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40 million by 2020:

Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education


Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

Table of Contents

Foreword The Indian higher education sector Doing more with less Optimizing existing capacity and capability in higher education Replicating the Indian private higher education sector success story Doing more of the new Identifying new opportunities to grow Glossary About EDGE

01 02 12 22 32 46 47

Foreword
Dear Readers,

The higher education sector in India has witnessed high growth over the past few years and today India boasts of more than 26,000 higher education institutes higher than any other country. However, despite having such a large number of institutes, Indias Gross Enrolment Ratio still lags at 12%, which is less than half the global average. The Government has set itself a highly aggressive target of achieving 30% GER by 2020, which translates into an enrolment of 40 million students in the higher education system. We believe that achieving this challenge requires a radically new thought process and innovative solutions and propose a three pronged solution. >ajkldq$ o] f]]\ lg ]fkmj] l`Yl o] \g egj] oal` l`] j]kgmj[]k o] `Yn] Yl gmj [geeYf\& L`ak entails that we optimize utilization of the capacity already created in the higher education sector. Improving the quality of higher education institutes through collaborations, creation of centres of ]p[]dd]f[] Yk o]dd Yk kljgf_]j Y[[j]\alYlagf kqkl]ek [gmd\ Z] ka_fa[Yfl kl]hk af l`ak j]_Yj\& K][gf\dq$ o] f]]\ lg j]hda[Yl] ]paklaf_ km[[]kk]k& Gn]j l`] dYkl \][Y\]$ afklalml]k af l`] hjanYl] sector have been in the forefront in creating new capacity. These need to be encouraged further by providing conducive frameworks and incentives as well as encouraging PPP arrangements. L`aj\dq$ o] f]]\ lg f\ fgn]d kgdmlagfk lg gn]j[ge] l`] [gfkljYaflk ^Y[af_ l`] k][lgj& A\]Yk km[` as the use of technology to enhance the reach of higher education in a cost effective manner and creation of special education zones need to be explored The EDGE Forum has always been a platform to discuss new thoughts and breakthrough ideas on the key issues impacting the higher education sector in India and providing a potential roadmap for its robust development. I hope this report provides insights for all constituents of the sector in adopting some of the themes laid out and successfully reach the target that we have all set out to achieve.

Warm regards, Amitabh Jhingan HYjlf]j$ =\m[Ylagf K][lgj D]Y\]j Ernst & Young India

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

The Indian higher education sector

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

L`] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf k][lgj Y[[gmflk ^gj Y ka_fa[Yfl share of private spends in the Indian education system
The Indian education system is dominated by the core sectors of higher education and schools (K12), which account for ~80% of the total consumer spends in the market. Indian education system

Core

20%

Non-core

40% Schools (K12)

40% Higher education Preschools Vocational training Coaching classes

Private

Public

Private

Public

Multimedia

Books

L`] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf kqkl]e af Af\aY hjaeYjadq [gfkaklk g^ mfan]jkala]k$ Ymlgfgegmk Yf\ Y^daYl]\ [gdd]_]k& Higher education in India Central Universities Deemed Universities Universities & University-level institutes Institutes of National Importance Afklalml]\ ]klYZdak`]\ mf\]j KlYl] d]_akdYlagfk KlYl] HjanYl] Mfan]jkala]k KlYl] Mfan]jkala]k Colleges Autonomous colleges 9^daYl]\ [gdd]_]k 40 130 33 5 76 243 25951

Form of Existence

With around 26,478 institutions, India has the largest higher education system in the world in terms of number of institutions. Number of higher education institutions (2010*)
26,478

6,706 4,000 India United States China

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Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

Growth in this sector is expected to continue, supported by increasing number of new institutions
The Indian higher education sector is expected to grow at a 18% Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) till 2020
Kh]f\k af l`] Af\aYf `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf k][lgj Yj] currently estimated to be ~INR 46,200 crores (spends in India), and projected to grow at an average rate of ~18% to over INR 232,500 crores in 10 years Estimated growth of Indian higher education sector (INR crore)
232523
8% R1 CAG

106582 46231

2010

2015(E)

2020(E)

Private sector accounts for almost 67% of the total spends in the higher education sector ?jgol` g^ `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf `Yk j]kmdl]\ af Y k`Yjh increase in the number of institutes Universities have grown at a constant CAGR (5%) over the decades from 1950-51 to 2009-10 Colleges in India have grown at a higher CAGR (8%) between 1990-91 and 2009-10 compared to between 1950-51 and 1990-91 (6%) HjanYl] mfYa\]\ [gdd]_]k$ o`a[` ^gje Y ka_fa[Yfl share of the total number of colleges, are rapidly growing in number

Share of private sector spends on higher education (2008-09)

67%

33%

Government

Private sector

Growth in number of higher education institutes (HEIs) in India


30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2009-10 Number of Colleges Number of Universities 28 578 45 1819 93 3277 123 4738 184 5748 266 11146 527 25951 500 400 300 200 100 0

Kgmj[]2 Eafakljq g^ @J< 9ffmYd J]hgjl *((1%)($ ;DK9 j]hgjl$ =Q YfYdqkak

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

enrollments and government spending


Higher education enrollments have grown at a CAGR of 6% to approximately 16 million in 2009-10

Enrollments in higher education have grown at a relatively steady CAGR of 6% for over 20 years between 198586 and 2009-10 Currently, there are ~16 million students undergoing higher education in India, with nearly half of them having joined the system over the last decade

Historical growth in enrollments (in millions) in higher education in India


16.0 13.6
% CAGR 6

11.0 8.4

3.6

4.9

6.6

1985-86

1990-91

1995-96

2000-01

2005-06

2008-09

2009-10

Increased government spending expected to further support the growth of this sector KlYl] ?gn]jfe]flk Y[[gmfl ^gj Y dYj_]j k`Yj] g^ `a_`]j education spending vis--vis the Central Government Central Governments expenditure on higher education `Yk _jgof Yl v+( ;9?J af l`] hYkl n] q]Yjk @go]n]j al `Yk k`gof Y ka_fa[Yfldq `a_`]j _jgol` jYl] (45%) in 2009-10 over 2008-09

Total Central Government expenditure on higher education (INR billion)


196.2

% 29.6 CAGR
117.4 69.6 34.2 35.4 2005-06 80.4 38.2 42.2 2006-07 76.1 2007-08 Plan 41.3

135.4 46.4

83

89 2008-09

113.2

2009-10

Non Plan

The government allocates the largest share (~38%) of its funding for general higher education Further investment is planned via setting up of new institutes: 16 central universities, 14 innovation universities, 0 AALk Yf\ / AAEk The total government outlay for higher education has af[j]Yk]\ ^jge *) g^ lglYd ]\m[Ylagf kh]f\ af l`] Pl` >an] Q]Yj HdYf lg +) af l`] PAl` >an] Q]Yj HdYf

Central Government spending on higher education (2009)


17% 28%

17%

Technical Higher Education Agriculture General Higher Education Medical 38%

However we believe, Indias public expenditure as Y h]j[]flY_] g^ ?<H `Yk Y ka_fa[Yfl ghhgjlmfalq to grow when compared with other countries

Public expenditure on higher education as a percentage of GDP*


1.60% 1.40% 1.00% 0.60% 0.90% 0.80% 0.80%

0.60%

Finland Sweden

USA

India

UK

Brazil

Russia

China

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Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

However, India continues to lag behind in terms of Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER)
Even with a constant growth in number of higher education institutes (HEIs), enrollments and increasing government spending, India has a low GER vis--vis other countries.
India is acknowledged to have the largest higher education systems in the world in terms of number of institutes and is also the 3rd largest in terms of ]fjgdde]flk$ Z]`af\ ;`afY Yf\ MK9 Yet, in terms of GER, India lags behind most developed/developing countries Student enrollments (in millions) in higher education (2009); *for 2010
25.4 17.8

16.0 9.4 4.6

China

USA

India*

Russia

Brazil

Af\aYk ?=J ^gj `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf klgg\ Yl )* af *()($ ka_fa[Yfldq Z]dgo l`] _dgZYd ?=J Yn]jY_] g^ *. af *((/ Gross Enrollment Ratio for higher education (2007); *for 2010
100% 83% 77% 57% 50% 40% 26% 21% 0% 12% 23% 77%

34%

India*

China

Brazil

UK

Australia

Russia

USA Global avg. GER

Developed countries avg. GER


Source: UNESCO Global Education Digest 2009; EY Analysis

BRIC nations avg. GER

Kgmj[]2 MF=K;G ?dgZYd =\m[Ylagf <a_]kl *((13 =Q YfYdqkak

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Being a concurrent subject, the Indian higher education system is regulated by both the Central and State Governments
The Indian HE sector has a host of regulators with complex laws and procedures which impedes GER expansion in India
Central Government State Government

University Grants Commission All India Council for Technical Education Distance Education Council Medical Council of India Pharmacy Council of India

Regulates Universities and University education in India Regulates technical education [such as management, engineering, etc.] in India Regulates open Universities and distance education programs in India Regulates medical education in India and grants registration for medical professionals Regulates pharmacy education in India and grants registration for pharmacy professionals Regulates nursing education in India and _jYflk j]_akljYlagf ^gj imYda]\ fmjk]k af Af\aY Regulates architectural education in India and grants registration for architects Regulates, promotes and maintains standards of legal education in India

Department of Higher and Technical Education* Directorate of Education*

Regulates higher/technical education in the State Regulates higher/technical education in the State

* The nomenclature of Regulators at the State Government level maybe interchangeable based on each State

Indian Nursing Council

The Central and State Governments have over the years introduced legislation, which has resulted in multiplicity of regulation, overlapping of mandates which are in []jlYaf [Yk]k [gfa[laf_ oal` ]Y[` gl`]j

Council of Architecture

Bar Council of India

Dental Council of India

Regulates dental education in India

New Bills proposed by the MHRD will introduce new regulators and supersede existing regulators such the UGC and the AICTE

National Council for Higher Education and Research National Accreditation Regulatory Authority

Single super regulator for higher education in India

Regulates process of accreditation and accreditation agencies

Education Tribunals

Settlement of education disputes

Kgmj[]2 =Q YfYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

Creation of new capacities and optimization of existing [YhY[ala]k ak ka_fa[Yfldq aehY[l]\ Zq l`] ]paklaf_ regulatory framework
Fgl%^gj%hjgl klYlmk Af\aYf @=Ak emkl Z] gh]jYl]\ Yk fgl%^gj%hjgl ]flala]k ]al`]j Yk HmZda[ Ljmklk$ Kg[a]la]k gj Yk K][lagf *- [gehYfa]k& L`] fgl%^gj% hjgl eYf\Yl] ak Y c]q \]l]jj]fl lg Y[lan] hjanYl] afl]j]kl Yf\ go g^ [YhalYd g^ l`] [gjhgjYl] k][lgj& Af k]n]jYd gl`]j [gmflja]k km[` Yk l`] MK$ fgl%^gj%hjgl eg\]dk [g]pakl oal` ^gj%hjgl eg\]dk& >gj%hjgl ]flala]k `Yn] ka_fa[Yfldq aehY[l]\ l`] `a_`]j education sector by increasing employability, using technology gfdaf] ]\m[Ylagf!$ aehd]e]flaf_ ]^[a]fl fYf[aYd eg\]dk lg reach out to students from low income groups and focusing on niche target customers (such as military students for whom government subsidizes education). Lack of autonomy Almost all critical aspects relating to establishment and operations of the institutes are regulated, limiting autonomy. Regulators prescribe detailed guidelines for a range of issues including admission, in-take norms, faculty recruitment, infrastructure requirements and collection of fees. The regulations seek to achieve uniform standards in higher education. However, the absence of academic, administrative Yf\ fYf[aYd Ymlgfgeq daealk l`] ghlaearYlagf g^ ]paklaf_ [YhY[ala]k S]&_& l`] afYZadalq lg af[j]Yk] klm\]fl aflYc]U Yf\ l`] creation of new capacities. The lack of a well-oiled accreditation mechanism and the overdependence on inspections has created an air of uncertainty in the sector. Barriers to foreign capital and collaborations The absence of a comprehensive policy framework for the entry and operation of foreign universities has served as an entry barrier for overseas institutions. Thus, collaborations around curriculum, content, teacher training, etc, which could have increased the quality of Indian institutes have not gained momentum. A Bill to provide the framework for foreign institutions was introduced in 2007 but was not passed by Parliament. The passage of the re-introduced Foreign Educational Providers Bill, 2010, could however overcome these barriers and lead to general increase of quality education in India.

