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Job Satisfaction

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Rewards

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Job Stress
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Job Performance

Rewards H1 Rewards influences Job Stress (Kompier & Marcelissen, 1990) H2 Rewards influences Job Satisfaction (Clifford, 1985, Gerald & Dorothee ,2004) H3 Rewards influences Job Performance (Adeogun, 2008) Job Stress H4 Job Stress influences Job Satisfaction (Pawar & Rathod, 2007). H5 Job Stress influences Job Performance (Liao & Master, 2002, Lindahl et al., 2005) Job Satisfaction H6 Job Satisfaction influences Job Performance (Saari & Judge, 2004)
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Stress mediates Rewards and Job Performance (Hu & Schaufeli , 2010) Satisfaction mediates Rewards and Job Performance (Silva ,2006) Satisfaction mediates Job Stress and Job Performance ((Karatepe et al., 2006)

REWARDS Intrinsic rewards- Mottaz (1981) Task autonomy I have a good deal of freedom in the performance of my daily task I make most work decisions without first consulting my superior I am not able to make changes regarding my job activities. I make my own decisions in the performance of my work role. Task significance My work is a significant contribution to the successful operation of the organization. Sometimes I am not sure I completely understand the purpose of what I'm doing. My work is really important and worthwhile. I understand how my work role fits into the overall operation of this organization. Task involvement I do not feel a sense of accomplishment in the type of work I do. My work provides me with a sense of personal fulfillment. I have little opportunity to use my real abilities and skills in the type of work I do. My work is interesting and challenging Extrinsic rewards Robinson et al (1969) and Clifford (1985) 1. Social rewards I found supervisors as perceived, are supportive and helpful in job matters I believe my colleagues are supportive and helpful. 2. Organizational rewards There are adequate supplies; equipment, time and the environment to do a good job are available to me. I feel my salary is comparable to others performing the same or similar jobs I am satisfied with job provides opportunity for advancement I feel the pension plan, medical coverage, and the like are sufficient. JOB STRESS- Job Related Tension Index 1. Not knowing what your supervisor thinks of you, how he/she evaluates your performance 2. Feeling that you have too heavy a workload, one that cant possibly finish during an ordinary workday 3. Thinking that amount of work you have to do may interfere with how well it gets done 4. Feeling that you have too little authority to carry out the responsibilities assigned to you 5. Having to decide thing that effect the lives of individuals or people that you know 6. Thinking that youll not be able to satisfy the conflicting demands of various people over you 7. Feeling that you have to do thing on the job that are against your better judgment 8. The fact that you cant get information needed to carry out your job

9. Feeling that your job tends to interfere with your family life 10. Being unclear on just what the scope and responsibilities of your job are 11. Feeling unable to influence your immediate supervisors decisions and actions that affect you 12. Not knowing that opportunities for advancement or promotion exist for you 13. Not knowing just what the people you work expect of you 14. Feeling that youre not fully qualified to handle your job 15. Feeling that you may not be liked and accepted by the people you work with JOB SATISFACTION -Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale (MSQ) On my present job, this is how I feel about: Being able to keep busy all the time The chance to work alone on the job The chance to do different things from time to time The chance to be "somebody" in the community The competence of my supervisor in making decisions Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience The way my job provides for steady employment The chance to do things for other people The chance to tell people what to do The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities The freedom to use my own judgment The chance to try my own methods of doing the job The feeling of accomplishment I get form the job The way my boss handles employees The way company policies are put into practice My pay and the amount of work I do The chances for advancement on this job The praise I get for doing a good job The working conditions The way my co-workers get along with each other JOB PERFORMANCE-Job Involvement Scale (JIS) 1. I'll stay overtime to finish a job, even if I'm not paid for it 2. The major satisfaction in my life comes from my job 3. For me, mornings at work really fly by 4. I usually show up for work a little early, to get things ready 5. The most important things that happen to me involve my work 6. I'm really a perfectionist about my work 7. I feel depressed when I fail at something connected with my job 8. I live, eat and breathe my job 9. I would probably keep working even if I didn't need the money

