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# Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback

## 1. Basic Equations of Control

2. Control of Steady-State Error to Polynomial Inputs: System Type
3. PID Controller
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Basic assumption: linear, and time invariant system (LTI)
We will study: stability, tracking, regulation, and sensitivity in this chapter.
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Open loop system:
ol ol
Y GD R GW = +
The error: the difference between reference input and system output is:
( )
[1 ]
ol ol ol
ol
E R Y R GD R GW
GD R GW
= = +
=
The open loop transfer function is:
ol ol
T GD =
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
The error is:
Unity feedback system:
1 1 1
cl cl
ol
cl cl cl
GD GD G
Y R W V
GD GD GD
= +
+ + +
U
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
cl cl
cl
cl cl cl
cl
cl cl cl
GD GD G
E R R W V
GD GD GD
GD G
R W V
GD GD GD
| |
= +
|
+ + +
\ .
= +
+ + +
The output is:
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
The transfer function is:
Unity feedback system:
U
1
cl
cl
cl
GD
T
GD
=
+
The controller is:
1 1 1
cl cl cl
cl cl cl
D GD D
U R W V
GD GD GD
=
+ + +
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Stability:
The open loop transfer function is:
ol ol
T GD =
The open-loop structure cannot be used to make an unstable plant to be stable
and therefore cannot be used if the plant is already unstable.
Assume:
;
ol
b c
G D
a d
= =
ol
bc
T
=
If a or d has zeros at RHP? Can we use zero/pole cancellation to make the system
Stable?
Although it seems the overall transfer function has no poles in RHP, but
the internal subsystem is unstable, and then overall is unstable.
The characteristic equation is:
( ) ( ) 0 a s d s =
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Stability:
The transfer function is:
1
cl
cl
cl
GD
T
GD
=
+
Assume:
;
ol
b c
G D
a d
= =
The characteristic equation is:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 a s d s b s c s + =
More freedom is given to make the system stable.
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Tracking:
The open loop controlled system can theoretically obtain a perfect
tracking by cancelling the transfer function of the plant and substitute whatever
the desired reference signal.
However in practice:
(a) The system must be built physically (must be proper).
(b) The engineer must not get greedy and request an unrealistically fast design
(c) As later discussed, sensitivity is an issue for the open loop controller.
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Regulation:
Keep the error small when the reference is at a set point and disturbances are
present.
In the open loop case, the controller doesnt consider the disturbance, so it is
useless to discuss the regulation for the open loop controller case.
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Regulation:
In the feedback case:
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
cl cl
cl
cl cl cl
cl
cl cl cl
GD GD G
E R R W V
GD GD GD
GD G
R W V
GD GD GD
| |
= +
|
+ + +
\ .
= +
+ + +
Want larger
cl
D
Want smaller
cl
D
Normally disturbance happens at low frequency, and noise of the sensor in
high frequencies.
Therefore, we make the gain of larger at lower frequency and smaller at
higher frequencies.
cl
D
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
sensitivity:
The sensitivity is calculated by:
/
/
T
G
T T
S
G G

=
For the open loop case: ( )
ol ol ol ol ol
T T D G G D G D G + = + = +
/ / ( )
1
/ /
ol
T
ol ol ol ol
G
T T D G D G
S
G G G G

= = =
For the feedback controller case:
( )
1 ( )
cl
cl cl
cl
G G D
T T
G G D

+
+ =
+ +
After some manipulations: it is much smaller than that of the
open loop case.
1
1
cl
T
G
cl
S
GD
=
+
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Filtered cases
The open loop transfer function is:
ol ol
T GD F =
Similar to the transfer function achieved in the case w/o filter.
Therefore the discussion on stability, sensitivity, etc. are almost the same.
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
The feedback transfer function is:
The filtered closed loop structure can realize the best properties of both the open-loop
and the unity feedback closed-loop cases.
The controller D_cl can be designed to regulate the system for the disturbance W and
The sensor noise V, while the filter F is designed to improve the tracking accuracy.
Filtered cases
1 1 1
cl cl
ol
cl cl cl
GD F HGD G
Y R W V
GD H GD H GD H
= +
+ + +
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Sensitivity:
As the gain increases, approaches 1
Filtered cases
1.0
cl
T
F
S =
1
1
cl
T
G
cl
S
GD H
=
+
1
cl
T
cl
H
cl
GD H
S
GD H
=
+
cl
T
H
S
Need to have a good sensor
(low in noise, and very stable)
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
1. Basic Equations of Control
2. Control of Steady-State Error to Polynomial Inputs: System Type
0 0
( )
lim ( ) lim ( ) lim
1 ( )
ss
t s s
cl
sR s
e e t sE s
G s D