Complex regulatory environment There are multiple regulatory agencies with overlap of functions and mandates. Education as a subject features in all 3 ;gfklalmlagfYd daklk a&]& l`] Mfagf$ l`] KlYl] Yf\ l`] ;gf[mjj]fl daklk& L`ak `Yk j]kmdl]\ af Zgl` ;]fljYd Yf\ KlYl] ?gn]jfe]fl agencies regulating education, making the set up of new mfan]jkala]k \a^[mdl& >gj ]pYehd]$ a^ Y hjanYl] k][lgj ]fl]jhjak] desires to set up a University, it must be legislated through KlYl] d]_akdYlmj] gj Af\aYf HYjdaYe]fl Soal` l`] ]p[]hlagf g^ l`] deemed university category]. Conversely, many institutions sponsored by the Central government bodies also need to follow parallel state laws.

Kgmj[]2 =Q YfYdqkak

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

However the government has now proposed a number of Bills with the clear intention of bringing regulatory reform to the higher education sector
Acknowledging the complexity of the existing regulatory framework and the need to reform @a_`]j =\m[Ylagf hgda[a]k$ l`] E@J< `Yk hjghgk]\ l`] afljg\m[lagf g^ Y fmeZ]j g^ :addk$ l`] enactment of which would bring about fundamental and structural changes to the higher education regulatory environment. The key Bills proposed include the following:-

Legislation The Foreign Educational Institutions SJ]_mdYlagf g^ =fljq Yf\ Gh]jYlagfkU :add$ *()( The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical =\m[YlagfYd Afklalmlagfk$ E]\a[Yd =\m[YlagfYd Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010 The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010 The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010

Objective To regulate the entry and operation of foreign educational Institutions in India To prohibit unfair practices in technical Institutions, medical educational Institutions and Universities To make accreditation mandatory for higher educational Institutions To provide for establishment of dedicated ;]fljYd  KlYl] LjaZmfYdk ^gj ]\m[Ylagf j]dYl]\ disputes To consolidate multiple regulations and regulators such as the UGC, AICTE and NCTE and the creation of a single super regulator To provide a regulatory framework for establishment of world class Universities of Innovation & research

Status H]f\af_ oal` HYjdaYe]flYjq KlYf\af_ Committee H]f\af_ oal` HYjdaYe]flYjq KlYf\af_ Committee H]f\af_ oal` HYjdaYe]flYjq KlYf\af_ Committee H]f\af_ oal` l`] JYbqY KYZ`Y

The National Commission for Higher Education and Research Bill, 2010 The Universities for Innovation Bill, 2010

Draft legislation circulated for public comments

Draft legislation circulated for public comments

Kgmj[]2 =Q YfYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

India can draw inspiration from other BRIC nations which `Yn] ka_fa[Yfldq aehjgn]\ ?=J af j][]fl lae]k
Brazil and China have witnessed a high CAGR growth of 13.39% and 19.24% respectively in GER in higher education during 2000-07 as compared to only a 3.09% CAGR growth in India
GER Comparison (%)
71 75

53 46 34 25 16 11 5 1980 1 1990 Brazil 11 6 3 NA 2000 Russia India 2005 China 2007 10 8 11 20 12 23

Brazil -34% GER


In 2000, Brazil had a GER of 16%, To ramp up its GER, Brazil has taken several initiatives over the last decade One such initiative was to increase accessibility of higher education to rural areas, going beyond the educationally forward regions With enhanced rural access, there has been an interiorisation of higher education reaching out to towns which had no HEIs, providing access to students who had been excluded on a regional basis To further the reach of higher education to remote areas, the Education Development Plan (EDP) was launched in 2007 Further with increasing private participation in higher ]\m[Ylagf$ l`] imYda[Ylagf g^ l]Y[`af_ klY^^ af :jYrad Ydkg improved While in 1995, only 25% of faculty had masters or doctoral \]_j]]k$ Zq *((+ gn]j -( `Y\ l`]k] imYda[Ylagfk

China 23% GER


Till 2000, higher education in China, with a low national GER of 8%, was a preserve of the elite Post 2000, China began to expand its higher education system in response to pressure from people, resulting from increase in number of students graduating from secondary schools The government further launched a program providing fYf[aYd kmhhgjl ^gj klm\]flk ?gn]jfe]fl KmZka\ar]\ Klm\]fl DgYf Hjg_jYe! The Program facilitated subsidizing commercial interest rates for education loans to the tune of 50%. It also facilitated repayment of the loan 4 years after graduation In 2003, China opened its higher education sector to the world /)* hjg_jYek Yj] g^[aYddq Y[[j]\al]\ Yf\ Y[[]hl]\ Yk bgafl programs out of which only 150 are allowed to confer nonChinese degrees

Kgmj[]2 [`afY]\m[]fl]j&[ge$ MF=K;G ?dgZYd =\m[Ylagf <a_]kl *((1

10

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Indias target of achieving a 30% GER by 2020 is a huge challenge and would require a transformational change
The Indian government has set a target of achieving a 30% GER in the higher education sector by 2020, up from 12% in 2010. This would translate to an enrollment of 40 million which is an incremental increase of 24 million from the current enrollment.
With several initiatives and schemes in place to increase enrollments in primary and secondary education, higher education enrollments have developed into the next key focus area However it is expected that to reach a GER of 30% an additional ~33,000 institutions would be required which would entail an investment of about~ INR 1,000,000 crores by taking into account the prescribed infrastructure for educational institutes The achievement of this aggressive GER target would be greatly facilitated by using a three pronged approach Initiatives

1 Optimizing existing capacity


L`]j] ak ka_fa[Yfl mf\]j%mladarYlagf g^ ]paklaf_ [YhY[ala]k Y[jgkk klYl]k Yf\ kh][aYdarYlagfk& L`mk l`]j] ak Y hgl]flaYd lg ghlaear] ]paklaf_ [YhY[alq

2 Encouraging private sector participation


HjanYl] hYjla[ahYlagf af l`] Af\aYf `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf k][lgj f]]\k lg Z] ^mjl`]j ]f[gmjY_]\ lg `]dh kmhhd]e]fl afn]kle]fl f]]\]\ lg j]Y[` l`] lYj_]l ?=J

Using new models for growth


F]o _jgol` eg\]dk o`a[` `Yn] dYj_] hgl]flaYd af l]jek g^ Y[[]kkaZadalq f]]\ lg Z] aehd]e]fl]\ Yf\ jYeh]\ mh lg ^Ykl j]Y[` l`] lYj_]l ?=J

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

11

Doing more with less Optimizing existing capacity in higher education

12

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Capacity utilization varies across states and specializations


Underutilization of capacity exists even in the states acknowledged to be progressive in the context of higher education

Utilization of existing capacity in a state varies across different specializations. >gj EY`YjYk`ljY$ l`ak nYjaYf[] jYf_]k ^jge 1/ ^gj H`YjeY[q :Y[`]dgjk Yf\ EYkl]jk g^ H`YjeY[q! lg -/ ^gj E:9 KaeadYjdq$ ^gj @YjqYfY$ l`ak nYjaYf[] ak ^jge /* E:9! lg 55% (Pharmacy)

Capacity utilization across states


97% 67% 69% 55% 57% 72%

Engineering & MCA

Pharmacy Maharashtra Haryana

MBA

The capacity utilization in specializations also differs ka_fa[Yfldq Y[jgkk klYl]k& Even in the same specialization (Pharmacy Bachelors  EYkl]jk!$ l`]j] ak Y ka_fa[Yfl nYjaYlagf af [YhY[alq utilization across states From a high of 87% (Andhra Pradesh) to a low of 50% (Bihar)

Capacity utilization in Pharmacy varies across states*


87% 63% 50% 55% 79% 58% 51%

And hra Pra des h

":Yk]\ gf @=A kYehd]k eap g^ lgh Yf\ dgo jYfcaf_ afklalml]k Y^daYl]\ lg 9A;L=! Y[jgkk klYl]k3 <g]k fgl af[dm\] Afklalml]k g^ FYlagfYd AehgjlYf[] km[` Yk AALk Yf\ AAEk

Approximately 15-30% of the existing capacity in the higher education sector is estimated to be un-utilized/ underutilized Increasing utilization in the existing capacity would thus reduce the incremental requirement of 24 million seats Taking a pure bottom up new campus build approach would thus result in over creation of capacity or underachievement of GER

Kgmj[]2 EY`YjYk`ljY <L=$ 9A;L=3 =Q YfYdqkak ":Yk]\ gf Yn]jY_] mladarYlagf jYl]k Y[jgkk H`YjeY[q$ =f_af]]jaf_$ E:9 Yf\ 9j[`al][lmj] af 0 klYl]k3 ?=J [Yd[mdYlagf % lglYd ]fjgdde]flk af Y_] _jgmh )0%*, Yk  g^ lglYd hghmdYlagf3 HghmdYlagf Hjgb][lagf J]hgjl%G^[] g^ l`] J]_akljYj ?]f]jYd  ;]fkmk ;geeakkagf]j3 <aj][lagfYd ]klaeYl]k oal` _mj]k ljaYf_mdYl]\ ^jge emdlahd] hmZda[dq YnYadYZd] kgmj[]k3 \YlY gf @=Ak fgl [mjj]fldq Z]af_ ljY[c]\

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

Tam il Na du

Har yan a

Guj ara t

Kar nat aka

Ker ala

Bih ar

13

One of the key reasons for variations in capacity utilization is the poor quality of HEIs at tail-end of the sector
ImYdalq g^ Y `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf afklalml] ak \]f]\ Yf\ e]Ykmj]\ Y[jgkk \a^^]j]fl hYjYe]l]jk$ ]f[gehYkkaf_ all aspects related to an operational institute faculty, infrastructure, learning resources, curricula, and delivery of education and access to employability.

L`] imYdalq g^ ]\m[Ylagf hjgna\]\ ak Y c]q ^Y[lgj afm]f[af_ the decision of students to enroll at a HEI. Only 475 universities and colleges are acknowledged to completely meet the required standards of an Indian HEI. The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) evaluates quality of universities and colleges across parameters including infrastructure, teaching and governance In 2009, the NAAC found only 11% universities and colleges meeting the metrics to qualify for a Grade A rating DY[c g^ ka_fa[Yfl fmeZ]j g^ _gg\ imYdalq afklalml]k results in an abnormal rush of students to apply for the few good ones

NAAC grading of universities and colleges (2010)


11.2% 21.2%

67.6% Grade A Grade B Grade C

Key parameters measured by NAAC include curricular aspects, teaching-learning & evaluation, research, consultancy & extension, infrastructure & learning resources, student support & progression, governance & leadership and innovative practices Seats as a % of total test takers
1% 2%

IIMs

IITs

Kgmj[]2 PAl` >an] Q]Yj HdYf3 @a_`]j =\m[Ylagf af Af\aY$ M?; J]hgjl$ *((03 =Q YfYdqkak

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40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Shortage of faculty and poor infrastructure are key factors impacting the quality of most HEIs

Indian higher education institutes face an acute problem in terms of lack of academic and physical infrastructure. ~33% of state universities and over 60% of the existing colleges do not meet the criteria of academic and physical af^jYkljm[lmj] Yk \]f]\ f][]kkYjq Zq M?; Academic infrastructure in universities when benchmarked Y_Yafkl l`] Z]kl$ k`go Y ka_fa[Yfl quality gap India also has one of the highest student-teacher ratios in the world, directly impacting the quality of education delivery Further, faculty appointment for higher education has grown at a slower pace than enrollments Growth in faculty (in million)
6.2% nt CAGR Enrollme 8% CAGR 2.2

