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Energy Research Today for Tomorrow: Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN)

Table of contents
Greeting of the Prime Minister of Niedersachsen Niedersachsen a land full of energy Visions of the EFZN Energy research today for tomorrow Core topics of the EFZN Energy supply of the future Equipment of the centre Research activities during the start-up phase The platform Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen The energy chain as an approach to a holistic energy research The EFZNs fields of research 4 6 8 11 13 16 17 18 27 28 31

School education and teacher training at the EFZN Milestones Imprint

Greeting of the Prime Minister of Niedersachsen


Niedersachsen is a state of energy and of energy research. It is a land of energy because all significant available energy carriers, renewable and fossil ones as well as nuclear energy are on hand. It is also a land of energy research because of its capable research institutions at universities and in companies. During the last decades Niedersachsen nearly continuously produced considerably more electricity than it was able to consume. The operating power stations, the production of natural gas accounting for more than 90 per cent of the German production, and the production of crude oil as well as lignite (coming to an end) have for a long time been a solid pillar of German energy supply. Moreover, the extensive storage capacities for petroleum products and natural gas in the soil of Niedersachsen are of extraordinary importance for a reliable energy supply of Germany in possible times of crisis. Research and development in state institutes as well as in companies have contributed to the fact that within Germany our state also takes a lead in the area of renewable energies which have seen a massive increase in the last few years. Our interest is especially on the expansion of energy research in which the Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen in Goslar takes an important part. Here universities and research institutions cooperate closely with leading companies. With attractive and strongly frequented events like the Energy Days of Niedersachsen a major forum for the exchange on the issue of energy has been created in Northern Germany. In the years to come Niedersachsen wants to lead the way to and be a role model for a predominantly regenerative energy supply which is scientifically based and economically reasonable. To this the Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen in Goslar will make a substantial contribution.

Christian Wulff, Prime Minister of Niedersachsen

Niedersachsen a land full of energy


Being the second largest federal state in the Federal Republic of Germany, Niedersachsen traditionally ranks among the most significant energy producing states in Germany. More than 90 per cent of the German gas gathering and more than one third of the German oil production come from Niedersachsen. As an extensive coastal state Niedersachsen has a high proportion of renewable energies which are primarily based on wind and water power as well as biomass. Using about 25 per cent of its areas under cultivation for energy crops, Niedersachsen holds a top position in the generation of energy from renewable sources. In addition to its manifold primary energies, Niedersachsen has excellent know-how in research and development. The significance of the energy sector is also reflected in the Niedersachsen energy research. Different university and non-university research institutes in Niedersachsen have been exploring technical and nontechnical issues in the energy sector. In addition, a large number of highly qualified companies is located here. In the past, a large number of crude oil and natural gas deposits could be opened up in the German Bight as well as onshore by using modern exploration and extraction technologies Made in Niedersachsen. But also industrial know-how in conventional and regenerative systems engineering has become an important export article of the state. To bring together the existing competencies along the entire value creation chain of the energy industry and to thus promote energy research in Niedersachsen as a whole, the Technische Universitt Clausthal founded the Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen (Energy Research Center of Niedersachsen) in Goslar together with the Universities of Braunschweig, Gttingen, Hannover and Oldenburg. It is the objective of this research facility to adequately counteract the increasing complexity of energy-related issues by a strong cooperation of different technological and nontechnological scientific disciplines. This innovative approach integrates the mutual dependencies going beyond the individual disciplines along the entire energy chain from primary energy, energy production and transport to energy consumption and the disposal of the residual

materials originating from energy production during problem analysis and solution. Cross-disciplinary energy research is thus rendered possible. The Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen currently comprises more than 100 professorships of the participating universities and is thus the proficient contact in research issues in the energy sector for its clients in society, politics and economy.

CARL VON OSSIETZKY

Oldenburg

Niedersachsen
Hannover Braunschweig Goslar Clausthal

Gttingen

Visions of the EFZN Energy research today for tomorrow


The development of the mankind is closely connected with supply, availability and usage of the energy. The shortage of the increasing energy resources is turning out to be the central problem for the global community in the future. Up to now energy is used to be almost a free and infinite resource, in the present day situation and for the future energy carriers must be developed and used more extensively. Not only the Third World Countries are confronted with the problem of the reliable and sure energy supply in the future; the developing countries and the high developed industrial countries face the problem of the energy consumption stagnation on a very high level. The future is considerably dependent upon the response of the mankind to this challenge. Experts agree upon the fact that a global energy turnaround (energy revolution) is treated as necessary for the following two reasons: it should protect the very basis of the existence of the mankind and eliminate energy poverty in the developing countries. The discussion concerning the climatic consequences of the current energy system based up to 90 per cent upon the fossil primary energy carriers such as coal, oil and natural gas has intensified the situation. A global energy turnaround (energy revolution) which is supposed to decrease the dependence upon the regionally concentrated oil and natural gas deposits can also enhance the peace process. The present situation related to the arrangement of the future energy system on the global, national and regional level is considered to be a complex problem and requires much from the community and science as well. Early communities had to deal with the core elements of this problem: which energy resources are available? Which transformation technologies are available for their utilisation? What applications find the residual materials originating from the energy production? Even if these questions remain almost the same in the course of time, they still require an integrative answer which can be given by the scientific area. The presentday scientific system has possessed for a long time diversification and specialisation of the peculiar scientific

disciplines, cognate disciplines and research institutes which ability to solve new problems in larger crossdisciplinary scientific connection, is considerably decreasing, in spite of their doubtless high efficiency in the solution of sophisticated questions and problems. The classical disciplines and the disciplines related to the peculiar institutions cannot meet the increasing requirements and answer the questions and solve the problems which become more complex. To be able to overcome these boundaries one can try to use interdisciplinarity. Usually interdisciplinarity is opposed to disciplinal research; in that case it is connected with the notion of order, an arrangement which is supposed to act against disciplinal particularisation. The parts should become the whole again. Two disciplines and the transitional function of the interdisciplinarity is often not enough to solve a complex issue by means of the basic scientific principles. Due to the creation of new interdisciplinary and discipline overlapping structures by means of the so-called transdisciplinary research strategies, one tries to counteract to the increasing asymmetry between the disciplineoverlapping problem and the progressive disciplinal specialisation: the peculiar disciplines bring together in one transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary organisation form their corresponding special competences to be able to develop goal-oriented approaches. Due to the involvement of engineering science and natural science, as well as jurisprudence, social science and economics, the EFZN will probably contribute to the energy research and re-establishment of the