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The most important things that happen to me involve my work I live, eat and breathe my job To me my job is only small part of who I am I am very much involved personally in my job Most of my interests are centered upon my job I have very strong ties wit my present job that would be very difficult to break Usually I feel detached from my job Most of my personal life goals are job oriented I consider my job to be very central to my existence I like to be absorbed in my job most of the time

Rewards influences Job Stress (Kompier & Marcelissen, 1990) Siegrist ., Siegrist., & Weber,. (1986) using the Effort-Reward Model (ERM) found that the job stress resulted from the interface of job rewards. Effort-Reward Model (ERM) forecast that mental dissatisfaction and job dissatisfaction are the mixture of high job efforts with low job rewards. According to Siegrist, Starke, Chandola, & Peter, (2004) when employees contented with the rewards, it associated with the reduction of stress even the jobs are demanding and tough. Siegrist, Starke, Chandola, & Peter, (2004) again argued that job rewards have direct effects and influence on job stress of an employees. This means that the level of task (effort) and job must be associated with the rewards provided by the firm in order to reduce employee job stress. Rehman, Khan, and Afzan (2010) concluded that their study were constant and established significant relationships between total efforts, total rewards, and job stress. Based from Rehman, Khan, and Afzan (2010) study, their finding demonstrated that job effort and rewards play a significant role as supplemental, rather than substitutive manner, in reducing perceptions of job stress and employees turnover intention Rowley and Purcell, (2001) mentioned that hotel chef often work stressful due to highly bureaucratic, unsociable, unstable, and unpleasant work environments. This stress feeling occur from the failure of the organization to provide pleasant working condition that will induce the motivation of the employee.

Rewards influences Job Satisfaction (Clifford, 1985, Gerald & Dorothee ,2004) Tang (2006) writes that a contributor to low job satisfaction is low pay satisfaction, this is because job satisfaction comprises of satisfaction with work, pay, promotions, supervision and coworkers which directly link with the rewards system. Lam, Baum, and Pine (2001) concluded that three of their proposed job dimensions (work environment, job itself, and rewards) giving positive influences on employee job satisfaction and the most influential factor in predicting job satisfaction is the job security.

Previous researchers Siegrist., Siegrist., & Weber,. (1986) stated the job rewards had significantly influence the job satisfaction. The job rewards can be either positively or negatively influence the job satisfaction. Further research conducted by Siegrist, Starke, Chandola, & Peter, (2004) argue that employees are satisfied with the job more when they attained high rewards. Ghiselli Lalopa, and Bai, (2001) using the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire scale and found that compensation, job security, authority and responsibility, are significant factors that effects food service managers job satisfaction However, according to Pfeffer (1988) neither individual nor the organization performance has a positive impact on or after individual incentive pay. Oshagbemi(1995, 1996) claimed that from the research finding that been conducted within a university work environment, it was found that out of eight characteristics of job satisfaction, employee were most dissatisfied with their pay and promotions .Allen and Velden (2001) state that job satisfaction have a positive relationship with salary and skill match. Hancer and George (2003) investigated and reported that low dissatisfaction found in compensation, authority, social status, and advancement of the employee that works in regional restaurant chain. As Rehman, Khan and Afzan (2010) study on rewards and job satisfaction in private educational institutions, their finding from the study shows that a high percentage of teachers with both job stress and dissatisfaction and an imbalance describe by high effort and low reward in their professional life. High effort and low rewards referred when employee have to put extra and more effort to the job but still did not been compensate with fair rewards. Pratten (2003) studied result shows that short of training, extensive working hours, small salary, and confined work conditions were main contributor of low job satisfaction in the culinary profession. While Spinelli and Canavos (2000) argue that a satisfied employee is one who is well-paid, contributing creative/difficult tasks, participating in decision making, receiving enough training and benefits, has career advancement opportunity, and has an effective supervision.