NAAC grading: Determinants of quality and quality gaps in universities Quality gap
No. of faculty members with PhD degree No. of sanctioned faculty positions Fg& g^ dd]\ ^Y[mdlq hgkalagfk % teachers without Ph.D degree 24 0 25 0 29 34 6 11 8 10 432 5 5 2 158 432 287 432 220 329 109 25 145 274

% of faculty positions vacant

No. of teaching departments No. of computers No. of teachers/dept

0.50 0.47 0.48

0.51

0.52

Avg. of universities Benchmarks (Grade A universities)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Student-teacher ratios across the world (2008)


22.0 11.4 10.9 14.8 15.3 16.6 25.8

Developed countries

CIS

India

Oceania

Western Asia

Latin America 7 Caribbean

Sub-saharan Africa

There is a need for continued focus on infrastructure upgradation and faculty augmentation initiatives by the private sector

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Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

15

Addressing quality issues at existing HEIs is critical to increase capacity utilization


Enhancing quality of existing institutes is imperative
Institutes of differing quality require a range of initiatives from developing basic infrastructure to forging partnerships to develop and improve their quality. a. Enhance faculty involvement and development With teachers being the primary facilitators of education delivery in majority of higher education systems, involving l]Y[`]jk af \]n]dghaf_ l`] imYdalq g^ afklalml]k ak ka_fa[Yfl& 9ddgoaf_ l]Y[`]jk l`] ]paZadalq lg k]d][l lgha[k egkl relevant to their development needs with the aim of improving quality Involving teachers with higher developed skills to increasingly take on the responsibility for supporting their juniors to achieve instructional excellence within the system b. Forge partnerships and alliances For HEIs with an established reputation of providing quality education, the next step in their journey would be to become centers of excellence. Partnership with the corporate sector would enable institutes to develop career-oriented curricula and academic programs, increasing employability of students Combination of two institutes can help create one institute offering high quality education, and achieving a larger market presence while leveraging existing resources Partnerships for recruiting and sharing trained faculty would also help institutes in providing high quality academics right from the outset

Case study: Initiatives taken by the Long Beach Union School District (LBUSD), USA to increase faculty involvement to improve quality D:MK< Yddg[Yl]\ kh][aYd [gY[`af_ j]kgmj[]k lg Ykkakl struggling institutes Dedicated specialized curriculum coaches (senior & expert faculty) for other teachers Created transparent data systems accessible to principal, faculty and parents for objectivity in decision-making and student performance assessment Conducted regular interactions across levels principals, senior and junior faculty to discuss goals of the institute, assess data collected and share feedback

Examples of partnerships and alliances IGNOU & Accenture co-develop curricula and deployment strategy for Diploma in Business Process Outsourcing ;g_farYfl  :ALK HadYfa `Yn] Yf YddaYf[] ^gj \]ka_faf_ l`] EK ]%:mkaf]kk hjg_jYe Creation of University of Cumbria, which acts as dg[Yd mfan]jkalq ^gj v+( g^ K[gldYf\k hghmdYlagf3 Zq merger of University of Paisley with Bell College D:MK< j][jmalk v0( ^Y[mdlq ^jge K[`ggd g^ =\m[Ylagf$ ;Yda^gjfaY KlYl] Mfan]jkalq$ o`a[` ljYaf hjgkh][lan] l]Y[`]jk gf l`] kh][a[ afkljm[lagfYd hjY[la[]k g^ D:MK<

Kgmj[]2 PAl` >an] Q]Yj HdYf3 @a_`]j =\m[Ylagf af Af\aY$ M?; J]hgjl$ *((03 =Q YfYdqkak

16

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Mandatory accreditation would further improve quality of existing institutions and create greater consistency across them
With accreditations being a voluntary option in India, several institutes do not choose to undergo the accreditation process. This has lead to differing academic quality standards across HEIs, resulting in the under/non-utilization of academic infrastructure and low GERs. Currently accreditation of HEIs in India is undertaken by 2 bodies the National Assessment and Accreditation Council and National Board of Accreditation. With a view to streamline the accreditation process and make it mandatory for HEIs in India, l`] E@J< `Yk afljg\m[]\ l`] FYlagfYd 9[[j]\alYlagf J]_mdYlgjq 9ml`gjalq ^gj @a_`]j =\m[YlagfYd Afklalmlagfk :add af HYjdaYe]fl& This Bill will aim to implement mandatory accreditations and increase the number of accreditation agencies, resulting in improvement of academic quality. The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010
Need for legislation Key features of the Bill Impact analysis

Accreditation provides a quality assurance


framework and provides a common frame of reference for students to obtain credible information of academic quality across Institutions

The Bill provides for assessment of


academic quality that includes quality of teaching, learning and research, physical infrastructure, human resources, administration, course curriculum, admission, assessment and governance structures

EYf\Ylgjq Y[[j]\alYlagf ogmd\ aehjgn]


academic quality and provide comfort to students

The Bill limits the appointment of


accreditation agencies to Government agencies, which is likely to impact execution

Presently, accreditation is voluntary.


D]kk l`Yf *( g^ ;gdd]_]k Yf\ ++ g^ Universities have obtained accreditation

Every Institution/program conducted is


required to be accredited before the start of admission process to the program

Given the present number of only 2


Government accreditation agencies, it would help if the private sector is roped in Yk o]dd$ oal` km^[a]fl [`][ck  ZYdYf[]k

Existing Institutes may obtain accreditation


oal`af Y h]jag\ g^ + q]Yjk S- q]Yjk ^gj E]\a[Yd Afklalml]kU ^jge \Yl] g^ commencement of the Bill

Accreditation from NBA/NAAC is valid for


the period of accreditation by such agency

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

17

The Unfair Practices Bill would improve the quality of governance across institutes
Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Educational Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010
Need for legislation Key features of the Bill Impact analysis

There has been unprecedented growth in


l`] k][lgj$ o`a[` eYq d]Y\ lg \a^[mdla]k af effective regulation of institutions

The Bill details a list of unfair practices,


which include the following :-

Once enacted, the Act would provide much


needed reform

Accept fees except as stated in


hjgkh][lmk3

The Bill provides the legislative framework


to prevent practices frowned upon by Courts such as the acceptance of capitation fee and commercialization of education

Perception of some institutions resorting


to unfair practices such as charging of capitation fee, questionable admission process, misleading advertisements, etc.

The Bill proposes to balance the autonomy


of institutions with measures to protect the interests of students & other stakeholders

9[[]hlYf[] g^ [YhalYlagf ^]]k3 ;gdd][lagf g^ ^]]k oal`gml j][]ahlk3 Withhold award of students in
[]jlYaf [Yk]k3

If the Bill is enacted, private institutions


emkl Z] hjgna\]\ km^[a]fl Ymlgfgeq lg p own fee structures to be able to meet costs or for imparting education

Issue/publish misleading
advertisements.

The Bill also requires institutions to


provide detailed disclosures through a prospectus containing information around fee structures, number of seats, eligibility criteria, faculty, pay structures, admission process, etc.

Egf]lYjq f]k'aehjakgfe]fl `Yn] Z]]f


prescribed for contravention of the Act

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

18

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Increased focus on branding and marketing by institutions would also help improve capacity utilization
With the Indian student population becoming an increasingly sophisticated consumer, it is critical for Indian HEIs to enhance their efforts to build a mind-share among their target population
Focused branding and marketing is imperative in todays competitive education sector Private and government HEI players face a great degree of competition from both domestic peers and international institutes Al ak Ydkg ka_fa[Yfl ^gj _gn]jfe]fl afklalml]k lg ]f_Y_] af branding and marketing activities to increase their mindshare among the appropriate target customers Af\aY [mjj]fldq Y[[gmflk ^gj v,( g^ lglYd ?E9L l]kl takers among the Asian countries Further, India is estimated to send over 100,000 students lg MK9 Ydgf] ]n]jq q]Yj Y lYj_]l k]_e]fl o`a[` ak fgl being adequately addressed by domestic institutions K]n]jYd afl]jfYlagfYd afklalml]k$ o`a[` eYq fgl Z] jYfc]\ amongst the top HEIs, still attract Indian students on the basis of their strong branding and marketing strategies KIC UnivAssist has designed small group tours to provide one on one interaction between the students and US universities. The HEIs participating on this tour include Foothill and DeAnza community colleges from California, Savannah College of Art and Design, University of Cincinnati and University of Northern Iowa. (Only University of Cincinnati features in the Top 200 World Rankings)- Article US is the most popular destination for higher education, February 2011 To develop a brand, an institute needs to understand its customers along a number of dimensions 1 Content its connect with their interests, impact on career
options and employability

2
Assessment credible and valid accreditation

3 Delivery of learning should be customized based on


technological exposure of students

4 Support meeting diversity and support needs of students


is important

5
Facilities and equipment a key decisive factor for students at the time of selecting an institute

6
Student reviews form a key input in terms of alternative prospectus for students evaluating institutes

7 Cost living costs along with fees can change the decision
landscape

Case study: Lessons from the US Branding is key to building a differentiated market position MK mfan]jkala]k gh]jYl] af Y `a_`dq [geh]lalan] eYjc]l for student enrolments 16 universities in the states of New York and New Jersey were studied to identify how they aim to differentiate themselves in the higher education market place All the universities were found to be of the belief that developing and strengthening a distinctive brand is key to their differentiation strategy Gn]j 0( kh][a]\ afn]kle]flk Yae]\ Yl aehjgnaf_ the student experience

Ka_fa[Yf[] g^ c]q \a^^]j]flaYlaf_ kljYl]_a]k af l`] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf eYjc]l hdY[]


Cited university brand as key

100%

Cited student (customer) experience

88%

Valued sound university management

56%

Kgmj[]2 =Q MC `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf j]hgjl$ =Q 9fYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

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There also exists a need for developing international Centers of Excellence, to attract students and faculty
Global rankings for higher educational institutions have gained importance over the last decade. These rankings identify and acknowledge institutes which have developed into Centers of Excellence (CoE) across countries. C]q jYfcaf_k Y[cfgod]\_]\ ogjd\oa\] af[dm\] K`Yf_`Ya Jiao Tongs Academic Ranking of World Universities, Webometrics, Times Higher Education Rankings and ImY[imYj]dda Kqegf\k JYfcaf_k However, irrespective of the measure used, most of the locally prestigious Indian higher educational institutes do not ^]Ylmj] ka_fa[Yfldq af Yfq g^ l`] daklk Times Higher Education Rankings (2010) and Webometrics Rankings (2011) of top 200 global HEIs do not include any Indian institute Gfdq ImY[imYj]dda Kqegf\k JYfcaf_k ^gj *()( af[dm\]k 1 institute IIT Bombay among the top 200 HEIs across the globe

QS world university rankings


Webometrics, 2011 Singapore Hong Kong Japan India Russia Brazil China Australia Canada UK US 0 50 1 2 7 0 0 3 0 6 16 10 99 100 0 50 0 0 0 6 7 9 29 72 100 0 50 2 4 5 1 1 0 6 8 10 30 53 100 Times Higher Education, 2010 2 5 10 Quacquarelli Symonds, 2010

An increasing number of Indian students are studying abroad in pursuit of better quality education The value of imports (Indian students overseas) is high at 0.46% of the GDP, which comprises around 80% of the public spending on higher education ;j]Ylagf g^ ;g=k af Af\aY ogmd\ `]dh j]\m[] l`] gmlgo g^ klm\]flk lg afl]jfYlagfYd \]klafYlagfk ^gj `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf

Kgmj[]k2 Lae]k @a_`]j =\m[Ylagf$ IK  O]Zge]lja[k jYfcaf_k3 =Q YfYdqkak

20

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Summary
Capacity utilization of Indian HEIs varies across states and specializations At an aggregate level, we estimate anywhere between 15 to 30% of the existing capacity to be underutilized @]f[]$ l`]j] ]paklk Y ka_fa[Yfl hgl]flaYd lg ghlaear] ]paklaf_ capacity in the Indian higher education sector and develop strategies to promote utilization of existing infrastructure Increasing utilization in the existing capacity would reduce the incremental requirement of 24 million seats to reach the target GER of 30% Improving overall quality at the tail end of the sector and focusing on branding initiatives would result in attracting students and increasing capacity utilization Increasing utilization would further be supported by key regulatory initiatives mandatory accreditation of institutes, enablement of foreign university collaborations and checking unfair practices

Optimizing existing capacity and improving the utilization rate to an average of 95% would reduce the number of additional seats requirement to 20-25 million

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

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Replicating the Indian private higher education sector success story

22

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

The private sector now accounts for a large share in the Indian higher education segment
L`] k`Yj] g^ mfYa\]\ hjanYl] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf afklalml]k af l`] [gmfljq `Yk _jgof ka_fa[Yfldq af l`] dYkl ^]o q]Yjk$ [gfljaZmlaf_ lg l`] _jgol` af l`] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf k]_e]fl& L`] _jgol` ak Ydkg j]][l]\ af l`] dominant share of private institutes in professional courses

Unaided private higher education institutes as a percentage of total institutes 63.21%

Percentage share of public and private institutes in professional courses (2006-07) 5 9 36 38 50

42.60% 95 91 64 62 50

Pharmacy 2001 2006

Engineering Private

Management Public

Computer Applications

Medicine (MBBS)

The private sector has helped spur growth in the Indian higher education segment. For India to achieve its GER target of 30% it is imperative to further involve the private sector by creating a conducive environment for their participation and providing incentives.

