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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT

Edited by F.
Ll.

GRIFFITH

SEVENTEENTH MEMOIR

THE BOOK TOMBS


OP

EL AMARNA
PART V -SMALLER TOMBS AND BOUNDARY STELAE
BY

N.

DE

G.

DAVIES

FORTY-FOUR PLATES AND COLOURED FRONTISPIECE

LONDON
SOLD AT

AND

The

offices OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,


AND PiEECE Building, Copley BY

37,

Great

Rossull

Street,

W.C.

Sqtjaee, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &


B.

CO.,

Deydbn House,

43,

Gereabd Street, Sono, W.

QUARITCH,

11,

Grafton Street,

New Bond
56,

Street, W.

ASHER &
AND

CO., 13,

Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C., and


Coenee, E.G, and 91 and

Untee den Linden, Berlin

HENRY FROWDE, Amen

93,

Fihth Avenue,

New

York.

1908

dorttell Utttttcraits Eihrarg


attjata, SJetu

Inrk

/\..n.i.v:\.>i.son.o.u..?.-

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020525386

El Amarna

V.

Frontispiece.

en

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT


Edited by F.
Ll.

GRIFFITH

SEVENTEENTH MEMOIR

THE EOCK TOMBS


OP

EL AMAENA
PAET V.-SMALLEE TOMBS AND BOUNDARY STELAE
BY

N.

DE

G.

DAVIE S

FORTY-FOUR PLATES AND COLOURED FRONTISPIECE

LONDON
SOLD AT

The offices OF
AND BY

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,


AND PiBKCE Building, Copley
CO.,

37,

Great

Russell

Street,

W.C.

Sqttakb, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &


B.

Deydkn House,

43,

Gbkeard Steebt, Soho,

VV.

QUARITCH,

11,

Geapton Steeet,

New Bond
56,

Stebet, W.

ASHER &
AND

CO., 13,

Bbdfoed Street, Covent Garden, W.C, and


Corner, E.C, and 91 and

Untee den Linden, Berlin


Avenue,

HENRY FROWDE, Amen

93, PiifTH

New York

('

l(

Uk

A'^J^]^^
LONIION
:

PRISTED BT WILLIAM CLOWES ANL SONS, LIMITED, nUKE STKEET, STAMFORD STREET, S.S., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W.

or
T.D-,

EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND


pre6i^ent
F. G.

HILTON PEICB,

Esq.,

Dm.S.A.

li)ice=iPresi5cnts

The

Et. Hon.

The Earl op Cromer,


D.C.L.,

G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I. (Egypt)

Sir John' Evans, K.C.B.,


P.E.S., E.S.A.

LL.D.,

Prop. T.

The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson Day Seymour (U.S.A.)

(U.S.A.)

Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.G.L.,

Prof. Ad. Eeman, Ph.D. (Germany)

LL.D.

Prof. G. Maspeeo, D.G.L. (Erance)


JosiAH Mullens, Esq. (Australia)

The Eev. Peof. A. H. Saycb, M.A., LL.D. Prop. W. W. Goodwin (U.S.A.)

Ibon. c:reasurers

H. A. Gruebbe, Esq., P.S.A.

Edward

E.

Warren, Esq.

(U.S.A.)

Ibon. Secretarg
J. S.

Cotton, Esq., M.A.

/IRembers ot Committee
T.
C.

H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. F. MoBERLY Bell, Esq.


J.

Prop. Alexander Macalistbe, M.D.

Mes. McClueb.

The Hon.

E. Carter (U.S.A.)
Esq., P.S.A.

The Eev. W. MacGeegor, M.A.


EoBBBT Mond, Esq., F.E.S.E. The Maequess op Northampton.
Francis
SiE
D.Litt.,

SoMERS Clarke,

Newton Ceanb, Esq. (U.S.A.) W. E. Cbum, Esq., M.A.


Louis Dyer,
F.E.S.
Esq., M.A. (U.S.A.)
,Esq.,

Wm.

Peecival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

Herbert Thompson, Baet.

Aethue John Evans,

M.A.,

Mrs. Tieaed.

Peop. Ebnest a. Gardner, M.A. F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.


F. G.

Kbnyon, Esq., M.A.,

D.Litt.

'

Emanuel M. Undbedown, Esq., K.C. John Waed, Esq., F.S.A. T. Heebbet Warren, Esq., M.A. E. TowRY Whyte, Esq., M.A. F.S.A.

CONTENTS
CAGE

List ok Plates

vii

Chapter

I.

The Tomb

of May.
.

A. Previous

Work

B. Architectural Features.

Exterior
Interior

Vault
C.

Scenes and Inscriptions.

North thickness
South thickness

2 2
3

West Wall
D. May, the

South Side

Official

Chapter

II.

The Tomb of Any.

A. Architectural Features.
Exterior
Interior

Entrance
Corridor
Burial -shaft

Shrine
B. Scenes
C.

Personal

D. Votive stelae

Chapter

III.

Small or Unlnscribeu Tombs.

Chapter IV.

The Eeligious

Texts.
16 17

A. Prayers

by the deceased

B. Burial petitions

....

CONTENTS.
Cf3

AFTER V.

The Boundary Stelae.

PAGK

A. Their distribution
B. Their history

19

and contents

20
22 27
28
31

C. Description of the Stelae

D. Previous work on the site


E.
F.

The The

earlier proclamation

later proclamation

Index

35

LIST OF PLATES
WITH REFERENCES TO THE PAGES ON WHICH THEY ARE DESCRIBED.
TLATK

THE

EOGK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


PART
V.

CHAPTEE
THE TOMB OF MAY
A.

I.

(^
:

(jlj

^).
here

Previous Work.

The
14)

inscription

apparently refers to the

The

existence of this large

tomb

(No.

must
;

retinue

" The royal followers after their multi-

have been patent to


as the entrance

visitors at all periods

but

tudes, attendants

on the feet of their lord (?)

."
.

was almost completely blocked with sand, what was visible was extremely unpromising, and
the

The name of the deceased,


"

as well as his title of

Eoyal Scribe" at the end of the columns on

tomb was not


This task,

M. Bouriant
carried out

in

1883.

by however, was
cleared

the jambs, has been hacked out and the remains

have been covered over with tenacious


(The text will be found on Plate
lation
iv.

plaster.

by M. Barsanti ten years later, and M. Daressy published most of the texts of this tomb of a " flabelliffere," but not his name, for
he found
it

and a transthe hall

on pp. 17, 18.) Interior (Plate xxxv.).

Although
its

erased from the inscriptions.^

as

planned was ambitious enough,


is

present
its

appearance
B.

very unattractive,

less

owing to

Architectural Features.
(Plates
i., ii.)

unfinished. state than to the blackness

and

filth

which overlies
has been cut

all

the interior, except low

down
This

Exterior.

The approach which


is

near the entrance where the walls have always

been protected

by the invading sand.


if

through the rock-slope


the portal.

not

much

broader than

grime

is

due largely,
bats

not entirely, to the

The

latter has the

customary form

countless

which

have housed here from


still

and decoration, but the surface of the lintel is almost destroyed. It showed the usual duplicated scene of the Eoyal family adoring Aten.

time immemorial, and


privilege.

assert their ancient

But the
filled

state of the walls

and columns
a fierce
;

seems also to show that at some time when the


hall
fire

As may be gathered from fragments


north end given on Plate
v.,

of

the

was

with coffined

mummies

three

princesses

broke out in this inflammable material

for

and the Queen's


1

sister

Mutbenret were included.


fouilles, p. 8
;

foetid

atmosphere seems hardly able to ac-

BouEiANT, Deux jours de


38-41.

Daressy, Be-

count for the appearance of the tomb, and some


of the bones recently
calcined,

The name, though defaced, was out by me on the left jamb some years ago, as also picked by Breasted independently. It is absolutely plain on the South Thickness, and legible on the ceiling ; but the tomb is still anonymous in Mon. du Culte d'Atonou, I., pp. 71-77.
cueil, XV., pp.

thrown out are certainly


I

but whether by the excavators or no


of the hall

cannot say.

