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SustainingtheSanitationRevolution IndiaCountrySanitationStatus

By T.M.VijayBhaskar
JointSecretary,DeptofDrinkingWaterSupply, MinistryofRuralDevelopment,GovtofIndia

ADBDMCSanitationDialogue
ADBHeadquarters,Manila,Philippines 35March,2009
The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

CountryProfile:India
Area Capital Population InfantMortality LifeExpectancy PopulationBelowPovertyLine AdultLiteracy HDIRank
Sources:PlanningCommission,NFHS IIIandHDR

3.28MillionSq.Km NewDelhi 1.15Billion 57/1000 64years 28.6% 61% 127

India ProjectedPopulationGrowth
Year TotalPopulation (billion) Rural(%) Urban(%)

2000 2005 2010 2015


Source:UNHABITAT

1 1.08 1.16 1.22

72 71 69 67

27 29 30 32

RuralToiletCoverage

Impactofimprovementsinsanitation
TheCentralPollutionControlBoardhassaid riversinIndiaaregettingcleaner.According totheirdata,46percentofthesampling locationshadwaterthatconformedtototal coliformstandardsin1995.Thisfigurewent upto50percentin2007.Thewaterquality monitoringresultswithrespecttoindicatorof pathogenicbacteriashowthereisgradual improvementinquality, thereportobserved.

Impactofunmetdemand rivers

ImprovementsinInfantMortality Rate
NFHS-1 NFHS-2 NFHS-3

85 73 62 56 47 42 79 68 57

Urban

NFHS3,India,200506

Rural

Total

TrendsinprevalenceofChildhood Diarrhoea
Percentofchildrenunderage3withdiarrhoeainthepast2weeks

NFHS-2

NFHS-3

33

33 25 24

27

26

Urban

Rural
NFHS3,India,200506

Total

IncreasingInvestmentonRural Sanitation

RuralSanitationCoverage
60% 1980-90: Int'l Drinking Water Supply & Sanitation Decade 1986-1999: Central Rural Sanitation 40% 1999: Launch of Total Sanitation Campaign 38% 2003: Launch of Nirmal Gram Puraskar 31% 30% 17% 18% 14% 11% 10% 1% 0% 1980 1988 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1996 1997 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 4% 3% 10% 11% 6% 27% 21.9% 22.4% 23% 57% 45% 50%

20%

StateWise Coverageof Ruraltoilets

District Wise Coverageof Ruraltoilets

ProgresstowardsMDG
Goal7:Ensureenvironmentalsustainability

Target 7a Halve, by 2015, the number of people without sustainable access to safe drinkingwaterandsafesanitation At the current rate of growth in coverage, Indiaiswellpoisedtoexceedthetarget(The Rural Sanitation programme Total Sanitation Campaign seeks to achieve universal sanitationcoverageby2012)

InstitutionalArrangements Rural Sanitation


CENTRE Ministry of Rural Development, Department of Drinking Water Supply
Funding, technical support, M&E, Training and Inter-sectoral coordination

STATE

Nodal Department Zilla Panchayat


and other Govt.& NGO

DISTRICT

Funding, technical support, devpt. of state action plan, intersectoral coordn, Training, M&E Overall implementation ,devpt of action plan, intersectoral coordination, training, M&E Institution building (e.g. GPs, watsan committee), facilitate supply chains, hygiene education, monitoring Institution building, mobilization, facilitate construction of hardware, hygiene education, monitoring, O&M

Panchayat Samiti
BLOCK

Extension workers of Govt. and NGOs

VILLAGE

Gram Panchayat
Motivators Community

CatchingthemYoung SchoolToilets
Hygieneeducation includedinthecurriculum Maintenancedoneby students/teachers Specificdesignsprovided, withseparateunitsfor boysandgirls

