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ABSTRACT FOG COLLECTORS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT by Rebecca Diehl This internship report is a review of my time in Peru on a Rotary

International jjjjjjjjjAmbassadorial Scholarship where I studied for two semesters at La Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Per (PUCP) starting in February of 2006. In Peru I participated in a project sponsored by the National Geographic Committee for Research and Exploration called Proyecto Desierto Verde (Project Green Desert) headed by Dr. Kai Tiedemann and Anne Lummerich. Project Green Desert was a pilot project that used fog collectors as an instrument for creating green community spaces. The project was directed toward the women of marginalized communities on the outskirts of Lima and worked to create a means of self-employment for them. The science of fog collection and a review of Project Green Desert are discussed. FOG COLLECTORS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT An Internship Report Submitted to the Faculty of Miami University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Science Institute of Environmental Sciences by Rebecca Anne Diehl Miami University Oxford, Ohio 2009 Advisor______________________________ Dr. Sandra Woy-Hazleton Reader_______________________________ Dr. Mark Boardman Reader_______________________________ Jacqueline del Carmen Rioja Velarde ii Rebecca Diehl 2010

iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................. v LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................ vii INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter I: Background on Fog Collection and the Collected Water .................................. 1 A. Water Scarcity ...................................................................................................... 1 B. History of Fog Collection .................................................................................... 3 C. Benefits of Fog Collection over other Technology .............................................. 4 D. Uses for Collected Fog Water .............................................................................. 5 Chapter II: Science and Technology of Fog Water Collection ........................................... 6 A. Definition of Fog.................................................................................................. 6 B. Types of Fog ........................................................................................................ 7 C. Importance of Fog to Ecosystems ........................................................................ 8 D. Factors that Affect Fog ........................................................................................ 9 E. Amounts of Fog Collected Globally .................................................................. 10 F. Fog Water Collectors ......................................................................................... 12 i. Standard Fog Collectors .................................................................................. 12 ii. Alternative Fog Collectors .............................................................................. 13 G. Cost of Fog Collector Construction ................................................................... 15 H. The Quality of Water derived from Fog ............................................................ 16 I. Advances in Fog Collection Research ............................................................... 17 J. Types of Storage Tanks ..................................................................................... 17 Chapter III: Development of a Fog Collection Project ..................................................... 17 A. Fog Data ............................................................................................................. 19 B. Site Selection ..................................................................................................... 20 C. Field Visit........................................................................................................... 21 D. Pilot Project ........................................................................................................ 21 E. Water Storage..................................................................................................... 22 F. Baseline Data ..................................................................................................... 23 Chapter IV: Proyecto Desierto Verde (Project Green Desert), Peru ................................ 23 A. Background ........................................................................................................ 23 B. Peruvian Fog ...................................................................................................... 27 iv C. Project Overview ............................................................................................... 28 D. Project Green Deserts Objectives ..................................................................... 29 E. Analysis.............................................................................................................. 32 i. Environmental Sustainability .......................................................................... 32 ii. Social Sustainability........................................................................................ 33 iii. Economic Sustainability ................................................................................. 35 F. Baseline and Impact Study ................................................................................. 35 G. Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 36 H. Evaluation .......................................................................................................... 38 I. Indicators............................................................................................................ 46 J. Project Weakness ............................................................................................... 46 Chapter V: Conclusions and Suggestions ......................................................................... 47

A. Further Scientific and Technical Investigations ................................................ 47 B. Improved Evaluation Tools ................................................................................ 49 C. Stakeholder Development .................................................................................. 49 D. Tools to Encourage Future Projects ................................................................... 50 E. Equity & Sustainable Development in Fog Collection ...................................... 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 53 VITA ................................................................................................................................ 57 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Altitudes of Fog Collection Sites ........................................................................ 10 Table 2: Amounts of Fog Water Collected ....................................................................... 11 Table 3: Optimal Characteristics to be Met for a Fog Collection Project ....................... 18 Table 4: Logical Framework for Project Green Desert ................................................... 40 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Aerial Photograph of Lima and Villa Maria del Triunfo ................................. 24 Figure 2: Picture of Bellavista Settlement in Villa Maria del Triunfo ............................ 25 Figure 3: Villa Maria del Triunfo Location in Reference to Peru. .................................. 26 Figure 4: Picture of Fog Collector at Project Site in Villa Maria del Triunfo ................. 27 Figure 5: Elevation of Project Site and Villa Maria del Triunfo ..................................... 29 Figure 6: Flowchart of Objectives concerning Project .................................................... 30 Figure 7: Community Working Together. ....................................................................... 34 Figure 8: Flowchart of Problems Concerning Project Green Desert ............................... 39 vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There is a long list of those to whom I owe my thanks in regard to my time at Miami University and in Peru. I would like to thank Mary Ann Moen, my friend and previous employer for suggesting that I apply for the Rotary International Ambassadorial Scholarship, the Cumberland, Maryland Rotary District 7350 for sponsoring my scholarship and to the Pueblo Libre, Lima, Peru Rotary Club 4450 for hosting my year in Peru. I would like to thank my professors, specifically Dr. Marta Rodrguez, Dr. Marisela Benavides and Dr. Percy Bobadilla, classmates and friends, Elena Nez, Ileana Gonzlez, and Giovanna Velarde, at La Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Peru for their patience and understanding. My understanding of Latin America, friendship, cultural differences and Spanish greatly improved due to their kindness. Dr. Kai Tiedemann and Anne Lummerich not only shared their Proyecto Desierto Verde/Green Desert Project with me, but also bus fare and their friendship. The people of Bellavista, Quebrada Alta, and Los Angeles need to be thanked for their friendship, delicious snacks, and patience as they helped me with both my Spanish and Quechua. Before leaving for Peru, I had taken some wonderful classes at Miami University of Ohio. A big thank you goes out to Dr. Jonathan Levy, Robbyn Abbitt, Dr. William Renwick, Dr. Jerry Green, Dr. Adolph Greenberg, and Dr. Sandra Woy-Hazleton. Most importantly I would like to thank my family for their support. They helped me to get where I am today and they will help me to continue. I cannot thank them enough.

1INTRODUCTION During the calendar year of 2006, I received a Rotary scholarship to study at La Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Per (PUCP) in Lima, Peru. While taking classes there, I was introduced to Dr. Kai Tiedemann and Anne Lummerich, principal investigators on a National Geographic Committee for Research and Exploration sponsored project called Project Green Desert (Proyecto Desierto Verde). Through that introduction I was able to work on the project for part of my year in Peru and used it as the basis of academic investigations for PUCP and for this report. The project gave me a deeper view into the worlds of sustainable, international, and social development. It also introduced me to the field of fog water collection. This report describes and evaluates Project Green Desert in which I participated for 7 months. The project highlights the technique of fog water collection to alleviate water scarcity. This report is divided into two parts. Chapters 1through 3 explain the science and technology of fog collection. Chapter 4 of this report describes and evaluates Project Green Desert and its implementation of a fog water collection system for tree irrigation for a reforestation project that fulfils a requirement for legal land title transfers to three local communities. Chapter I: Background on Fog Collection and the Collected Water A. Water Scarcity The world is made up of about 75% water of which only around 3% is fresh water. Less than 1% of that is surface flowing fresh water or underground fresh water, with the other portion being bound up in the North and South Poles as glaciers or icecaps (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). Overharvesting, overuse, mismanagement, and low efficiency uses are causes of water stress and scarcity issues around the world, particularly in agricultural areas (UN-Water Thematic Initiatives, 2006). The term water scarcity can be defined as a lack of water quantity. Domestic water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water for domestic use (Rush, van Huyssteen, & Olivier, 2000). It is water, not land, which is the limiting factor in most agricultural practices around the world, especially in arid environments (Oweis & Hachum, 2006). Already an estimated 70% to 95% of the worlds water use is related to agriculture (UN-Water Thematic Initiatives, 2006). With a growing global population and increasing food 2demands, water usage can only be expected to rise. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) predicts that nearly 2 billion people will be living in water scarce areas by 2025 and that two-thirds of the worlds population will be living in areas under water stress (UN-Water Thematic Initiatives, 2006). In fact, it has been estimated that in the next 15 years, areas in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East will be classified as having absolute water scarcity (Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008). Clearly, there is a need to assist underserved and marginalized communities with water resource management as they are often isolated from the conventional water supply system that supports many mainstream communities (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). Underserved communities are often a part of urban sprawl, contributing to the growth of impervious surface areas, and improper land use, all of which negatively affect the effectiveness of water systems that are necessary to a healthy community (Sekar & Randhir, 2007).

There are many causes of water scarcity around the world. Overutilization of groundwater supplies and lack of groundwater recharge are two often-cited causes (Schemenauer, Fuenzalida, & Cereceda, 1988). Mismanagement of groundwater resources can lead to low water tables which may in turn allow salt water intrusion to the aquifer impairing groundwater quality (Shanyengana, Henschel, Seely, & Sanderson, 2002). Changing climate patterns, such as decreases in precipitation, also are stressors on a regions water inputs (Schemenauer et al., 1988). Changes in land use, such as deforestation, can negatively impact water resources. Cost is another issue that impacts water resource issues. Water may exist in one area, but pumping and hauling it to a water-poor area increases costs so much that it may be unaffordable to many of the communities who need it the most (Abdul-Wahab, AlHinai, Al-Najar, & Al-Kalbani, 2007). Even if water transportation can be afforded, logistical issues can cause problems throughout the developing world such as what happens when a water truck runs empty leaving unserved families in need. An average from various sources suggests that a range of 30 to 40 L of water is necessary for daily domestic use (Rush et al., 2000). UN Water suggests 20-50 L of water daily (UN Water, n.d.). 3 In light of the water resource issues reviewed above, fog water collection stands out as a means for supplying limited quantities of usable water to isolated communities in need. According to Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994b) fog water collection can be used to augment water resources in arid areas because fog forms even in dry environments (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). Though it cannot be a sole source of water for larger communities, due to the amount that can be collected each day and the needs of a community, fog water can greatly augment the amount of water already available to a community (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994b), especially for small scale farming. Fog water can be a good water source (on a small scale) for daily use and consumption (drinking, washing, and daily activities) (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994b). B. History of Fog Collection A relatively new technology with ancient roots, fog collection is essentially any activity that collects water condensed out of atmospheric water vapor. An example of fog collection is that from fog drip; which forms when fog passes over vegetation and atmospheric water vapor is deposited on leaves forming droplets large enough to drip down for collection (Nascimento Prada & Oliveira da Silva, 2001). Fog collection has been practiced and documented around the world including in regions such as North America, the Middle East, North Africa, China and India (Oweis et al., as cited in Sekar & Randhir, 2007). Inhabitants of the Canary Islands have been harvesting fog drip as a source of water for roughly 2,000 years (Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008; Glas as cited in Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994c; Kerfoot as cited in Olivier, 2004; Olivier, 2002). According to de la Casas, a missionary in India reported on the use of fog drip for human consumption in the 1600s (de la Casas as cited in Tiedemann, 2004). Fog collection was used in ancient Palestine where small low circular honeycombed walls were built around vines so that the mist and dew could precipitate in the immediate vicinity of the plants (Nelson-Esch as cited in Olivier, 2002 and in Olivier, 2004). And in the 6th century, Ancient Greeks were able to collect enough fog water to supply the city of Theodosia (Hitier; Jumikis; Gioda and Acosta Baladn as cited