The

ceiling

was intended to be

THE EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


carried

by

twelve

papyrus-columns

but,

as

North Thickness. (Plates

iii.,

xxxvi.)\

On

usual, only those of the central aisle

have been

the left hand in the thickness of the wall of rock

given their final form (see Plate

ii.

for details of
aisle).

the west column on the north side of the

The adjoining two

in the
;

west row merely show


the rest on the north

by the Royal family takes the main place, and below this was the prayer and praying figure of May. The King
the scene of the worship of the Aten

the stems on the capitals

are even less advanced, while on the south one


is
still

and Queen, who present the censer and libation vase to the sun from behind a laden altar, are
followed by three of their daughters and
benret.

a square pillar.

Of the remaining two,


the
this
still

by Mut-

only the abaci have been detached from

mass of unremoved rock which

fills

corner of the hall to within a yard of the ceiling.

The last is attended, as she is wont to be, by her two female dwarfs. Para and Re-neheh.^ The presence of this princess here has no special
significance.

The usual
to be found,

features of this type of

tomb

are

The

subjects of the various walls of

though in an unfinished

state, viz.,

tombs

in this

group seem to have been settled

the doubly-corniced door which was the promise


of an inner chamber,

and the shrines

for statues

by the example of Ay, who, as father of Nefertiti and of Mutbenret, naturally included the latter
also in the

of the deceased at each end of the nearest cross-

Royal group.
of the prayer of
xix.,
its

The door is undecorated and now much mutilated. The North Shrine contains a standing
aisle.

The text
on
Pis.
ii.,

May

will be

found
It is

translation on p. 16.^
;

figure of May, which, though the merest bozzo,

in excellent condition

but the kneeling figure

allows his long wig and the fan of office over his
right shoulder to

of

May

has been remorselessly destroyed and


It can

be divined.

The north and

the space covered with coarse plaster.


just be seen that

south walls of the hall are in the roughest state,

May was
left

kneeling with right

but
at

it is

evident that the inner row of columns

hand
his cap.

uplifted

and the

holding the fan over


festal

least

was

to terminate in pilasters of

the

shoulder.

Apparently he wore the

The unfinished pillar is still attached to the side by a party-wall of rock, to which a rough coping has been given in order to make the best of the unremoved mass.
usual form.

His name, which occurred in the middle of


been also shown to the mention

the inscription, has been similarly expunged, and


this hostility has

of his office of Royal Scribe


dignity, as on the

and of some other

Vault.

rough place of burial has been

jambs

outside.

provided by means of a stairway, which descends


in the north-east corner of the trates a short distance

South Thickness.
fall

The

same evidence of a

tomb and peneunder the east wall. At


The lower
half of the

from favour appears on the South Thickness


where

(PI. iv.),

May had

another address of his

the nineteenth stair a level space leaves scanty

inscribed in five columns the full height of the


wall,

room

for an interment.

and

in

shorter
this

pilaster

has been

cut

away

to

give a wider

figure.*

In

columns over a kneeling case not only was the figure


after

passage, showing that the staircase was not part


of the original design.

overlaid

(probably

defacement)

with a

C.

Scenes and Inscriptions.


ii., iii.,

' Mon. du Culte d'Atonou, Plate xxxii. The sky in the scene extends over the doorway on the left hand, its end resting upon the mountains.

(Plates

iv., v., xix.,

xxxvi.)

The only mural decorations within the tomb


occur on both sides of the entrance and on the

II., pp. 13, U, Pait VI., Pis. xxvi., xxviii., xxxi. Mon. du Culte d'Atonou, PI. xxxiii. translation is also given in Breasted, Becords, II., pp. 412, 413.
2 '

Cf Part
.

''

The

figures

shown

in Plates xxxiii., xxxiv. of the above

work, though

fictitious, since

the original

is invisible,

seem

south side of the west wall.

roughly to resemble the original attitudes.

THE TOMB OF MAY.


rough and most tenacious
hieroglyphs also were
plaster,

but the incised


In part owing

the Queen,

is

made

fast

to mooring-stakes at
craft

filled up.

stem and stem, with a crowd of


Eoyal household.

above and

to the different nature of the defacing plaster,

below, similar but simpler, to accommodate the

they

now assume
;

the form of an inlay and are


I

On

the foreshore the crews are


etc.

legible

but a large part

found quite

obliterfilling.

busy at work repairing the tackle,


the right mast, the
sailor is
lie

To

ated and had painfully to pick out the

the oars neatly lashed together, the

Sometimes

this

came away

readily

and

left

the

yards, the sails


a net in

and the

tackle.

original sign clear, but often


difiB.cult

was and the resulting form uncertain. Something might still be done to improve the text,
the process

making

approved fashion, hold-

ing the end taut between his toes, while with

one hand and the other foot he extends the


edge on which he
is

and

it

may

be that the short columns can also


part.,

working.

His right hand


is

be recovered in
below.)

(For a translation see

holds the netting-shuttle.

Near him a man

trimming the shaft of a paddle which a boy


:

West Wall
tion or
is

only one inside

South Side. This wall is the the tomb which shows decorait.

holds steady for him.


oars

Elsewhere

men

are taking

from a

pile or

binding masts.

Stands of

prepared to receive

Even here

the

meat are shown


gardeners
foliage
tions.

also.

Further

up the bank
bouquets

scene
as far

is

only traced in ink, and only preserved


of sand extended.

are

busy

removing

and

up as the protecting bank


is

which they have been cutting for decora-

Fortunately the part saved


the most interest (Plate
v.).

that which has

The

strip of
is

ground between the palace


with palms,
;

and the quay


leafy shrubs,

thickly planted

The scene seems


reward of

to

have been that of the

clumps of papyrus and flowers


is

and

May

at the balcony of the palace, but

on the right a tree


holder,

seen,

growing in a brick

the artist has deviated from the usual model

which

is

pierced

with outlets for the

and has given a foreground


palace, as
river,

to the scene. ^

The

moisture.

we know,
this,

lay near the

bank of the

and

with the Eoyal barges, landing-

stage and gardens, has been included by


his picture.
fact as

him

in

Presumably the scene


artist could

is

as close to
it.^

King and Queen are distinguished not only by their size, but by the heads of their Majesties (the King wearing the vl;e/-crown, the Queen the double plume), carved
The barges
of the
at the top of the steering-paddles.

an Egyptian

make

Otherwise, the

In the background we see a colonnade running


along the river-front of the palace.

A
it

uraeus-

two boats are similarly constructed. Along the side runs a light hooped railing to prevent accidents.

crowned gate having seven columns with open


papyrus-capitals on either
(?) side

On the deck there are three erections. At each end


is

of

forms the

an open kiosk, the canopy of which

is

adorned

entrance to the palace

and from

it

two diverging

with uraei and supported on slender columns.

paths lead
fore) to

down

the bank (in a sloping line therepiles

Whether they
that the

contain- images or deck-seats for

two landing-stages raised on

and

their Majesties is

no longer

clear,

bub

it

may

be

carrying uraeus-topped kiosks or fencing.

At

one the barge of the King, at the other that of


The be wrong in supplying columns here. portico would be on the other side of the building. fragment of a similar scene is among the pieces in
1

Queen and her daughters are to be seen there on the after-deck of their boat. In
the middle of each vessel
storied
is

may

much

larger two-

construction.

cabin furnished with


is

'i

side doors

and windows

seen below.

Cairo

Museum which came from


It
rays,

the wreck of Akhenaten's

temple at Karnak.

shows uraeus-crowned

this there is a covered upper-deck, reached

which Aten sheds his

gates, on a tree in the sunshine, and a

Above by a

companion-ladder

aft,

which ascends

under a

man

carrying oars.

columned portico to a loggia exactly resembling

THE EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


that
of.

the palace.