whole. Competent scientists will be working together applying different disciplines to combined projects and ensuring the multidisciplinary discussion accordingly. So the multidisciplinarity understood exactly in that sense does not exist among cognate disciplines and disciplines, but it eliminates the approximation which gets in the way of the research strategy. The multidisciplinarity explained in such a way leads to the process that changes the academic and disciplinal orientation of the science and becomes accordingly the real transdisciplinarity. Transdisciplinary science can solve the problems of the reality which cannot be solved by any singular research discipline. Scientific cooperation means willingness to cooperate and interdisciplinarity for the indefinite period of time; transdisciplinary creates long-lasting arrangement of the existing cooperation which also changes the disciplinal fields. So the sciences of the present days that deal with energy and are based on the cooperation of the projected scientific working groups and subject areas, can later transform into a faculty of Energy Science which better corresponds to the current problems and which is efficient in providing solutions for these problems. So interdisciplinarity carries out the principle related to the arrangement of scientific level of knowledge and to the scientific research that is to be realized and kept by and in the EFZN. This research principle should come into operation when the academic approximation cannot define or solve the problem. It requires solid disciplinal research and is based upon that cornerstone which connects the disciplines like a bridge.

What seems to be very abstract here has concrete forms in new scientific centres which deal with questions and problems related not only to one particular discipline. It is a matter of structures of peculiar dimension that are located possibly in one and the same building; it concerns not only disciplinal competences exclusively. The disciplinal research remains an important requirement for transdisciplinally defined tasks and research applications which are created in the EFZN by professional project developers on the basis of the scientific sources of ideas (professors). The EFZN will serve as a main system-contact compared to the potential ources of ideas based upon practical experience and s further users of research results.

In cooperation with the partners, the EFZN creates and develops the corresponding research projects with recourse to its competences and the competences of the discipline-oriented non-academic institutions. The existing reactions and effects among peculiar project parts can be and will be organized and considered by transdisciplinarity with the attention they deserve. The Fig. 1 views the existing relation. The left circle describes the interdisciplinal way of working, mostly for indefinite time in the frames of disciplinal research projects; the right circle symbolises the transdisciplinal way of working. The combination of the different disciplinal establishments is typical here on the field of the Energy Science with the perspective for the location.

Continuous exchange of existing skills and resources Drafting new EFZN projects

disciplinary research at university institutes and non-university research institutions

temporary research networks LIBSZ FEN, ForWind

EFZN long-term established and locally aggregated

clients

branch 1

expertise in natural sciences

concretion and operationalisation

economics, politics, and society

disciplinary issues

branch 2

expertise in engineering sciences

identi cation of appropriate scienti c capacities and project partners

transdisciplinary issues

economics, politics, and society

branch 3

expertise in social sciences and economics

development of according research pro les

branch 4

expertise in jurisprudence

research, conduction and organisation

EFZN-joint projects

Positioning of the EFZN within the process of transdisciplinary research

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Core topics of the EFZN Energy supply of the future


One of the great challenges the world presently faces is the continuing utilisation of finite fossil energy carriers. Todays energy systems therefore do not meet the principle of sustainability. However, industrialised countries can and should be a role model and take a leading role in the development and realisation of sustainable energy systems. From 1990 until 2050, a reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by 80 per cent is aimed at. For the purposeful and far reaching transformation of the German and the international energy system toward structures which are sustainable and fit for the future a whole range of approaches is important which have to be brought together in an overall context. These approaches and instruments are therefore filled up with a policy mix meaning that energy policy pursues cross-party approaches with increasing participation of citizens. Against this background, the EFZN shall be a centre for the coordination and promotion of interdisciplinary, energy-relevant scientific research and teaching, in which the five universities Clausthal, Braunschweig, Hannover, Gttingen and Oldenburg all work together. Declared aims are, among others, the promotion of an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cooperation between the participating group of researchers, acquisition of transdisciplinary research projects being realised within a research network and the joint support of junior scientific staff in the area of energy science and energy technology. Moreover, efforts shall be made for an improved perception of the expertise and effectiveness of the participating universities, especially beyond the borders of Niedersachsen. The EFZN sees itself also as a host of scientifically relevant information and assumes the role of a think-tank towards politics, business and society with regard to topics concerning energy technology, energy industry and energy legislation. In addition to this it realises independent energy research in certain areas, e. g. deep geothermal energy, decentralised energy systems and non-silicon photovoltaic.

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Increase of energy efficiency Decentralised production units lead to higher efficiencies than conventional power stations since there are fewer losses due to transportation costs or transformation. In the same way technologies for combined heat, power and cold cycles as applied in the EFZNbuilding will produce cooling in addition to energy and heat. Thus considerable CO2-emissions are avoided and an utilisation ratio of more than 80 per cent is reached. This pioneering technology is unprecedented. Among other things it sets standards with respect to a low-carbon energy supply of state-owned real estate (especially of old buildings) as is illustrated by the certificate on energy efficiency displayed in the foyer of the EFZN. A sustainable use of decentralised energy sources requires a combined operation which can be realised with new technologies in the area of information and communication technology (ICT). This can result in a form of distribution and supply grids which are mainly self-supporting. If generation is consumption-oriented by the application of ICT, wide-range area grids could develop. Besides a large number of decentralised generators those grids also require energy storage in order to realise an autonomous energy supply of the distribution grid. With a comprehensive development of such wide-range area grids, transmission grids would only be necessary for the supply of the base load and reserve capacity. The ongoing liberalisation of energy markets should be continued with the aim to develop competing technologies in due consideration of the overall economic costs for energy use, so that those energy systems could emerge which with regard to aspects of ecology, economy and reliable supply are most effective and widely accepted in society. The upcoming investment and renewal cycles of German power stations offer the opportunity to use this time slot for the creation of a highly-efficient decentralised generation structure as well as for a massive increase in the share of regenerative energy sources stimulated by subsidies. For this also the regulatory conditions for decentralised, regen-