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

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Private sector participation in setting up HEIs needs to be encouraged even further by creating a conducive environment across states
A state-wise assessment done by EY has ranked the Indian states based on a facilitating environment created which is conducive for setting up HEIs. The assessment shows that states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Yf\ EY\`qY HjY\]k` jYfc hggjdq Yk [gehYj]\ lg klYl]k km[` Yk LYea FY\m$ EY`YjYk`ljY Yf\ CYjfYlYcY$ o`a[` `Yn] [j]Yl]\ Y more conducive environment for HEIs. Kge] klYl]k Yj] Ydkg ^jgfljmff]jk af aehd]e]flaf_ f]o afalaYlan]k af l`] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf k][lgj km[` Yk l`] KlYl] HjanYl] Mfan]jkalq KHM! d]_akdYlagf! KlYl]k dac] 9kkYe$ ;``Yllak_Yj`$ ?mbYjYl$ @YjqYfY$ @aeY[`Yd HjY\]k`$ EY\`qY HjY\]k` Yf\ HmfbYZ `Yn] afljg\m[]\ Y KlYl] Private University legislation 9dl`gm_` l`]k] klYl]k `Yn] af hdY[] Y KHM d]_akdYlagf$ kge] g^ them are yet to create a supporting facilitative environment
5

State-wise rankings based on assessment of enabling factors for establishing presence of HEIs

5 7 11 13 10

11

4 5 1

1 6

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

24

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

While some Indian States have taken proactive steps in introducing legislation for establishment of SPUs
KlYl] HjanYl] Mfan]jkala]k [Yf Z] k]l mh mf\]j Yf 9[l g^ KlYl] D]_akdYlmj] L`]j] Yj] [mjj]fldq /. KHMk l`Yl `Yn] Z]]f k]l mh af )0 Af\aYf KlYl]k 9l l`] KlYl] d]n]d$ l`] j]_mdYlgjq ^jYe]ogjc ^gj KHMk ak ZYk]\ gf l`] d]_akdYlagf mf\]j o`a[` al ak ^gje]\ Yf\ Y [gf\m[an] hgda[q ogmd\ YlljY[l hjanYl] ]\m[Ylagf Afklalmlagfk lg l`] KlYl] State-wise distribution of State Private Universitiess

9 2 3 16 5

4 11 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 1 2

Kgmj[]2 M?; o]Zkal]3 9rae Hj]eba >gmf\Ylagf o]Zkal]3 =Q 9fYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

25

only a few have created special frameworks enabling their operations

The Government of Karnataka has created a conducive framework for operation of the Azim Premji University
A critical aspect desired by the private sector in establishing and gh]jYlaf_ Y @=A af Af\aY ak Ymlgfgeq Yf\ ]paZadalq af gh]jYlagfk& Km[` gh]jYlagfYd ^j]]\ge ak _]f]jYddq h]jeall]\ gfdq ^gj Ymlgfgegmk afklalmlagfk Yf\ mfan]jkala]k& KlYl] ?gn]jfe]flk could create a policy, which would provide universities in their klYl]k km^[a]fl gh]jYlagfYd Ymlgfgeq Yf\ ]paZadalq& 9f ]pYehd] g^ Y KHM l`Yl `Yk Z]]f ]f\go]\ oal` Y ^Yaj \]_j]] of autonomy in operation is the Azim Premji University to be located in Karnataka. L`] 9rae Hj]eba Mfan]jkalq `Yk Z]]f ]klYZdak`]\ Yk Y KlYl] Private University under the laws of Karnataka. The University aims to be an outstanding institution for talent and knowledge creation in education and development. The University would provide undergraduate and post graduate programs for over ,$((( klm\]flk Yl eYpaeme [YhY[alq$ oal` ka_fa[Yfl ]eh`Ykak gf l]Y[`af_$ ]d\ ogjc Yf\ j]k]Yj[` ^gj Zgl` ^Y[mdlq Yf\ students. The University proposes to focus on building social gja]flYlagf l`jgm_` hjY[la[] Yf\ j]][lan] l`afcaf_ l`jgm_` research, along with a strong sectoral understanding. Under the legislation incorporating the Azim Premji University, l`] ;`Yf[]ddgj g^ l`] Mfan]jkalq$ So`g ak l`] ;`Yajh]jkgf g^ l`] Khgfkgjaf_ :g\qU ak ]ehgo]j]\ lg lYc] c]q \][akagfk j]_Yj\af_ operation of the University including fee decisions. While the Government of Karnataka still retains the option of providing inputs on aspects such as admission and reservation, providing operational freedom will go a long way in attracting private sector players to establish a HEI in the state. Kge] g^ l`] c]q hjgnakagfk g^ l`] d]_akdYlagf af[gjhgjYlaf_ l`] Azim Premji University are provided below:Aspect Form of presence Powers of University Provision

K][lagf *- [gehYfq Vested with power to institute degrees,


\ahdgeYk$ []jla[Yl]k Yf\ gl`]j Y[Y\]ea[ distinctions like award of credits on the basis of successful completion of academic work

Fg hgo]j lg Y^daYl] [gdd]_]k& @go]n]j$ l`]


University is permitted to have Constituent ;gdd]_]k$ J]_agfYd ;]fl]jk Yf\ Klm\q ;]fl]jk af l`] KlYl] DYf\ Yf\ building

DYf\ Yf\ Zmad\af_ \]lYadk lg Z] hjgna\]\ af l`]


proposal for establishment of the University to l`] KlYl] ?gn]jfe]fl

DYf\ Yf\ gl`]j aeegnYZd]'egnYZd]


properties to vest with the University Admission & reservation Fees

At least 25% of total seats in the academic


programs to be reserved for students \gea[ad]\ af l`] KlYl] g^ CYjfYlYcY

Fee Regulation Committee constituted by


Board of Governors to lay down procedure and modalities consistent with the statute for pYlagf g^ ^]] kljm[lmj]

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

26

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

PPP arrangements, tax concessions for education and encouraging foreign capital to build infrastructure in India would encourage the creation of new capacities by the private sector
The private sector should be encouraged to participate in the creation of educational infrastructure, which could help in the development of physical infrastructure capacities. The private sector can be encouraged to provide much needed real estate and infrastructure to higher education institutions. PPP model L`] KlYl] ?gn]jfe]fl k`gmd\ \]n]dgh Y HHH eg\]d l`Yl [Yf Z] aehd]e]fl]\ lg Zmad\ af^jYkljm[lmj] ^gj `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf hjgna\]jk& L`] HHH [gmd\ aeZaZ] ' d]n]jY_] gf ?gn]jfe]fl j]kgmj[]k Yf\ hjanYl] k][lgj Z]kl hjY[la[]k& L`] KlYl] ?gn]jfe]fl [gmd\ hjgna\] kmhhgjl l`jgm_` af^jYkljm[lmj] Yf\ mladala]k Yl kmZka\ar]\ [gklk Yf\ _jYflaf_ dg[Yd YhhjgnYdk& EYbgjalq [YhalYd gmldYqk on built-up infrastructure are contributed by private enterprise in the capacity of an infrastructure service provider. The corporate ]flalq lg Z] j]emf]jYl]\ l`jgm_` j]flYdk gf d]Yk] g^ af^jYkljm[lmj] lg l`] fgl%hjgl%]flalq Yf\ l`] af^jYkljm[lmj] ^Y[adalq [gmd\ Z] transferred to the Government institution after a period of 35-40 years. An illustration of an effective PPP is illustrated below:Central Government AICTE, UGC approvals Provision of grants Trust/Society/Section25 Education service provider State Government Local approvals Land and utilities

Service fees

Transfer of infrastructure after prescribed time period

Infrastructure service provider Class rooms Furniture Laboratories Hostels Libraries Sports facilities Commercial buildings

Tax concessions Under the domestic tax law, education is a charitable activity, o`a[` ]flald]k fgl%^gj%hjgl ]flala]k lg [dYae af[ge]%lYp exemptions on their income. However, no similar incentives are provided to entities engaged in the development of infrastructure for education purposes. The dearth of high imYdalq af^jYkljm[lmj] af Zgl` hjanYl]'KlYl] afklalmlagfk bmkla]k the need for tax holidays for entities that invest in the creation g^ ]\m[Ylagf j]dYl]\ af^jYkljm[lmj]& Km[` lYp Zj]Yck [gmd\ Z] structured on the same lines as the deductions contained in the tax law for the development of other infrastructure segments km[` Yk af\mkljaYd hYjck$ `gkhalYdk$ ]l[& Km[` Y hgda[q oadd positively impact the creation of additional capacities and among others would help the Government in achieving its targeted gross enrolment ratios.
Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

Relaxation of FDI guidelines Higher education legislation such as certain Private University laws permits the institution to lease land and buildings subject to minimum lease tenures. A pain point in this context is Indias Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) regulations, as applicable to real estate. While foreign investment up-to 100% is permitted in real estate, stringent investment and development conditions have been prescribed. One such development condition is the requirement to develop a minimum of 50,000 square meters h]j hjgb][l$ o`a[` ak hYjla[mdYjdq \a^[mdl lg [gehdq oal` ^gj education projects. The Government should take steps to dilute the FDI regulations for the education sector on par with those of other infrastructure segments such as hotels and hospitals in which FDI is permitted without restrictions. A lease model may help education institutions to achieve a huge scale of operations faster and will result in a win-win situation for both the Government and the service provider.
27

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

The Foreign Educational Institutions Bill will further incentivize private sector participation
The Foreign Educational Institutions Bill to allow foreign institutes to set up campuses in India and to create partnerships is pending in Parliament. The enactment of the Bill would facilitate creation of foreign institutes in India
The Foreign Educational Institutions [Regulation of Entry and Operations] Bill, 2010
Need for legislation Key features of the Bill Impact analysis

Under the UGC Act, 1956, only Universities


]klYZdak`]\ mf\]j Y ;]fljYd gj KlYl] 9[l and Institutions deemed to be Universities are permitted to confer degrees for courses of study undertaken in India

K]]ck lg j]_mdYl] gof [Yehmk]k g^ ^gj]a_f


institutions in India and collaboration between foreign and Indian institutes

Appropriate checks and balances in place


to ensure that only reputed institutions operate in India

Bill does not apply to the distance


education format

Reputed foreign institutions in India could


`]dh j]\m[] gmlZgmf\ klm\]fl ljY^[ lg foreign countries

There is no framework that enables a


foreign university to establish its footprint in India

Institution must have prior track record of


at-least 20 years in home country

EYf\Ylgjq [gjhmk$ l`] j]imaj]e]fl lg


comply with local legislation and inability to repatriate surplus are the regulatory factors which will impede the set up of own campuses

The AICTE has however introduced


Regulation for Foreign Institutions that govern collaborations & partnerships with Af\aYf Afklalml]k3 l`ak `Yk j]kmdl]\ af dalld] compliance

Detailed process of prior approval of


foreign institution by Indian regulators has been prescribed

Foreign institution must maintain a


minimum corpus of INR 500 million

EYq ^Y[adalYl] afl]jfYlagfYd afklalmlagfk


to seek exemptions from some Indian regulations

The Government had attempted


introducing the Bill in the year 2007, which was not enacted.

