figure 11: Block Diagram of Selective Harmonic Elimination

5 x 10

-6

41

-5

Table 2: 6 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 3.11 1.511 10 3.717 2.138 20 1.65 2.768 30 2.56 1.606 40 2.477 1.595

-10

0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 Time (s) DC component = 2.062e-007 , THD= 145.88%

200 M ag (% of D C c om ponent)

150

Table 3: 12 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 2.461 1.302 10 2.794 2.093 20 2.17 1.457 30 40 2.025 1.976 1.397 1.391

100

50

10 Harmonic order

15

20

Selected signal: 2 cycles 400 200 0 -200 -400

Table 4: 24 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 2.302 1.059 10 20 30 40 2.356 2.069 1.986 1.954 1.376 1.249 1.289 1.319

0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 Time (s) Fundamental (50Hz) = 239.6 , THD= 73.35%

M ag (% of F undam ental)

50 40 30 20 10 0

Table 5: 36 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 2.327 1.052 10 2.168 1.09 20 2.013 1.128 30 1.948 1.2 40 1.921 1.24

10 Harmonic order

15

20

Figure 13: FFT after application of Complete Solution THD = 72% Results of Multi Pulse Converters

Table 1: 4 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 10 20 30 40 37.25 7.34 6.481 5.994 6.415 6.423 6.425 7.262 6.418 5.258

Table 6: 48 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 2.476 1.075 10 2.453 1.083 20 2.385 1.073 30 1.96 1.222 40 2.314 1.043 Table 7: 96 Pulse Converter Rating of THDI THDV Motor (in HP) 5 2.322 1.05 10 2.204 1.125 20 2.039 1.169 30 40 1.972 1.943 1.244 1.288

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (2), August 2011 Comparison of different Multi Pulse Converters

[1]

Power Rating Vs THDI 3.5

42 REFERENCES

[2]

3 4pulse 6pulse 12pulse 24pulse 36pulse 48pulse 96pulse

2.5

[3]

2 THDI

[4]

1.5

[5]

John N. Chiasson, Leon M. Tolbert, Keith J. McKenzie, Zhong Du, A Complete Solution to the Harmonic Elimination Problem, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 2, march 2004 (491-499). M.Izhar, C.M.Hadzer,S.Masri and S.Idris, A Study of the Fundamental Principles to Power System Harmonic, National Power and Energy Conference 2003 Proceedings, Bangi Malaysia. (Page no: 225-231). Tony Hoevenaars, Kurt LeDoux, Matt Colosino, Interpreting IEEE Std 519 and Meeting its Harmonic Limits in VFD Applications, Paper No. PCIC-2003-15. John N. Chiasson, Leon M. Tolbert, Keith J. McKenzie, Zhong Du, A Complete Solution to the Harmonic Elimination Problem, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 2, march 2004 (491-499). MATLAB Version 7.0.1 (R2007b)

0.5

0 5

10

15

35

40

2.5

THDV

1.5

0.5

10

15

35

40

Figure 14: Power rating of DC motor Vs THDI, THDV VII. CONCLUSION Power Quality related issues, standards concerned with power quality are discussed in detail and various suppression techniques are thus simulated. All the reduction techniques do have its own area of application. Owing to IEEE 519 Std, suitable technique can be adopted. Passive Filters are cheaper and Shunt Active Filters are found to be advantageous than other reduction techniques. Selective Harmonic Elimination Technique can be used to suppress dominant harmonics and thus lower the THD of entire system. With increase in pulse number, the quality of power is found to improve.

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