in Nikolayev, Beysens, Gioda, Katiushin, & Morel, 1996). In the Atacama Desert, fog collection was accomplished via piles of stones that were arranged so that the collected 4 water would trickle down the center when fog passed over them (Linacre and Hobbs as cited in Olivier, 2004; Olivier, 2002). Marloth used reed bundles on top of a rain gauge to collect and measure fog water while doing a study on fog and its collection on Table Mountain in South Africa circa 1903 (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994a; Olivier, 2002, Gioda, Espejo Guasp, & Acosta Baladn, 1993; Olivier, 2002). Even though this water source is of ancient knowledge, modern research of fog collection is sparse and has only gained the interest of modern researchers over approximately the past 25 years. Fog deposition onto vegetation gained interest as a result of pollution problems that caused acidic fog to burn tree leaves in the Northeast United States according to the 1986 study, Mountain Cloud Chemistry Project (MCCP) (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994a; Schemenauer, Banic, & Urquizo, 1995). C. Benefits of Fog Collection over other Technology Fog collection is a low cost, high benefit technology (Rush et al., 2000). Its capital start-up costs are low as are the operational and maintenance costs. Fog collection is not labor intensive nor does it require the use of advanced technology or specialized training (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). Fog collection needs no outside source of energy (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998); it is sustained by the wind which is an alternative and renewable resource (Gioda et al., 1993) with minimal effects to the environment (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). There is essentially no pollution in its use (Pandey et al., 2007) and it is an environmentally friendly way of augmenting a water supply to a community in need (Olivier, 2004). Another benefit is that stakeholders are encouraged to be involved in all aspects of the project (creation, implementation, construction, data measurements, etc) (Mousavibaygi, 2008) which promotes sustainable development and social/environmental justice by placing important decisions in the hands of those who will be affected. Ownership of the project by the local communities is essential for a successful project (Schemenauer et al., 2004). A community that does not feel connected to the project will abandon it when 5 the principal investigators leave. The now famous example of the Chungungo fog collection research project by Schemenauer and Cereceda has proven that.1 Fog collection falls within the boundaries of what is considered sustainable development (Gioda et al., 1993). Minimal harm to the environment; local resources (materials and stakeholders) are encouraged to be involved in all aspects of the project. It is important to take from local knowledge and expand upon it (Mbilinyi, Tumbo, Mahoo, Senkondo, & Hatibu, 2005), incorporating the cultural and societal norms into the project. When locally generated knowledge, or indigenous knowledge, is incorporated into a project it helps to tailor it to the communities specific needs, it fosters a hierarchy for the decision making process, and it is cost effective in that already valid knowledge is being used and built upon (Mbilinyi et al., 2005). D. Uses for Collected Fog Water Studies like the MCCP gave light to the potential applications of fog research. Fog scientists have realized that the amounts of water collected can help alleviate water

scarcity in fog prone areas which can (and will be) a significant help for millions of people. With fog collection technology, a newly recognized form of water is available to augment traditional sources. This new source is not large enough to eliminate the need for groundwater or fresh surface water but it is enough to augment the strained water supply and alleviate some of the local water stresses found around the world (Mousavibaygi, 2008; Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008).
1Fog collection gained renown in 1992 through a now very well known project in Chungungo, Chile, in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth (International Development Research Center [IDRC], 2000; International Development Research Center [IDRC], 2003). The project was a huge success. The fog collectors gathered 11,000 to 15,000 liters (3,000 to 4,000 gallons) of water per day (IDRC, 2003; IDRC, 2000). More than enough water was being collected for the town of Chungungo, population 300, yet when the site is revisited today, the fog collectors lay in ruins (IDRC, 2003). There are several reasons for this, population growth in the town, heavier fog during the winter than in the summer, and level of community interest and commitment. Due to the initial influx of water from the then new fog collectors, the population increased three fold, from 300 to 900 inhabitants (IDRC, 2003). Summer is when there is less fog, but it is when water is most needed. Since fog collectors could not produce sufficient amounts of water during summer, they were seen as a less viable source than trucking water in to town (IDRC, 2003). However, the most important reason for the decay of the fog collectors at Chungungo was the lack of community commitment. There was not much preparation or education given to the town before the fog collectors were installed. The project was designed as a pilot project, a scientific project; it was supposed to collect water for a reforestation project, not for human use. That the water was used for human use caused confusion among all parties involved (IDRC, 2003).

6 Fog water can be used for a variety of uses: domestic, agricultural, forestry, industrial, and environmental projects (Mousavi-baygi, 2008; United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). Once agricultural or forestry projects have been established in a community, the use of fog water to support the projects can have an immense impact on project sustainability (Olivier, 2002). With the proper crop and land use, sustainable projects can be developed which could allow money to be generated within the community. Such money could be reinvested into the same project, diversified to other projects, or used for other community projects, such as a community garden (Olivier, 2002). The collected fog water may also be used to augment an already present water resource in a novel way. Clean fog water tends in general to have a low ion concentration which suggests that it can be mixed with slightly saline or brackish water to make it be potable (Shanyengana et al., 2002). Fog collectors can be used to achieve a range of objectives. No matter the ultimate goal, a fog collector will do what it is intended to do: capture atmospheric water vapor and condense it. The technology has not only been used to capture water as a water resource supplement but also an alternative in the removal of fog from working mines (Martikainen, 2007a). Martikainens (2007a) showed that sufficient water was removed from the air in the mines of Finland through the use of fog collectors to increase mine safety, although he notes that further study is required to increase efficiency of the system he used. In a separate study, Martikainen (2007b) noted that a fog or mist collector with an aluminum net collected enough atmospheric water vapor to change visibility. Chapter II: Science and Technology of Fog Water Collection

A. Definition of Fog The United Nations Environment Programme defines fog as a mass of water vapor condensed into small water droplets at or just above the Earths surface (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). A simple definition of fog is a cloud that touches the ground (Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008). If the cloud surface touches the earth then it is called fog, if not, it is called stratus cloud (Eugster, 2008). A common meteorological definition of fog is when visibility is less than 1000 m (Glickman as cited 7 in Eugster, 2008; Garca-Garca & Zarraluqui, 2008; Teixeira Gonalves, Porfirio da Rocha, Palma Fernandes, & Petto Jr., 2008). Glickman went on to refine the definition of fog as that it must reduce visibility and have water droplets that are smaller than 200 m (Eugster, 2008). According to Wanner and Kunz fog is not a consistent and continuous climatic phenomenon meaning that it is ephemeral and dynamic and explains the importance of thorough research before doing a fog collection project and that the amount water collected will vary (Wanner and Kunz as cited in Eugster, 2008). B. Types of Fog Fog formation depends upon the coincidence of air temperature (which tends to be cool) and dew point (Garca-Garca & Zarraluqui, 2008), with a condensation nuclei present (Teixeira Gonalves et al., 2008). There are several types of fog. The ones that will be discussed in this report are: 1) radiation (or radiative) fog, 2) advection fog, and 3) mountain fog. Radiation fog is common in areas that have air collecting and cooling through the night (Eugster, 2008; Teixeira Gonalves et al., 2008). The American Meteorological Society (AMS) defines radiation fog as a common type of fog, produced over a land area when radiational cooling reduces the air temperature to or below its dew point (American Meteorological Society [AMS], n.d.). Due to its nature, it is likely to occur during nighttime. This tends to be a less dense fog that is not appropriate for fog collection. An example of radiation fog is valley fog as it forms in a valley or land depression (hence the name) (Eugster, 2008). Advection fog forms over the ocean and requires wind to push the fog from its origination site (Eugster, 2008; Cereceda et al., 2002). According to the AMS, advection fog is a type of fog caused by the advection of moist air over a cold surface, and the consequent cooling of that air to below its dew point (AMS, n.d.). Radiation fog forms where it is seen and advection fog forms in an upwind area and then pushed via the wind (Eugster, 2008). Coastal fog is a specific example of advection fog (Eugster, 2008); it is formed by the relatively low ocean temperature and high land temperature and is then transported to land by onshore winds (Montecinos, et al., 2008). Coastal fog tends to be denser at elevations higher than sea level (Pandey, Srivastava, & Tiwari, 2007) and more persistent than radiation fog (Olivier, 2002) which makes it appropriate for fog collection. 8 Mountain fog (also orographic fog) is essentially a cloud that forms when an air mass encounters a mountain which forces it to move up to the height where fog is then produced. The air mass gets saturated due to the reduced temperature and pressure. As this cooling increases, more condensation occurs (Dingman as cited in Molina & Escobar, 2008). Montane cloud forests are thought to be influenced by this type of fog (Eugster, 2008). C. Importance of Fog to Ecosystems Understanding of the impact of fog on the water cycle is crucial for further