It

would seem from the


columns,

port-holes that there are cabins also in the hull.

hath provided, one beloved by his Lord every day ; one whose happiness comes (though) old age arrives and whose body is hale (though) time passes ; one great in favour and

Eibbons

flutter

from the

from
itself,

the

steering -paddles
all
is

and from the stern

and

light

and gay

as if designed for careless

happy in [honours ?] ; one who followed [his] lord and was the companion (?) ' of his feet for life, whose love is stable the Royal Scribe, Scribe of recruits. Overseer of the house
of Sehetep-Aten, Overseer of the

house of Ua-en-ra in On,

hours.

Overseer of the cattle of the temple of

Ra

in

On,

(3) [Over-

This detailed picture

by

a contemporary townsdefinitely locate

seer] of all of the

[the works] of the King, Overseer of the soldiery


of the
'
:

man, of a spot which we can


and
visit,

Lord

Two

Lands, May.
^

"

brings the far Past up before us with

[He

says

Listen]

ye to what I say,

all

men

(lit.

rare vividness.

The
plate.

picture

is

surrounded by a border of

"every eye") both great and small; (for) I relate to you the benefits which the Ruler did me. Then truly ye shall say, " How great are these things that were done for this

yellow and red lines outside that shown in the

man
(the

of

no account

"

Then
of

truly ye shall [ask] for


ged-festivals,

him

King) an eternity

an everlasting

period as Lord of the

Two

The

tablets of the

columns in the

aisle

still

do for you [such as]


dispenses
"
'

Then truly shall * he he has done for me the God who


Lands.
(4)
;

retain traces of the red

and black ink of and at

their
least

life

design, showing the King, Queen,

was a man
side,

of

low origin both on

my

father's

and on

my

mother's

but the Prince established me.

He
when

one princess, adoriag to right and left of the Aten.

caused
I was a
in

On

the north half of the west wall are some halfgraffiti


(?)

me man

to grow, he
of

me by

his bounty,

no property.
he caused

effaced

(Plate
"
;

v.),^

reading,

perhaps,

number

(?)

for me,

He made my people to grow my (5) brethren to be many,

" this piece " year


tion).
if
ii.

2 days

" this piece

(?) 5

days

"
;

he caused that

..."

(possibly the date of construc-

The
is

inscription on the ceiling of the hall,

there

was one, has perished.


partly legible.
(Plate

That
ii.

in

the

all my people worked ' for me ; (and when) I became lord of a town, he caused me to associate with Princes and Companions (though) I had been one who He gave to me provisions and held the last place.' rations * every day, I who had been one that begged

bread.'

He

caused

'"

entrance

Transla-

tion on p. 18.)

May
1.

held the rank or

office

of

-Erpa prince.

D.

Mat, the

Official.

2. 3.

Ha

prince.

Royal Chancellor.
Sole Companion.
Scribe of the King.

As
(PI.

the inscription
iv.),

on the South Thickness

4.

which

attempts to put into words


is,

5.
6.

May's loyal attitude to the King,


all

despite

Overseer of the soldiery of the Lord of the

grandiloquence, a description of his career,


place to insert
it

Two
^

Lands.
to
Of. III., xxvii.;

it is in

here.^

" the

An

adoration of Horakliti[-Aten,
of

who

giveth

If
ii.

life

of
of

we may emend

[I

King

South and North, living

in Truth],

Lord

IV.,
*

the

Lands, Nefer-kheperu-ra-ua-en-ra, the Son of the Sun, living in Truth, Lord of Diadems, Akhenaten, great
;

Two

Reading

^ ^^ ^ ^^^ c=i\
<
{
I I

in his duration
of face,

and

of the heiress, great in the palace, fair

Read
Reading

gay with the two plumes, beloved of the Aten, the chief wife of the King, whom he loves, Lady of the Lands,
Nefertiti, living for ever
(2)

O
'

and

ever.
Of. II., p. 29.

"The Bearer
. .

King]
.

Fan on [the right hand of the whom the King of the South hath enlarged
of the (or "

Read

^^

)lV^ and lower down

whose sustenance
1

whose

Ka ") the Sovereign


Emending
to
I., p.

^
"

'

%
1
I

Of.
Ih.,

Mon. du Culte d'Atonou,


Plate xxxiv.

77.
'

Reading

.v\

>^a

^"

THE TOMB OF MAY.


7. 8. 9.

Overseer of the house of Sehetep-Aten.^ Overseer of the house of Ua-en-ra in On.

The Egyptian

official

was wont to find in

his

rapid rise from low office and origin the greater

Overseer of the cattle of the temple of


in On.

Ra

matter for pride.

May
with

glories in the fact that

whereas he had formerly begged his bread he


all

10. 11. 12.

Overseer of

the works of the King.

now

associates

princes

but

Egyptian
difierent

Scribe of recruits.

sentiment was

probably not so far

Bearer of the fan on the right hand of


the King.

from our own but that we

may

suspect that this

was a cause of
titles

his downfall.

His degradation
his rise.

The two broken


perhaps only repeat

on the
6

ceiling (PL
10.

ii.)

was even more swift and absolute than


If the

titles

and

If

we

are

names both of

his father

and

his

mother
to blot

we must assign to May a high place amongst those who early threw in their full lot with the new Teaching
to give full credit to this
list,
'

were of no account, the King


his out altogether

now sought

from the book of

life.

We

cannot wonder, as

we

read May's lavish expres-

and were entrusted with the highest administrative posts. The offices occurring immediately
before
his

sions of gratitude, that

Akhenaten took

special

care to erase this biography, lest it should stand

name

in the

above inscription are


definite

as a satire on the favour of kings.

It has

been

probably those which

imposed

duties,

the more pleasure to baffle May's enemies and


restore his

while that of Bearer of the Fan, which he places


first,

name

to history.

brought him most into personal contact

It is interesting to find that


offices

May had
it is

special

with the King.


the

The post
it

of Acting Scribe to

outside

Akhetaten, but

of course of

King was

in those times the

most

difficult

precisely in Heliopolis that the jurisdiction

and responsible, and


the discharge of
disgrace
Life,
its

appears to have been in

the sun-worshipping
accepted.

King would be most


country from
;

readily

duties that he

met sudden

Our

desire for information as to the

and,

not
if

improbably,

sudden death.

administration
capital
is little

of the

the

new

however,

short for May, must have been

advanced, therefore

for it

would
at

full of the

sweets of successful ambition and the

be rash to conclude from the


palace of Akhenaten
in

mention of a

satisfaction of well-rewarded activity.

He became

On

that the

King

one of those

who

entered most closely into the

times resided there.

friendship and projects of the King, and has set down in lasting letters, as well as in charming picture, his pride in the hours of close

The depiction
shows that
earlier
it

of three princesses in the

tomb

could not have been inscribed

companionship

than the seventh year of Akhenaten, and

with the King on the river in his splendid barge.


This house is mentioned on ostraca at El Amarna (Gbiffith, in Petrie, T. ^., p. 33, PI. xxii., Nos. 5, 19-22). It appears to be the name of a royal person (" who appeases
^

the downfall of

May

probably occurred almost


that he was suc-

immediately.

It is possible
office of

ceeded in his

Overseer of soldiery by

Rames

or

Paatenemheb, as Overseer of works


as Fanbearer

Aten

"),

whether

it

be a rarely-mentioned appellation of

by Tutu,
lor fell to

by Ahmes, and that

his

the King, or his father, or the Aten-name of some other member of the Royal family. Breasted {Becords, II., a temple. The writing of the name p. 411) supposes it to be
in the fourth

honours as rpa

Ha

Prince and Eoyal Chancel-

error (cf the


.

column of the left jamb (PI. iv.) is a scribal muddled spelling of Title 8 on the right jamb).

