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Maintenance of gas turbine :

u pkeep o proper y Maintenance, defined as the upkeep off propertty , is one of the most important operations in a plant. The manufacture and maintenance of turbomachinery are totally different. The first involves the shaping and assembly of various parts to required tolerances, while the second, maintenance, involves restoration of these tolerances through a series of intelligent compromises. Maintenance costs and availability are two of the most important concerns to a gas turbine equipment owner.

Maintenance procedures are always controversial, since u pkeep the definition of upkeep varies with the individual interpretation of each maintenance supervisor. Modern day turbomachinery is built to last between 3040 years. Thus, the keeping of basic maintenance records and critical data is imperative for a good maintenance program. owners must develop a general understanding of the relationship between their operating plans and priorities for the plant, the skill level of operating and maintenance personnel, and the manufacturer's recommendations regarding the number and types of inspections.

Economic justification is always the controlling factor for any program, and maintenance practices are not different.
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Maintenance costs can be minimized by, and are directly related to, good operation; likewise, better operating results can be obtained when the equipment is under the control of a planned maintenance program. Improper operation of mechanical equipment can can be as much or more of the cause of its deterioration and failure as is actual, normal mechanical wear. Thus, operation and maintenance go together. So, the best maintenance program is the one that optimizes the owners costs and maximizes equipment availability. Combining the practice of preventive maintenance and total quality control and total employee involvement results in an innovative system for equipment maintenance that optimizes effectiveness, eliminates breakdowns, and promotes autonomous operator maintenance through dayto-day activities. This concept known as Total Productive Maintenance T PM (TPM ) A new maintenance system is introduced based on the L e Cyc e Cos selection of all equipment Liiffe Cyclle Costt.. This new system especially for major power plants is based on the combination of total condition monitoring, and the maintenance principles of total productive maintenance, and is called the: P er ormance Based To a Produc ve Ma n enance Perfformance Based Tottall Producttiive Maiinttenance Systtem.. Sys em The general maintenance system is classified into concepts: 1). Panic maintenance based on breakdowns.
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2). P i m 3). P 4). P m 5). P m (P P ). P P

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Key factors affecting maintenance planning

The basic design and recommended maintenance of heavy-duty gas turbines are oriented toward:
i I U i f ti ill t ti t i i t l ,i . t ti l . l , it i fl lt l .

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The effect of maintenance factors for fuel, starts, environment and load duty cycles are cumulative. As the maintenance factor increases, the time between inspections and component repairs decreases and it is possible that component replacement frequency will icrease . Major factors influencing maintenance and equipment life : There are many factors that can influence equipment life and these must be understood and accounted for in the owner's maintenance planning.
   

Cyclic Effects Firing Temperature Fuel Steam/Water Injection

Continuous duty application: Rupture Creep deflection High-cycle fatique Corrosion Oxidation Errosion Rubs/wear Foreign object damage rupture Cyclic duty application : Thermal mechanical fatique High-cycle-fatique Rubs/wear Foreign object damage
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Inspection
 The gas turbine is designed to withstand severe duty and to be maintained onsite.  Off-site repair required only on certain combustion components.  Major companies have some features designed to facilitate on-site maintenance like:
 All casings, shells and frames are split on machine horizontal centerline.  pper halves may be liftedindividually for access to internal parts.

 With upper-half compressor casings removed, all stator vanes can be slid circumferentially out of the casings for inspection or replacement without rotor removal.
 All bearing housings and liners are split on the horizontal centerline so that may be inspected and replaced,when necessary.  The lower half of the Bearing liner can be removed with out removing the rotor.

 All seals and shaft picking's are separate from the main bearing housings and casing structures and may be readily removed and replaced.
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Maintenance inspection types may be classified as standby,running and disassemply inspection.

The standby inspection: is performed when the unit is


not operating and includes routine servicing of accessory systems and devicecalibration.

The running inspection: is performed by observing


key operating parameters while the turbine is running.

The disassembly inspection: requires opening the


turbine for inspection of internal components and is Performed in varying degrees.

 Axial flow compressor after dismantling the upper half casing:

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Hp rotor

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Bearing No.2 on HP rotor

Labyrinth seal

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Top cover of bearing no. 2 on HP rotor

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y On most designs, fuel nozzles, can be removed for inspection,maintenance or replacement without lifting any casings. y Some damage will not be detectable through visual observation . y Accurate dimensional check and non-destructive examinations (NDE) techniques like fluorescent penetrant inspection may reveal additional discontinuities, such as stress cracking, that require more extensive repairs. y Typical gas turbine component damage that occurs during usage includes component cracking, foreign object damage (FOD), oxidation and corrosion.

Borescope inspections:
 Aborescope is a device used to examine components inside a cavity that cannot be visually examined directly.  It bends in two or four directions to look around a cavity.  The borescope contains its own light source throughout the engines internal passages. Allows rapid inspection of the following areas:
 Turbine Section  Compressor section  Combustion section

 Removal of spark plugs and flame detectors from combustion system allows access to these areas.
Borescope inspection is carried out because of the following benefits it can provide in the maintenance program:
1. Perform internal on-site visual checks without disassembly. 2. Detect abnormal conditions early to avoid failures. 3. Determine degradation rates. 4. Extend periods between scheduled inspections. 5. Allow accurate planning and scheduling of maintenance actions. 6. Monitor condition of internal components. 7. Provide increased ability to predict required parts, special tools, and skilled manpower.

Gas Turbine Borescope Inspection Criteria:

For Compressor Blades:


       Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Dirt Build p Corrosion Tip Erosion Trailing Edge Thinning Stator Blade Root Erosion Tip Clearance

For Combustion, (Liner and Transition Piece):


      Carbon Build- p Hot Spots Cracking Bulging Wear Missing Metal

For Turbine Nozzles:


 Foreign Object Damage (FOD)  Corrosion  Blocked Cooling Holes
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Cracks Trailing Edge Bowing Erosion Burning Corrosion Blisters Cracks Tip Clearance Erosion Missing Metal

For Turbine Buckets:

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This Figure shows the time savings we may obtain by the proper use of borescopic inspection for planned maintenance:

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Effect of planned maintenance with usage of borescope

Inspection for Degradation:


Type of Damage Location Source of the Damage

TBC coating flaking Gouge Pieces missing Seal cracks

HPT blades HPT blades Blades Transition piece

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Heavy oxide deposits Penetration Blade tips missing Distortion Coking Penetration Cracks Heavy corrosion Heavy erosion Hot streaking Dents Hot spots

HPT vanes, blades HPT vanes, blades HPT and compressors Combustor Fuel nozzle assembl Combustor Combustor liners HPT vanes, blades HPT vanes, blades Combustor Vanes, blades HPT vanes, blades

Environment, fuel Corrosion, erosion Clearance, DOD/FOD Uneven combustion Uneven combustion Uneven combustion Thermal stress, Wobbe number change Coating defect Loss of film cooling Fault fuel nozzle DOD/FOD Fault fuel spray pattern, liquid hydrocarbons in NG fuel Tips rubbing, blocked cooling passages DOD/FOD DOD/FOD Uneven combustion