understanding of cloud montane forests, their inhabitants, and other similar habitats (Cereceda et al., 2002). It has been shown that amphibians are a group of indicator species that react quickly to environmental changes, fog being one of those factors in montane cloud forests. Cloud forests are generally thought to be biodiversity hotspots (Gioda et al., 1993) and therefore require further conservation and preservation efforts. In 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development biodiversity and water resources in montane cloud forests were discussed (Gerold, Schawe, & Back, 2008). United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) later developed a Cloud Forest Agenda in 2004 which is a report that describes threats to and an agenda of priority actions to preserve and protect montane cloud forests (Eugster, 2008; Bubb, May, Miles, & Sayer, 2004). The water cycle of cloud montane forests is heavily influenced by advection fog (Bendix, Fabian, & Rollenbeck, 2004). Since fog is laden with atmospheric water and is affected by topography, it makes sense that leaves can intercept water in fog prone areas. Vegetation, usually of a height of about 1 m, can capture fog (Marzol Jan, 2002), be sustained by fog drip (Schemenauer et al., 1988; Tiedemann, 2004; Bendix et al., 2004), and can be a significant part of the ecosystem (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). The amount of fog drip intercepted by vegetation is, according to Walmsley and Schemenauer (1996), based on the five following factors: 1) canopy structure, 2) horizontal wind speed, 3) the collection efficiency of the treetops, 4) the liquid water content of the fog, and 5) the variation of fog frequency with altitude. In a study in Portugal, fog drip measured under vegetative cover was shown to be 3.5 times greater than the annual precipitation (Nascimento Prada & Oliveira da Silva, 9 2001). In separate studies, it was also shown that redwood forests in California are able to prevent dehydration through fog water uptake in their leaves (Ingraham & Matthews, 1990; Ingraham & Matthews, 1995; Dawson, 1998; Burgess & Dawson, 2004). D. Factors that Affect Fog All types of fog are affected by geographic features they encounter such as mountains and valleys (Garca-Garca & Zarraluqui, 2008). The quantity of fog water collected out of atmospheric water vapor by a particular system is partially dependent on the local geography, topography, microtopography, and overall regional relief (Schemenauer et al., 1988). Fog frequency, which is directly related to the quantity of fog water that is collected, may be affected by anthropogenic activities such as urban development as well as general climatic changes such as those to sea surface temperatures, wind circulation patterns, and temperature trends (Teixeira Gonalves et al., 2008). Therefore, site selection for fog collection systems is a crucial aspect of any fog collection program plan. Table 1 below shows the altitudes of fog collection sites throughout the world. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) suggests an altitude of 400 1200 m for optimal fog collection (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). 10 Table 1: Altitudes of Fog Collection Sites Altitude (in meters above sea level (masl)) Site Citation 1550 1850 Southern Colombia in the

Andes (Molina & Escobar, 2008) 240 1122 Czech Republic (Fisak, Tesar, Rezacova, Elias, Weignerova, & Fottova, 2002) 352 464 Namib Desert in Namibia (Shanyengana et al., 2002) 550 600 Falda Verde in northern Chile (Larrain et al., 2002) 1000 Iran (Mousavi-baygi, 2008) 1650 2800 most productive sites located between 2000 to 2200 Yemen (Schemenauer, Osses, & Leibbrand, 2004) 1800 3185 Montane cloud forest in southern Ecuador (Bendix et al., 2004) 850 1340 Spains Canary Islands (Marzol Jan, 2002) 600 800 to 1600 Madeira, Portugal (Nascimento Prada & Oliveira da Silva, 2001)
Table by R. Diehl

Because it is primarily an atmospheric phenomenon, fog is greatly affected by wind speed and wind direction, two parameters that vary with altitude (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008; Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008; Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). Fog droplets tend to be 1 30 m and have a falling velocity of approximately 1- 5 cm/s making them essentially flow horizontally and therefore efficiently captured by vertical obstacles (Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008). The droplets are so small that they do not have enough mass to fall to the earth as precipitation (Marzol Jan, 2002). Abdul-Wahab et al. (2007) have shown a direct, linear relationship between the amount of fog water collected from the tiny fog droplets and wind speed. An optimal wind speed range for fog collection is 3.5 to 9.0 m/s (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994c; Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). E. Amounts of Fog Collected Globally A fog collection project that collects approximately 2.5 or more liters per meter squared of collection surface per day (L/m2/day) is considered viable. Viable collection amounts will differ depending on the goals and objectives of the project. Table 2 shows amounts collected from various studies across the globe. 11 Table 2: Amounts of Fog Water Collected Average Amount Place Water Issues Source 7.1 L/m2/day Mount Boutmezguida, Ifni, Morocco (Marzol & Snchez Mega,

2008) 2.0 L/m2/day Boulaalam, Ifni, Morocco (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008) 5.0 L/m2/day (data taken from the highest yielding collector) Andean Mountain Range of Southern Colombia (Molina & Escobar, 2008) 0.53 L/m2/day Khorassan, Northeast Iran (Mousavi-baygi, 2008) 11.52 L/m2/day (avg taken from 3 different experimental collectors Dhofar Region, Sultanate of Oman Conforms to WHO and Omani drinking water standards (Abdul-Wahab, et al., 2007) 4.5 L/m2/day Mabijan, Hajja Governorate of Yemen Suitable for drinking (Schemenauer et al., 2004) 4.6 L/m2/day Lepelfontein, West Coast of South Africa excellent quality (Olivier, 2004) 2.5 L/m2/day (assumed to be underestimated due

to an error) Cape Columbine, West Coast of South Africa Suitable for drinking. Free from E. coli. Does contain heterotrophic organisms-these can be removed with a simple filter. (Olivier, 2002) 4.0 L/m2/day Teno Rural Park, Island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain (Marzol Jan, 2002) 1.43 L/m2/day 7.81 L/m2/day 0.93 L/m2/day 8.26 L/m2/day 3.36 L/m2/day 2.98 L/m2/day Falda Verde, north of Charaal, Chile Alto Patache, Chile Cerro Guatalaya, Chile Cerro Moreno, Chile Paposo, Chile El Tofo, Chile Not known (Larrain et al., 2002) 12 Average Amount Place Water Issues Source 8.5 L/m2/day (coastal) 1.1 L/m2/day (inland) Tarapac Region, Chile Not tested (Cereceda et al., 2002) 2.51 L/m2/day Eucaliptos, La Cruz de Santa, Dominican Republic

(Schemenauer et al., 2001) 10 L/m2/day Southern Coast of Peru Not tested (Semenzato, 1996) 3 L/m2/day Northern Chile (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1992)
Table by R. Diehl

F. Fog Water Collectors The two following sections describe different types of fog collectors, the standard fog collector and alternatives to it. The standard fog collector is the most commonly used one in projects that have a goal of fog water collection and use by a community, rather than a goal of scientific discovery. Alternatives to the standard fog collector are noted below and tend to be used more for advancement of knowledge than for practical applications. i. Standard Fog Collectors A fog collector is essentially a structure that intercepts fog to collect then condense atmospheric water. Constructing a standard fog collector is relatively easy. The construction of standard fog collectors has been tested to find the most efficient form. No specialty tools or technology is necessary. Two posts are needed, and these can be made from local materials that are readily available, like eucalyptus or bamboo, which helps to reduce fixed costs (Molina & Escobar, 2008). The posts must be securely placed in the ground, either with a cement foundation or deep enough to ensure stability. The base of the collecting surface should stand about two meters (2 m) off of the ground (Molina & Escobar, 2008). The standard collection surface is an agricultural polypropylene mesh with a shade coefficient of 35% (Molina & Escobar, 2008) and is double hung between the posts (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994a). By double hanging a 35% shade mesh, the total collecting surface increases to around 60% with about 40% open for wind to push the atmospheric water through (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). 13 The theoretical efficiency of a standard fog collector is measured at approximately 75-95% at winds of 2-8 m/s and mean volume diameters of fog droplets of 10.8-15.3 m (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). An estimated loss of water not more than 10% could be lost due to design and engineering issues (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). The field measured efficiency of the centerline of a standard fog collector was about 66% at wind speeds of 3.5-6.5 m/s and mean volume diameters of 11 m (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). At the lower wind speed of 1.9 m/s and a mean volume diameter of 15 m, the efficiency is reduced to approximately 26% (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). Using values taken from the centerline of a large (48 m2) standard fog collector and the wind speed taken 6 m upstream, the measured volume collected was 2.9 times smaller than the predicted values. This could be due to the slower wind speeds at the project site and an increasing reduction of efficiency with increasing distance from the centerline (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). Schemenauer & Joe (1989) have reported that fog collectors work best as a mesh netting rather than a flat piece of plastic sheeting. Ten 1 mm wide ribbons collected more

water than one 10 mm ribbon. The free flow of water laden air is important in the collection process. ii. Alternative Fog Collectors Currently the standard fog collector is the most efficient for water collection, maintenance, and economics. However, with a growing demand for water in different areas of the world, the alternative fog collectors discussed below may come to be of popular use. Three alternative collectors were examined by Mousavi-baygi (2008). The first collector, a flat rectangular fog collector consists of fine nylon strings that are hung vertically to intercept the horizontally flowing atmospheric water and encourage the water to flow down to a capturing basin. A surface area of 1 m2 contains about 580 nylon strings. The second collector is a simple cylinder fog collector that uses Teflon monofilament instead of nylon. The Teflon monofilament is double strung over a 22 cm diameter top and a 14 cm diameter bottom with a height of 38 cm. The differences in the 14 top and bottom diameters encourage the captured droplets to flow via gravity. The droplets are collected in a storage vessel (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). The third is a double cylinder fog collector which is of a similar concept of the simple cylinder fog collector. It has two cylinders with one inside of the other using the same Teflon monofilament (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). The three alternative fog collectors listed above are small enough to be used as a personal or home fog collector. All should be placed about a meter to two meters above the ground and have the water collected in a secure storage area safe from animals, insects, and debris (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). Another interesting type of fog collector is a natural fog collector. The native vegetation that grows now or once grew in fog prone regions is the best for fog collection. That plant grew and adapted to its habitat making it the most efficient of fog collectors. Reforesting or revegetating the area will cause more fog to be collected, will increase groundwater recharge, and will provide water for streams and alleviate some humidity conditions (Semenzato, 1996). Water can be collected from the unused fog drip (usually by using plastic sheeting). One alteration to a standard fog collector includes a frame which fastens the mesh collecting surface to the grounded posts instead of stringing the mesh over connector cables (Abdul-Wahab et al., 2007; Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994a). The frame can be made of wood, aluminum, or steel (Olivier, 2002), preferably a material that is locally available in the project site. Another alteration Schemenauer has used in his research is adding a pulley system to a standard fog collector (Schemenauer et al., 2004). A pulley system can be added to assist in making the collector more efficient. If the fog is coming in denser higher than the collecting surface, the collecting surface can be raised to capture from the densest area. An alteration dealing with construction is that the foundation can be prefabricated in a safe environment then transported to the site to make construction easier in certain areas. The foundation can be started with cement in a large container or bucket (the size depends on the specific needs of the designed fog collector), dried to reduce weight with 15