But our knowledge of the administration of Egypt is all too meagre for
anything but surmise.

Nekhtpaaten.

CHAPTER
THE TOMB OF ANY
The
position of this
(

II.

)
so,

tomb (No. 23)


(IV.,
river,
xiii.).

will best

be

Even
it

the architect was not able to do more

learnt from the


leads to
it

map

broad road

than indicate

how
is

pleasing was the design which

from the
opened

marking out the spot


It was,

was

his intention to carry out.

As

it

stands,

as the site of
ever, not

an important tomb.
till

how-

the exterior

only a rough-hewn sketch which

1891,

when M. Barsanti
all

the imagination must complete.

The tomb being


approach

cleared this

and other tombs of the Necropolis.^


differs

set in a hill of very gradual slope, the

The tomb
group,
corridor

in

appearance from

and
the
a

was never excavated.^

even in type from most others in the southern

by a long

flight of steps

One reaches the tomb in a somewhat narrow


lies

and by

its

greater

similarity
it

to

cutting, so that the fagade

in

an underits

tombs of the N, group

gives

ground area and


effectiveness.

is

robbed of a great deal of


portico

hint, confirmed elsewhere, of its

later position

The

was not to be of the


the frontage and

in the series.

usual type, extending

across

shading the doOr, but took the form of porches


A.

Architectdral Features.
(Plates
viii., xi.)

on either side of the doorway, as

if

they were
Al-

the ends of a more extended colonnade.

Exterior.

The

though

this architectural feature is

only touched

tomb

is

unique
details

in

the
in,

so

to

speak, the

builder's

intentions just

Necropolis in regard to

many
The

of conarchi-

emerging from the living rock below and around,


yet
it is

struction, all tending to tasteful finish

and

plain that the

column which supports

tectural
tion,

decorativeness.

greatest
in

innovais

the corniced architraves on either side was to be

and one rare


of a

in rock

tombs

Egypt,

the only one, being balanced, no doubt, by a


pilaster of the usual

the provision

portico

outside.

As

this

form in the rock-wall.

The

convenience was well

known

in domestic as well

narrow width of the hall inside would not have


justified a greater

as in temple architecture,

and the palace at El


example of luxury

breadth outside.
excavation
are

The walls
left

Amarna

in particular set an
is

and

floor

of

the

in

the

in this respect, it

not to be wondered at that

the Egyptians desired to furnish their " houses


of eternity" with
it

uneven state which marks an abandoned enterprise,

but in the wall under the portico on the

also.

But the labour

in-

right will be seen three


there
is

rounded niches, and


left.

volved rarely permitted this in the case of rock


tombs, and
tastes only

Any was

a similar one on the

These niches

able to gratify his


his

finer

by restraining

contained votive tablets of stone dedicated to

ambitions

in

point

Any by
still

his household,

of size
1

and complexity.
in

which fortunately were


the

place

when

tomb was

cleared,

M. Daressy
in

published the texts in the fifteenth volume

of the Becueil, pp. 42-45,

and the whole tomb has been


d'Atonou,
Pis.

The

slope of the hill continues far

beyond the limit

of

included
pp. 49-56.

Mon.

dn

Ciilte

xxv.-xxix.,

the plan, so that an approach at the floor level would have

been quite

feasible,

and was no doubt contemplated.

THE TOMB OF ANY.


and are now, with two
others, in

the

Cairo

fashioned on the

left,

to receive the door-bolt

Museum.^

when
which
is

shot,

being also neatly outlined.

The

The
the

portal,

of the usual form, has


;

enclosed space on the right occupies only half


the wall, so as to admit of the door being thrown
back.
tints

also the

customary scenes and inscriptions

but

lintel,

which showed the King and Queen,

The

figures are

in solid red, the flesh

followed by three princesses and by attendants,


offering to

showing faintly when under only one thick-

Aten on each

side of a central altar-

ness of raiment.

On
if

the right hand (Plate xx.)

table, is too

weather-worn to be worth reprothe right hand the King and Queen


sceptres
;

Any

enters, carrying staff

and nosegay and shod


stroll

ducing.
offer

On

with sandals, as
in the sunshine river bank.

he had just been for a

kherp
(?).

on

the

left,

globular

and plucked some flowers on the


the
left,

vases

The

faces of the

Queen and of the


well preserved.

On

however, he stands

youngest princess are

still fairly

with upraised hands adoring the sun, an attitude

The door jambs


petitions,

are not occupied

by

burial

which

befits

the text inscribed in front of

him

but simply by a salutation of the

in black ink.

It is a recension of the Shorter

regnant powers, divine and human, three times


repeated on either side in incised hieroglyphs
(Plate
xi.
;

Hymn
lines is

to the Aten, but the upper part of the


obliterated.^
is

The personal ending


:

to

I.,

xxxv.).
is

The

later

form of the
(cf.

the

hymn

as follows

cartouches of Aten
p.

adopted here

IV.,
=(?)

14).

Beneath

this

on both

sides

are

the

prayers and praying figures of Any.


lation, see p. 17.)
IisTBE,iOR.

(For trans-

The

corridor to which the portal


I 1

gives entrance
for

creates a

most pleasing

O n

AAAArtA

(O)

effect,

though the tomb had to be left almost untouched as regards mural decoration, yet a
complete finish was given to the tomb in other

L S ft =
o
the King,

AAAAAA

(?)

Riin Til 11

"

Tie intimate of

respects,

and

in

particular

the

cornice

under

whom

his lord loves, the favourite

the ceiling and over the portal of the shrine,

whom

the Lord of the

Two Lands (?)

created

by

with

its

bright bars of blue, green, blue, red,

his bounty,

who has reached the

blessed reward

gives an air of gaiety to the hall (Plate xx.).

The statue
Entrance.

in

its

shrine,

too,

is

sufficiently

perfect to create a true impression.

The

decoration on the thickness

of the walls has been hastily yet neatly carried

out in crude colours.

Affinity to the northern

by the favour of the King, the acting scribe of the King beloved by him. Scribe of the Altar of the Lord of the Two Lands, Scribe of the Offering Table of Aten for the Aten in the temple of Aten in Akhetafen,^ Steward of the house of King Aa-kheperu-ra, Any, blessed with
a good burial, says
(it)."

tombs

is

again shown in

the full-sized figures


;

What

is

legible of a

of the deceased which occupy the walls

that on

short biographical notice in front of

Any

on the

the right, strangely enough, being represented


as entering, while

opposite wall adds nothing to this.

that on the left faces outis

On
with
'^

the vacant space on the right-hand wall a

The whole wall wash, and the pictures


ward.

laid out in

yellow

figure has been scratched roughly in the plaster

are

surrounded by a
;

many

strokes of a sharp point (Plate

xi.).

border of blue and red bands

the square hole


xxxiii.,

For text and translation and pp. 28, 29.


This

see Vol. IV., Plates xxxii.,

See below.

may

be the building mentioned in

I.,

xxx.

(p. 36).

THE EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


It evidently represents

Any,

for this, like other

lintel

with the series of cartouches in the centre,

well-preserved profiles of Any, shows a peculiwhich may have been a consequence of


arity

while columns of text occupied the jambs.

The shrine
guarded

is

almost

filled

with the rock dais


is set.

agea
a

falling in,
it

namely, of the upper

lip

or

on which the chair of the deceased


is

This

tightening of

on the teeth.

The

artist

in front

by

a little parapet neatly

apparently wished to practise Any's portrait or


to leave
it

finished
flat

on top with a rounded moulding between

as a guide to the decorators.

edgings,

and

is

reached by a flight of four

The

ceiling has

been squared out in readiness

shallow steps.

Despite the capital preservation

to receive a pattern.

of the tomb, the statue has suffered considerable

Corridor (Plate xx.).Though the walls are well finished, no trace of design is found on
them.

damage.