erative options must be improved, the technological prerequisites must be established and the necessary infrastructure must be developed all of this through specific programmes. To achieve the goals of climate protection, the forced development of additional power station lines and efficient technologies for energy storage should be accompanied by the continued operation of nuclear power plants as a carbon-free transitional technology if all questions regarding the disposal of nuclear waste have been answered on all relevant levels. Future contribution of renewable energies Within the sustainable energy system, renewable energy sources hold a crucial position - because they are the basic element of new supply structures and show considerable potential with regard to the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, their utilisation in the heat and electricity sector must be massively advanced. Domestic regenerative energy sources also decrease the dependency on imported energy carriers. In Niedersachsen, wind energy and the energetic use of biomass are especially important because they guarantee a considerable decentralised added value. In the long run this is also true for deep geothermal energy. The efficient utilisation of fluctuating energy sources like wind and sun needs a reasonable combination with new kinds of energy storage in order to reach the demanded availability. The development and broad utilisation of technologies for efficient energy storage is increasingly supported. Plans are that until 2050, the generation of regenerative electric energy is to reach a quota of 50 per cent with due consideration of aspects of ecology, economy and reliable supply. This quota makes sense technically and is to be recommended with regard to all economic costs. The envisaged goal of climate control can be reached through adjusted electrical grids and increasingly used energy storage in so-called active distribution grids. From a present-day perspective it seems well possible to substitute more than 50 per cent of power stations

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operated with fossil or nuclear energy carriers by discontinuously delivering regenerative energy sources, but for reasons of grid stability realisation would be technologically complicated. It will not be before 2030 that a decentralised electricity supply of more than 50 per cent can be negotiated on, because corresponding research results and operating experience wont be available before. Development of energy prices Until 2050, consumption of electricity will not decrease significantly. Even if, on the one hand, efficiencies will be increased, there will be new forms of utilisation for electric energy and new electricity consumers on the other. An example for this may be the considerable increase of information and communication technology also in private households which has been observed in the last twenty years. In the end new utilisations will result in higher electricity prices which, among other things, will also change consumer behaviour. New ICT-Systems for future energy supply A future low-carbon energy supply requires innovative IT-systems and a new infrastructure for communication. These systems for the optimisation of processes in generation, trade and distribution as well as the technological management and regulation of distributed

generation and consumer structures are indispensable and up to now exist only at a very early stage or are completely missing. In this area research is urgently needed. On the electricity market, the indispensable and uncontested inter-operability on a physical-electro-technical level has been known for centuries. The energy industry is yet far away from this understanding, especially on the IT-level. Due to increasing cross-company communication and technologically very heterogeneous and sophisticated ideas like Microgrids or Virtual power stations ICT-systems depend on specifications and standards which have to be interoperable - syntactically as well as semantically. Standards allow for exchange. If, however, long-established possibilities of seclusion are no longer available, some market participants seem to neither like nor fear standards and inter-operability. However, old as well as new actors on the energy markets would have to seriously aspire them because they are the necessary foundation for an energy information technology. Each change of process in production, trade and distribution requires also in the external communication of market partners a corresponding possibility for observation and transparency for which not all the conditions have yet been clarified. But even in situations where roles and possible areas of cooperation

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along the value chains or for individual process steps are clearer, there is a lack of practical implementations also with regard to internal structures. In order to use the opportunities of an increased ICTutilisation all the way to the end-user, the necessary technological prerequisites for installations in private households and companies must be established and used consistently. This in turn requires consumer-oriented incentive systems and adapted fare structures with IT-support.

Argumentation for vocational training in the field of energy supply The second central element of the rearrangement in the German energy system that provides its sustainability in the future is considered to be campaigns for research and better education. New interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary projects aimed at increase of energy efficiency should be initiated; scientific associations, industrial associations, politics and the society should support these projects. So engineering sciences of the future should be more adjusted to the system observation, at the same time different technologies should be connected with each other and various systems combined. Considerable increase in efficiency can be achieved due to combination of different generation systems. This new approach should be applied during the vocation education of engineers; that can make possible the check of the energy system concerning its sustainability. Besides, this type of vocational education should become more attractive to win a large number of the required specialists. As different sciences, such as computer sciences, jurisprudence or economics find an application for the vocational education, it is necessary to develop new interdisciplinary curricula for the energy industry side by side with the existing courses of studies. Energy research centres in connection with universities are said to be the way to success. As acute shortage of skilled specialists in this field is obvious, in-job-trainings and advanced trainings should get additional investments.

In the light of the rapid technological developments in the areas of energy technology and ICT and the changing legal conditions, an appropriate management of software life-cycles for ICT-systems is needed. This should involve every significant market partner and include ICT-application fields and their typical system components. Decisions on investments as well as a professional, sustainable and viable software development need planning security as well as a reliable access to binding conditions, specifications and documents. Traditional and new participants in the energy market as well as software and consulting companies will not be able to cope with or act on future challenges of an ICT-system landscape in energy industry all on their own nor will they want to. Therefore a considerably extended and long-term promotion of transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transfer-oriented consortia for energy information technology at universities and research institutions is necessary.

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Equipment of the centre


In the summer of 2006, the government of Niedersachsen approved the set-up of an Energie-Forschungszentrum in Goslar with the aim to pool and expand research expertise in Niedersachsen along the entire value chain of the energy industry. As a scientific institution of the Clausthal University of Technology the Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen will bring together researchers from natural sciences, engineering, jurisprudence as well as from social sciences and economics under the same roof. To achieve this, the Clausthal University of Technology within the EFZN cooperates with the universities of Braunschweig, Gttingen, Hannover and Oldenburg. Thus the increasing complexity of the energy issue shall be dealt with by a permanent cooperation of different technological and non-technological scientific disciplines in a joint location. The EFZN is designed as a joint research environment for the participating universities with a location of its own. In January 2007, plans for the preparation of a suitable building on the grounds of the former Rammelsberg barracks in Goslar started. Alterations to the building on what is now the EnergieCampus of Goslar were completely state-funded. For instance the Ministry for Science and Culture of Niedersachsen allocated about 12.3 million Euros to the Clausthal University of Technology for construction works and initial equipment of the centre. Apart from this, the EFZN was allocated additional funds for scientific devices in order to strengthen the planned main research areas and make the centre eligible for external funds right from the beginning. For current operation, the EFZN receives about 2.5 million Euros per year for personnel and nonpersonnel cost from Niedersachsen, the Clausthal University of Technology and the other partnering universities.