mounting brackets placed in the cement. The prefabricated foundation can be taken to the site where holes are dug and the posts are bolted in place (Olivier, 2002). G. Cost of Fog Collector Construction Fog collection is considered an inexpensive technology. However the overall cost relates to how much water will be collected and stored (Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008), how much of a water need there is, the size of the communities, and the distance between the fog collection site and the community that is being served (Olivier, 2004). The limitations on the water collected are influenced by the amount of money available for more collector construction and the physical area of the project site (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). Costs can be minimized by the use of local materials (Molina & Escobar, 2008). This benefits local small businesses and increases stakeholder involvement (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). The communities that will benefit from the new source of water must also be involved in its construction, either through direct involvement or a percentage of costs and labor paid (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). This increases the projects chance of sustainable success and also decreases overall costs because training for operation and maintenance of the project may not be necessary if the community participates in its construction (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). Cereceda and Schemenauer put the estimated cost of materials (construction and maintenance) at $2/m3 of collected fog water when the distance between the fog collectors and storage tank is 6 km or less (Cereceda and Schemenauer as cited in Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). UNEP estimated the cost and construction of a 48 m2 fog collector to be $378 in 1998 with maintenance and operational costs to be $600 per year (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). A way to minimize costs and maximize benefits is to have a multiple collector system (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). Depending on where the fog flows, collecting mesh can be strung on either side of a support post creating a horizontal wall of fog collectors thus minimizing the cost and the number of posts used. 16 H. The Quality of Water derived from Fog Water quality can be affected by three main factors: 1) the makeup of the incoming atmospheric water, 2) the material of the collector, and 3) the amount and type of the dry particles on the surface of the collector (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1992). Particulate matter traveling in the air can gather on the collecting screen of the fog collector and contribute ions to the collected water (Shanyengana et al., 2002). A study performed in Chile by Schemenauer and Cereceda, found incoming atmospheric water to have a low pH and showed sulfate (SO4 -2) as the major ion. Sulfate from unknown origins was also found in particulate matter in the air with oceanic production as a possible source (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1992). Theoretically, this could indicate that water collected farther from the shoreline should be cleaner than water collected closer to the shoreline. If oceanic salts traveling by wind play a part in the contamination of water vapor, which is what was suggested by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1992), then inland fog should be less polluted (Olivier, 2004). Ion concentration in atmospheric water vapor decreases with increasing altitude which implies dilution. Fisak et al. (2002) notes that the same Schemenauer and Cereceda study found that higher elevation sites have a higher ion concentration when the wind direction is coming from industrial sites. Higher ion

concentrations in fog water during windstorms were indicated in the results of a study performed in Namibia (Shanyengana et al., 2002). It has been shown that concentration of pollutants, especially ions, are higher in fog water than in precipitation (Schemenauer et al., 1995; Bendix et al., 2004; Walmsley & Schemenauer, 1996), so even fog water in small amounts may be a significant contributor of nutrients and pollutants (Eugster, 2008; Fisak et al., 2002; Fuzzi, Orsi, Bonforte, Zardini, & Franchini, 1997). It should also be noted that pollutants may foster fog formation. In a 1996 study performed by Pilger, it was found that sulfur dioxide may increase the occurrence of fog formation (Pilger as cited in Teixeira Gonalves et al., 2008) possibly because the pollutant can be used as a condensation nuclei. Currently, no studies have been done on bacterial concentration of the captured water (Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1992; Abdul-Wahab et al., 2007). Although one study did show that no E. coli was found in the collected fog water (Olivier, 2002). 17 I. Advances in Fog Collection Research Gara-Garca and Zarraluqui used historical, local, and regional climatological data (e.g. observed number of days to have fog) to create a fog database. Through interpolation methods they were able to create a fog database capable of generating fog occurrence maps based on region and seasonality. This database is the first of its kind developed for Mexico (Garca-Garca & Zarraluqui, 2008). The use of computer and numerical modeling in the field of fog research is expanding. A modeling experiment in 2008 shows that fog can be affected by agricultural irrigation. Since many fog water collection projects use that water for irrigation of agricultural projects it maybe be synergistic. The model results indicate that increases in relative humidity due to irrigation is related to the formation of fog, showing that there may be increased formation of fog due to irrigation in fog prone areas (Montecinos, et al., 2008). J. Types of Storage Tanks Storage tanks are an important part to fog collection. Once the water is collected, it must be stored somewhere unless it is to be used immediately. Two main types of storage tanks are 1) aboveground and 2) underground (Prinz, 2002). Aboveground storage tanks include ponds or reservoirs and large reservoirs with damns. Open manmade storage areas (much like a pool) would be placed in the first category. Underground storage tanks include cisterns, aquifers, and sand-filled reservoirs (Prinz, 2002). Open manmade storage areas and cisterns seem to be the most commonly used. The type of storage tank used depends on the local resources available for construction, how the water is to be used, and the needs of the community being served. Chapter III: Development of a Fog Collection Project There are several phase in the development of a fog collection project. Each phase is necessary to ensure a stable project that meets all of its objectives and final goal. As with any project, research is the first step. Fog data must be gathered to show that most basic requirement for a fog collection project, fog, is present. Site selection follows. A general region is known to the principle investigators initially, but a specific site must be chosen using the following categories: fog, accessibility or terrain features, community, and security. To guarantee that the four categories have been met, a field 18

visit must take place. One the data has been verified through a field visit, a pilot project ensues to validate the fog data and to gather data for estimated water volumes and storage structures. Through the pilot project phase, baseline data will be collected to be later used for evaluation and monitoring purposes in the progression of the project. Table 3 shows a list of characteristics to be met for a fog collection project. Table 3: Optimal Characteristics to be Met for a Fog Collection Project Phase in Development Characteristic Specifics of the Characteristic Fog Data Advection Fog Present Site Selection If Enough Fog is Present High Fog Frequency High Moisture Content Accessibility or Terrain Features Mountain range perpendicular to fog bearing winds Close to shore Topographical depression between shore and site Community Water poor community that is interested Security Personal safety and security Structural safety and security for fog collectors and water storage facilities Field Visit Verifies Site Selection Criteria Pilot Project Validates Fog Data in the First Phase Gather Data for Estimated Water Volumes Details wind speed and direction for most efficient fog collection Details shade percentage of collection surface for most efficient fog collection Water Storage Amount to be Stored Based off of Pilot Project numbers How will community get access to water Distance structure is placed from fog collectors and community Gain access to water via tap or bucket Safety of water Ion and bacterial concentrations Method for gaining access to water as a potential for contamination 19 Phase in Development

Characteristic Specifics of the Characteristic Baseline Data Scientific Data Amount of water captured over time period Any scientific data that contributes toward realization of objectives and goal Economics/ Accountancy Expenses of project Community/Society Data gathered about the community/stakeholders of the project before project is started Data gathered about the community/stakeholders of the project once project is started and continued
Table by R. Diehl

A. Fog Data Instrumentation required for fog measurement is not commonly placed in weather monitoring stations, which usually only house instrumentation to measure precipitation, air temperature and pressure (Garca-Garca & Zarraluqui, 2008). Weather stations often gather data for a general area, whereas the types of data related to fog formation and stability can change significantly over a range of distances and topography. Fog density is a parameter not typically measured at weather stations, because of this fog data relies heavily on human input and direct observation (Garca-Garca & Zarraluqui, 2008; Gioda et al., 1993) and therefore tends to lack uniformity which inhibits easy access and use for international research. The lack of reliable fog data must to be augmented through personal observation and quantification and fact-finding pilot projects before starting a full scale fog collection project. A project in Ifni, Morocco, showed that the number of fog days reported was more frequent on the coastal mountain range than on the higher inland range but more fog water was collected on average at the latter site illustrating the fickle nature of fog and the need for field research (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). Different areas within a specific geographic region can have multiple types of fog (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). Satellite imagery can help in determining the type of fog formed in an area and where it primarily forms (Cereceda, Larrain, Osses, Lzaro, Pinto, & 20 Schemenauer, 2001). Although seasonal variations in fog types and quantities will exist almost anywhere, if the underlying causes of a particular type of fog formation are stable, then fog will regularly form at that location (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). B. Site Selection Before settling on a potential site, several factors must be taken into account: 1) if the site can support large volumes of high quality fog water being collected (Olivier, 2002; Olivier & de Rautenbach, 2002; Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008), 2) accessibility or terrain features, 3) water poor community that is being served, and 4) security (Mousavibaygi, 2008; Olivier, 2004; Olivier & de Rautenbach, 2002; Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994b; Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1994a).

To determine if the site can support large volumes of fog, two criteria need to be met. A high fog frequency occurrence (minimum of half of year) and a high moisture content in the fog bearing winds is required for a high water vapor collection yield (Olivier, 2004; Olivier & de Rautenbach, 2002; United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). The sight must be foggy for most of the year and the fog that occurs there must be dense. When considering the accessibility or terrain features of a potential site there are several points that must be kept in mind. The first is that there must be a mountain range present. This gives the elevation necessary to allow for fog collection. The mountain range should be perpendicular to the predominant wind direction. This allows the atmospheric water vapor to be intercepted (Schemenauer et al., 1988; Olivier & de Rautenbach, 2002). The fog collection site on the mountain range should be close to the shore that will serve as the source of dense, advection fogwhich tends to provide a high amount of water to be collected (Cereceda Troncoso, Schemenauer, & Carvajal Rojas, 1988). Lastly, between the coast and the site on the mountain range, an ideal site will have a topographical depression; this helps to create heating during the day that will encourage fog laden clouds to be lifted up the mountain range (Schemenauer et al., 1988). The third factor to keep in mind while searching for a potential site is the water poor community that would be served by the fog collection project (Mousavi-baygi, 2008; Olivier, 2004). Look for an interested community that would benefit from the 21 access to the new water resource, and that is amenable for both large collectors and a water storage tank (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). The community must be willing participants in the creation, construction, and maintenance of the fog collection system. There must be a demonstrated need for water and evidence that local water needs are not being met. There may be evidence that there is not enough water for expansion or creation of projects that the community would like to have implemented in their region. An important method for determining the state of water resource needs in a community is to conduct interviews in the region of interest. Even if there is water scarcity, if the community has no desire for fog collectors or a similar project then there is no use to go any further. As Marzol & Snchez Mega (2008) stated, there is no basis if the community is not willfully involved. In the end, the economic costs of the fog collector, structure for water transport, and storage construction and maintenance must be evaluated in the planning phase as well (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). A secure project site is a factor that is essential for any successful fog collection project. A site must be safe enough to work in and to leave structures in without fear for personal safety and for theft of structures stationed in the field. C. Field Visit A field visit could be considered the last step in the site selection process. A field visit is to verify that the four main factors to site selection have been met. If they have not been met, then an alternative site must be explored. Direct fog data measurements should be taken near the potential site. The site should be studied geographically, with elevation, topography, and distance from the sea being noted. Preferably, photography of the area and geographic data points should be taken. The leaders of the communities near the potential site should be contacted to note their interest in the project, their communities ability to aid in the project, their water uses and need, and the security of