It retains,

however,

its

general form,

and depicts

Any

in full

wig

sitting in a chair

The hollow
itself

cornice, bright

with colour,

with his feet on a high footstool.

which runs along the sides under the ceiling


is

in

very decorative.

This feature
21.

is

B.

Scenes.
ix., x.)

present besides only in


cornice
is

Tomb

With us the
(Plates

a familiar feature of house decoration,


it

but to the Egyptian


form of wall-coping.

was known rather as a

The walls of the shrine on


priate to the place.

either

side

are

Here

it

projects a little

decorated in colour in a very simple way, appro-

beyond the spring of the slightly vaulted ceiling, as if to suggest that the latter was a light canopy
resting on solid walls.

Burial-Shatt.

No

chamber other than the

shrine being provided, the place of interment was

reached from a shaft in the floor of the corridor.

The sketch (which is mainly in red paint) is very rough, and has been much corrected by a more skilful hand in red line. In each case Any, seated on a chair, receives ofi"erings at the hand of one of his servants named Meryra. A mat is spread beneath his
feet.

door in the further wall of the pit admits to a


shrine,

On

the left wall

Any

helps himself from a

roomy chamber under the


(NE.)
side of

on the left-hand
shaft,

table piled with provisions, while Meryra appears


to

which

is

a second pit or

be reciting the formulae which give them

capable of being covered with slabs.

The sand
to ascertain

efficacy.

On
him

the right wall

Any

is

accompanied

remaining in this did not permit


its

me

by

a lady, and holds the baton of

office.

Meryra

depth.

In the back wall two

little recesses

presents

with

cruse

of

ointment (?),

are cut which have evidently been used to set

accompanying the act with many a prayer for


his

lamps or candles
to the spirit of

in,

and were probably intended


There
one also

happiness.

The

inscriptions

above

both
;

to serve this purpose either to the excavators or

scenes are unfortunately almost indecipherable the fragments exhibited, having

the deceased.

is

been secured
with as
p.

on either side of the entrance to the chamber.'^


Shrine.

with great
reserve.

difficulty, are offered

much
The

The
that

portal to this
if

is

of the usual
air.

(For translations see

17.)

corniced type, as

leading from the outer

recipient is described as " the Scribe of the King,

It was decorated, but only in ink, and this has

beloved of his lord, [Scribe of the altar-table of]


the Aten, Scribe of the altar of
of the
. .

so faded
his

we can only

see that

Any and

[Overseer]

prayers

were to occupy the ends of the

works of the Lord of the Two Lands

in Akhetaten, [Steward of
Probably the chamber was used for later interments, the original burial having been disturbed to make room for
^

kheperu-ra,
in peace."

who

giveth

life,

House of AaAny, maakheru


the]
.
. .

them, for nothing of the burial equipment was found by


the French excavators,
if

The lady

who

stands

behind

Any
read,

we may judge by

their silence.

(Plate X.) apparently survived him, for

we

THE TOMB OF ANY.


" [His wife(1)] the lady of the house
says
(?),

.,

search after other Royal persons of this existence


life
is

name whose
That Any's

... he ordered

(?)

for thee

thy house of

more than

doubtful.^

eternity."
C.

should extend so far back beyond days

when

Personal.

Egypt was troubled by religious schism would be a new reason for the esteem in which he was held.
xxi., xxii.,

The
xxiii.,

six stelae reproduced

on Plates

cleared

this tomb when it was by M. Barsanti in 1891/ as the Museum records show. They are of very exceptional

were found in

The death of Any probably did not take place before the abandonment of the necropolis, for the new form of the cartouches of Aten is
already

seen

on the outer door-jambs, which


first

interest,

and

since

no others have been

forth-

would be the
offices

part to be engraved.

His

coming on

this site

we may suppose
in

that

Any

need not have entailed any great activity


part.

especially deserved, and

the regard of his

marked measure won, servants or friends. The donors

on his
career

Of

his

relationships or previous

we know

nothing.

appear to have been for the most part small


officials,

probably in his

exception of his brother,

own who
be

service,

with the

D.

Votive Stelae.
above are as

dedicates one of

The
follows
1.

six votive stelae referred to


:

the least pretentious of the stones.

The

little

monuments seem

all

to

the outcome of a

Stela of

Pakha^

(Plate xxi.).

genuine affection which sought some means of


expression, though that of the charioteer
fall in

may
is

a mat.

a different category.

This impression

deepened when we find the characteristic


features of the dead
care

facial

upon them

all..

man reproduced with From this we gather


life.

such
that

a high-backed chair placed upon His right hand holds a napkin or sash, his left is laid upon d, basket of provisions which stands before him. Any, " blessed with goodly burial," is given his usual titles. man in official's garb who presents him with a bouquet is identified by the inscription below: "The Overseer of
the left
sits in

On

Any

works,

Pakha

(
I

maakheru,

made (it)."

Any was an old man, and had joined Akhenaten's enterprise late in
It accords with this
officials

His prayer

is
AftAAAA

that no other grave of the

of Akhetaten

gives such sure indications of having been occupied,

O
I

>(?)
(?)

"
AAA

S
1
I

and that

his brother

Ptahmay clung

to his

banned name.
is

A further

evidence of Any's age

that of his title of Steward of the House of

King Aa-kheperu-ra. As the reign of that king (Amenhetep II.) would only carry us back about
fifty years,

and the

office

might possibly con-

tinue, or even begin, after the king's death, there


is

no reason why Any should not have seen four

2 See Legrain in Mon. du Gulte d'Atonou, pp. 53, 54. The cartouche occurs also, I think, on a fragment from Akhenaten's temple at Karnak (Cairo Museum). A fragment from El Amarna depicted by Wilkinson in his Modern Egypt, II., p. 69, shows Akhenaten ofiering to Aten, and describes the god as dwelling in the midst of the house of King Men-kheperu-ra (Thothmes IV.) in the house of Aten in Akhetaten. If this is correct, it is easy

kings on the throne of Egypt, or


M. Daressy knows of only five.
1

why

one should

to admit a house of his predecessor also, whatever these

shrines

in his account (Becueil, xv., pp. 44, 45)

(?) may have been. No. 29745 in the Museum Journal.

Inscribed " Grotte


;

(Ptah)may he reports to have in the dibris, implying that the other four were been found Steindoepf has dealt fully discovered in their niches.

That

of

No. 24, Hag Candil. 26.10.91." 27 cm. This and the following
to have

Height, 41 cm.
stela,

breadth,

from their
porch.

size,

seem

come from the niches in the

W.

Steindorfi"

with these four in A.


indebted to
in the

Z.,

1896, pp. 63-69.

am

greatly

reads the
d'Atonou,

M; Lacau

for discovering the

two

lost stelae

Museum, and

to Brugsch

Bey

for having

them

photographed for this work.

name as Pa-kharu, " the Syrian." Mon. du Culte PL xxvi. * Apparently Pakha sets maahheru, " selig," after his name in devout anticipation of his own day of death.
C

10

THE EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


"

Unto thy Ka

A
rises

bouquet of the Aten.

May

he

give to
see to

me

breezes.

May

Ra

whenever he

he knit thy limbs. Mayest thou and adore him, and may he listen

what thou
2.

sayest."

Stela of

Nebwawi ^

(Plate xxi.).
is

On

the upper half

Any

seen standing on the right

with staff and handkerchief.

The

scribe

very simply, and holding his papyrus

roll,

Nebwawi, dressed says to him

" Behold the ox

as to which

it

was

said

'

Bring

it.'

We
for,

are permitted to see the noble beast for ourselves

in a

second scene,

Nebwawi

leads

it

forward, gay

with lotus flowers attached to a broad


neck.
o o o

collar

round

its

THE TOMB OF ANY.


'
'

11

May

there be

made

for thee a dy hetep seten of bread,

6.

