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Wisdom Based Computing, Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2011

- Verbal Models
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- Fundumentals of Genetic Algorithms
- AI Fuzzy Logic
- Analog Circuit Design Using Genetic Algorithm Modified
- AttentionSeeking-APerspectiveFromChaosTheory
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- 3551-10280-1-PB
- Threshold Optimization by Genetic Algorithm for Segmentation of Medical Images by Region Growing
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Siji P.D St.Josephs College, Irinjalakuda Thrissur, Kerala srblessy@gmail.com R Rajesh Department of Computer Applications Bharathiar University, Coimbatore kollamrajeshr@ieee.org

Abstract: - This paper has focused on the study of chaos theory giving special importance to logistic map. A detailed survey of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic has been presented. A two step genetic algorithm is proposed for the fuzzy modeling of logistic map. The first step evolves grid based rules for the logistic map and the second step minimizes the rules by mining the rules from the rule base obtained from the first step. The simulation results using genetic algorithm for the modeling of the logistic map are promising. Keywords: TS Fuzzy Model, Logistic Map, GA

describes about Takagi-Sugeno models. Sub Section 2.3 describes genetic algorithm for modeling of logistic map. A. Logistic Map A Review It is, in fact, no coincidence that chaotic behavior appears in its simplest form in a noninvertible system. A dissipative invertible chaotic map becomes formally Non invertible when infinitely iterated (i.e., when phase space has been infinitely squeezed). Thus, the dynamics is, in fact, organized by a singular map of lower dimension, as can be shown easily in model systems such as the horseshoe map. A classical example of this is the Henon map, a diffeomorphism of the plane into itself that is known to have the logistic map as a backbone. The logistic map is

I.

INTRODUCTION

During the last decade, the study of chaos has become increasingly important among physicist and engineers, due to the large number of its possible application. There lies a behavior between rigid regularity and randomness based on pure chance and its called a chaotic system, or chaos for short. Recently, fuzzy logic control (FLC) has attracted lots of attention among modeling and control community. The advantages of fuzzy logic controllers over the conventional controllers are that they do not need an accurate mathematical model; they can work with imprecise inputs, can handle nonlinearity, and may be more robust than the conventional controllers. The possible interactions between fuzzy logic and chaos theory has been explored since the eighties, but these explorations has been carried on mainly in three directions: the fuzzy control of chaotic systems, the definition of an adaptive fuzzy system by data from a chaotic time series, and the study of the theoretical relations between fuzzy logic and chaos. There still needs some systematic way of modeling the chaotic system using fuzzy logic. II. MODELING OF LOGISTIC MAP USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

x n +1 =

x n (1 x n )

As is often the case in dynamical systems theory, the action of the logistic map can not only be represented algebraically, but also geometrically. Given a point xn, the graph of the logistic map provides y = f(xn). To use y as the starting point of the next iteration, and finding out the corresponding location in the x space, which is done simply by drawing the line from the point [xn, f(xn)] to the diagonal y = x. This simple construction is then repeated to get the plot as illustrated in Fig.1.

Fuzzy systems are suitable for uncertain or approximate reasoning, especially for the system with a rigorous mathematical model that is difficult to derive. They also allow us to represent descriptive or qualitative expressions. Fuzzy logic may be employed to describe a chaotic dynamical system. Fuzzy logic can be useful for complex dynamic system for which a common mathematic modeling does not work well. Sub Section 2.1 describes details about logistic map. Sub Section 2.2

Figure 1. Graphical representation of logistic map B. Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Models A Review In Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy modeling, the system dynamics is captured by a set of fuzzy implications (rule) by a linear system model which characterizes local

International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (3), December 2011 relations in the state space. Specifically the Takagi Sugeno system is of the following form

10

for i = 1, 2, , r. The overall fuzzy model output is given by

Table 1 shows the genetic algorithmic parameters required in the step 1 for the grid based evolution of 72 rules. Table 1. Genetic algorithmic parameters used in Step 1

Parameters No of genes (rules) No of Chromosomes Maximum Generation Crossover rate Mutation rate Selection Crossover Reinsertion Rate of offspring to be inserted per subpopulation Fitness function, where xi is the actual value and Values 72 50 10000 0.8 0.01 Roulette wheel selection Shuffle crossover fitness-based 0.5

y=

w y

i =1 r i

w

i =1

wi = Aij ( x j )

j =1

xi

is

C. Fuzzy Modeling of Logistic Map using Genetic Algorithm Fuzzy modeling is achieved using genetic algorithm in two steps. Grid based evolution of fuzzy rules is achieved in the first step and rule minimization is achieved using the evolved grid rules in the second step. STEP: 1 In the first step, the input variables xn and xn+1 are divided into 9 and 8 regions respectively with triangular membership as shown in figure 2 and 3.