Initial investments by the Land Niedersachsen (retrieved 2010)

Planned annual staff funds of EFZN-partners

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Research activities during the start-up phase


Through innovative projects being managed within a research alliance the EFZN shall be developed into a centre of vital importance not only in Niedersachsen but at least throughout Germany. With the start of research activities in 2008, the research focus with corresponding potentials is on deep geothermal energy, decentralised energy systems with active distribution grids as well as fundamentals of new energy technologies. Since then the EFZN has seen an extremely successful development. At the end of the first business year 2008 funds from the government of Niedersachsen were already supplemented by revenues from external funds of the same size. All in all 6.3 million Euros for new research projects were raised. In 2008 already 58 employees, mainly scientic staff, worked in 43 ongoing research projects for the EFZN. Around half of them work on the Energy Campus in Goslar: In anticipation of moving into a building of its own, the Clausthal University of Technology rented rooms in the summer of 2007 already for the first work teams of the EFZN in the newly-founded Science Park and Business Incubator of the municipality of Goslar. This positive development continued in the business year 2009. 88 employees worked in 45 projects for the EFZN. Through an enhanced expansion of the workforce in the area of professional project development and the foundation of the research alliance Geothermal energy and high-performance drilling technology - gebo which the EFZN helped develop and coordinate external funds amounting to 15.4 million Euros could be raised. Right next to the EFZN the newly established department Fiber optical sensor systems started its work on the EnergieCampus Goslar in April 2009 as a branch of the Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institute Berlin. This department is scientifically closely linked with the EFZNs research field Fundamentals of new energy technologies and in the years to come will develop new sensors for monitoring processes in the areas of energy, security and medical technology. During the start-up phase until 2014, it will be supported by the Ministry for Science and Culture of Niedersachsen with an overall amount of 2.6 million Euros. About 30 new employees shall transfer the research results as well as those from the EFZN to a possible industrial application. The tandem Fraunhofer EFZN will contribute significantly to a better visibility of energy research in Niedersachsen. Since 2008 the EFZN has presented itself and its current research projects once a year within the framework of the Hannover Industrial Fair in the common booth Energy from Niedersachsen sponsored by Niedersachsens ministries of Economics, Environmental Protection, Agriculture and Science. In autumn 2009, the EFZN for the first time participated in the Ideas-Expo in Hannover within the framework of of an energy educational project supported by the Mnistry of Education and Cultural Affairs of Niedersachsen during which exhibits and interactive offers were presented. Aim of the project is to support the scientific institutions of the EFZN for school education in those subjects suited for a cooperation in the area of energy. For instance, engineering and natural sciences shall be perceived as essential factors for the solution of future problems and this perception shall be promoted. 2008 1.200.000 285.000 6.300.000 43 53 5 2009 1.600.000 285.000 15.400.000 45 73 15

Staff expenditure Equipment expenditure Raised external funds Current projects Research assistants Staff in technical service and administration Business years 2008 and 2009 at a glance

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The platform Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen


Not only does the EFZN provide a joint research infrastructure for its members from different scientific disciplines, but also serves as a platform for coordination and exchange. A more intense networking of the relevant persons working in energy research projects in Niedersachsen who are extremely successful for that matter is continuously advanced in order to establish a joint solution expertise for the increasingly complex research questions arising from a transitional energy system. Following the transdisciplinary approach which is frequently used in the English-speaking world, networking should however not be limited to the scientific community. Rather, areas of society, politics and business should become part of the discussion process so that in the end, solutions are developed whose implementation becomes a joint effort. Since its foundation, the EFZN has increasingly seen itself as a mediator between science, business and politics: committed to the principle of a transdisciplinary discussion, the EFZN actively shaped different events regarding to contents which were meant as a promotion and stabilisation of the necessary exchange between politics/administration, business and science on relevant energy questions. In 2007 under the aegis of the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Niedersachsen the Niederschsische Ener ietage (NET/Energy Days of Niedersachsen) g were brought into being in Hannover with the aim to make visible and extend the special strengths and expertise of Niedersachsen in connection with innovations and energy. Intense exchange and interdisciplinary cooperation shall foster new ideas, optimise the transfer of knowledge and technology in all relevant areas of energy and ideally result in joint projects between companies, scientific institutions and relevant government agencies: The First Energy Days in 2007 laid the foundation for the biggest ever publicly-funded research alliance in the federal state: Geothermal energy and high-Performance drilling technology. The positive feedback on events having taken place so far confirms the innovative concept. In the last couple of years several high-ranking leaders and experts from politics, business and science could be won for a joint exchange on the following leading topics: Technologies for the future Innovative solutions for a climate-compatible energy supply Energy and mobility. In addition to the Energy Days of Niedersachsen since 2007 another series of events developed and realised in cooperation with the Bundesnetzagentur (Federal Network Agency) has been focusing on technological, economic, legal and social questions having to do with the future development of electricity grids. Due to its interdisciplinary structure, this series serves as an integrative tool. The series core topics Current questions of the planning law expansion of German transfer grids and Determination of long-term expansion needs already contributed significantly to problem analysis and a mutual exchange between all those who have to do with the development of electricity grids. Up to now both events have proved itself as suitable platforms for an interdisciplinary exchange and a joint problem analysis of all participating parties and are thus able to promote the transdisciplinary and interagency cooperation needed. In the years to come they will continue to make a regular contribution and if possible expand corresponding activities.

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The Energy Chain as an approach to a holistic energy research


Long-term orientation of the EFZN is determined by the strategic outline of the energy chain which shall promote the development of future research projects in technological and non-technological areas. In the following, we present the medium-term and long-term topics of the individual EFZN-research areas: Energy raw materials and energy storage Presently about 84 per cent of German energy are generated from the fossil primary energy carriers hard coal, lignite, crude oil and natural gas, 13 per cent are generated from uranium. Against the background of a growing world population and the problematic consequences of the anthropogenous way of using energy, necessary investments for the provision of energy and raw materials will rise significantly. Because of the existing infrastructure in the leading industrialised countries and the increasing need of raw materials in many threshold countries, the generation of energy resources are a major prerequisite for meeting the worldwide energy demand today and in the future. This global energy demand influences the period of time for which resources will be available. In addition they must be generated in a way that pays careful attention to a sustainable exploitation of natural and finite deposits. There is a direct connection between energy costs and technological innovations influencing the efficiency increase in the generation of natural resources. Other factors are extensive changes in the framework conditions due to the correlating increase of greenhouse gases and worldwide temperatures (greenhouse effect). For instance, legal regulations like EEG (Law on Renewable Energies), KWKG (Law on Combined Heat and Power) and electricity tax are adjusted. On a national, European and global political level there are interventions in the form of regulations and unbundling or emission certificates. The EFZNs holistic approach along the value chain of energy supply offers multiple synergies concerning the handling of extensive research projects for the realisation of which different fields of research cooperate. Besides a sustainable energy supply, the field of research of energy resources and energy storage also in-