Stela of
sits

Ay ^

(Plate xxiii.).
left

beer, oxen, fowl

The faces of work is less careful.

and a libation of wine and milk." i the two brothers are much alike, but the

Any
his
f\

on the

before a small stand with flowers,


footstool.

feet

resting

on a

The

stela

was devoted
Ay," who
is

" by the servant


(?)

shown presenting a bouquet to Any


Ptahmay, father of Pa-aten-em-heb (Lieblbin 670 also ib. 2016). Daressy {Bemeil, xv., p. 45) boldly jumps the -difficulty. Though "the Scribe May" is not an
especially
;

u.
I

of the Aten,
2

wk^m
who
No. 29750.
3

f
A bouquet A poor
Lacau,

"(Fov)th.jhaI
"
!

favours and loves thee


;

impossible reading,

would be too hazardous to seek an identification with the owner of Tomb 14.
it
1

Height 23 cm.

breadth 15 cm.
still

Prima

facie " milk of the king "

but the

must be

little stela,

but the face of


'ash

Any

shows the familiar


to

features.

Hitherto unpublished.

mistake for the determinative X-

The reading sdm

was proposed

me by M.

12

CHAPTEE
In Part IV., Chapter
tions

III.

SMALL OR UNINSCRIBED TOMBS.


some general observamade on the architecture and types were
II.,

papyrus stems

is

shown between the inserted

stalks,

and

is

continued above the sheathing on


of inscription is visible.

the capital.^

No

trace

of

tombs

in the

Southern Necropolis.

It re-

Tomb
This

9a.

(Part

IV

Plate xxx.)

mains to supplement this by more detailed notes on the tombs separately. The official enumeration,

little

tomb

also is unfinished inside.


is

The fa5ade
any
record.

shows the usual portal, but

quite blank of

which

starts

with the most northern tomb

Tomb

9b.

(Part IV., Plate xxxiv.)


is

This tomb

of the simplest type, the door being set in a

of the group, will be followed.^

rough pit to which two or three steps descend.

shows no decoration.

Tomb

7a.

(Part IV., Plate xxxiv.)

A
The

small tomb, of tbe cross-corridor type, of which I

The front chamber to which the entrance admits there is a shallow burial-pit on the righthand side j but I found it eijipty, though I appeared to' be
In the
little

cleared only the entrance, as

no trace

of inscriptions

was
first.

the

first

who had
9c.

cleared

it.

found in the parts which are wont


cornice outside
is

to receive

them

Tomb
This

(Part IV., Plate xxx.)

destroyed.

The

floor is still

deep in

is

similar to the last, but the


slight

stone chips removed in trimming

down

the upper part of

more than a
door
is

enlargement of a natural
;

the tomb.

The

aisle

is,

as usual, higher than the rest of

reached by a stairway
this well

no The but no doubt, had the tomb


chamber within
fissure.
is

the corridor.

been elaborated,
(ib.)

would have been converted into

Tomb

7b.

This tomb adjoins the last and would probably have resembled it within as well as without, but the interior
has been
little

more than attacked.


(Plate xviii.)

Tomb
This
single

7c.

an open approach by the removal of the rock-slope in front. Tomb 12. Nekht-pa-aten. (Plate xiv.)* This tomb, which was to have been of the same type as Tombs 10 and 13, has only had its facade and entrance completed. Inside there is a small area of floor, and the upper
parts of three columns have been detached and remain as

is

a
of

much

larger tomb, reaching the dignity of a

row

columns and a roughly Qut second chamber

square pillars of rock.

Though

this

was but a doorway to


it
;

and place
of haste

of interment.

But there are

plentiful signs here

a projected tomb, the owner had laid claim to

for those

and slovenly construction, and, as there is an enormous pile of broken vessels of late date outside, it is possible that the rough corridor beyond the hall and the low chamber on the north are later additions. The fagade has sufiered greatly, and as there was only a remote chance of finding a name in ink on the outer jambs, I did not attempt to remove the mass of sand outside. The door was blocked up with bricks and stones, and loosely-built walls of stone had been placed to keep the approach clear. The columns and Inside only the upper part is finished. the walls splay out near the ground and almost meet.^ Of the four columns only the two of the aisle have been given any decoration. The sharp rib of the eight imaginary

who excavated it found traces of three columns of hieroglyphs in ink on both jambs outside.^ The first column probably contained an adoration of the Aten and of Royalty, the
second the prayer, and the third the
titles of

the

ofiicial.

The second column on the

left

ended with

the third ended with


AAAAftA
<\

^^f

Mi

This

name can hardly be anything but

Above

AB

it

is

S.

column the was probably


the neck.
*

capital
rectified

an inset of plaster only. On the was made too short a defect that

by

plaster,

now

fallen

away from

The map

in Part

IV. (Plate
7

xiii.)

should be consulted

Having neglected
The

to plan this tomb, I


(Jfom.

have given here


I.,

for positions.

Tombs

(Parennefer), 8 (Tutu), and 25

the sketch plan of


p. 81).
^

M. Gautier

du CuUe d'Atonou,
spelling,

(Ay) will be described in Part VI.

Plate xix. will give

scale is ^^^, not

^jj

as marked.

some idea of the character of the site. ^ In consequence, the plan of the walls
three feet above lowest floor-level.

Daressy, Becueil, xv.,


six

p. 38.

The same

and

as given is

taken

the inscriptions after the

first sign,

are confirmed by Petrie

from notes made

months

later.

SMALL OR UNINSCRIBED TOMBS.


an erroneous writing for Nekht-pa-aten, though supported

13

two rows
abacus.

of

columns terminates in square

pilasters, furnished

by the corresponding text on the right jamb

^ Ik^

with base (generally in a rough


j\

state), roll, cornice,

and

"gT Mman of

^^^'^^

'^^

*^^

inscription

now

remains.

Wall-decoration.
surfaces is one of the

The breaking up

of the extensive wall

of this unprepossessing sepulchre, then, was a the highest rank, an erpa- and Aa-prince, chancellor, and vizier. It might be conjectured that he was a man of

The owner

modest prospects, and, being suddenly ennobled on the downfall of May, astutely profited by that lesson and avoided ostentation, like Apy and Rames. Most probably these three officials were deprived of more stately tombs by
the deplorable quality of the rock at this point.

Tomb 16. (Plates vi., vii., viii., xxiv.)"^ Had this tomb been completed, it must have ranked
one of the
finest

as

rock-hewn burial-places in Egypt, and


is

fortunately the great hall

sufficiently

complete to allow

most pleasing elements of the architecture. The mode was suggested by the need for providing a shrine or shrines which the deceased, represented by his sitting statue, might occupy at his ease. These were set provisionally at each end of the first cross-aisle ; then in succeeding aisles, if such were provided ; and in the back wall of the main hall or of the further chamber. Each one was furnished with a corniced door-frame, and in lofty halls a superstructure, itself furnished with a cornice, was added above the door. Hence the wall at both ends of each aisle of this tomb is corniced, yet in difierent ways. In the nearest aisle the cornice is double ; probably an
entablature would have intervened.

the fancy to supply what

is

lacking.

Unlike the rest of

the tombs,
portal
pletely
is

The cornice of the outer and the approach has never been comhewn through the rock-slope. But as soon as one
it

faces eastwards.

a single cornice set lower

down

In the second there is no door, however, is yet

lacking,

hewn

enters the hall, blank even of a graffito, but with walls as

out. In the third the single cornice is at the roof, and the door was to be correspondingly raised and reached by a little flight of steps, protected by a low ramp. The

yet unstained and smooth,^


of its slender columns

its

spaciousness and the grace

door in the back wall also


latter a beginning has

is

adorned with a double cornice


chisel.*

make ample amends.