EYf\Ylgjq j]imaj]e]fl ^gj ^gj]a_f


afklalmlagf lg eYaflYaf fgl%^gj%hjgl klYlmk and prohibition of repatriation of surplus from India

The scope of partnerships and


[gddYZgjYlagfk [gmd\ d]Y\ lg ka_fa[Yfl quality improvements

All applicable education regulation such as


those of the UGC/ AICTE will apply to the institution in India

L`] YhhjgnYd hjg[]kk eYq Z] kaehda]\ a^


a Joint Committee of applicable regulators is constituted to process applications on a fast-track mode

Penalties for noncompliance range up to


INR 5 million and corpus of the institution can be forfeited

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

28

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

The Education Tribunals bill will help resolve disputes quickly which should spur private sector participation
The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010 [the ET Bill]
Need for legislation Key features of the Bill Impact analysis

The rapid growth of the sector has resulted


af ka_fa[Yfl dala_Ylagf afngdnaf_ klm\]flk$ teachers, employees and managements of Institutions

The Bill provides for the establishment of


Y FYlagfYd =\m[YlagfYd LjaZmfYd SF=LU Yf\ KlYl] =\m[YlagfYd LjaZmfYdk SK=LU lg adjudicate education disputes

The Bill is a welcome legislation to settle


disputes for a sector that is subject to complex & multiple laws

Human Resource challenges to staff


Tribunals is a threat for effective implementation

While judicial remedies are available,


the currently system lacks speed and specialization

F=L  K=L lg Z] [`Yaj]\ Zq Y Bm\_]'j]laj]\


Bm\_] g^ l`] Kmhj]e] ;gmjl Yf\ @a_` Court respectively

If implemented well, this could lead to a


speedy resolution of disputes in the higher education sector in India

The Tribunals to have jurisdiction, powers


and authority over the following matters:-

K]jna[] eYll]jk g^ l]Y[`]jk']ehdgq]]k3 EYll]jk g^ Y^daYlagf oal` Yf Mfan]jkalq3 EYll]jk j]dYlaf_ lg mf^Yaj hjY[la[]k3 Disputes between Institutions and regulators.

Klm\]fl _ja]nYf[]k \g fgl k]]e lg Z]


kh][a[Yddq [gn]j]\ mf\]j l`] hjghgk]\ :add

Gj\]jk g^ K=L'F=L [Yf Z] Yhh]Yd]\ lg l`]


F=L'Kmhj]e] ;gmjl j]kh][lan]dq

Kgmj[]2 =Q 9fYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

29

The NCHER Bill would create a super regulator consolidating higher education regulations in the country, improving transparency and creating a conducive environment for setting up HEIs
The National Commission for Higher Education and Research Bill, 2010 [NCHER Bill]
Need for legislation Key features of the Bill Impact analysis

Emdlahda[alq g^ j]_mdYlgjk oal` gn]jdYhhaf_


eYf\Yl]k eYc]k al \a^[mdl lg Y[`a]n] compliance

The key functions of NCHER include the


following:-

The creation of the NCHER would simplify


the regulatory environment

Authorizing Institutions to confer


YoYj\k3

If NCHER is constituted principally with


academics, this would clearly ensure that academics with strong credentials govern the sector

The NCHER will consolidate the number


of regulators through creation of a super regulator

Kh][a^qaf_ fgjek Yf\ klYf\Yj\k3 Kh][a^qaf_ j]imaj]e]flk g^ Y[Y\]ea[


imYdalq3

The NCHER would allow for stability of


policy, given that one regulatory agency ogmd\ \]f] Yf\ k]l hgda[q

9\nak] ;]fljYd'KlYl] ?gn]jfe]fl The Bill provides for disbanding of the UGC,
AICTE and the National Council for Teacher Education

Political Will to pass this legislation may be


a challenge

The HRD ministry will not be able to give directions to the NCHER. Controlling higher education is certainly not our intention. NCHER will provide greater freedom. NCHER will facilitate, not concentrate power in itself Kapil Sibal, Minister for Human Resource Development

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40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Summary

Private higher education institutes account for a large share of the total number of institutes in the country However for India to achieve its GER targets this needs to be further increased by providing incentives and making a conducive environment for its growth While certain states like Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka have taken proactive steps in introducing legislation for ]klYZdak`e]fl g^ KHM$ kge] klYl]k dac] :a`Yj$ MllYj HjY\]k`$ Yf\ EY\`qY HjY\]k` [mjj]fldq ^Yaj hggjdq

KlYl]k dac] CYjfYlYcY `Yn] [j]Yl]\ [gf\m[an] ^jYe]ogjck ^gj @=Ak Zq hjgna\af_ km^[a]fl Ymlgfgeq Yf\ ]paZadalq af operations However, the Governments focus should also be towards creating PPP arrangements, relaxing FDI guidelines and providing tax concessions to further spur private sector participation Pending bills in Parliament like the Foreign Educational Institutions Bill and the Educational Tribunals Bill and the NCHER Bill are also expected to increase private participation

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Doing more of the new Identifying new opportunities to grow

32

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Identifying new opportunities and adopting newer \]dan]jq eg\]dk ogmd\ ka_fa[Yfldq `]dh af Zja\_af_ the last mile for achieving the target GER
Over the past few years, the Indian higher education sector has witnessed several affgnYlan] \]n]dghe]flk$ o`a[` `Yn] [gfljaZml]\ ka_fa[Yfldq lg alk _jgol`& To further increase its accessibility and enrollments, it is imperative to identify and escalate the implementation of new models.
1 2 3
Enhance usage of technology Promote new modes of delivery for distance education Evolve industry focused models such as Education Cities and Innovation Universities

Kgmj[]2 =Q YfYdqkak

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India should enhance usage of technology in the higher education sector, building on its existing strengths
Af\aY ak Y[cfgod]\_]\ Yk Y d]Y\]j af l`] ]d\ g^ l][`fgdg_q& @go]n]j$ alk mkY_] g^ l][`fgdg_q in education needs to be improved upon Increasing the implementation of technology would be a critical step for enhancing access to education and ramping up enrollment rates.
India ranks poorly for IT Readiness as compared to other countries Government of India has been increasingly emphasizing on potential of utilizing information, communication and technology (ICT) in the education sector Recognizing the role of ICT in improving quality and delivery of education, the government has launched the National Eakkagf gf =\m[Ylagf l`jgm_` A;L lg af[j]Yk] ?=J af `a_`]j education The government aims to reduce the disparity in technology penetration across various levels of education
Country MK9 Republic of Korea UK China India Brazil Russia Network Readiness Index (Overall) 3 11 15 46 54 59 74 Readiness 6 7 24 36 40 58 67 Usage 5 10 13 48 59 41 82

Government of India initiative National Mission on Education through ICT The mission is estimated to involve investments of INR 4612 crores The government has approved the provision of broadband internet network to connect 20,000 HEIs and 10,000 university departments KYl]ddal] Yf\ l]jj]kljaYd [gff][lanalq ]ph][l]\ lg Z] provided to classrooms, facilitating live interaction with the faculty Case Study: MHRD has initiated content sharing for engineering by launching the NPTEL programme DYmf[`]\ af )111$ FHL=D FYlagfYd Hjg_jYee] gf L][`fgdg_q =f`Yf[]\ D]Yjfaf_! ^Y[adalYl]k mkY_] of multimedia and web technology for sharing basic science and engineering content L`] k]n]f AALk Yf\ l`] Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ K[a]f[] AAK[! hjgna\] l`] [gfl]fl ^gj mf\]j_jY\mYl] k[a]f[] and engineering courses, which are converted into multimedia and web technology FHL=D `Yk \]n]dgh]\ *-- [gmjk]k af l`] l][`fa[Yd education space , with plans to launch 950 new courses, across 15 disciplines by 2012 Case study: IIMs use virtual classrooms to spread knowledge across the country AAE 9`e]\YZY\ `Yk la]\ mh oal` FAAL Daeal]\ lg deliver its executive development program through virtual classrooms. Under this program, an instructor gh]jYl]k ^jge Yf af%`gmk] \]ka_f klm\ag dg[Yl]\ af AAE Ahmedabad. Klm\]flk gh]jYl] l`jgm_` d]Yjfaf_ []fl]jk Yf\ experience interactive sessions through ICT-enabled tools for audio, video and other technology enabled learning mechanisms.

Improving and utilizing ICT to its fullest potential is essential for making education available to a wider audience. Indian higher education system faces a shortage of well imYda]\ ^Y[mdlq lg l`] lmf] g^ ,-$((( H`< Yf\ Yf ]imYd fmeZ]j g^ E&H`ad \]_j]] `gd\]jk ICT can function as an enabler for reforming higher education by overcoming shortage of skilled teachers and providing quality education via digitized content and virtual classrooms

Policy for distance education updated as of August 2009, making ICT compulsory for HEIs imparting distance education

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40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Promote new modes of delivery for distance education


Distance education has developed as a key enabler for the Indian higher education sector. Mladaraf_ \aklYf[] ]\m[Ylagf g^^]jk Y `gkl g^ Z]f]lk ^gj l`] Af\aYf `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf k][lgj
Incentivizes private participation as it is not asset intensive with long gestation periods Increases spread of education Helps in improving access to higher education for students located in remote, inaccessible locations across the country. EYc]k al ^]YkaZd] lg j]Y[` gml lg klm\]flk oal` \an]jk] education needs Enables imparting of education to those unable to join regular programs due to socio-economic and medical reasons Reduces costs of education

Implementation of distance education as a revenue stream ^gj Y ?j]]f]d\ `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf business assists in reducing project Zj]Yc%]n]f Zq *(%*-&"

Indian higher education sector has recognized the increasing ka_fa[Yf[] g^ \aklYf[] ]\m[Ylagf In the last decade the number of institutions offering distance education has more than doubled, growing at a higher CAGR (9%) than the previous decades (7%)

Number of institutions offering distance education


176 144
7% GR CA 74

74

40

The Indian distance education sector has shown a constant evolution in the delivery modes utilized

18

22

197576 198182 199091 199900 200001 200708 200910

Kgmj[]2 =Q YfYdqkak$ Eafakljq g^ @J< 9ffmYd J]hgjl *((1%)($ ":Yk]\ gf [Yd[mdYlagfk ^gj k]llaf_ mh Y ?j]]f]d\ technical HEI without distance education vis--vis with distance education forming ~50% of the business

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Innovative modes of distance education delivery are increasingly being put to use
1. Innovative distance education delivery model Study centers

Impact

Key players

Improve access by delivering classroom teaching outside university campuses

IGNOU, Sikkim Manipal University, Punjab Technical University

2. Innovative distance education delivery model Online education

Impact

Key players

Hjgna\]k ]paZadalq$ access to personalized content and cost savings

IGNOU, Symbiosis, Macmillan India, Amity University

3. Innovative distance ecducation delivery model Mobiles, televisions, readios and tele-education

Impact

Key players

Potential to reach students in inaccessible regions of the country

IGNOU, Symbiosis, NPTEL (National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning)

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40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

IGNOU and SMU are considered to be the leading distance education players in the country, especially in terms of using the study center model pedagogy
The study centre model of distance education has helped IGNOU to achieve the position of the worlds largest university
IGNOU is a frontrunner in distance education IGNOUs extensive network has helped to reach out to large number of students IGNOUs success story via study centers

Hgkl alk ]klYZdak`e]fl af )10- Yk Y ;]fljYd Mfan]jkalq$ A?FGM `Yk [gfljaZml]\ ka_fa[Yfldq lg l`] \]n]dghe]fl
g^ `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf af l`] [gmfljq l`jgm_` l`] Gh]f Yf\ <aklYf[] D]Yjfaf_ G<D! eg\]

Gh]jYlaf_ oal` *) K[`ggdk g^ Klm\a]k af ./ j]_agfYd []fl]jk$ +((( d]Yjf]j kmhhgjl []fl]jk Yf\ .( gn]jk]Yk
centers in 36 countries, it offers 338 programmes through over 3500 courses

It has around 3 million students enrolled from India and overseas Unique value proposition: IGNOU has made available to long-distance learners courses which were exclusively
daeal]\ lg [dYkkjgge afl]jY[lagfk3 km[` Yk h`qka[Yd  fYlmjYd k[a]f[]k$ fmjkaf_$ `]Ydl`$ ]f_af]]jaf_  technology, computers, library & information sciences and Bachelors in Education degree

Extensive academic support: Interactive face-to-face sessions between students and counselors are facilitated
by IGNOU to clarify doubts and respond to queries. The study centers also conduct practical sessions for relevant subjects.