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cludes the ecological and economic optimisation of the supply with resources and of energy storage. In order to be able to reduce negative ecological consequences and the dependency on imports in the medium and long term, a considerable research focus is on a baseload-capable and sustainable energy supply with biomass and especially with Deep geothermal energy. On a global scale, energy from facilities will mainly be generated from fossil fuels. For these energy resources, as well as for further mineral resources and catalysts, the core aspect with respect to ecological and economic aspects lies in an efficiency increase, i.e. in the exploration, generation and processing of primary and secondary sources. Niedersachsen has favourable geological prerequisites which make a further expansion of the already favourable current situation for the underground storage of energy resources like natural gas possible. And this will contribute decisively to a stabilisation of the supply in Germany. Since February 2009 already the field of research of energy resources and energy storage has been working within the framework of the research alliance Geothermal energy and high-performance drilling technology gebo on the development of new concepts for the generation of geothermal energy in deep geological layers all this highly efficient and effective with a smaller geological and technological risk in order to make the economic use of geothermal energy as a regenerative energy source possible. Another cutting-edge project which started in January 2009 is Storage of wind energy through the re-use of abandoned mines, a project which could be of great importance for the location of Goslar and the entire Harz region. Energy transformation and refinement The research field of energy transformation and refinement comprises processes of energy conversion and energy supply respectively which colloquially are frequently described as energy generation. Energy conversion often comes along with a refinement of energy, if for instance low grade energy is conversed into high grade energy. Thus processes of energy conversion

cannot be clearly separated from processes of energy refinement. Niedersachsen supports the ambitious targets of the Federal Government and of the European Union with regard to climate protection. One of it is the reduction of CO2-emissions by at least 20 per cent until 2020 and beyond this in the years to follow. Another target is the simultaneous increase in the share of renewable energies to 20 per cent of overall consumption. With the pursuing of the aforementioned targets, an important role is attributed to the expansion of wind power, especially through the construction of additional offshore windfarms. The growing share of fluctuating wind energy, however, increasingly causes problems with energy management, and the integration of photovoltaic energy conversion units, which also generate power discontinuously, will pose a similar challenge for energy management. Due to the priority feed-in of renewable energies, conventional power stations already experience limits to their productive capacity, e. g. in situations with strong winds and a simultaneously sinking energy demand because of the resulting grid overload. In order to avoid the ensuing efficiency decrease, the development and advancement of innovative technologies should be continued for the integration of regenerative energies into the grid as well as for the storage of those energies. Wind energy, for example, can be stored mechanically (e. g. compressed air energy storage power plants, pumped storage power plants), chemically (e. g. batteries and generation of hydrogen through electrolysis and ensuing storage) or electrically (e. g. super caps). During low-wind periods and a simultaneous high-energy demand the priority is currently on requirements concerning a reliable power supply. So the operation of coal-fired power stations will remain necessary for the time being with the question arising how environmental compatibility of those power stations can be improved. Research and development already work on a new generation of reliable, profitable and highly efficient power stations in order to significantly improve the environmental balance.

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However, the fluctuating feed-in of renewables makes this task extremely difficult because the operational planning and the process flow become more and more complex and continuous operating times of power stations decrease. One particularly interesting possibility for energy conversion and energy supply respectively in Niedersachsen is the utilisation of existing biomass because Niedersachsen also is an agricultural state with high potential in this respect. On the one hand biomass can be used as carbon supplier for thermochemical conversion and production of fuels and on the other hand for the supply of power and heat in thermal conversion processes. Transformation innovative generation units for power and heat The currently operated generation and conversion units will not be able to meet the multiple demands concerning future energy supply. Especially the demand of a reliable energy supply with reduced emissions at favourable prices requires a further development of current generation units. Fields of work here are the development and advancement of various fuel cell technologies just as Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) or the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) as well as photovoltaic conversion units like electrochemical solar cells, solar cells on the basis of II-VI-semiconductors and polymer cells for pressure processing. Moreover, the development and advancement of thermoelectric generators and high-temperature materials for thermal power stations with an upper process temperature of over 700 degrees Celsius is pursued. Refinement conversion of material and energy storage The aim of CO2 reduction calls for new ways in the energy supply. The conversion of biomass or CO2, integrating renewable energy carriers are promising approaches. As a compensation for the fluctuating renewable energy carriers the storage of electric energy will become an indispensable part of our future power supply. Here energy can be received and made available in line with demand. Within this field compression air energy storage power plants like the isobaric, adi-

abatic compressed air energy storage combined cycle power plant, the integration of wind energy into the grid through the storage of electric energy in the form of mechanical, electric and chemical energy as well as the generation of hydrogen through electrolysis and the ensuing storage of hydrogen in pressure vessels, in cryogenic storage tanks, in caverns and in metal hydrides is examined. Future energy supply conversion plus refinement Through the expansion of decentralised and regenerative generation units for power and heat the indispensable task of synchronising generation and consumption will be more complicated in the future. In this connection it must be noted that due to locally varying generation possibilities (like pumped storage power plants or wind power plants) up to now no holistic solutions for a future energy supply exist. Based on first examination results with respect to conversion and refinement within the framework of the EFZNs short-term development potentials, generation units combined with refinement measures could be examined which support a modular and standardised establishment of the energy supply and make joint operational planning easier which takes requirements of a reliable supply into account. In the time to come this field of research shall consider adiabatic compressed air storage of medium capacity which does not necessarily need cavern storage facilities, new concepts for fuel cells as well as fuel cell recharge with turbo chargers. Another future work field is the advancement of battery storage and the further development and support of electric mobility. Energy systems and process energy technologies Energy systems (conversion, transport, distribution, storage, utilisation, management), performance mechatronics and drive systems as well as process energy engineering are the topics for the research field of energy systems and process energy technologies. Energy saving potentials based on up to now largely unknown solutions using these technologies are esti-