One wonders
if

with intervening open-work, on the ink design of which

at the feverish energy and courage which could, as

by

been made with the

This

a magic wand, change this spot in the vast dead wilderness


of rock into a hall of subtle grace

diversity of application of the

same feature
vii.,

is

both striking

and mystery, and then,

and
of

successful,

and

it is still

further exemplified in the case

before the toil could well serve any purpose, hasten

away to

the Southern Shrine (Plate


is

Section on AB).
place taken

Here
by a

new

enterprises, as far in motive as in distance


life

from the

the lower cornice (which


is

separate and fixed in a rebate)


its

world of busy
feet wide,

and human needs. Columnar Hall. The great hall

interrupted over the doorway and

is

53 feet long, 29

rectangular slab(?), the setting for which alone remains.

14 feet high.

By

setting the

the architect gave thickness to the roof


ignore its weight.

tomb low down, and could almost


on twelve

Whether

it

was sculptured or inscribed, or indeed was

ever supplied, cannot be determined.

He

supported

it,

therefore,

Additional Chambers.
cross-aisle

The

two shrines in the

first

columns, which by their comparative slimness and free

Only the four and those of the south side of the first cross-aisle are in any measure carried out. The rest are in the state of incompleteness shown by two columns in the Section, Plate viii. (cf. Plate xxiv.). On the more finished columns the inserted bunches of stems
columns of the central
aisle (Plate xxiv.)

spacing are more than usually pleasing.

contain rough blocks of stone which were to be transformed into sitting statues. The room to which

West Door gave entrance is only just begun, but the work done indicates a low chamber with slim, thicklythe
clustered
riedly for

columns.
burial;

Perhaps the tomb was needed hurfor

are not separated below the capital, nor divided into three

the owner did not wait for the inner room to be completed, but excavated a long flight of steps in the south-west corner of the hall, which, turning
completely on itself in its descent, ended in a small landing and an unfinished burial chamber, twenty-six feet below
the floor of the hall.

above

it.^

capricious

feature

is

the introduction of

three ribs on each of the eight stems, thus dividing each

stem into four, a feature which

is

carried a step further in

Tombs

6,

25, 7c.

The

tablets are, as usual, so set as to

Tomb
This

17.

(Plate

xii.)

face the visitor as he walks

down the

aisle.

Each

of the

little

tomb presents no

interesting feature, except

that, being apparently undisturbed, it


1 The heading of Chapter viii. of Mon. du Quite d'Atonou, which should have treated of this tomb, is the only part applicable to it, the appended plan and description being both borrowed from an entirely dissimilar tomb, No. 13.

showed sherds and pottery lying in a layer upon the original drift sand.^

We

shall
is

meet with

this decoration in the tomb, of


xiii.).

Tutu, which
^

of very similar type (Part VI., PI.

But

this is not likely to last, unless the kindly sands


;

again intervene to protect the tomb

for countless bats

The small pot with a foot and the saucers shown Plate xliv. came from this tomb. The tall jar is said

in to

make a home
3

in

it.

They were divided, but the filled up with plaster.

divisions

were afterwards

have been found in the excavation of these tombs, havin" been preserved since then in the house of a guard. The fragments I picked up on the site. All the above seem

14

THE EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


Tomb
18.

(Plate
is

xiii.)

This tomb

of the direct corridor type, like the

tomb

of

Any

but the corridor is of the shortest.

Yet simple

as the

and neatly finished oJf above with a ridge-pole roof, the back part is still shapeless rock for a third of its height. So soon as a tomb was within measurable distance of completion, Akhenaten or his architects seem to have lost all In this case the shrine which was to be exinterest in it. cavated at the end of the corridor is little better than a hole. Nevertheless, as in so many other cases, an inscription was written on the left jamb of the outer door, and even cut The lower half, with the name and for half its length. titles of the deceased, is lost to us, but the rest (now injured by thieves) contains the opening of the salutations. A translation is given on p. 18.
hall is

Inside, the cross-corridor has been roughly excavated, and measures have been taken for carrying the hall farther back, leaving a row of four columns in the centre. That the latter were projected is shown in addition by a rough sketch of a column in red ink on the west wall, 5 feet high.

Tomb

21.

(Plates xvi., xxxv.)


little

low rock where only unprewe come to a hall which, if unsightly, affords a unique architectural feature. There is, as usual, a rough approach through the rock-slope to a portal which is uninscribed, equally with the interior.^ After the cross-corridor had been hewn and shrines with
Leaving the

bay

of

tentious tombs were admissible,

double-corniced portals set at the ends, the central aisle

Tomb

9.

SuTAU

(1
is

%^
of the

[~r~|

^)

(Plates xiv., xv.).


last,

This tomb, which

same type as the

but has

more incomplete both without and within, and even the little loculus for burial high up in the
a vaulted
roof, is still

south wall

is

probably a later provision.


of seeing further

Yet

so hopeless

was run out and a single row of three columns arranged for and partly detached on either hand. (The greater part of the mass has been removed from behind them on the west side, but on the other a beginning only was made under the ceiling.) The square shape of the room, which allows a greater number of columns in the depth than in the width, is an innovation for the outer hall (cf IV., xxxviii.). It is more surprising to find the longitudinal architrave
.

was the owner

progress made, that he

arrested at the (Plate XXXV.).

first

column, and furnished with a cornice


effect is in itself pleasing,

prepared to commemorate himself and his king on the only


finished wall-space
in.

The

yet bewilder-

the entrance.

Here on the

left

hand

ing

for it can only give the suggestion of colonnades in

an

he caused the usual design, showing the Royal Family at


worship, to be traced in ink
disappeared.
;

open court.

This idea

is

supported by the provision of a


inside, as if it

but this has

now

almost

cornice to the entrance

on the

were a gateway
permissible to

and his prayer were copied in thick black ink, and this has come down to us in a fragmentary state, preserving to us little more than his name, Sutau, Overseer of the Treasury (Plate xv. translation on p. 17).
this his

Beneath

own

figure

in an outer wall.

It would

certainly be

regard this part of the funerary chapel as a colonnaded


court with private rooms opening out of
it
;

but

it is

more

probable that the owner of

Tomb

21 was struck with the

novelty which, his neighbour

Any had

provided in his

Tomb

20.

(Plate

xii.)

corniced portico, and, without regarding its significance,

tomb has not been carried through and this incompleteness foretells the The door-framing, however, is in state of the interior. order, and its, lintel has received the only effort at decoraNot that even this contion that was made (Plate xv.). ventional design of the adoration of Aten by the Royal family was carried to a finish. The sculptor abandoned it, and by some caprice of his the figures of the Queen and her three daughters have been omitted on both sides. ^ The one princess who is visible is the Queen's sister Mutbenret
The approach
to this
to the outer level,

adopted
is

it

as an internal feature of his tomb.

The cornice

where the architraves rest on pilasters of the usual type ; but in the aisle it has not yet been completed past the second column on either
side.

carried round to the side walls,

Tomb

22.

(Plates xvi., xvii., xxxvi.)


is

similar in external appearance to the last, but the interior conforms to the usual type of columnar hall. The shape is oblong, admitting two rows of four columns

This tomb

she seems to have been fan-bearer to the Queen, for she

always carries a fan.

Of the first row only two are detached and given approximate outline. The rest have only acquired their abaci or are still to be formed by the removal of the
each.
their rock.

The ground-plan shows


;

little

be of Eighteenth Dynasty types, but the heaps of sherds outside the chief tombs appear to be chiefly of quite late
to

space cleared beyond


aisle is

the cross-corridor

but near the ceUing the central

carried out to its limit,

forms.
cavators,

These, I suppose, were thrown out by the ex-

gives promise of

and there the cornice of a door a further room or shrine in the axis.

and were already broken

for the

most part.
16 as con-

Professor Petrie, in a note, describes

Tomb

lintel of the fagade,

taining " burials in palm-sticks, coffins, etc.," and this was


also the case doubtless in the other tombs.

Most

been carried out on the and shows the King, Queen, and three daughters worshipping Aten, and the Queen's sister in
attendance (Plate
xvi.).