= = =
+
The steady state error will depend on the input and loop transfer function
1
1
( )
( )
( )
m
i
i
cl n l
j
j
s z
k
G s D
s
s p
=
=
+
=
+

1
1
(1 )
( )
(1 )
i
j
m
z
i
cl n l
p
j
T s
K
G s D
s
T s
=
=
+
=
+

1/
i
z i
T z =
1/
j
p j
T p =
1
1
m
i
i
n
j
j
z
K k
p
=
=
=

## Normally, we classify the system by : l 0

1
2
...
l
l
l
=
=
=
order 0
order 1
order 2
t
( ) r t
A
0
Typical input signals
t
( ) r t
0
t
( ) r t
0
Step input Ramp input Parabolic input
A
s
2
A
s r At =
3
A
s
2
2
A
r t =
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
t
( ) r t
A
0
Typical input signals
t
( ) r t
0
t
( ) r t
0
Step input Ramp input Parabolic input
A
s
2
A
s r At =
3
A
s
2
2
A
r t =
order 0
0
0
/
lim
1 ( )
1 lim ( )
1
ss
s
cl
cl
s
p
sA s
e
G s D
A
G s D
A
K

=
+
=
+
=
+
2
0
0
/
lim
1 ( )
/
1 lim ( )
ss
s
cl
cl
s
sA s
e
G s D
A s
G s D

=
+
=
+
=
3
0
/
lim
1 ( )
ss
s
cl
sA s
e
G s D

=
+
=
order 1
0
1 lim ( )
0
1
ss
cl
s
A
e
G s D
A

=
+
= =
+
0
0
/
lim
1 ( )
/
lim /
1 /
ss
s
cl
v
s
v
A s
e
G s D
A s
A K
K s

=
+
= =
+
2
0
2
0
/
lim
1 ( )
/
lim
1 /
ss
s
cl
s
a
A s
e
G s D
A s
K s

=
+
= =
+
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
t
( ) r t
A
0
Typical input signals
t
( ) r t
0
t
( ) r t
0
Step input Ramp input Parabolic input
A
s
2
A
s r At =
3
A
s
2
2
A
r t =
order 0
1
ss
p
A
e
K
=
+
ss
e =
ss
e =
order 1
0
ss
e =
/
ss v
e A K =
ss
e =
order 2
0
1 lim ( )
0
1
ss
cl
s
A
e
G s D
A

=
+
= =
+
0
/
lim
1 ( )
0
ss
s
cl
A s
e
G s D

=
+
=
2
0
/
lim
1 ( )
/
ss
s
cl
a
A s
e
G s D
A K

=
+
=
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Example 1: determine the system type and the relevant error constant for the speed control
e xample with proportional plus integral control having controller given by
cl p
D k = ( )
1
A
G s
s
=
+
( )
( )
1 1
p
cl p
Ak
A
G s D k
s s
= =
+ +
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Type 0
Constant is:
p
Ak
Example 2: determine the system type and the relevant error constant for the speed control
example with proportional plus integral control having controller given by
/
cl p i
D k k s = + ( )
1
A
G s
s
=
+
( )
( ) ( )
( ) (1 / )
( ) /
1 1 1
p i i p i
cl p i
A k s k Ak k s k
A
G s D k k s
s s s s s
+ +
= + = =
+ + +
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Type 1
Constant is:
i
Ak
Example 3: find the steady state error for the following system for unit step, ramp, and parabolic inputs
( 2)
( )
( 1)( 4)( 5)
cl
k s
G s D
s s s s
+
=
+ + +
2 (1 0.5 )
( )
20 (1 )(1 0.25 )(1 0.2 )
cl
k s
G s D
s s s s
+
=
+ + +
(1 0.5 )
( ) / 10
(1 )(1 0.25 )(1 0.2 )
cl
s
G s D k
s s s s
+
=
+ + +
Step input Ramp input Parabolic input
order 1
0
ss
e =
1/
1/( /10) 10/
ss v
e K
k k
=
= =
ss
e =
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Example 4: consider an electric motor position control problem including a non-unit feedback system caused
by having a tachometer fixed to the motor shaft and its voltage (which is proportional to shaft speed) is fed back
As part of the control. The parameters are:
1
( )
( 1)
( )
( ) 1
( ) 1
p
t
G s
s s
D s k
H s k s
F s
=
+
=
= +
=

## Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback

Determine the system type and relevant error constant with respect to reference inputs:
solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
E s R s Y s
R s T s R s
=
=
Closed-loop transfer function
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Determine the system type and relevant error constant with respect to reference inputs:
solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1 ( 1) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 ( ) 1 ( )
E s R s Y s
R s T s R s
DG s H DG s
R s R s R s
HDG s HDG s
=
=
+
= =
+ +
0
lim ( )(1 ( ))
ss
s
e sR s T s

=
1
( ) 1/
k
R s s
+
=
0
0 0
(1 ( ))
1
lim
, 1
t p
ss
k
s
p
k
T s
k k
e
k
s
k

+
= =

=

## Type 1, and the velocity constant is:

1
p
t p
k
k k +
System type for regulation and disturbance rejection
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
A system can also be classified with respect to its ability to reject polynomial disturbance inputs:
The transfer function from the disturbance input W(s) to the error E(s) is:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
w
E s Y s
T s
W s W s

= =
In a similar way as for the reference inputs, the system is type 0 if a step disturbance input results in
a non-zero constant steady state error
The system is type 1 if a ramp disturbance input results in a steady-state value of the error that is a
non-zero constant, etc.
,
( ) ( )
n
w o w
T s s T s =
,
1
0 0
1
lim[ ( ) ] lim[ ( ) ]
n
ss w o w
k k
s s
s
y sT s T s
s s
+
> >
= =
If n>k, then he error is zero.
If n<k, the error is unbounded
If n=k, the system is type k
System type for regulation and disturbance rejection
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Example 1: considering the simplified model of a DC motor in unity feedback shown below, where the
Disturbance torque is labeled W(s).
(a) Use the controller D(s)= kp
(b) Let the controller transfer function be given by:
(c) D(s) = kp+ki/s
The transfer function from W to Y is:
0
,
( ) ( 1)
( ) ( 1)
1
( 1)
o w
p
p
A
Y s B B s s
s T
A
W s A s s Ak
k
s s

+
= = =
+ +
+
+
n=0
,
0 0
( )
lim lim
( ) ( 1)
ss o w
s s
p p
Y s B B
e K
W s s s Ak Ak

= = = =
+ +
System type for regulation and disturbance rejection
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
(b) The transfer function from W to Y is:
( )
2
( ) ( 1)
( ) ( 1) ( )
1 /
( 1)
p I
p I
A
Y s B Bs s s
A
W s A s s A k s k
k k s
s s

+
= =
+ + +
+ +
+
n=1
2
0
1
lim
( 1) ( )
ss
s
p I i
Bs B
e
s s A k s k s Ak

= =

+ + +

Step input:
Truxals formula (1955) for the Error constants
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Describes a relationship between the velocity constants of a Type 1 system in terms of
the closed-loop poles and zeros, a formula that connects the steady-state error to the systems
dynamic response.
1 2
1 2
( )( )...( )
( )
( )( )...( )
m
n
s z s z s z
T s K
s p s p s p

=

For type 1, the response to a step input is zero, therefore DC gain is 1:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )[1 ] ( )[1 ( )]
( )
Y s
E s R s Y s R s R s T s
R s
= = =
For type 1, system error due a unit ramp input is given by
2
1 ( )
( )
T s
E s
s