In-depth evaluation: IGNOU facilitates continuous evaluations for students via assignments which need to be
submitted at the study centers. Term-end examinations are also conducted to measure student performance. Faculty at the study centers holds ultimate responsibility for providing quality feedback to the students for their assignments.

Sound academic infrastructure: The faculty at the study centers are ably supported by a robust academic
infrastructure - audio-listening, video-viewing, and tele-conferencing facilities IGNOU has robust future plans

To further expand its overseas presence, IGNOU plans to open study centers in Africa and six European nations,
including Germany and France

It also intends to collaborate with government agencies and other open universities through international
gj_YfarYlagfk af[dm\af_ MF=K;G$ ;geegfo]Ydl` K][j]lYjaYl$ ;geegfo]Ydl` g^ D]Yjfaf_ ;GD!$ Ogjd\ @]Ydl` Organisation (WHO) and World Wide Fund (WWF)

Kgmj[]2 A?FGM Hjgd] *())

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Kaccae EYfahYd Mfan]jkalq KEM! Zmadl gf alk jkl%egn]j advantage to become the largest private sector provider of distance education in India
Kaccae EYfahYd Mfan]jkalq%<aklYf[] =\m[Ylagf KEM%<=! hjgna\]k ,( \a^^]j]fl hjg_jYee]k lg over 0.4 million students enrolled for its distance education format
KEM `Yk Zmadl gf alk jkl%egn]j Y\nYflY_] It functions as the knowledge provider with the study centers responsible for infrastructure KEMk km[[]kk kl]ek ^jge using a balanced mix of technology and face-to-face interactions

L`] jkl mfan]jkalq lg Z] ]klYZdak`]\ gf Y HmZda[%HjanYl]%HYjlf]jk`ah eg\]d$ KEM ak Y ^jgfljmff]j Yegf_ hjanYl]
sector distance education providers

It offers courses in 10 disciplines via 40 different programmes, through a network of more than 725 learning
centres across 205 districts in 310 towns in India

It also reaches international students via 25 overseas centres in 25 countries 9k l`] cfgod]\_] hjgna\]j$ KEM ak j]khgfkaZd] ^gj Y[Y\]ea[ [gfl]fl Yf\ h]\Y_g_q Unique value proposition: Klm\]flk Yj] hjgna\]\ Y[[]kk lg af\mkljq ]ph]jlk ^gj o]]cdq afl]jY[lan] k]kkagfk
gf _Yafaf_ afka_`lk gf nalYd Ykh][lk g^ [gjhgjYl] ogjcaf_& 9\\alagfYddq$ l`] KEM Ydmefa Ydkg hdYq Y c]q jgd] af assisting students with lectures, counseling, guidance and job opportunities

Extensive academic support: The study centres are responsible for providing academic support services to
students, such as course material, conducting practical sessions, providing assessment and feedback, etc. Klm\q []fl]jk Ydkg ^Y[adalYl] l`] afl]jY[lagf Z]lo]]f klm\]flk Yf\ ^Y[mdlq ^gj [Yj]]j _ma\Yf[]

High usage of technology: KEM%<= hjgna\]k afl]jY[lan] NK9L ]fYZd]\ [dYkk]k lg gn]j[ge] l`] dY[c g^
Y\]imYl] _gg\ ^Y[mdlq& NK9L `]dhk af [j]Ylaf_ Y mfaim] afl]jY[lan] ]fnajgfe]fl ]fYZdaf_ l]Y[`]j%d]\ ljYafaf_ lg students located across geographically dispersed learning centres KEM `Yk ka_fa[Yfl domestic expansion plans

KEM lYj_]lk lg ]phYf\ alk klm\q []flj] ZYk] ^jge *-( \aklja[lk lg [gn]j -(( \aklja[lk af l`] f]pl log q]Yjk

Kgmj[]2 KEM hjgkh][lmk *()(

38

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Gfdaf] ]\m[Ylagf2 9 dggc Yl alk ka_fa[Yf[] af distance education


Gfdaf] \]dan]jq g^ ]\m[Ylagf g^^]jk ka_fa[Yfl Z]f]lk$ kmhhgjlaf_ l`] hjaeYjq gZb][lan]k g^ distance education.
Cost savings related to travel and opportunity costs of time saved. Online education also provides students with the option of personalizing their course content and delivery suiting their needs. With no direct peer competition, this mode of education delivery is an avenue for self-paced learning and review, tailored as per the students own capabilities. Shorter course durations - Online education is a more ]^[a]fl eg\]d$ oal` hgl]flaYd ^gj ^Ykl]j [gehd]lagf Yk compared to traditional higher education programmes. Greater choice available to students - It further provides students with an option to enroll in the best possible programmes at different geographic locations. L`] af[j]Ykaf_ Y[[]hlYf[] g^ l`ak eg\]d ak j]][l]\ af alk _jgol` _mj]k gfdaf] hgkl%k][gf\Yjq ]\m[Ylagf eYjc]l af l`] MK ak expected to register a growth of 11.2% annually as compared to l`] )&) af[j]Yk] af hgkl k][gf\Yjq ]fjgdde]fl"& L`] kh]f\k gf gfdaf] `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf af l`] MK9 ak ]klaeYl]\ lg Z] MK< ))&/ Zf af *((/%(0 Yf\ ak ]ph][l]\ lg _jgo Yl Y ;9?J g^ )/ lg MK< 30.2 bn in 2014.

Case Study: Leading international HEI offers a comprehensive online education programme 9hgddg ?jgmh ak l`] d]Y\]j af ^gj%hjgl `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf& It is estimated that Apollo has 360,000-380,000 (7580%) out of its 476,500 students enrolled as exclusive online students, mainly through University of Phoenix Online. This is a huge growth from 4,300 students enrolled in its online programs in 1997. Apollo reaches its online students via 100 programmess across varied specializations.

L`] ka_fa[Yf[] g^ l`] gfdaf] ]\m[Ylagf \]dan]jq eg\]d ak fgo on a rise in India. K]n]jYd d]Y\af_ `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf afklalml]k km[` Yk A?FGM$ KqeZagkak! `Yn] dYmf[`]\ hjg_jYee]k Zmadl Yjgmf\ l`ak model This model has also provided an entry point for content \]n]dgh]jk km[` Yk EY[eaddYf HmZdak`]jk! lg ]fl]j l`] ]d\ of education delivery as a direct stakeholder

Growth in the US online market has spurred multiple models: a. Open source or free content is being made available by mfan]jkala]k km[` Yk ;Yjf]_a] E]ddgf Yf\ EAL Z& Fgl ^gj hjgl mfan]jkala]k Yf\ [gdd]_]k Yj] Z][geaf_ prominent in this space. For e.g. players such as NYU (NYU Online), University of Illinois (Global campus), Columbia (Fathom) etc [& >gj hjgl [gehYfa]k km[` Yk 9hgddg `Yn] f]Yjdq /- g^ their students enrolled as exclusive online students d. Pure play online universities have emerged such as American Public Educations American Public University Yf\ 9e]ja[Yf EadalYjq Mfan]jkalq

Macmillan Publishers have tied up with leading Indian HEIs to provide online courses EY[eaddYf `Yk hYjlf]j]\ oal` ^gmj d]Y\af_ @=Ak AAE$ AAL$ E<A Yf\ AA>L! lg hjgna\] Y jYf_] g^ [gmjk]k Yae]\ at working executives in the subject areas of Corporate >afYf[]$ Afl]jfYlagfYd >afYf[]$ Kmhhdq ;`Yaf EYfY_]e]fl$ =%Zmkaf]kk Yf\ ;mklge]j J]dYlagfk`ah EYfY_]e]fl Yf\ Export-Import trade These courses are priced in the range of INR 5,000-INR 8,000 and have an average duration of 2-3 months.

Kgmj[]2 \]n]dgh&]eY[eaddYf&[ge$ 9hgddg ?jgmh o]Zkal]$ :EG j]hgjl *()(3 "*((1

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

39

Select Indian HEIs have already embraced the online education model with varying degrees of success
KqeZagkak ;]flj] ^gj <aklYf[] D]Yjfaf_ ak gf] km[` Af\aYf `a_`]j ]\m[Ylagf afklalml] o`a[` `Yk based its growth on the online education delivery model
K;<Dk km[[]kk kl]ek ^jge its established brand K;<D `Yk Yf ]pl]fkan] coverage of programmes K;<D `Yk Y o]dd \]n]dgh]\ online correspondence model

KqeZagkak ;]flj] ^gj <aklYf[] D]Yjfaf_ K;<D! oYk ]klYZdak`]\ af *(() Yk hYjl g^ l`] KqeZagkak Kg[a]lq It is now acknowledged to be among the countrys leading private sector providers of open and distance
learning

G^^]jaf_ \ahdgeY$ []jla[Yl] Yf\ [gjhgjYl] hjg_jYee]k Y[jgkk )+. [gmjk]k$ K;<D `Yk ]fjgdde]flk g^ gn]j
200,000 students based in India and 41 other countries

A 360 degree learning methodology: All three formats of education delivery - printed self-learning material,
e-learning and pre-recorded DVD lectures and faculty interaction, are used to teach children.

Virtual classrooms: K;<Dk \aklYf[] d]Yjfaf_ eg\]d ^Y[adalYl]k klm\]fl%^Y[mdlq afl]jY[lagfk naY najlmYd
classrooms and online chat sessions

E-Learning facilities: D]n]jY_af_ gf l`] [gfl]fl Yf\ ZjYf\ ]imalq g^ l`] KqeZagkak Kg[a]lq$ K;<D hjgna\]k
students with well designed e-learning content. The e-learning facilities also address the students needs for preparing assignments and availing faculty feedback.

24-hour access point: NaY alk gof ^mdd%]\_]\ [Ydd []flj]$ K;<D hjgna\]k klm\]flk oal` Y *,%`gmj Y[[]kk hgafl
for resolving queries

Placement assistance: K;<D hdYqk l`] jgd] g^ Y hdY[]e]fl ^Y[adalYlgj ^gj klm\]flk Zq k`Yjaf_ \]lYadk g^
manpower recruitment requests of various companies on its own website.

Kgmj[]k2 K;<D2 O]Zkal]3 L`] Lae]k g^ Af\aY o]Zkal]

40

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

New technology aided modes for distance education delivery are also on the rise
IGNOU has pioneered the use of new technological aides such as mobiles, televisions and radios as modes for distance education delivery
Technology aide TV and radio Initiative and outcome

Gyan Darshan and Gyan Vani are IGNOUs initiatives (in collaboration with other bodies) in TV and Radio which
have been operational from 2000 and 2003 respectively

Gyan Darshan is a bouquet of four channels on vocational, technical and higher education and sustainable
development while Gyan Vani has 37 operational radio channels imparting educational courses EgZad] h`gf]k

A?FGM `Yk [gddYZgjYl]\ oal` FgcaY af gj\]j lg g^^]j []jla[Yl] hjg_jYee] af =f_dak` naY egZad] h`gf]k lg klYjl
from January 2011

L`] hjg_jYee] oadd afalaYddq klYjl af kap \aklja[lk g^ EY`YjYk`ljY& 9^l]j kap egfl`k$ \]h]f\af_ gf l`] j]khgfk]$
the programme will be launched at a national level

The six months programme is a broken up into three levels that include English in daily life, English in education
and joining the workforce. The fee of the programme is INR 1,900. The course will be in English offered mainly l`jgm_` KEK Tele-education

A?FGM Yf\ L]d][geemfa[Ylagfk ;gfkmdlYflk Af\aY Daeal]\ L;AD! `Yn] k]l mh Y hYf 9^ja[Yf ]%f]logjc ^gj
connecting Indian institutes to 53 countries of Africa for providing tele-education

L`] f]logjc ogjl` AFJ -$,*1 eaddagf oYk afYm_mjYl]\ Zq l`] ?gn]jfe]fl g^ Af\aY gf >]ZjmYjq *.$ *((13 Yf\
currently has over 600 students enrolled

L`] hjg_jYee]k mf\]j l`ak f]logjc Yj] ng[YlagfYd Yk o]dd Yk Y[Y\]ea[$ af[dm\af_ E:9$ `meYf j]kgmj[]k$
marketing, tourism management and environment studies and various other professional degrees.