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mated to 20 to 30 per cent of todays demand. To increase this potential, continuous research is necessary. The combination of the individual processes of conversion, transport, distribution, storage and (efficient) utilisation of energy requires a holistic consideration of energy systems such as integration of decentralised facilities for energy generation into the energy supply system. Questions concerning a combination of heat, cold and power generation are as much considered as the feed-in of decentrally generated energy into public power supply (electricity and gas) which will develop into active supply grids. Here as well, the entire system has to be considered in order to be able to integrate feedback effects resulting from the decentralised feedin. Utilisation of decentralised and regenerative energy sources such as geothermal energy or biogas for the energy supply of buildings or whole building complexes requires comprehensive consideration. Performance mechatronics Performance mechatronics is an interdisciplinary field of engineering. Within such systems, mechanical, electrical and electronic components as well as components of control engineering link with each other in order to improve the efficiency of classic systems and to comprehensively realise new features. In addition to the classic engineering disciplines, the information technology becomes a priority without which many technology systems would not be as efficient as they are today. Mechatronic systems have the task to convert, transport and store energy, material and information with the help of sensor technology, processor engineering, actuator engineering and elements of mechanics, electronics and information technology. A focus in the research field of performance mechatronics are engine test beds for high-performance transmission gears in model scale and protection systems for wind energy facilities. Process energy technologies Process energy engineering deals with problems in the area of energy optimisation as well as of energy saving in industry, power plants and for consumers.

Industrial process energy engineering is an interdisciplinary technology which is with respect to technological and energetic aspects of central importance for many processing and manufacturing processes. A varying range of application possibilities exist, which includes the food, textile and paper industry as well as the chemical industry mainly working with process temperatures of up to 600 degrees Celsius (low temperature processes). Process temperatures from 600 until 1500 degrees Celsius, which are found in the steel industry, building material industry, iron foundries and non-iron foundries as well as in the glass and ceramics industry, are described as high temperature processes. In addition to high temperature processes in the industry, the optimisation of combustion processes is another very important field. The aforementioned topics of the research field of energy systems and process energy engineering are the basis for the development of research projects like combined heat, power and cold on a micro level, energy processes with regenerative fuels and performance mechatronics. Long-term goals are compared on a regular basis with national and international energy research and corresponding cutting-edge projects are attracted such as the deep geothermal supply of the Hannover Medical School (MHH). In February 2009 a three-monthly research project on the analysis of energy efficiency in the Bahlsen biscuit factory in Barsinghausen could be concluded. The manufacturing process was examined with respect to existing possibilities for reduced energy consumption e. g. through integration of heat recovery, cascaded utilisation of heat and reduction of electricity consumption in partial and zero load operation. Research work on decentralised energy systems is carried out within the framework of the Energy Research Alliance Niedersachsen (FEN).

Raw Materials

+ Energy

?
Energy economics Fundamentals of new energy technologies Energy law Computer science for power and energy systems

Recycling and Disposal

Transformation and Re nement

Systems and Process energy

Energy Grids

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Recycling and disposal An efficient utilisation of waste, as well as a safe and environmentally-friendly disposal of non-recyclable waste, is a core task of a reliable supply with natural resources and of environmental protection. The range of topics of the research field of recycling and disposal comprises recycling, energetic and thermal utilisation, CO2 sequestration and the long-term secure treatment of radioactive waste. Besides interdisciplinary work on the utilisation of mass waste and on recycling technologies of disused products, there is practical research on energetic and thermal utilisation of waste-derived alternative fuels as well as on a safe and long-term disposal of CO2 in deep geological formations and longterm safe storage of radioactive and other pollutantcontaining waste in deep geological formations. Raw materials become scarcer and more expensive, rubbish piles grow. The research field of recycling tests how the basic material for the manufacture of new goods and facilities can be produced in a way which is energy and resource-efficient and environmentally friendly. Recycling, however, does not only mean the recirculation of continually decreasing resources into the economic cycle but also contributes significantly to a saving of energy in manufacturing processes. In Germany radioactive waste shall be disposed of in deep geological formations, in a way that succeeding generations are protected. Therefore the research field of recycling and disposal evaluates possible geosystems in deep geological layers applying criteria such as constructional feasibility, sufficient barrier integrity and geotectonic stability. Niedersachsen is by far the state in which the most and most important activities and projects in connection with a long-term secure stor-

age of radioactive waste are realised a development which will continue. Since April 2008 the research field has been developing an innovative cement and steel-free sealing device for natural gas wells with sections of salt in the overburden of the target formation.. These deep salt formations shall be used as re-established natural barrier in a plug and abandonment procedure for applied CCS-Technology. The concept is applied to a test well after numerical investigations gave sufficiant hints fort he feasibility. Computer science for power and energy systems In the research field of energy computer science extraordinary potential is currently contained in topics like Standards and norms ICT-based interoperability in energy industry and ICT for smart grids smart grids in energy supply. Due to the increasing decentralisation in energy supply and the liberalisation of the energy market a variety of different actors and systems will have to interact and communicate. For the energy computer science projects such as SCADA-systems for the future, evaluation of international standards and the development of inter-domain standards are of interest. The growing number of decentralised energy systems using renewable energy carriers results, among other things, in an increased effort and greater complexity with regard to collection, evaluation and visualisation of resulting readings and status information. Through a combination with geo-information systems (GIS) innovative SCADA-systems could for instance offer more vivid visualisations of the entire systems and through improved interaction possibilities could reduce complexity and thus error-proneness of the control and monitoring of decentralised energy systems.

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An integration of CIM, e. g. for the representation and processing of grid topologies can be an important contribution to the interoperability of such systems. Flexible and solid mechanisms and architectures for a content-based routing of events and the decentralised administration of extensive distributed data pools are also of interest. New approaches from peer-to-peercomputing show interesting points of reference. A special problem concerning the development and maintenance of international standards is the missing or insufficient feedback for realisation. Long-term standardisation cycles within the context of IEC, any initial version usually needs several years to reach the status of International Standard contribute to the quality and stability of standards but also lead to considerably hesitant investments on the part of manufacturers. Through an application-oriented evaluation of international standards the field of energy computer science in cooperation with manufacturing companies wants to reduce applicants inhibitions with respect to realisation. Due to changed legal frameworks such as the Legal Unbundling or the Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energies (EEG), the energy market has been subject to significant changes. Especially the number of decentralised facilities for power generation in the electricity grid, like facilities for wind energy or solar power plants, is growing. Their fluctuating and partly non-controllable feed-in means new challenges in energy management. Within the framework of the Energy Research Alliance Niedersachsen, the effects of this increased integration of decentralised generation facilities, such as combined heat and power units or fuel cells on low voltage level, have been examined in a subproject since April 2006. Examinations focus on facility control and coordination for which a safe exchange of information is necessary with adequate standards being applied. For the analysis and evaluation of different operating strategies, a corresponding tool is being developed which allows for the simulation, analysis and evaluation of varying energy scenarios and for the development of approaches for operational planning and control in virtual power plants as well as for their