the area. Field surveys must be completed before the following step in the development of a fog collection project, a pilot project, is begun. D. Pilot Project When a potential fog collection site has been determined, a pilot project should follow. This may be a part of the field study or separate; it depends on the communities preference. A pilot fog collector consists of a 1 m x 1 m mesh covered frame supported 22 about 1 to 2 m above the ground. This would be the time to test which shade percentage would be best for the site and what local materials are available for use in the site. Different shade percentages may work best at different elevations (Molina & Escobar, 2008). Because the amounts of atmospheric vapor that are collected by fog collectors can be affected by the slope, the form of the hillside (concave-convex), the lithology, runoff features, or even the natural vegetation are variables that should be analyzed in the future (Schemenauer et al., 1988); these factors should be analyzed during the pilot project. Since wind direction and speed is crucial, placing an anemometer to establish the best site and position for a fog collector is advisable (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008) during this phase of the pilot project, if the budget allows. If the projects goal is to enhance a communitys water resource then interviewing the residents of the area and studying local weather data should be sufficient to find out if there are enough fog days and density to be considered a good site. It is also important to distinguish between rainfall/drizzle and fog. It is beneficial to have a weather station, preferably automatic, on site to measure such data (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008; Gioda et al., 1993). The longer the time of observation, the better the data will be. There may be no pressing need to distinguish between rainfall or fog drip. Small 1m x 1m pilot fog collectors can be installed cheaply and easily to verify the content of the interviews and weather data. If there are no outside financial resources or funding then the weather station equipment and anemometer may be excessive. E. Water Storage Site selection for the water storage structure is also essential. It should be close enough to both those who will use the water and from the fog collection source. A pump should not be necessary because the communities that use the water are usually below the fog collectors in the hills. The water can flow down to the storage tank via gravity (Mousavi-baygi, 2008). The size of the storage tank should hold half of the expected maximum daily volume of water consumed (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). 23 The estimate of water yields is important for successful fog water collection project planning. An overestimation of water yield can heighten the communities expectations for water usage and can waste money in the creation of holding tanks. It is important to verify the volumes of water collected during the pilot study and double check the volunteers data (Olivier, 2004). Water that is collected so purposefully should not be wasted. If the storage tanks overflow and there is an excess of water not needed for domestic use then a water using project should be put into place (Olivier & de Rautenbach, 2002). New storage tanks can be deployed and connected to ones that already exist so that excess water can flow from

one storage tank to another (Olivier & de Rautenbach, 2002). F. Baseline Data A baseline study is the gathering of initial data in the area of interest before a project is started. Baseline data is necessary for comparing a change at a later time. In the baseline study, it is always the best to have all possible information but this can be a drain on the available money for the project. Gathering information requires time, manpower, and energy; all of this adds up to equal money. For this reason, the necessities have to be prioritized. Only information deemed necessary at the time may be acquired. Information needed at a later date may be gathered at that later date. In fog collection projects, a baseline study mainly deals with cultural, societal, or economic aspects (e.g. a familys monthly income or the amount of a familys daily water use). For an environmental project, an environmental impact assessment is crucial; that is to say, that an inventory of the zones resources (a type of baseline data) is necessary and then the possible impacts on those resources must be evaluated. The project needs to account for any positive or negative changes; hopefully, the positives outweigh the negatives, otherwise the project would not be necessary, helpful, or sustainable. Chapter IV: Proyecto Desierto Verde (Project Green Desert), Peru A. Background Peru is one of the most centralized countries of South America. This means that the capital city has the most amenities when compared to other cities of the country. The second and third largest cities in Peru, Arequipa in the south and Trujillo in the north, 24 respectively, do not have the same large scale commerce or industry as Lima and there is a great divide between the world of Lima and the world of greater Peru; they are distinct cultures. Perus economy is based in Lima which draws Peruvians from all regions of the country to find work. Much of the time the migrants are low wage laborers moving to the big city and have no place to live. Even more common, these migrants make a home on unoccupied lands surrounding the more developed center of Lima. Figure 1 shows the concentrated area of Lima and the sparsely populated area of Villa Maria del Triunfo, the project area of Project Green Desert. Figure 1: Aerial Photograph of Lima and Villa Maria del Triunfo
Google Earth Image accessed September 2007

The majority of the lands where the migrants settle is largely unused and (as of yet) unwanted. There has been such vast growth in the recent history of Lima that the only unsettled areas exist on hillsides. These lands are barren, unoccupied areas. People go, stake out an area, in some cases carve out an area and a new settlement emerges. Figure 2 shows how development grows on the hillsides, terracing upwards. 25 Figure 2: Picture of Bellavista Settlement in Villa Maria del Triunfo
Photograph taken June 2006 by R. Diehl

Because the people who live in the settlements have no legal claim to the land, they are technically illegal settlements and therefore the inhabitants have no rights. No legal land rights mean that there are no utilities nor is there representation in governmental proceedings. There are no current geographical data for the area from the state agency in charge of planning. The settlements do have electricity, but water must

be trucked in by private companies, which is expensive. On more than one occasion the truck has been dry and the residents were left in need. According to the residents, in order to obtain legal land rights, they must meet a certain number of requirements. One of the requirements that will be addressed in this report is a green space in each new settlement. A certain amount of space has to be set aside in each new settlement for ecological purposes. The area may be a park with grass and trees or a learning ecological park with various types of named trees, for example, but it must be a green space that is set aside and never be developed. Project Green Desert (Proyecto Desierto Verde), headed by Dr. Kai Tiedemann and Anne Lummerich, involves three new (and not yet legally established) settlements in the town of Villa Maria del Triunfo: Bellavista, Quebrada Alta, and Los Angeles, (see Figure 3 for a map of the area). Upon reading the objectives of this project, superficially, it seems to be centered exclusively on the themes of water and the environment, but with 26 the help of a National Geographic grant, the three settlements will be changed and, hopefully, improved upon. Figure 3: Villa Maria del Triunfo Location in Reference to Peru.
Figure 3A shows the location of the Department of Lima in relation to Peru and South America. Figures 3B and 3C focus in to show the smaller Metropolis of Lima and the town of Villa Maria del Triunfo where Project Green Desert is located.

Peru 27 Project Green Deserts objectives include bettering the standard of living for the women of the settlements (which ultimately brings better opportunities for the rest of the family) through economic growth that makes the best use of the areas resources. Tiedemann and Lummerich went to these communities in order to implement a project using fog collectors or water harvesting technology. In the Peruvian economy the cost of one fog collector is around $550 USD. This includes the plastic netting, two treated eucalyptus posts, cement, cable, fishing line, and labor. Figure 4 shows a fully constructed fog collector. Figure 4: Picture of Fog Collector at Project Site in Villa Maria del Triunfo
Photograph taken July 2006 by R. Diehl

B. Peruvian Fog The west coast of South America, specifically Peru and Chile, is an arid climate with very little precipitation (Fuenzalida Villegas as cited in Larrain et al., 2002). Lima, Peru has an average annual total of 10mm of precipitation (Larrain et al., 2002). The aridity of the area is produced by a descending motion of air and atmospheric stability caused by a permanent high pressure system and the Humboldt Current (cold northerly flowing waters), (Larrain et al., 2002; Cereceda et al., 2002; Semenzato, 1996). In Peru and the northern part Chile the weather is governed by the Pacific anticyclone (the permanent high pressure system) which produces a wind from the southwest in the lower kilometer of the atmosphere. A low stratus or stratocumulus deck about 100-400 m thick (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989; Gioda et al., 1993; Larrain et al., 2002; Cereceda et al., 2002) is formed and extends a few hundred kilometers over the Pacific Ocean (Schemenauer et al., 1988). The stratocumulus deck formed by the 28 anticyclone makes the higher elevated coastal areas of Peru an ideal site for fog formation

and therefore collection (Schemenauer et al., 1988). The stratocumulus layer is topped by a thermal inversion the base of which corresponds to where condensation forms (Schemenauer et al., 1988) and in Peru and northern Chile tends to form at 600-1200 masl (meters above sea level) (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). The thermal inversion creates a cap which prevents the moisture in the air from rising up and dissipating in the upper layers (Schemenauer et al., 1988) and is caused by a subsidence in the anticyclone (Schemenauer & Joe, 1989). The moisture in the air is at a lower temperature, and therefore held in place by the thermal cap, due to its interaction with the cooler ocean (Schemenauer et al., 1988). Due to its coastal foggy nature, SENAMHI (Servicio Nacional de Meteorologa e Hidrologa) in Peru has been working on fog research since the 1960s, including sites such as Lachay, Pasamayo, Cerro Campana, Atiquipa, Cerro Orara in Ventinilla-Ancn, Cerro Colorado in Villa Maria del Triunfo, and Parque Recreacional de Cahuide in AteVitarte (Gioda et al., 1993; United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). C. Project Overview Tiedemann and Lummerich chose Villa Maria del Triunfo because it is one of the most under developed districts of Lima and it has the proper geographic and climatic characteristics needed for fog collecting, which were described in the previous portion of this report. Lima, in general, is overcast and cloudy for the majority of the year. In winter months, it does not rain, but the gara or very heavy, wet fog condenses on houses, streets, and automobiles. Fog is jokingly called el lago del cielo or the lake in the sky. The Organization of American States notes that for the regions of Chile and Peru, an altitude of 400 to 1,000 meters (1,312 to 3,280 feet) is the proper working range for fog collectors. This measurement coincides with the fog forming area which was described by Schemenauer & Joe (1989). The hills close to the ocean are home to a dense and immense fog that comes during winter (March to September). See Figure 5 for elevation data on Villa Maria del Triunfo (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). 29 Figure 5: Elevation of Project Site and Villa Maria del Triunfo D. Project Green Deserts Objectives A review of the Project Green Desert (Proyecto Desierto Verde) includes the following objectives: 1) Build eight fog collectors and one water storage tank; 2) Collect water in the storage tanks; 3) Plant 500 trees on the hills of the three settlements; 4) Water the planted trees with the water captured by the fog collector until they grow to a sufficient height so that they can trap their own water (the women of the three settlements are in charge of irrigation and are paid by the National Geographic grant); 5) Capture the excess water that is drips down from the trees, which in effect are natural fog collectors at this stage; and 6) Use both types of water for sustainable agriculture projects, which could also be considered self employment for the women of the three settlements (Tiedemann & Lummerich, 2006). As with any type of development project, there are goals that involve sociological, cultural and economic characteristics. Project Green Desert has an overall principal goal 30 geared towards the women of the three settlements. The projects main goal is to create or find a source of self employment for the women of the three settlements (Tiedemann