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Catchingthemyoung SchoolToilets
SarvaShikshaAbhiyan(EducationForAll) programmeandTSCensuringtoiletsinallschools Goingbeyondtoiletstocatertoadolescents menstrualhygieneneeds,hygieneeducation JointcampaignbySSAandTSCforInternational HandwashingDay,15th October,2008inYearof Sanitation nearly50millionchildren participated Positiveimpacts reducesabsenteeism, dropouts,improveslearninglevels, Linkedtosafewaterinschools Jalmanischeme

Childreninthevanguardof Sanitationmovement
SSAandTSCGenerating acommonmovement withchildreninthe vanguardtoreacha commongoal Childreninallschoolsin ArunachalPradeshtook pledgetoensuretotal sanitationintheir villagesbypersuading parents

YearwiseAchievementinConstructionof SchoolToilets
300,000 300,000 250,000 250,000 200,000 200,000 150,000 150,000 100,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 - 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Till 2/09 66,229 66,229 55,226 55,226 10,210 11,197 10,210 11,197 131,937 131,937 88,092 88,092 86,995 238,234 238,234
174,091

TotalSanitationCampaign Achievements
Underimplementationinallruraldistricts Individualhouseholdtoiletsbuilt 57million Schooltoiletsbuilt 0.68million Sanitarycomplexesforwomen 14,540 Preschooltoilets 222,267

UrbanPolicyFramework
NationalUrbanSanitationPolicy,2008 Goals: Awareness Generation and BehavioralChange OpenDefecationFreeCities IntegratedCityWideSanitation Proper Operation and Maintenance of all Sanitary Installations

PolicyFramework(contd.)
11th FYPlanenvisages Installmoresewerageplantstotreat,recycleandreuse sewage. Industrial and commercial establishments must reuse and recycle treated sewage to reduce fresh water demand. ULBsshouldamendtheirbylawstomakeitmandatory for all residents to connect their toilets to the existing seweragesystem. Fringe areas of cities and colonies of economically weaker sections and slum dwellers be covered with low costsanitationfacilities,. Targetedsubsidymaybegiventourbanpoorfortaking water supply/sewerage house service connections, meteringandconstructionoftoilets.

CentralGovt.InitiativesinUrbanSanitation
Programmes: LowCostSanitationScheme(since198081)forthereplacementof servicelatrinesandtherehabilitationofworkersengagedinthe occupationofmanualcleaning. OverTenthPlan(tillJune2006),about0.6millionindividual householdlatrineswereconstructed About2.3millionservicelatrineswereconvertedintosanitaryones byJuly2007,andmorethan50,000scavengingworkersrehabilitated Goalofconverting600,000drylatrinesintowaterborneflush toiletsby2010 ValmikiAmbedkarAwasYojanaforconstructionofcommunity toilets Creationofinfrastructureforsewerageandsanitationeligible for assistanceunderJNNURMandUIDSSMT

ConvergencewithOtherSectors
Rural

Water Supply (RWS) program National Rural Health Mission(NRHM)program TSC, RWS programs, NRHM and SSA all implemented through the Panchayat Raj institutions.

HealthandSanitation Programmes
JointVillageWater,SanitationandHealth Committeessetup FieldlevelASHAworkerasmotivatorinTSC Jointcampaignforimprovingsanitation coverageinpolioaffecteddistrictswith NRHM

ProspectsandPlans
IndianRailways theworldsbiggest transporterofhumans safewastedisposal forthem IIT,Kanpurworkingonmodels CourtsalsopushingtheSanitationrevolution UpheldVillagePanchayatsordertoimpose finesforopendefecation OrdersDalLakehouseboatstoinstalhuman wastedisposalbinstosavelake

Convergencewithothersectors
Manyactivities complementary e.g.community mobilization,IEC campaigns, capacity development