1 0.9

(x

i =1

xi ) 2

STEP: 2 In this step, rules are mined from the evolved rules obtained from the step 1. This type of rule mining will help to eliminate unwanted rules and bad rules from the rule base. Genetic algorithm with binary string of length equal to the number of rules obtained in step 1 is used. A one in the bit position indicates that the rule corresponding to the bit position will be considered, otherwise the rule is discarded. Table 2 shows the genetic algorithmic parameters used in the step 2 for rule mining. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7

The genetic algorithm is simulated as given step 1 and step 2. The results obtained in the simulation are given here. 5. Figure 5 shows the plot of logistic map in the plane xn vs xn+1.

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Parameters No of bits No of Chromosomes Maximum Generation Crossover rate Mutation rate Selection Crossover Reinsertion Rate of offspring to be inserted per subpopulation Fitness function, where xi is the actual value, Values 72 50 500 0.8 0.01 Roulette wheel selection Shuffle crossover fitness-based 0.5

Figure 3. Eight membership functions for xn+1 A grid is constructed with these input membership functions forming 72 regions. For each region, Takagi Sugeno rules are constructed. Genetic algorithm is used to evolve the consequent part of the rules. The structure of a chromosome is as shown below

Rule Rule

a22 a23

Rule

a21

xi

100 nr 2

1/ 3

is the

Consequent parameters

( xi xi ) 2

i =1

11

Figure 5. Logistic Map for = 3.75 Figure 8. Modeling error The fitness of the best chromosome throughout the 10,000 generation is obtained The increase in the fitness function shows the performance of the proposed algorithm. The 72 rules in the best chromosome obtained after 10,000 generation is used for modeling the logistic map. Figure 6, 7, 8, & 9 shows the actual logistic map, prediction of the fuzzy model, modeling error and three dimensional surface plot of the fuzzy model respectively.

Figure 9. 3d rule surface of the fuzzy model The results of step 2, namely the rule minimization steps is shown here. Figure 10 shows the fitness value of the maximum fit chromosomes obtained throughout the generation. Figure 11 shows that the number of rules of the chromosome having maximum fitness decreases throughout the generation. It shows the efficiency of the rule minimization process. Table 3: shows the 26 rules obtained by the minimization process. Figure 12 shows the plot of logistic map using the obtained fuzzy model. IV. CONCLUSION

The results show that the performance of the genetic algorithm for the modeling of the logistic map using TS fuzzy model is promising. The number of rule obtained by our method approximately matches with the work done by Porto and Amato. Future work of the chaotic system includes, (a) experimenting with more complex chaotic systems, (b) fine tuning the rules in both antecedent and consequent parts and, (c) controlling the chaos

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Figure 12. Fuzzy Model of the Logistic Map with 26 rules REFERENCE

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Figure 11. No of rules of max fit chromosome Table 3 26 rules obtained after the minimization process

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 xn MF1 MF2 MF2 MF2 MF3 MF3 MF4 MF4 MF5 MF5 MF5 MF6 MF6 MF6 MF6 MF7 MF7 MF7 MF7 MF7 MF7 MF8 MF8 MF8 MF8 MF9 xn+1 MF5 MF4 MF5 MF6 MF7 MF8 MF7 MF8 MF6 MF7 MF8 MF4 MF5 MF6 MF7 MF1 MF2 MF3 MF4 MF5 MF6 MF1 MF2 MF3 MF4 MF1 Consequent linear parameters -1.1353 1.1648 0.2891 -1.9990 0.3796 1.3550 -0.6872 1.3235 -0.0102 0.9006 0.9488 -0.3901 -1.1023 1.7953 -0.8351 -2.0000 0.1270 0.4897 -1.5657 0.8729 0.3850 -1.0971 -0.0797 0.5219 0.6112 0.5361 1.5395 0.1641 1.2628 -0.8902 -1.8472 -0.7141 1.7955 1.4081 1.2236 0.7465 -0.8649 1.6211 1.1134 1.7785 0.4431 -1.1473 0.2722 -0.2690 -0.9305 1.9823 0.3647 0.8631 -0.0975 1.6726 1.8292 0.1835 0.7745 1.1848 0.0439 1.4772 -0.0177 -0.5848 0.7524 -0.0407 -1.9982 0.6283 -0.1880 0.9498 0.6039 -0.1509 1.4947 -0.8953 -0.4269 0.3523 0.0095 -0.4530 -0.2585 -0.5646 -0.1813 0.8127 -0.2072 -0.4610

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