This project aims at providing tele-education services to 10,000 African students to undertake Post-Graduate,
Mf\]j%?jY\mYl]$ <ahdgeY Yf\ kcadd ]fYZdaf_ []jla[Ylagf [gmjk]k af kmZb][lk km[` Yk :mkaf]kk 9\eafakljYlagf$ AL$ International Business, Tourism and Finance

Gl`]j @=Ak hYjla[ahYlaf_ af l`ak hjgb][l af[dm\] :ajdY Afklalml] g^ L][`fgdg_q  K[a]f[] :ALK!$ 9ealq Mfan]jkalq$
Mfan]jkalq g^ EY\jYk$ Mfan]jkalq g^ <]d`a$ AAL CYfhmj Yf\ Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ K[a]f[]

Kgmj[]k2 Af\aY]f]ok&f]l$ mh\Yl]k&`a_`]j]\m[Ylagfafaf\aY&[ge$ lae]kgf\aY&af\aYlae]k&[ge$ L;AD o]Zkal]

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

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A clear policy on the distance education regulatory framework is critical for the growth of the sector
<aklYf[] ]\m[Ylagf af Af\aY ak j]_mdYl]\ Zq l`] <aklYf[] =\m[Ylagf ;gmf[ad S<=;U$ ]klYZdak`]\ mf\]j l`] A?FGM Act, 1985, which is responsible for promotion, maintenance of standards and co-ordination of open and distance education. The DEC regulates a number of aspects of the establishment and operation of institutions offering distance education courses in India, which include the programs offered, courseware, minimum staff requirements, delivery system, infrastructural facilities, etc Under the current regulatory framework, distance education in India can be undertaken by the following kinds of institutions:Nature of institution Gh]f Mfan]jkala]k SGMU Particulars

OUs are single mode institutions offering education through distance mode GMk Yj] ]klYZdak`]\ Zq Yf 9[l g^ HYjdaYe]fl gj KlYl] d]_akdYlmj] L`]j] Yj] hj]k]fldq ) ;]fljYd GM Yf\ )+ KlYl] GMk af l`] [gmfljq <=Ak Yj] hYjl g^ \mYd eg\] Afklalmlagfk Sa&]& afklalmlagfk g^^]jaf_ ]\m[Ylagf l`jgm_` j]_mdYj eg\] Yf\ l`jgm_`
distance mode]

Distance Education Afklalmlagfk S<=AkU

<=Ak af[dm\] ;]fljYd'KlYl]'<]]e]\ Mfan]jkala]k$ Y^daYl]\ [gdd]_]k$ ]l[

L`] \aklYf[] ]\m[Ylagf j]_mdYlgjq kqkl]e ak fgl imal] [d]Yj oal` k]hYjYl] j]_mdYlgjq Y_]f[a]k lYcaf_ [gfa[laf_ hgkalagfk gf l`] kmZb][l& Kge] g^ l`] eYll]jk l`Yl f]]\ lg Z] [dYja]\ af[dm\]2% L`] f]]\ ^gj klm\q []fl]jk lg Z] gof]\ Zq l`] Mfan]jkalq'Afklalmlagf& L`ak [gf\alagf ak \a^[mdl lg e]]l Yf\ al ogmd\ Z] hj]^]jYZd] a^ l`aj\ hYjlq klm\q []fl]jk Yj] Yddgo]\ kmZb][l lg Yhhda[YZd] af^jYkljm[lmj] Yf\ imYdalq hYjYe]l]jk3 L`] f]]\ ^gj <=Ak lg g^^]j gfdq km[` hjg_jYek l`jgm_` \aklYf[] eg\]$ o`a[` Yj] g^^]j]\ l`jgm_` l`] [gfn]flagfYd eg\]3 Yf\ L`] akkm] g^ bmjak\a[lagfYd a&]& \g KlYl] afklalmlagfk `Yn] l`] eYf\Yl] lg g^^]j \aklYf[] ]\m[Ylagf gf Y hYf Af\aY ZYkak Yf\ recognition of the fact that distance education cannot have territorial boundaries.

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42

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Innovative models such as Special Education Zones could be a lever for rapid growth of the sector
L`] [j]Ylagf g^ Kh][aYd =\m[Ylagf Rgf]k ak Y [gf[]hl l`Yl `Yk Z]]f Y\ng[Yl]\ Zq l`] FYlagfYd Knowledge Commission
Currently there are no regulations governing the ]klYZdak`e]fl g^ Kh][aYd =\m[Ylagf Rgf]k SK=\RU af Af\aY 9 K=\R j]^]jk lg Y k]hYjYl] _]g_jYh`a[Yd rgf] kaeadYj lg Y Kh][aYd =[gfgea[ Rgf] Institutes set up in such zones are free to run with complete autonomy, having complete freedom in relation to matters such as F]]\ ^gj j]_mdYlgjq YhhjgnYdk3 >jYeaf_ g^ kqddYZmk ^gj l`] Y[Y\]ea[ [gmjk]k aehYjl]\3 <]l]jeafYlagf g^ klm\]fl aflYc] Yf\ [jal]jaY ^gj Y\eakkagf3 >apYlagf g^ ^]]k Yf\ hYqe]fl g^ l]Y[`]j kYdYja]k3 9oYj\ g^ \]_j]]k Yf\ Y^daYlagf lg >gj]a_f Mfan]jkala]k Dubai International Academic City (DIAC) DIAC is spread across 18 million sq ft and is located in a >j]] LjY\] Rgf] DIAC has around 28 institutions catering to over 16,000 students :]f]lk ^gj <A9; hYjlf]jk af[dm\] )(( lYp ]p]ehlagf$ )(( >gj]a_f Gof]jk`ah$ )(( j]hYljaYlagf g^ hjglk$ Easy visa and licensing issuance procedures for students, staff and faculty Unique features include facility of start-up campus, allowing K[`ggdk lg k]l mh oal`gml em[` [YhalYd afn]kle]flk Yf\ [j]Ylagf g^ af\mkljq [dmkl]jk dac] l`] Afl]jf]l [alq$ E]\aY city around the education city to provide employment opportunities Education city in Lavasa DYnYkY ak Z]af_ \]n]dgh]\ Zq DYnYkY ;gjhgjYlagf$ Y subsidiary of HCC group, with the aim of creating an environmentally friendly township, focusing on Healthcare, Tourism, Hospitality and Education. The land allocated for the Education City is 400 acres with a target enrollment of 20,000 students Four institutions have started operations and several other institutions have signed on Unique features include, an Incubation Centre which is readymade infrastructure for academic providers to start courses and sports facilities being developed by world renowned sports institutions etc. Gujarat Special Knowledge Zones (SKZ) L`] ?mbYjYl _gn]jfe]fl ak hdYffaf_ lg [j]Yl] KCR Industries would be encouraged to set up Institutes for technical education Industries will be given land and facilities at subsidized rates af l`] KCR Eafaeme dYf\ hjghgk]\ ak *(( Y[j]k h]j KCR The land would be allotted to industries for retail educational purposes only, i.e., for colleges, technical Institutes, and for Institutes giving training in specialized courses

Kgmj[]2 <A9; o]Zkal]3 ?mbYjYl KCR o]Zkal]3 =Q 9fYdqkak

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

43

A legislation like the Innovation University Bill could meet the need for innovation and intellectual challenges
The Innovation University Bill could reduce the R&D gaps and challenges that India currently faces through the set up of Government and Private Universities.
The Universities for Innovation Bill, 2010
Need for legislation Key features of the Bill Impact analysis

Indias research capabilities currently do


fgl j]][l alk afl]dd][lmYd hgl]flaYd

L`] Mfan]jkala]k ^gj AffgnYlagf oadd `Yn]


status of Institutes of National Importance an institute as an Innovation University:-

Potential to create institutions of


excellence in India standards and quality of R&D in India

There is a need for creativity and


intellectual challenge in higher education today

L`] :add hjgna\]k l`] [jal]jaY ^gj j][g_faraf_ Oadd `Yn] Y hgkalan] afm]f[] gf l`] _]f]jYd Al emkl Z] Y fgl%^gj%hjgl ]flalq3 It must be dedicated to emerging R&D
Y[lanalq3

;gmd\ d]Y\ lg [j]Ylagf g^ f]o Afl]dd][lmYd


Hjgh]jlq $ kaeadYj lg l`] aehY[l g^ MK research institutes

The set up of high quality institutes


dedicated to new knowledge areas and comparable to world class universities would facilitate much need research capabilities

If a Foreign University, it must satisfy


track record of at-least 50 years

GZb][lan] emkl Z] lg ^gkl]j j]k]Yj[`$


creation of knowledge and development of reason and ideas

:add hjghgk]k Ymlgfgeq a&]& Y\eafakljYlan]$


Y[Y\]ea[ Yf\ fYf[aYd lg Y[`a]n] l`]k] objectives

L`] Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ K[a]f[]$ :Yf_Ydgj]$ ]klYZdak`]\ af l`] q]Yj )1(1$ ak [gfka\]j]\ Yk Y hj]ea]j afklalml] ^gj k[a]fla[ research and study in India. The Institute is ranked among the top 400 Universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Passage of the Innovation Universities Bill could in time add to the number of Indian institutions being ranked among the top universities in the world

Kgmj[]2 AAK[$ =Q YfYdqkak

44

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Summary
This chapter highlights new innovative models for higher education delivery, which are an inevitable extension of a successful pedagogy @]f[]$ kge] Af\aYf @=Ak km[` Yk A?FGM$ Kaccae EYfahYd Mfan]jkalq Yf\ KqeZagkak `Yn] Ydj]Y\q afljg\m[]\ gfdaf] Yf\ distance education for the Indian audience However, it is imperative to replicate the successes that developed economies have experienced via these models on a larger scale for the Indian higher education sector A coherent regulatory policy framework for new and affgnYlan] eg\]dk km[` Yk Kh][aYd =\m[Ylagf Rgf]k$ gfdaf] and distance education is desired Proposals of the Government to establish a single super regulator for higher education in the country and to establish Innovation Universities are encouraging, and could lead to a transparent regulatory framework while meeting the need for channels for creative and intellectual challenges O`ad] _jgoaf_ \aklYf[]'gfdaf] ]\m[Ylagf Y ka_fa[Yfl ^g[mk needs to given in ensuring strong learning outcomes