& Lummerich, 2006). Given Perus social economic status internationally and the sustainable development nature of the project, it is appropriate to measure it against the United Nations Millennium Objectives. The Millennium Objectives were devised to help meet the needs of the worlds poorest (United Nations, n.d.). Project Green Deserts main goal is directly influenced by the United Nations Millennium Objectives. The third objective is to promote gender equality and empower women (United Nations, n.d.). Within Project Green Desert, the relevant Millennium Objectives are: 1) Educational meetings on the advantages and disadvantages of the project, the management of small businesses, the creation of crafts and leadership; 2) Formation of Clubs of Mothers (Club de Madres) as a way towards auto-sufficiency and self guidance; 3) and the creation of capable leaders (United Nations, n.d.). The flowchart of objectives, Figure 6, shows the steps that needed to be fulfilled in order to achieve the principal goal of citizens having a higher standard of living. The objectives and the subsequent goal(s) must be attainable. Idealism can be a wonderful trait in mankind, yet in its true form, it can be a hindrance in the world of sustainable development. Sustainable development projects always strive for bettering something (such as a water crisis, population growth issues, infant mortality rates) yet that change does not occur overnight. It happens in small, incremental steps. The change occurs in measurable ways (increased number of gallons of water to a village, number of trees planted, family incomes increased by x amount) and there are intangibles, too, like the knowledge learned from making mistakes, the renewed faith of seeing people come together to work on a common cause and the frustration felt when you think you let someone down. Citizens trained in leadership abilities Citizens with a Higher Standard of Living Better Educational Levels Policy of implemented economic development Contribute to the creation of employment in recently migrated populations located in the three settlements of Villa Mara del Triunfo Organized economic Citizens who have organizations in the technical and business based grants Better Public Health Less Poverty authorities in the realm of sustainable small businesses that deal with reforestation related abilities Active participation by the local Club de Madres organized in sustainable

area small businesses that deal with reforestation and crafts Local and regional authorities in agreement and working together towards common goals Have leaders who are capable and willing to share their knowlege and learn new tasks Apply for internationally and nationally Access to technical and business management education
Table by Rebecca Diehl, Elena Nez, Ileana Gonzlez, and Giovanna Velarde.

Figure 6: Flowchart of Objectives concerning Project 32 E. Analysis The following is an analysis of Project Green Deserts goal. The goal of interest for this analysis is sustainability. In general, sustainable development does not solely look to the economic aspectas traditional development doesbut it goes further to include the social and environmental aspects (UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2009). It is a holistic approach to development; one aspect is neither more nor less important than the other two. For Project Green Desert, sustainability can be divided into two large areas: 1) sustainability in the environmental or scientific aspect, such as collecting water, better and/or maintain the environment in the three settlements and, 2) the sustainability in the social and economic aspects, such as self-employment for the women within the reforestation project. It is quite difficult to separate one from the other in sustainable development projects because you cannot have one aspect without the other; the two seem inseparable. A sustainable economy allows room for a sustainable environment and a sustainable environment can produce or add to a sustainable economy. One of the principle goals for Project Green Desert is to become a source of agroincome for the three settlements. The project plans to reforest an area containing at least 500 trees of native species. In developing countries, agriculture is essential; the majority of those in Villa Maria del Triunfo live from wood-working (Stavenhagen, 1985). The conditions that enable development to flourish also help the economy grow (Boisier, 1997). The economic growth betters the quality of life which supports the first Millennium Objective of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger (United Nations,

n.d.). But to be an economic source, it has to be sustainable in the agricultural and social aspects. i. Environmental Sustainability The area of environmental sustainability is related directly to the seventh Millennium Objective which is to ensure environmental sustainability (United Nations, n.d.). The environmental part of Project Green Desert is sustainable; the water is currently being captured from the man-made fog collectors and will also be captured from the trees that are supported by the project. When the trees are sufficiently tall (approximately 1 m) to capture more water than is necessary for their own growth, 33 project employees will water new saplings with the left over water using clay receptacles (vasijas) which are locally made. The pots will be placed, essentially buried, in the ground using an ancient technique, which dates back more than 2000 years, for watering in arid regions (Sheng as cited in Bainbridge, 2001). This method has been proven to be one of the most cost-efficient and effective ways of irrigation in arid regions (Bainbridge, 2001). Using clay pot irrigation promotes effective use of water by reducing waste; the trees only absorb what is necessary from the clay receptacle and evapotranspiration and desertification is minimized (Bainbridge, 2001). The trees that are planted as a part of this project are mostly native, including varieties such as palo verde, eliminating problems related to changes in the ecosystem through invasive species. The one exception, the casuarina tree, is native to Australia. It does grow well in dry areas and is more than able to capture usable water from fog due to its thin, long leaves. The project does not include the use chemical fertilizers or insecticides on the trees, only natural compost (Tiedemann & Lummerich, 2006) and therefore the chances of water contamination and (public) health problems are reduced. Even natural methods were used for combating pests. Chili water was used to fight an ant problem; moths were introduced against a certain type of caterpillar. ii. Social Sustainability The second area of the project is social sustainability. Without the support of the community there can be no project, as demonstrated in the Chungungo, Chile project (International Development Research Center [IDRC], 2003). To address the issue of social sustainability, Tiedemann and Lummerich developed a questionnaire and distributed it to the residents of the three settlements. The questionnaire dealt with the interest the residents had in the Green Desert pilot project. Initially, different settlements were chosen, but due to community issues such as a lack of interest by the local leader (dirigente), and other personnel obstacles, the settlements of Bellavista, Quebrada Alta, and Los Angeles, who showed an active interest, were chosen for the project. Tiedemann and Lummerich mapped out the scientific data collection and project methods and had them approved by National Geographic as requirements for project funding, and so they are not up for debate in the community. Management of the project however, is a subject that is coordinated and co-developed with community input. To 34 engender continued community interest, Dr. Tiedemann explains the scientific part of the project to the community through informative talks. The rest of the project details are decided by the community. For example, the faenas (a somewhat mandatory time usually Sunday afternoons where the community gathers, works on a project, and shares a meal afterwards) (see Figure 7), the womens work, and security are issues for the

community to address. These aspects of the project directly involve the community, the stakeholders, and are defined by them. In the beginning the owners or the leaders of the project were Tiedemann and Lummerich now the ownership has passed to the community. Tiedemann and Lummerich can be likened to contract engineers and the club of mothers (club de madres), the community leaders and the interested community are now the owners. Figure 7: Community Working Together.
Figure 7A shows a Faena of Hauling Supplies to Project Site Above. Figure 7B shows the Community Meal after the Faena. Photograph taken July 2006 by R. Diehl

In the realm of sustainable and social development, education is the key to success. According to Normal Gall in his draft titled The State of Latin America, education is the axis of positive change (Gall, 2006). For this reason, the Green Desert project is sustainable. There is an educational emphasis that not only occurs in the initial stage, but is maintained throughout the entire project. There are informative talks on various themes such as micro business management, fog collector maintenance and construction, leadership, and craft/handicrafts. 35 These charlas or educational talks not only help the stakeholders in the future, the information they take away from the charlas can be used immediately. Better bookkeeping at home or a new craft design can help maintain and/or bring in new income. iii. Economic Sustainability Project Green Desert also has an area for economic sustainability. Currently, because Project Green Desert is still in its pilot project stage, the funding comes from grants sponsored by National Geographic and Asociacin Atocongo, an organization funded by the local cement company, Cementos Lima, that promotes sustainable and responsible business growth through financial grants. From that standpoint alone, the project lacks economic sustainability, however, when one sees the potential future uses of the reforestation project, sustainability can be seen. If the reforestation aspect of the project is managed properly, it can serve as a base for various economic enterprises. When the trees grow and become large enough, they can be used for lumber, they can be grown in nurseries, sold as ornamentals, or for another project created by the stakeholders, but the profits from the use of the trees are to be used, at least in part, for the maintenance of the fog collectors. A sustainable project has to have an aspect of economic growth (Stavenhagen, 1985). This growth will be used to reach what Amartya Sen calls the expansion of (human) capabilities. These human capabilities are such cornerstones (institutions and individual freedoms) as education, health, transparency and no corruption in government, and human rightsessentially anything that promotes development and stability in a nation. The reforestation project fills the required green space need for obtaining the legal land titles of the three settlements, which will in turn allow them to get public utilities like water, sewer, and possibly garbage services eventually. F. Baseline and Impact Study Once the scientific requirements for fog collection are met, the data of interest for Project Green Desert would be demographic information on the three settlements, like population size, the number of single mothers, number of families per household;