=
0 0
1 ( ) ( ) 1
lim lim
ss
s s
v
T s dT s
e
s ds K

= = =
This means: 1/Kv is related to the slope of the transfer function at origin.
(0) 1 T =
Truxals formula (1955) for the Error constants
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
Describes a relationship between the velocity constants of a Type 1 system in terms of
the closed-loop poles and zeros, a formula that connects the steady-state error to the systems
dynamic response.
0 0
1 ( ) ( ) 1
lim lim
ss
s s
v
T s dT s
e
s ds K

= = =
(0) 1 T = Because
| |
0 0
ln ( )
( ) 1
lim lim
ss
s s
d T s
dT s
e
ds T ds

= =
Substitute
1 2
1 2
( )( )...( )
( )
( )( )...( )
m
n
s z s z s z
T s K
s p s p s p

=

1 2
0
1 2
0
1 1
( )( )...( )
lim ln
( )( )...( )
lim ln( ) ln( )
m
ss
s
n
m m
i i
s
i i
s z s z s z d
e K
ds s p s p s p
d
K s z s p
ds

= =

=
`

)

= +
`
)

Truxals formula (1955) for the Error constants
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
1 2
0
1 2
0
1 1
( )( )...( )
lim ln
( )( )...( )
lim ln( ) ln( )
m
ss
s
n
m m
i i
s
i i
s z s z s z d
e K
ds s p s p s p
d
K s z s p
ds

= =

=
`

)

= +
`
)

0 0
1 ( ) ( ) 1
lim lim
ss
s s
v
T s dT s
e
s ds K

= = =
Since:
1 1
1 1 1
n m
i i
v i i
K p z
= =

= +

Truxals formula - example
Lecture 4: Part 1: A First Analysis of Feedback
A third-order type 1 system has closed-loop poles at -2+/-2j and -0.1. The system
Has one closed-loop zero. What should the zero be if Kv=10 is desired?
1 1 1 1 1
0.1
2 2 2 2 0.1
v
K j j z
= = +
+
0.0962 z =
Blank
The Three-Term Controller: PID controller
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
PID: ( )
I
p D
k
D s k k s
s
= + +
What Is the PID Controller Family?
P --- proportional
I --- integral
D --- derivative
PID is simple, it has weakness; it limits the range of plant that they can control successfully
--- not optimal
--- difficult in high order system
--- may be difficult in nonlinear systems control design, because it is not easier or impossible to
find poles/zeros
Control with an up-to-second-order controller

d
k dt
dt
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Proportional gain
Provide a contribution depend on the instaneous value of the control error
Proportional gain can be used to control any stable plant
But it provides limited performance, e.g., larger transient stage
Non-zero steady state error, due to the fact that its frequency response is bounded
for all the frequencies.

p
k
e
p
k
( )
( )
= =
p p
s
k e k
E s

( ) M

So for very low and very high frequency, the transfer function gain is the same
Very small error => small => not enough to control the system

## Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback

Integral gain I
k
s
Nature of
1/ s
We know s is a derivative because
We know 1/s is an integral because
( ) => x sX s
( )
=>

X s
xdt
s
Lets look at this one:

I
k
r
1
s
P
e
x
( ) ( ) =
I
k
s E s
s

=
I
x k e
( ) ( ) =
I
k
X s E s
s
= x
[0] [ ] = +
I
x x k e
[1] [0] = + x e
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Integral gain
I
k
s
How does this control affect the response
If the response has steady-state error, then integral of error increases, so is increasing to eliminate error.

If the response has no steady-state error, then integral in constant, so is does not change.
u
y
t

edt
t t

u
y
t

edt
t t

=
I
k
e
s

## Integral gain control is proportional to the accumulated error,

which implies it is a slow reaction control mode
0
1
( ) M

dB
Problem 1: its pole at origin will introduce stability problem
Problem 2: Integral of errors -> control action -> actuator saturation -> wind up
Problem 3: cannot affect all model response characteristic even combined with proportional gain
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Derivative gain
=
D
sk e
Surface moves in proportional to the rate of change in error. How does this control affect the response?
If x increase fast, then rising time is small and overshoot will probably be big
If x increase slow, then rising time is large and overshoot will probably be small
Basically derivative control seeks to control rate of change of error. So it helps to balance the rising time
and overshoot by controlling speed of response
Limitation: It is tendency to yield large control signals in response to high frequency control errors, such
as errors induced by set-point changes or measurement noise. (why?)
So its implementation requires properness of the transfer functions. (n>=m) Also because of ?
So a pole is sometime added to the derivative
t t
x
x
1 +
D
D D
k s
k s
D
derivative time constant is normally chosen such that 0.1 0.2
D D D
k k
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback

u
y
t

edt
t t

Derivative gain
=
D
sk e
See the high sensitive derivative term to noise
u
y
t

edt
t t

Noise
1 +
D
D D
k s
k s
So a pole is sometime added to the derivative, just like add a low pass filter
Noise Noise
=
D
sk e
1 +
D
D D
k s
k s
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Figure 4.8 Block diagram of the PID controller: (a) with the D-term in the feedback path; and (b) with the D-term in the
forward path
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Strength and weakness
P D I
Good
Simple, common sense
Like an amplifier
Need help to affect
Total response
States error
Limit stable range
So hurt stability (why?)
Good rate of response
Sensitive to noise
Usual effects of gain change
Gain Stability Speed Steady state error
increase
p
k
increase
I
k
increase
D
k
reduce
reduce
increase
Decrease
Eliminate
Small change

r s
t t

r s
t t

r s
t t
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
How to choose
p
k
I
k
D
k
Try and error
Use initial guess from theory (Ziegler Nichols), then fine tune using trial and error
Try and error
Strategy
check response using a gain;
change gain and check response
iterate
Do not need to know theoretical model of system
Can use either computer or physical system
Can be dangerous to a physical system
Can be time consuming
Can be hard to choose all gains
Some useful tips
Obtain an open-loop response and determine what needs to be improved
Add a proportional control to improve the rise time
Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot
Adjust each of gains until you obtain a final desired overall response
Keep the controller as simple as possible
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
P, PD, PID controller design example 1
Assume: we need to design a controller for
P
k
r T
T
e
3 2
1.151 0.1774
0.739 0.921
+
=
+ +
s
T
s s s
1
Control objectives
10%
2
4
2%

<
<
<
<
r
s
t s
t s
e

## First lets try P controller

1 =
P
k
2 =
P
k
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
P, PD, PID controller design example 1
Then lets try PD controller
+
D
P
k
k
s
r T
e
1
9, 4 = =
P D
k k
Then lets try PID controller
+ +
D
P I
k
k k s
s
r T
e
1
2, 4, 3 = = =
P I D
k k k
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Example 2: satellite attitude control:
Consider the model of a satellite attitude
control system shown below where
J: moment of inertia
W: disturbance torque
K: sensor and reference gain
D(s): the compensator
For two type controllers: PD and PID,
determine the system type and error
responses to disturbances of the control system
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Example 2: satellite attitude control:
So for (b), the transfer function from
The disturbance to error is:
2
1
( )
w
D p
T s
Js k s k
=
+ +
Type 0, and the error to a unit disturbance step
is:
1/
p
k
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Example 2: satellite attitude control:
So for (c), the transfer function from
The disturbance to error is:
3 2
( )
w
D p I
s
T s
Js k s k s k
=
+ + +
Type 1, and the error to a ramp disturbance
is:
1/
I
k
Ziegler-Nichols method 1:
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Ziegler-Nichols method 2:
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) Oscillation Method
This method is valid only for open loop stable plant
Compute 2 parameters K
c
and P
c
Basic step
Plot the root locus for the open loop gain
Record the gain and oscillation period associated with the root point just across the imaginary
Use formula
2
, =
PU u
K T

0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6 (0.125 )
=
=
=
p PU
PU
I
u
D PU u
k K
K
k
T
k K T
Attempts for basic response: magnitude of 2
nd
peak is size of 1
st
peak approximately
no guarantee of success but often gives reasonable point for control design that can be chang
trial and error iteration
Lecture 4: Part 2: A First Analysis of Feedback
Homework 5: textbook 4.2, 4.4, 4.8, 4.10, 4.17, 4.27, 4.32