Lam, Baum, and Pine (2001) stated that most important motivation factors that have strong influence in job satisfaction is the extrinsic rewards compared to the intrinsic rewards in motivating employees in the hospitality industry

Rewards influences Job Performance (Adeogun, 2008) Rehman , Khan and Afzan (2010) stated that employees and the firm are able to enhanced the performance by revamp of jobs description that integrate with greater worker rewards such as personal financial need, personal social needs, and personal esteem as well as rational job efforts. While from the study conducted by Gneezy & Rustichini, (2000) they provided evidence that pay has a direct effect on job performance. Pay is referring to salary that earned agreed by the employee with the management for the work or job that they did. In contrast, Lawler and Worley (2006) argue that merit pay plans do not influence the job performance or retain qualified employee. Indeed, the relationship between rewards and performance is week and do not contribute too much or inspire employee to perform well. However according to Griffin, (1990) employee performance is influenced by three things that are ability, the work environment and motivation. To support above statement, Nelson (2006) mentioned that employee unable to perform if they do not understand their work task or ways to do it. Therefore, managers are responsible to encourage (non-monetary rewards) employee to perform by valuing finished work, as well as efforts by workers to do the job well (Nelson, 2006).According to Nelson (2006) again employee that feel unappreciated have a highly percentage to increase the turnover rate and have an intention to quit. Adeogun (2008) stated that by enhancing understanding on what encourage employees to perform will facilitates organization to boost and trigger the employee to achieve the organizational overall performance outcome Perry, Mesch and Paarlberg (2006) discussed in their study that employee performance and monetary inducement need to be study further. Meanwhile Stiffler (2006), concluded that inspiration to realize individual goals should be attach to individual performance

Job Stress influences Job Satisfaction (Pawar & Rathod, 2007). Murray and Gibbons (2007) argue the main reason that lead to the stress that have been experience by British and Northern Ireland chefs included excessive workload, feeling undervalued, and poor communication channels and later form feeling of dissatisfaction. Sheena, Cary, Sue, Ian, Paul and Clare (2005) concluded in their study that there is a direct relationship between experience of work-related stress and job satisfaction. Employees tend to feel stress when the job is more challenging than they expected and employee suffer when they unable to meet the expectation. Ahsan, Abdullah, Fie and Alam (2009) claimed that employee with a higher percentage of work-related stress may not be satisfied with their job and as a result they will not experience happy working environment in the organization. According to Alexandros-Stamatios, Matilyn, and Cary (2003) management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect work-related stress among employees. Employee stress is depending of the job or pressure that the management gave. Task or the job that demand employee to take an additional effort or beyond employee ability can force to job dissatisfaction. With the supportive management, it will reduce employee stress emotion. Meanwhile Townley, (2000) mentioned that in his study in UK showed that the most of the employee were dissatisfied with the existing culture where they were required to work long-working hours and deal with with large workloads while at the same time they are pressure to meet production targets and deadlines that been set by the management. Ahsan, Abdullah, Fie and Alam (2009) in their study found that employees who are highly motivated will feel happier and are more willing to work for the organizations. Appreciation, acknowledgement, and supportive superior can boost employee motivation and will help to reduce the stress that feel by the employee. Once the employee understands their role, they are able and competent to perform well. Silva (2006) writes that management must be able to develop culture that support employee and created sense of feeling meaning,

which later will reduce stress and make staff enjoy working with others. Jamal and Baba (2000) found that job stress was significantly related to job satisfaction Job Stress influences Job Performance (Liao & Master, 2002, Lindahl et al., 2005) Chen and Silverthorn (2008) writes that job stress would have a negative effect on his or her performance while for another employee with different personality job stress can enhance his or her performance. This means that, job stress can be either have negative or positive relationship with the job performance. Britt, et al., (2004) mentioned that work overload had result on anxiety, depression, lack of sleep, morale and job dissatisfaction. Even as Brown, et al. (2005) found that work overload is also likely to impact job performance. This result had supported the study that conducted by Motowidlo, Packard, & Manning, (1986) argue that work overload has been found to be linked to poor performance. Jamal (1984) found that as job stress increased, the level of job performance decreased. Hourani, Williams, and Kress (2006) found that employees who reported high levels of stress were more likely to report decrease in productivity in the ways of absenteeism, working below their normal performance point, and being injured on the job than employees who reported low to moderate amounts of stress. As well as Bond and Bunce (2001) whom found that administrative employees who reported lower levels of stress also rated their job performance higher and reported higher levels of job control than employees who reported higher levels of stress. However, this studies contrast with the study that been conducted by (Armour, Caffarella, Fuhrmann, & Wergin, 1987; Gillespie, Walsh, Winefield, Dua, & Stough, 2001) that found university faculty and staff employees work stress is negatively influenced job performance. This means that there is no relationship between work stress and job performance.