economic data such as average household income, if settlement taxes are collected, how much the private water truck charges per unit, and the market price for the specific type 36 of lumber that is being reforested; and sociological data like how the average day is broken down for men, women, and children. This is not an inclusive list and much of this data can be gathered through everyday conversations with people from the settlements. Before starting the project, the knowledge base of the residents of the three settlements must be determined. The introduction of a new technology into the area is crucial to Project Green Desert. The communitys level of understanding must be evaluated. Not all change is a welcomed change. The level of interest for such a project and the ensuing changes need to be determined. Without the communities support, the project is not sustainable. Specifically for this project that has themes of economy, the creation of dignified and sustainable work for a part of the communities populations, a marketing study to see what types of (small) craft/handicraft business(es) can be effectively brought to fruition either locally or abroad is necessary. This type of marketing study is often contracted out to a marketing specialist. G. Monitoring Project monitoring is possible through the analysis of the results and comparing them to the milestones set out by the projects creators in the timeline. Results have to be observed for the duration of the project. Monitoring cannot begin on day one, yet the project status maybe be compared to that of the timeline. As issues or problems arise, the timeline maybe be adjusted for the new factors. Aspects of the Project Green Desert that should be monitored: Club de Madres actions Communities interest in the project Maintenance and status of the fog collectors Growth of the reforested trees Relationship between the local authorities and the municipal authorities, i.e. the authorities of Bellavista, Quebrada Alta, and Los Angeles and the municipal authorities of Villa Maria del Triunfo Finances of Project Green Desert, incomes and expenditures The Club de Madres actions can be verified through the clubs registry, the dirigentes registry, their meeting minutes, and the finances of their new small 37 businesses. The crafts or handicrafts produced by the women in the area must be also be verified for the amount produced by each woman, how much is sold, and for how much the product sold. The monitoring can be done by examining the clubs accounting books. The communities interest in the project may be monitored by talking to the stakeholders involved and keeping track of attendance at project related activities. The meetings of the mothers clubs and those of the citizens can be monitored through the dirigentes registry. Keeping the lines of communication open with the dirigentes, the municipal authorities and the residents of the three settlements are fundamental. The communities interest is essential because that and their involvement in the project make it sustainable, which is one of the main goals of the project. Maintenance and working status of the fog collectors is necessary to keep the scientific fundamentals of the project running smoothly. The fog collectors help the three

settlements earn their land titles by providing a sustainable green space (reforested area) in the zone by providing the supply of water for the green space. It is a vital aspect to the sustainability of the project and it must be inventoried for any repairs. Since the reforested trees are a base for the future small business enterprises by the three settlements, it is necessary to monitor their growth and development. If any pests are noted, their damage to the trees needs to be noted and then further action needs to be decided, if the damage is deemed harsh enough (pest management, for example). The monitoring of the relationship between the local and the municipal authorities in relation to Project Green Desert can be done through the signed contracts and the presence maintained by the authorities with the projects stakeholders. For the requirements of the National Geographic and the sustainability of the project, municipal government is necessary yet not to the degree that specific leaders are chosen in their relationship to Project Green Desert. The money used from the National Geographics grant is managed by Tiedemann and Lummerich. National Geographic sent the money in a lump sum and they are to manage it according to the budget that they submitted with their initial proposal. The National Geographic grant money should be monitored monthly to make sure the scale and necessities of the project are within the budget. The money used from the Asociacin Atocongo grant requires receipts which are sent in to the accountant. 38 H. Evaluation Figure 8 shows the problems faced by the three settlements in Villa Maria del Triunfo. These issues are not solely those of Villa Maria del Triunfo, but the majority of Peru. There is value in working through the problems of a situation to find the true source. Much like a medical doctor, those who do development projects (especially international ones) do not only want to alleviate the pain of the symptoms, but combat the reason behind them. Figure 8 is a logical flow of problems in Villa Maria del Triunfo that could have been used during the creation of the project but now can be used to evaluate the project. I created this chart as an example that describes the problems that surround Villa Maria del Triunfo. An evaluation form should have stakeholder involvement included with the principle investigators suggestions as well. Lack of organized leadership in VMDT Lack of access to technical and business education or workshops investment due to few social organizations in the zone Little compromise between local and regional authorities authority's encouragement of creation of

small businesses or little technical or business related skills Lack of local Lack of private relationships in the zone Few economic resources development in the zone Lack of employment in recently migrated populations located in the three settlements in Villa Maria del Triunfo No organized economic Citizens with a lack of Low standard of health Poverty Low educational levels Widespread Low Standard of Living Lack of policies that encourage economic
Table created by Rebecca Diehl, Elena Nez, Ileana Gonzlez, and Giovanna Velarde.

Figure 8: Flowchart of Problems Concerning Project Green Desert Table 4 shows the logical framework for Project Green Desert. It describes the objectives, goals, indicators of success, and methods to verify the indicators. This framework can be used to evaluate the project in all stages. I created this chart as an example that describes the problems that surround Villa Maria del Triunfo. An evaluation form should have stakeholder involvement included with the principle investigators suggestions as well. Table 4: Logical Framework for Project Green Desert Hierarchy of Objectives Goals Indicators of Success Sources of Verification End: Citizens with a higher standard of living General Objective: Contribute to the creation of employment in the three settlements of Villa Maria del Triunfo 20% of the population with employment in either reforestation or crafts/handicrafts 20% monthly increase in family income Interviews of the citizens Result 1 Organized economic organizations in the area 3 Club de Madres producing crafts/handicrafts 4 workshops on the fabrication of wood

crafts/handicrafts 10% of produced crafts/handicrafts sold 10% of wood crafts/handicrafts sold Club de Madres registry and accounting books Club de Madres registry and accounting books Activity 1.01 Active participation by the local authorities in the realm of sustainable small businesses that deal with reforestation 41 Hierarchy of Objectives Goals Indicators of Success Sources of Verification Actions 1.01.01 Informational meetings between the local and municipal authorities and the local population 30% of the local and municipal authorities informed about Project Green Desert 40 citizens informed on the creation of small businesses 100 people informed Register of community meetings Register of community documents Activity 1.02 Club de Madres organized in sustainable small businesses that deal with reforestation and crafts Actions 1.02.01 Training for women to organize themselves into Club de Madres 40% of women in the three settlements trained and organized into 3 Clubes de Madres 80% attendance for the trainings on the organization of the Clubes de Madres

Register of Clubes de Madres meetings Dirigentes Register of meetings Actions 1.02.02 Training of the Clubes de Madres for small business management 3 Clubes de Madres trained in small business management 80% attendance for the small business management training Register of Clubes de Madres meetings Dirigentes Register of meetings Actions 1.02.03 Informational meetings on the benefits of reforestation and crafts/handicrafts as an economic source 60% of the population informed on the benefits of reforestation and crafts/handicrafts 80% attendance for the meetings on the benefits of reforestation and crafts/handicrafts Register of Clubes de Madres meetings Dirigentes Register of meetings 42 Hierarchy of Objectives Goals Indicators of Success Sources of Verification Result 2 Policy of implemented economic development Municipal authorities producing mandates that promote the economic development through reforestation and crafts/handicrafts Leaders and citizens participate in the development of norms and

both parties give mutual support Norms that promote the economic development through reforestation and crafts/handicrafts 60% of the leaders and populations increase their active participation in decision making Municipal mandate document Register of community meetings Register of community documents Activity 2.01 Local and regional authorities in agreement and working together towards common goals Actions 2.01.01 Trainings for the local and municipal authorities on Project Green Desert and the type of support that the population needs Authorities with knowledge of Project Green Desert Authorities who bring their support for Project Green Desert 10 authorities trained on the goal and objectives of Project Green Desert 5 authorities who bring their support to Project Green Desert Register of community meetings Interviews of citizens about the project 43 Hierarchy of Objectives Goals Indicators of Success Sources of Verification Actions 2.01.02 Meeting to sign a contract between the local and municipal authorities that assures their relationship

involving Project Green Desert Authorities with an adequate relationship and understanding of the economic ties to Project Green Desert Signed contract Copy of the signed document Activity 2.02 Citizens trained in leadership abilities Actions 2.02.01 Leadership training for the citizens 100 citizens trained in leadership 15% increase of the leaders in the three settlements Register of community meetings Questionnaires for the citizens Result 3 Citizens who have technical and business related abilities 50 proactive citizens get together in groups to produce crafts/handicrafts 15% of the crafts/handicrafts production is inserted into the local market/commerce Accounting books: income and expenses Register of community documents Interviews of the citizens Activity 3.01 Have leaders who are capable and willing to share their knowledge and learn new tasks Actions 3.01.01 Elect leaders who are proactive, interested in technical and small business trainings 3 leaders elected 2 leaders who work closely with Project Green Desert Register of community

documents Questionnaires of population Questionnaires of leaders 44 Hierarchy of Objectives Goals Indicators of Success Sources of Verification Actions 3.01.02 Leadership training 3 leaders leadership abilities strengthened 66% increase in leaders leadership abilities Register of community documents Questionnaires of population Questionnaires of leaders Activity 3.02 Have access to technical and small business management education Actions 3.02.01 Apply for nationally and internationally based grants 2 grants received from national and/or international NGOs $20,000 USD invested by grants Financial statements Accounting of the project Actions 3.02.02 Training in technical and small business management Capable leaders and Trainers in small business management 50% increase of leaders understanding of technical knowledge and/or small business management Register of community documents Register of community meetings Pre and Post training testing Actions 3.02.03 Organize meetings to coordinate information to better the relationship between the three settlements, the local

authorities and the municipal authorities Authorities and citizens maintain mutual support for the advancement of Project Green Desert and of future projects 3 agreements established between the populations and the authorities Register of community documents Register of community meetings Questionnaires of the population Questionnaires of the authorities
Table by Rebecca Diehl, Elena Nez, Ileana Gonzlez, and Giovanna Velarde.

45 Very similar to the way monitoring is carried out; evaluating the projects results can be analyzed with the change in the data taken at the beginning of the project. Evaluating aspects of the project allow the stakeholders to see what is and is not valuable and worthwhile for the advancement of a projects goals. The evaluation of the project begins after the projects start, usually when changes in the baseline data can be observed. However, if after a certain time of the projects start date no changes are noted, then an evaluation must occur. Projects that involve issues on culture, economy, sociology, and science must always be evaluated. Issues that need to be evaluated: The usefulness of the trainings and workshops, on the benefits of reforestation and of the crafts/handicrafts, and on small business management, to see if the women in the three communities like or find worth in the meetings. Surveys or personal interviews would be the way to measure these changes. The relationships between the municipal and local authorities, and the population and other stakeholders to observe their status. Surveys or personal interviews would be the way to measure these changes in the various relationships. The legal documents authorized by the municipality on the project to verify their status and support of the project and development in the zone. Checking public records would verify this. The areas leaders to see if they promote the projects development and their relationship with the other stakeholders and with the municipal authorities. Personal interviews of the local leaders, personal interviews and surveys of the communities residents, interviews with municipal governments, and checking public records would verify the views of the areas leaders. The need for more grants. The projects finances need to be evaluated to confirm if there is enough current money for the needs of the project. Revision of the projects accountancy would give this information.