prototypic realisation. Besides the coordination of decentralised energy systems the current trend towards an increased decentralisation, as well as interconnectedness of the energy market, requires the controllability of the entire system. Developments like the ones in the area of electric mobility which cause new correlations between up to now independent systems increasingly result in more complex, software-intensive energy infrastructures which, with regard to safety and reliability, need new IT-based methods and processes. Because of the high density of interconnectedness and interaction, it is no longer sufficient to consider individual software systems as isolated components, but to examine the distributed system of interacting components. To guarantee for the controllability of such an entire system, questions have to be asked regarding the continuous securing of functionality and quality assurance costs, performance, adaptability, consideration of non-functional marginal conditions such as standards or legal guidelines.

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Energy economics Against the background of the climate change and the finiteness of fossil energy resources new energy concepts have to be worked out. These have to be socially accepted and ecologically, as well as economically, favourable and have to ensure fair opportunities for future generations. For the evaluation and detailed arrangement of energetic concepts, the question of their profitability is indispensable. If the aim is a sustainable energy supply, several ecological and social challenges must be taken into consideration, e.g. carbon footprint and local acceptance - in addition to economic criteria like retail price and costs for facility operation. The research field of energy economics therefore addresses topics like system migration, energetic and eco-

nomic evaluation of different process chains and alternative process combinations as an interdisciplinary task. Additional focus is on measures for the increase of energy efficiency and the areas of technology and society. With regard to system migration, the EFZN will develop suitable methods for computer-based planning and control of material and energy flows. Concerning existing uncertainties in planning, special emphasis will lie on the securing of a reliable supply, especially with fluctuating capacities. In an interdisciplinary cooperation with other research fields evaluation criteria are being developed so that process chains and the interdisciplinary task of finding alternative process combinations can be energetically and economically evaluated. In the medium term this research field of the EFZN wants to establish a collection of suitable measuring methods and reference values resulting from completed research projects and the literature. For a reliable evaluation of process chains and especially for the determination of energy generation costs of technologically innovative systems for energy supply, suitable models are to be developed. Based on this the costs for a CO2 reduction can be determined. In the area of energy efficiency, a crucial contribution for climate protection can be made in which the EFZN as the central contact point in Niedersachsen. It supports the realisation of an energy efficiency plan with the declared goal to increase energy efficiency in industry, traffic and private households. Reduced energy consumption results in a decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and in a smaller dependency on energy imports. Apart from scientific and technological aspects questions of social science, psychology, economy and jurisprudence are important for the transformation of the energy supply in technology and society, as they are often decisive for the success or failure of innovations. Acceptance surveys shall examine under which conditions the creative potential of individuals and stakeholder groups can be broadly activated, i.e. the stakeholder-participation of citizens and industry. Empiric case studies, high-quality interviews or surveys

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with decision makers from politics, industry and associations play an important part in the preparation of acceptance surveys and suitable models as well as simulation tools. Niedersachsen was the first German state to deploy a government committee on climate protection (in 2008) which has supported the government with the development of a concept on climate protection for Niedersachsen since then. By order of the Ministry for Environment and Climate Protection of Niedersachsen, the EFZN instigated a survey on potentials for CO2 avoidance and corresponding costs summarising CO2 emission and consumption of energy in the areas of renewable energies and combined heat and power, buildings, commerce, trade and services as well as transport and agriculture. Criteria which have to be tak-

en into consideration for a target-oriented programme for climate protection in Niedersachsen are the federal states size and the relevance of its agriculture and motor industry. The survey focuses on the identification of courses of action which have already been discussed in the literature and for which individual German states have relevant scope of political action. As a direct transfer of those findings to Niedersachsen is not possible due to a missing reliable data basis future projects are planned. Energy law The division of energy law deals with the survey, review and if necessary reform of the legal framework for energy-related projects. All energy sources are included within their respective legal frameworks. Members of this research field work actively in different complementary sectors of national and European energy law through participation in research projects, publications and expert reports as well as through teaching and lectures. In recent years, the field of energy law has become broadly diversified. In particular, it comprises the legal branches of energy network regulation, law on renewable energy sources, law on energy efficiency, law on greenhouse gas emissions, law on environmental and planning issues, law on nuclear energy, mining law, antitrust law for energy companies and law energy contracts. Arising questions shall be dealt with in two different ways. On the one hand questions of energy law frequently arise in comprehensive problems related to energy. This kind of work on energy law is part of the transdisciplinary EFZN research projects. On the other hand the research on energy law shall focus on topics that are expected to be of particular importance for the future of energy law and which are linked to other EFZN fields of research. Against this background, thematic priority is given to the topics of depth of regulatory intervention (concerning e. g. the planning of energy grids or the regulation of network

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fees via incentive regulation) , sustainable energy supply and the market (concerning e. g. improved market integration of renewable energies) as well as legal conditions for new technologies in the field of energy and climate protection (concerning e. g. questions of state aid law). Fundamentals of new energy technologies This research field focuses presently on the two topics new materials for energy conversion and sensors for optimised energy efficiency. With respect to the development of materials future research concentrates on high-temperature materials for sensor and actuator applications and on nano-materials for energy conversion. A target-oriented development and testing of new operating principles will be pursued based on improved and new materials. Besides this, new concepts for the miniaturisation of sensors, sensor systems and networks are of particular importance. Energy conversion with new materials Sensor technology for optimised energy efficiency High-temperature actuators for energy conversion Development of functional materials for extreme operating conditions In the area of energy conversion photovoltaics and innovative lighting based on new materials non-conventional silicon technology is one of the core topics at the EFZN, which is treated in cooperation with the Universities Clausthal, Gttingen and Hannover. Semiconductor nano-wires are increasingly analysed worldwide with respect to their application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and energy technologies. Pioneering work is done with zinc oxide (ZnO) which is non-toxic and shows a very efficient light-matter-interaction compared to other semiconductor materials. During the last years manufacturing processes for ZnO nano-wires have been developed producing high-quality material with wire diameters of a few hundred nanometres and a wire lengths of several micrometers. Clarification and review of the physical/ technical and material scientific fundamentals of these materials open possibilities for the development of a new generation of solar cells and white light sources based on polymer-coated or even uncoated zinc oxide nano-wires.