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

45

Glossary
AICTE AIIMS BHU BITS BPO BRIC CAGR CoE DEC DIAC DEI DTE EDP FDI FY GER GMAT HEI ICT IGNOU IIIT IIM IISc IIT ISB JNU LBUSD MBA MBBS MCA MDRA MHRD All India Council for Technical Education 9dd Af\aY Afklalml] g^ E]\a[Yd K[a]f[]k Banaras Hindu University :ajdY Afklalml] g^ L][`fgdg_q Yf\ K[a]f[] Business Process Outsourcing Brazil, Russia, India and China Compound Annual Growth Rate Center of Excellence Distance Education Council Dubai International Academic City Distance Education Institute Directorate of Technical Education Education Development Plan Foreign Direct Investment Financial year Gross Enrollment Ratio ?jY\mYl] EYfY_]e]fl 9\eakkagf L]kl Higher Education Institute Information and Communication Technology Indira Gandhi National Open University Indian Institute of Information Technology L`] Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ EYfY_]e]fl Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ K[a]f[] Indian Institute of Technology L`] Af\aYf K[`ggd g^ :mkaf]kk Jawaharlal Nehru University Dgf_ :]Y[` Mfagf K[`ggd <aklja[l EYkl]jk af :mkaf]kk 9\eafakljYlagf :Y[`]dgj g^ E]\a[af] Yf\ :Y[`]dgj g^ Kmj_]jq EYkl]jk af ;gehml]j 9hhda[Ylagf EYjc]laf_ Yf\ <]n]dghe]fl J]k]Yj[` 9kkg[aYl]k Eafakljq g^ @meYf J]kgmj[] <]n]dghe]fl VSAT WHO WWF MIT M.Phil NAAC NCHER NCR NCTE NET NIIT NLS NPTEL OU PhD PPP PPP USD QS RTD R&D SCDL SEdZ SET SKZ SMS SMU-DE SPU TCIL UGC UNESCO EYkkY[`mk]llk Afklalml] g^ L][`fgdg_q EYkl]j g^ H`adgkgh`q National Assessment and Accreditation Council National Commission for Higher Education and Research National Capital Region National Council for Teacher Education National Educational Tribunal National Institute for Information Technology FYlagfYd DYo K[`ggd FYlagfYd Hjg_jYee] gf L][`fgdg_q =f`Yf[]\ D]Yjfaf_ Open University Doctor of Philosophy Public Private Partnership Hmj[`Ykaf_ Hgo]j HYjalq af MK \gddYjk ImY[imYj]dda Kqegf\k Research and Technology Development Research and Development KqeZagkak ;]fl]j ^gj <aklYf[] D]Yjfaf_ Kh][aYd =\m[Ylagf Rgf] KlYl] =\m[YlagfYd LjaZmfYd Kh][aYd Cfgod]\_] Rgf] K`gjl E]kkY_af_ K]jna[] Kaccae EYfahYd Mfan]jkalq%<aklYf[] =\m[Ylagf KlYl] HjanYl] Mfan]jkalq L]d][geemfa[Ylagf ;gfkmdlYflk Af\aY Daeal]\ University Grants Commission Mfal]\ FYlagfk =\m[YlagfYd$ K[a]fla[ Yf\ ;mdlmjYd Organization N]jq KeYdd 9h]jlmj] L]jeafYd World Health Organisation World Wide Fund

46

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

About EDGE
EDGE Forum was conceptualised in the year 2007, by a group of leading educational institutions from public and private sector mf\]j l`] d]Y\]jk`ah g^ <j& C& CYklmjajYf_Yf$ E]eZ]j$ HdYffaf_ Commission. The Forum is committed to excellence in education and addresses several dimensions of education like governance, human resource management, cutting-edge technologies, holistic approach to education infrastructure and above all adoption of global best practices. It serves as an analytical and authoritative source for policy recommendations on higher education. EDGE Forum organises international Conferences and Workshops, recognises outstanding contribution of personalities, brings the Policy makers, Administrators of educational Institutions and industry together on one platform, undertakes research projects, fosters international partnerships and nurtures open debate and dialogue. EYfq hmZda[ Yf\ hjanYl] Afklalmlagfk ^jge Af\aY  YZjgY\ `Yn] contributed in the formation and development of EDGE Forum, dac] FA9K FYlagfYd Afklalml] g^ 9\nYf[]\ Klm\a]k!$ A?FGM Af\ajY ?Yf\`a FYlagfYd Gh]f Mfan]jkalq!$ EYfahYd Mfan]jkalq$ KqeZagkak Afl]jfYlagfYd Mfan]jkalq$ A;>9A Mfan]jkalq$ :ALK :ajdY Afklalml] g^ L][`fgdg_q  K[a]f[]$ HadYfa!$ LAKK LYlY Afklalml] g^ Kg[aYd K[a]f[]k!$ K9KLJ9 Mfan]jkalq$ AAAL%: Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ Af^gjeYlagf L][`fgdg_q%:Yf_Ydgj]!$ AAE%: Af\aYf Afklalml] g^ EYfY_]e]fl$ :Yf_Ydgj]!  EE 9[lan K[a%L][` ;geemfa[Ylagfk& =<?= ak kmhhgjl]\ Zq afl]jfYlagfYd gj_YfarYlagfk dac]3 AA= Afklalml] g^ Afl]jfYlagfYd =\m[Ylagf!$ F9>K9 % 9kkg[aYlagf g^ International Educators, AIEA (Association of International =\m[Ylagf 9\eafakljYlgjk!$ L`] ;gdd]_] :gYj\$ MK9$ M*) ?dgZYd Mfan]jkalYk *) ?dgZYd!$ MKA=> MK % Af\aY =\m[YlagfYd >gmf\Ylagf$ ;:K ;geegfo]Ydl` :mkaf]kk K[`ggd!$ =Q =jfkl & Young) and Parthenon. Highlights of EDGE 2011 >g[Yd L`]e] K`Yhaf_ l`] >mlmj] g^ Af\aYf @a_`]j =\m[Ylagf AfYm_mjYlagf af l`] hj]k]f[] g^ K`ja CYhad KaZYd$ @gfZd] Mfagf Eafakl]j ^gj @J< Yf\ ;geemfa[Ylagfk Yf\ Af^gjeYlagf L][`fgdg_q$ <j& K`Yk`a L`Yjggj$ ^gje]j Mf\]j%K][j]lYjq% General for Communications and Public Information, United FYlagfk Yf\ ^gje]j Eafakl]j g^ KlYl] ^gj =pl]jfYd 9^^Yajk$ <j& N&K& JYeYemjl`q$ <aj][lgj$ FYlagfYd Afklalml] g^ 9\nYf[]\ Klm\a]k FA9K!$ <j& N&F& JYbYk]c`YjYf HaddYa$ Na[] ;`Yf[]ddgj$ A?FGM$ <j& JYe\Yk HYa$ ;`YajeYf$ EYfahYd =\m[Ylagf$ <j& K&:& Embme\Yj$ ;`Yf[]ddgj$ KqeZagkak$ <j& 9qgmZ CYrae$ E<$ Dubai Knowledge Village & Dubai International Academic City, Prof Bertil Andersson, Provost, Nanyang Technological Mfan]jkalq$ Ej 9bal ?mdYZ[`Yf\$ ;`YajeYf$ DYnYkY Corporation. Participation of over 350 delegates consisting of top educators and policy makers and a delegation of international universities will participate in the event. EDGE Education Personality Award on Prof. C.N.R. Rao, FYlagfYd J]k]Yj[` Hjg^]kkgj  Dafmk HYmdaf_ J]k]Yj[` Hjg^]kkgj3 @gfgjYjq Hj]ka\]fl$ BF;9KJ$ :Yf_Ydgj] Yf\ ;`YajeYf$ K[a]f[] 9\nakgjq ;gmf[ad lg Hjae] Eafakl]j$ EduPartnering A platform for delegates from Indian and International institutions to explore partnerships for collaborations and tie-ups. =\m=phg K`go[Yk] g^ \a^^]j]f[] klj]Yek af ]\m[Ylagf$ technology and services. Release of 2 Exclusive Research Reports EDGE Ernst & Young Report on EDGE-Parthenon Report on Financing Indian Higher Education

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

47

Conference Topics Education Infrastructure Critical aspects in nurturing International Partnerships EYafklj]Yeaf_ N=L ^gj KmklYafYZd] ?jgol` >mf\af_ =\m[Ylagf af l`] =e]j_af_ EYjc]l Pushing the frontiers of New Assessments <]n]dghaf_ j]dYlagfk oal` MK Mfan]jkala]k2 C]qk lg Km[[]kk ICT the catalyst for next - generation learning environments in education >mlmj] g^ E]\a[Yd =\m[Ylagf <]n]dghaf_ ;geh]l]f[]2 L`] Role of Creativity in Higher Education Round Table - How can Education Policy Framework encourage, enrich and enhance the Indian Education K][lgj7 Workshops on Governance Issues in Educational Institutions EYcaf_ Afl]jfYlagfYd HYjlf]jk`ahk Ogjc Zq KqeZagkak O`Yl al lYc]k lg Z] af Lgh )(( Zq IK ImY[imYj]dda Kqegf\k MC F]o Eg\]dk g^ 9\eakkagfk Zq ;gdd]_] :gYj\

9oYj\k >mf[lagf oadd Z] _jY[]\ Zq Ek& <& HmjYf\]koYja$ Eafakl]j g^ KlYl] ^gj @meYf J]kgmj[] <]n]dghe]fl$ ?gA @a_`da_`l D][lmj]k Zq <j& K`Yk`a L`Yjggj$ E]eZ]j g^ HYjdaYe]fl Dgc KYZ`Y!3 Hjg^ :]jlad 9f\]jkkgf$ Hjgngkl$ FYfqYf_ L][`fgdg_a[Yd Mfan]jkalq3 <j& H]l]j EY_jYl`$ K]fagj Advisor, College Board and interim President Binghamton University International representation will include institutions like Australia India Institute | Binghamton University, United KlYl]k t <mZYa Afl]jfYlagfYd 9[Y\]ea[ ;alq <A9;! t =\m[YlagfYd L]klaf_ K]jna[]$ Mfal]\ KlYl]k t ?]gj_aY Afklalml] g^ L][`fgdg_q$ MK t Cfgod]\_] Mfan]jk]$ Kaf_Yhgj] t D]aZfar Mfan]jkall @Yffgn]j$ ?]jeYfq t EYkkY[`mk]llk Afklalml] g^ L][`fgdg_q EAL! t Ea[`a_Yf KlYl] Mfan]jkalq$ Mfal]\ KlYl]k t FYfqYf_ L][`fgdg_a[Yd Mfan]jkalq$ Kaf_Yhgj] t FYlagfYd Mfan]jkalq g^ Kaf_Yhgj] t Fgjl` ;YjgdafY 9_ja[mdlmjYd L][`fa[Yd KlYl] Mfan]jkalq$ MK9 t K[a]f[]k Hg$ >jYf[] t KlYl] ?gn]jfe]fl g^ Na[lgjaY$ 9mkljYdaY t F9>K9$ MK9 t L`] ;`jgfa[d] g^ @a_`]j =\m[Ylagf$ MK9 t L`] ?]gj_] Washington University | The University of North Carolina Yl 9k`]nadd] t Mfal]\ KlYl]k Af\aY =\m[YlagfYd >gmf\Ylagf t Mfan]jkalq Yl :m^^Ydg%KMFQ$ Mfal]\ KlYl]k t Mfan]jkalq g^ Kgml`]jf Im]]fkdYf\$ 9mkljYdaY t Mfan]jkalq g^ LmdkY$ Mfal]\ KlYl]k t Mfan]jkalq g^ OYjoa[c t Naj_afaY L][`$ :dY[ckZmj_$ N9 t OYlkgf K[`ggd g^ =f_af]]jaf_$ Mfal]\ KlYl]k t RYq]\ University, United Arab Emirates

48

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Ernst & Young team


Amitabh Jhingan, Bharat Gulia, 9fYfl Kgg\$ JaY\ Bgk]h`$ Eal`mf <kgmrY$ NabYqlY KjanYklYnY$ Ratna Gupta, Dhruv Gupta

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

49

Notes

50

40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education

Ernst & Young - EDGE 2011 report

51

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This publication contains information in summary form and is therefore intended for general guidance only. It is not intended to be a substitute for \]lYad]\ j]k]Yj[` gj l`] ]p]j[ak] g^ hjg^]kkagfYd bm\_e]fl& F]al`]j =Q?E Daeal]\ fgj Yfq gl`]j e]eZ]j g^ l`] _dgZYd =jfkl  Qgmf_ gj_YfarYlagf can accept any responsibility for loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of any material in this publication. On any specific matter, reference should be made to the appropriate advisor. Edge 2011 report.indd (India) 9jlogjc Zq BYqYflY ?`gk` Yf\ BYkhYd Kaf_`