Job Satisfaction influences Job Performance (Saari & Judge, 2004) Chen and Silverthorn (2008) mentioned that different people with different personality would perceive different kind of satisfaction level. For some people who was more easily satisfied with his or her job, will simply increasing job performance. Arnett, Laverie and Mclane. (2002) found that when employee reached satisfaction level in their job, they be likely to perform well. Employee job satisfaction emerges after their expectation (salary, promotion etc) met and their goals align with the organizational mission and vision. In addition, job satisfaction also becomes an important factor that effects the organizational commitment and retention (Kim Leong, and Lee, 2004).While Spinelli and Canavos, (2000) argue that, when hospitality employee satisfied with their job, the will be able to provide service that exceed customer expectation and positively influence guest mind set towards the image of the hotel. Savery, (1988) claimed that, employee that feel dissatisfied with their job are probable to be less productive. As a result, it can harm the organization reputation as low production quality been produce by employees. Therefore, as to the more satisfied are individuals with their job, the more committed they will be to the organization (Silva .2006). Silva (2006) also examined job satisfaction and correlate with the nature of work dimension. The nature of work dimension seeks to determine whether the employee likes their job, feels it is meaningful, and has a sense of pride about it. Lucas, (1999) writes that it has long been assumed that higher employee satisfaction have a direct link to enhance in employee performance and productivity.However, Nerkar, McGrath, and MacMillan (1996) stated that some researchers have found higher job satisfaction may lead to higher job performance others have not.

Job Stress mediates Rewards and Job Performance (Hu & Schaufeli , 2010) Rehman , Khan and Afzan (2010) claimed that those employees who acquire an equal level of rewards , and find that there is a challenges in their job will result to become more actively involved in a variety of secure emergent professionally and individually, and given that quality performance and contribution to their organization. Ahsan, Abdullah, Fie and Alam (2009) argue that, it is vital for an organization to have a continue appraisal programs and appreciation should be given to encourage and motivate the employee. As motivation is the secret key for the employee to perform well and affecting the job stress, management need to consider revamping and exploring ways to, inspire their employee.

Job Satisfaction mediates Rewards and Job Performance (Silva ,2006) Judge, Bono, Toressen and Patton (2001) claimed that equal pay-performance would make those who value pay satisfied because performance leads to valued rewards. Judge, Bono, Toressen and Patton (2001) stated that the job rewards, job satisfaction and job performance had a relationship and link of the relationship of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards both are same. Podsakoff and Williams (1986) writes that the general satisfaction-job performance relationship was somewhat stronger in studies in which rewards were linked to performance. Locke (1976) mentioned that factors that contributed as the motivation to the job satisfaction are the view of, achievement, worth position, work events and condition as well as the relationship with others in the work place and directly influence the performance of the individual. While Brown and Leight (1996) stated that recognition and supportive management linked with the job performance but not influencing in job satisfaction.

According to Lawler (1990), job satisfaction commonly related peoples feelings about the rewards they have received on the job. Satisfied employees will able to perform well as they perceived rewards equal and fair with their effort on the job. In contrast, Spector, (1997) study show, that extrinsic rewards signify a weak correlation between pay and job satisfaction. Consequently, it does not have an effect on increase the performance of the employee.
Several determinants of job satisfaction have been established in prior research. They include organizational reward systems, factors such as power distribution and centralization, and individual differences such as self esteem and the need for achievement (Lankau and Scandura, 2002) H9 Job

Satisfaction mediates Job Stress and Job Performance ((Karatepe et al., 2006) Chen and Silverthorn (2008) perceived lower levels of job stress,reported higher levels of job satisfaction and job performance