Also, the basis of the project, i.e. the fog collectors and the reforested trees. The fog collectors have to be maintained in an adequate condition, to provide enough water for the sustained growth of the trees. The growth and health of the trees needs to be ascertained for the sustainable economic growth aspect. 46 I. Indicators An indicator is a measurable unit. It can tell us the state or health of a project. The principal indicators in this project are: 1) The production of crafts/handicrafts with 10% sold 2) The monthly increase by 20% of income for each family for the first year after starting the crafts/handicrafts aspect of the project 3) A 60% increase in the leaders and populations active participation in the decision making process The creation of crafts/handicrafts made from the reforested wood is a by-product of the agro-forestry project. The crafts are chosen by the communities (those who will be doing the crafting)what is to be made, how it is to be madeand is therefore part of the economic sustainability aspect to Project Green Desert. The crafts may be sold to increase the families income. The Club de Madres register would be a record of the creation of crafts and the inventory of them. With 10% of the newly created crafts sold, the second indicator should follow. The 20% increase of the families economic income is one of the most important indicators of the project. The end goal of the project is to develop a sustainable (agro-) economy in the three settlements. A sustained increase in the families incomes will show the growth, health, and benefits to the economic aspects of the project. Reviewing the families household incomes would verify any changes. A 60% increase in the leaders and populations active participation in the decision making process is a solid indicator of sustainability and stakeholder involvement in the project. Increased participation by stakeholders means the project is now in their hands; that they have a voice and are aware of its influence on the project and its advancement. This indicator can be measured through the Club de Madres and dirigentes registers and the minutes of the local and municipal meetings by the principle investigators. J. Project Weakness There are still some problems to be resolved in this project. For the moment, there is no sustainable employment before the trees reach their ideal fog collecting height. The womens work is paid for by the National Geographic grant. The work is not sustainable nor is it work 47 that is chosen by the women of the community. A benefit to this work is that it provides a

chance for the women to work together, socialize, and add to their household income. The majority of the women involved in the project are literate, however, there are some who are not and still some who have Spanish as a second language (their first being Quechua or Aymara). To insure them a future place in the workforce, they should learn the invaluable skills of literacy and numeracy. The project should not take for granted these basic tenets of education. There are success indicators on the scientific aspect of the project (tangibles that can be presented to National Geographic), such as amount of water collected, how many trees were sustained by the collected water, and how much income was generated. There are, however, no success indicators for the social aspect. There has to be an evaluation or auto-evaluation of the project while it develops. Chapter V: Conclusions and Suggestions Project Green Desert is a well thought out project that is developing in a stable manner. Much of the projects stability is due to Tiedemann and Lummerich careful planning. No one can plan for every contingency but having a separate set of eyes looking at Project Green Desert leads to the development of questions and suggestions. The following suggestions are broken down into four categories: further scientific and technical investigations, improved evaluation tools, stakeholder development, and tools to encourage future projects. A. Further Scientific and Technical Investigations In the field of fog collection, advances are being made with each new study. The first part of the report showed new possibilities in research (alternative fog collectors, construction design, water storage devices). The future of Project Green Desert could include research on individual home fog collectors and storage tanks or cisterns. A pilot project could be done to include a number of homes at different elevations to see at what altitude the best collecting may occur. Studies could also include the current water use of the family, the use with additional fog collected water, and any social or cultural norms that may have changed. A suggestion that may only be viable for certain times of the year or most definitely parts of the day is solar heating of water. Tanks may be positioned on the individuals land to capture the suns heat to warm the water for more comfortable bathing and washing practices. This may only be available at certain elevations due to the climatological nature of the three communities

of Villa Maria del Triunfo. 48 With the use fog collecting, one sustainable technology may lead to another. Since fog collection is powered by wind energy, the communities may be interested in research in using windmills. The area generally seems amenable to it as it is up in the hills, additional power sources-especially free green energy-could be welcomed by the communities. This could easily grow into a large project of its own. Bacterial testing should be done along with ion concentration testing to address water quality issues. The testing should be done on the recently collected fog water itself and collected water in the storage tank, if there is one. If that water is meant for human consumption then the testing should be completed at least once a year and properly treated if necessary. If found, many pollutants such as microbes and dust can be filtered out through the use of a sand filter (Pandey et al., 2007) or easily sanitized through chlorination (United Nations Environment Programme, 1998). Proper maintenance and testing procedures should be developed to keep the collected water within drinking water standards (Abdul-Wahab et al., 2007). With contamination a concern, a standard practice, method, or mechanism should be developed so that the first collection of fog water should be discarded or that the collecting surface should be washed prior to the next fog collection season. It has been shown that salts and microbes carried by the wind can contaminate atmospheric vapor making it unsafe for human consumption (Olivier, 2002; Bendix et al., 2004; Eugster, 2008; Schemenauer & Cereceda, 1992; Schemenauer et al., 1995; Shanyengana et al., 2002) so minimizing the chance that they get into the water system is necessary for human health. Further research should be performed to see if fog collectors could be adapted to collect rainwater in areas where there is precipitation. It is one way to maximize the potentiality of fog collectors. In most cases the water will be fed to and collected by a storage tank. The best way to maximize water collection would be to capture as much water from as many sources (especially is those sources tend to be seasonal) as possible (Molina & Escobar, 2008). When dealing with a fog water collection project that is to be used as a water resource for local communities, size and scope of the project should be a focus. If the communities are scattered throughout a large area then planning on a region scale might be more practical and economical than planning for each individual community (Rush et al., 2000). Further research should be developed to investigate the feasibility of micro scale or individual fog collectors versus using large fog collecting systems (Abdul-Wahab & Lea, 2008). 49 B. Improved Evaluation Tools Insuring that Project Desert Green is properly evaluated will be an important aspect of

completing the project. The cultural and/or sociological factors that accompany a fog collection project need to be evaluated. As with any project, the quality of life is meant to be improved by way of dignified work for the members of the three settlements, but the good always comes with the bad. And by evaluating the sociological and cultural factors, more good and less bad can be strived for. Proper evaluation will highly benefit future projects that develop in the wake of Project Green Desert, and will insure that the knowledge from those on the ground is not lost. I would recommend that Project Green Desert develop a feedback technique to give the community stakeholders a method to voice their opinions. This could be in the form of a comprehensive assessment, which is an evaluation method in the form of a structured interview and gives an inventory of defined ratings (Gurland, 1978), or any evaluation method that fully gauges the stakeholders opinions and views in regards to all aspects (social, economic, environmental) of the project. It should determine what the stakeholders consider the shortfalls of the project. The feedback technique should further seek to measure how the employment and selfemployment aspect of the project worked for stakeholders and if involvement with the project led to sustainable employment. It should ask for specifics of how the individuals lives have changed, for better or worse, including those in their household. Certainly it should allow for anonymous suggestions to be provided to the project leaders. C. Stakeholder Development Because Project Green Desert had a more scientific focus on the collection of fog, issues such as participant illiteracy tend to be generally overlooked. Although the educational needs of the stakeholders are peripheral relative to the main goal of agricultural sustainability; improved reading, writing, and mathematics of the stakeholders can only improve the sustainability of the project and the community in which it exists. Many of the community members are from other areas of Peru, specifically areas where Spanish is by and large a second language. The first language is either Quechua or Aymara. Improvement upon spoken Spanish will be encouraged through literacy and numeracy improvement. 50 Education that specifically helps the project, like agribusiness and agricultural

management will directly improve the reforestation aspect of the project. Secondary aspects of the project can be improved through accounting, marketing, and customer service classes. If a goal is for greater employment and self-employment for the individuals in Villa Maria del Triunfo, then proper bookkeeping and business development skills should be fostered. There is also a focus on arts and crafts development as a potential business, education on the different types of crafts that can be made with agricultural products and by products should be explored. Informing the stakeholder that governmental and non-profit educational help exists is the best manner to do this. They can then choose for themselves which topics would be appropriate, if any. On the scientific side of things, public health and safety should be emphasized. There is a new water source and storage tanks in the area, proper management and maintenance of the storage tanks is essential for public health. Water borne illnesses can also be a potential hazard. Knowing how to properly maintain the tanks and collectors will help keep sickness to a minimum. If there is excess water collected then it should be invested back into the community. It is a resource to be used efficiently. Education on community, school and/or home gardens could help decrease nourishment problems that the communities may face. Adding a resource of food (through gardens or fruit trees) can increase economic income and standard of living. D. Tools to Encourage Future Projects Development of tools to encourage future projects based on the lessons learned in Project Green Desert should be carried out to maximize the work that has already been conducted. For example, Project Green Desert should develop an English/Spanish2 (with future versions containing Quechua and Aymara languages) guide that could be passed on to community members in other areas that would be suitable for a fog harvesting project. The guide should contain pictures and drawings that clearly depict the steps necessary for a fog collection project, in case other community residents are not literate. Contacts of agencies (SENAMHI, community leaders of Villa Maria del Triunfo) that can assist in teaching fog collection techniques should be included.
2 The suggested languages for the guide are based on English being the common language of the researchers and Spanish the common language between the researchers and the community.

51 Stakeholders in Project Green Desert should be trained to describe and present elements of the project to other interested communities. This type of activity would not only provide firsthand information to groups considering implementation of such a project, but would also allow for networking amongst the underserved and marginalized communities of Peru. Additionally, preparing stakeholders to share the details of the project in their community would insure that they have the understanding to sustain the project into the future- beyond the involvement of the principle investigators. The first element that could go into presentations and guides is fog collectionthe construction, maintenance, and amounts of fog necessary for the water needs that are to be met. It should be described how the community was involved in the construction of the collector and ensuing water storage tank, how the water is divided up, and if individual collectors are possible. The second element could be how money can be generated from having an additional source of water. By using water for irrigation, income can be created through nurseries and gardens by selling their products. And how, in general, it betters the community (less water stress on community, water stored for washing when water truck comes empty). Another element that could go into presentations and guides is on the process to meet the states requirements for the communitys legal land title. The requirement for the green space is being met by the reforestation project. The guide could go on to mention how the community is benefited by a greener environment in other ways, as well (aesthetics, added income through proper management, potential for wildlife). E. Equity & Sustainable Development in Fog Collection Women are often the members of a community who do the washing and fetch the water. Alleviating these sometimes day-long tasks by collecting fog water can free up time for education or work which can in turn create an extra source of family income (Marzol & Snchez Mega, 2008). Additional sources of water may not only play a significant role in the health and economics of the communities but it may have a cultural significance as well. For example, if the water is diverted to a laundry pool, people (specifically women) may meet in groups and discuss, brainstorm, and catch up together all while doing laundry. Events are planned around these types of daily activities; any changes to their daily schedule may have a noteworthy cultural significance which should not be minimized. 52

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