Another new method for the development of solar cells of the next generation is the use of so-called black silicon. In this approach, developed at Harvard University, silicon wafers or thin silicon layers are specifically treated with ultra short, high intensity laser pulses thus influencing the silicons surface, especially its reflectivity, and absorption behaviour. A deeper physical understanding of the underlying processes enables completely new approaches for future photovoltaic applications:The observed effects can then be transferred to other materials, e.g. to less expensive ones like zinc oxide. In the area of sensor technology, new concepts for miniaturised sensors are investigated and prototype systems for the control of different industrial processes are developed. This enables optimisation of those processes regarding energy efficiency and life expectancy of components. Special emphasis is added in the area of high temperature processes. Accordingly, sensor materials withstanding temperatures of up to 1500 degrees Celsius have to be developed. This can be piezoelectrics or optically transparent materials for semiconductor and photonic sensors. Not only miniaturisation but also networking of as many sensors as possible is of great importance. This implies that a great number of test points can be read simultaneously and, since expensive components can be used for multiple sensors, costs per test point can be reduced. This type of sensors allows ubiquitous application in industrial processes: scenarios include monitoring of biogas plants, fuel cells, offshore wind-farms, melting furnaces for glass and metal and CO2-sequestration. The control of energy conversion processes requires actuators which will be exposed to high temperatures in many cases. For example, the direct adjustment control of gas fluxes in fuel cells or combustion plants is advantageous appropriate actuators must therefore withstand high temperatures. A further research objective is the development of materials and systems, among others piezoelectrics, which meet the requirements of high-temperature stability and environmental sustainability and offer sufficient adjustment travel and adjustment speed.

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School education and teacher training at the EFZN


With a view to a training in science and technology with prepares for the future, the EFZN-board decided to make its scientific facilities and equipment available for schools and training programmes for teachers. In the EFZN, pupils of senior classes of grammar schools in Niedersachsen shall be made familiar with current topics of energy research and conditions for studying in order to support them in their selection of universities. Thus pupils have direct access to information concerning possibilities for studying and labour market perspectives. School education in all those subjects shall be supported which are suitable for a cooperation in the area of energy. In addition to that pupils acquire detailed knowledge about scientific work methods of the EFZN research fields and laboratories and within the framework of a traineeship can even gather practical experience. In the long run also teacher trainees and teachers shall be offered opportunities for training and advanced training respectively at the EFZN. For this programme, the following topics are currently prepared in EFZN-laboratories: fuel cell and solar-hydrogen-technology as well as electrochemical power sources: batteries. Apart from the EFZN and the Institute for Energy Research and Physical Technologies, other institutes and institutions of the Clausthal University of Technology also contribute to programme preparations in this first stage of the project. The medium-term aim is a coordination with comparable offers of the partnering universities. In order to adjust the contents of school curricula and topics didactically, the project is supported by the Ministry for Education and Cultural Affairs of Niedersachsen in that teachers for the corresponding subjects get compensatory hours for the preparation of this project.

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Milestones
October 2005 Foundation of the Energie-Forschungszentrum of the Clausthal University of Technology in cooperation with the University of Oldenburg Definition of the future cooperation within the Consortium Technicum with the universities of Braunschweig and Hannover Start of the Energy Research Alliance Niedersachsen (FEN) as a virtual anticipation of the EnergieForschungs entrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) z Decision of the government of Niedersachsen to establish the Energie-Forschungszentrum in Goslar as a scientific institution of the Clausthal University of Technology and under participation of the Braunschweig University of Technology as well as the universities of Gttingen, Hannover and Oldenburg. Aim: Consolidation of research expertise in Niedersachsen along the entire value-chain of the energy industry in order to bundle and expand energy supply in Niedersachsen. Final motion for the foundation of the EFZN, a scientific institution of the Clausthal University of Technology in cooperation with the universities of Braunschweig, Hannover, Gttingen and Oldenburg Positive assessment of the scientific outline through the science commission of Niedersachsen and start of the planning stage for the EFZN-construction in Goslar (reconstruction of the former Rammelsberg barracks) with an investment volume amounting to about 12 million Euros. By way of the establishment of a hereditary building right the town administration of Goslar provides one of the barracks buildings free of charge. In anticipation of the future EFZN, move-in of the first research groups and the office into the Science Park and Business Incubator Goslar, Am Stollen 19 Symbolic laying of the foundation stone for the EFZN in Goslar by the Prime Minister of Niedersachsen, the Mayor of Goslar and the President of the Clausthal University of Technology

April 2006

June 2006

July 21, 2006

December 2006

January 2007

July 2007

December 2007

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January 2008

Appointment of the managing board and the executive board for the EFZN and start of research work on the EnergieCampus Goslar Start of construction in the future domicile of the EFZN in Goslar Start of the research alliance Geothermal energy and high-performance drilling technology which the EFZN had helped to develop and coordinate Constitutive meeting of the board of trustees Conclusion of the EFZN-building project and start of furnishing, confirmation and new appointment respectively of board members Second meeting of the board of trustees with determination of future fields of research as well as presentation of development planning Dedication of the EFZN main building on the EnergieCampus Goslar

July 2008 February 2009

August 2009 January 2010

February 2010

June 17, 2010

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Imprint
Editor: Managing Board of the Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen Am Stollen 19 D-38640 Goslar Branch Office Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen, Dr. Jens-Peter Springmann, Anna Tietze Title: Anna Tietze S. 6 t: photocase.com frau.lueders S. 6 m: Steffen Ottow S. 6 b: photocase.com jane S. 9: mellow-d/photocase.com S. 11: alpha ventus Pressebild S. 13: wombatonline/photocase.com S. 14: Fotolia.com Thaut Images S. 18: KONG/photocase.com S. 22: Fotolia.com treenabeena S. 23: sushi100 /photocase.com S. 24/25: Flo79/photocase.com S. 27: Fotolia.com Paylessimages Franziska Dannehl EFZN 2010 The EFZN is a scientific institution of Clausthal University of Technology in cooperation with the universities of Braunschweig, Gttingen, Hannover and Oldenburg.

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Contact Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen Geschftsstelle Am Stollen 19 D-38640 Goslar phone: +49 (0) 5321 3816 8000 fax: +49 (0) 5321 3816 8009 email: geschaeftsstelle@efzn.de internet: http://www.efzn.de