YearwiseNGPVillageRecipients

11000 4959 38 2005 760 2006 2007 2008*

Sikkim FirstNirmalStateinIndia

MonitoringwithTransparency
UsingtheWebforonlinemonitoring Village level data on targets and achievements All analysis and reports available to public All Technical Notes, Designs on website FeedbackandQueriesinvitedfromall Stakeholders

http://www.ddws.gov.in 2 9

ResearchandDevelopment
R&Donsanitationis100%fundedbytheDDWS ThreemajorareasidentifiedforR&D Technologyrelated Product/design,evacuation,decompositionandmaintenance Construction leachpittechnology;improvementinexistinginstalledseptic tanktechnology. Solid and liquid waste technologies, biogas, ecosanitation, methane recoveryfromlandfillsites,etc. Programmerelated Innovationsinplanning,communicationandmonitoring Otherareasthatimpactsanitationsector Impact studies of sanitation interventions on cognitive development of children, nutritional status, other health and disease indicators, education, waterquality,etc. Excreta decomposition technology for railway coaches, developing standards/norms for food hygiene, using of solar/wind energy in sanitation, innovation in sanitary pad technologies and its promotion, improvement in incineratorcost,design,standardization,disposalofusedsanitarypad,school friendlywastemanagementtechnologiesandsystems

SWOTAnalysisofTSCProgram
Strengths Committedfinancialresources Programmefocusingonall elements HHL,School,Preschool, Supplychain,SLWM, Communicationandcapacity building,incentivesystem Localbodiestakinglead Opportunities IncreasedawarenessamongPRIs, Womengroupsandgovernment officials Successfulmodelsinallstatesfor scalingup Nodearthofresources Weaknesses Inadequatefocusonhygiene promotion Weaksupplychainaffectingpost constructionsupportandO&M Weakmonitoringsystemfor processparameters Lackmonitoringofusageand sustainabilityofthetoilets Threats Toorapidscalingup Poormonitoringofcleanvillage award(NGP)

LessonsLearnt
of political will and creation of an enabling environment to support program implementationispossible Changing behaviors is important for ending open defecationandachievingtotalsanitation Having a dedicated sanitation cell concerned specificallywithimplementationofsanitationinitiatives canbeveryeffective PostusagecashincentiveforidentifiedBPLfamilies NGPhasplayedanintegralroleinscalingupTSC
Mobilization

Problems
EnablingEnvironment variationsamongstates;capacity amongPublicHealthEngineeringstaffforcommunitycentred approach,ecologicaloptions;convergenceamong departments;captureimpactsonhealthIMRetc Political lowerprioritycomparedtowater Social lingeringacceptance/toleranceofopendefecationin ruralandurbanareas;sustainability Technical/technology lackofknowledgeofavailable technologyoptionsatfieldlevel;lackofsufficient economicallyandecologicallysustainablemodelsat village/townlevel;maintenanceofpublictoilets;standards andbenchmarksforsafesanitationoptions Economicandfinancial availabilityofadequate bank/cooperativefinancingforhouseholdtoilets

Prospectsandplans
ToinvolveIITs/universitiesincapacity development Tosetuptechnicalsupportagencyatnational level Easeflowoffundstoimplementingagencies fromnationallevel 11th FYP200712Centralallocationof Rs.7816cr.($1.6bn.) StateGovernments alsoallocatefundsinaddition

ProspectsandPlans
JointMonitoringProgrammeofWHO/UNICEF definitionandunderstandingofsanitation Sharedtoilets,pittoilets, WorkingwithCensustofeedintocommon understandinganddefinitionofsanitationfor Census2011 themostimportantdecadal sourceofinformation

ProspectsandPlans
Independentevaluationandimpact assessmentofTSCandNGPbeing commissioned 46proposalsreceived;15shortlisted;7 selectedforfinalbids Willprovideinformationoncoverageand usageindependentofadministrativereports Willprovidesuggestionsforfurther improvement UNICEFandWSPassociatedinprocess

ProspectsandPlans
NirmalGramPuraskar selectionprocess beingtightened,morerigorous 6monthsofOpendefecationfreestatus beforeapplication Awardonlyafterverificationattwostages

SanitationismoreimportantthanIndependence

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