A fragment

of the design has

of these
;

remains were destroyed, I believe, by the excavators

but

tified

some probably were taken to Cairo, and may yet be idenand dated. 1 Perhaps three sculptors were engaged on the scene

assigned to this

simultaneously.

vain for the figure and text tomb in Mon. du Quite d'AtoTwu, I., p. 60. Both come from the tomb of Huya at Et Til (III., xxxvii.).

The

visitor will seek in

SMALL OR UNINSCKIBED TOMBS.


Tomb
^^E7
This
is

15

24.

Pa-aten-em-heb
(Plate
xiii.).

m-i-^ii
steps.

Tomb

25a.

(Plate xiv.)

This tiny chamber was excavated in 1883, and those

who

no further.
of

only the entrance to a tomb, for it has progressed Even the approach has not been hewn out, so
it

that one descends to

by rough
first

It

is

now

destitute

saw it in earlier years report traces of illegible inscription on the jambs. The name, however, though written in ink only on the right jamb at the end of four columns of lost inscription, is still almost legible.^ On the right jamb the
partially preserved.

any record

but,

when

excavated, the ends of the

columns of inscription, written in ink on the jambs, were visible and furnished us with the name of the too sanguine
owner.

upper parts of four columns of the praises of Aten are (1) " Life to the divine and sovereign
Father, Horakhti-Aten,

who

gives

lite

for ever

and

He was named

Pa-aten-em-heb, and was a Royal

Scribe, Overseer of the soldiery of the

Lord

of the

Two

the living and great Aten withia the sed-festival the Aten (?) Lord of Existence, the Lord (2) "
brings Eternity, Lord of Everlasting,
^zi:^

ever, "

who
.

Lands, Steward of the Lord of the seer of porters in Akhetaten.^

Two

Lands, and Over-

who

flourishes

."

Tomb

24a.

(Plate xviii.)
is

This again
inscription.

only an entrance to a tomb and

is

without

^ w

J^II^Sl^(l>)
living
''

(4) " Praise to thee,


^

Aten who illuminest heaven

(?)

The

authorities for the inscription are Daressy, Rep.

with thy rays

(?)

cueil, XV,, p. 47,

45,

Boueiant, Mon. du Gulte d'Atonou,


I have bungled

I.,

and notes by Pbtbie.


title
j

my

sketch,

and the

given by M. Daressy ia the second

and on a fragment fallen from it, is found The King, Queen, and three princesses were adoring Aten from behind altar-stands. I did not clear the chamber anew.
the
lintel,

On

part of the usual scene.

column of each jamb should certainly be accepted. The inscription was sculptured, according to Petrie. The last title is likely to be a misreading for "Overseer of works," but compare III., pp. 8, 9.

It seems to read

or something similar.

16

CHAPTEE
As
before, I divide these pruyers into
in the

IV.

THE RELIGIOUS TEXTS.


two
classes

(who) administers the land for


throne,

Him who

set

him on His

those placed

mouth

of the deceased, and

those prayers of the dy

lietep seten

type displayed
for-

on the door-jambs or the ceiling in short

mulas, with a view to convenient recitation by


visitors for the benefit of the spirit.

and makes the land belong to Him who made They him. Every land makes festival at his rising. assemble, making offerings to his Tea, to the Aten when he rises on the horizon each morning. (8) " (When) his son presents Truth ^ to thy fair face, there Thou lookest on him, for he proceeded from is rejoicing.
thee and thou hast granted to him (to be) a King like the

A.
1.

Prayers by the Deceased.


North
Tiiickness.
:

Aten, (he) Nefer-kheperu-ra-Ua-en-ra. and health such as the Aten (has)


!

May

there be

life

"

The

hereditary

erpa-prince

and
.
.

Aa-prince,
.

Royal

May.

(Plate

ii.)
;

Chancellor and Sole Companion, (9)


the King, beloved of him,

acting Scribe of

Daressy, Becueil, xv., pp. 38-9 Previous notices are Mon. du Culte d'Atonou, PI. xxxiii. ; a translation by Breasted from his own copy, Records, ii., p. 412. " An adoration of Horakhti-Aten, who gives life for ever and ever, (of the) King of South and North, who lives in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, N., (2) the Son of the Sun, who lives in Truth, Lord of Diadems, A., great in his duration, (and of the) chief wife of the King, whom he loves. Lady of the Two Lands, rich in love, N., who lives for ever and
ever.

Commandant

of the soldiery of

the Lord of the

Two

Lands, Overseer of the House of

Sehetep-Aten,3 [May]. " He saith I (am) a servant of him


'

who
;

fostered him,

punctilious for the


his lord.

Lord

of the

Two

Lands, serviceable to
falsehood
is

I set truth in

my

inward parts

my

loathing, (10) for I


rejoiceth at
it.

know

that the Son of the Aten, N.,

He

multiplies towards

me my

favours like
the elders,

the

number

of the sand-grains.

am

the

first of

the chief of the BeJchyt. (11)

My lord promotes me because I


;

on the horizon of heaven, O Shining on the eastern horizon of heaven, thou fillest the Two Lands with thy beauty. Thou art bright, great, gleaming, high above all the earth. As for thy rays, they (4) embrace (all?) the Thou art lands, to the extent of all that thou hast made. as the sun ; thou bringest their sum ^ and subjectest them
(3) "

Thy

rising is beautiful

do his teaching.

I hearken to his voice unceasingly

my

living Aten,

who

dispensest

life

eyes see thy beauty day by day


!

my

lord,,

sapient like

Aten, contented with truth " How prosperous is (12) he who hearkens to thy teaching
of Life.

May
!

he be made content by the sight of thee and


'

reach old age " Do thou give to


in the

me

fair burial as

a gift of thy bounty

to thy beloved Son.

tomb which thou commandest


cliff

for

me

to repose there

"Thy rays are on who proceeded from


is

thy brigtfP image, the Ruler of Truth


eternity. (5)
;

(in)

the

of Akhetaten, (13) the seat of the elect.

Thou

givest to

him thy

ijiultitude of Niles,

pouring forth waters daily, N.,


!

O thou my god,
unto

duration and thy years

in his heart (because) thou lovest

thou hearkenest for him to all that him ; thou makest him

who
"

created

like the

Aten

him thy

Thou
!

causest

child, the

King

of

South and North,


has

ceasingly.

me and by whose bounty I live me to be content in following thee O thou whom Aten bare, thou art (14)

N.,

who proceeded from thy

rays.

He
is

made

for thee

Eternity

O
all

thou multitude of prayers


!

(?),

Ua-en-ra,

how

Akhetaten, (a city) very rich

(6) in love, possessing favour;

he

abounding in wealth, within which


sun.

the bounty of the

him that
truth."

Men
;

rejoice to see
is

her beauty.

She

is

adorned and

who follows thee (15) Thou shalt grant to that he doeth abide eternally. (16) Then shall his lord give him (?) burial (17) ; (for) his mouth holds
(?)

prospers

comely
is

she

seen as a glimpse into heaven.


;

Her extent
fills

not compassed

the

Aten dawns

in her

and

her with
^

his rays.

Or

"offerings."

But the
this.

spiritual oblation

seems to
that

he ("his heart"?) embraces his Son, his a Son of Eternity, who proceeds from Aten, and beloved,
(7)

"(So

also)

have been typified by a votive tablet (IV.,


the reference
^

p. 19), so

may

be to

Alliteration of

'

sun

'

(iJa)

with

'

sum

'

{ra).

family.

Probably the residence of some member of the Royal See note, p. 5.

THE EELIGIOUS TEXTS.


2.

17

Sutau.

Previous copy " (9)

North Thickness (Plate xv.). Mon. du Quite d'Atonou, PL xxx.i


:

each generation that son [to

is

to

come

(?)

[address thee].

May

thy name not be to seek

[in
^ a,

thy house], since thou art a


seten of

Ua-en-ra
(?).

(10)

whom

is

made

(?)]

dy hetep

thy bread and


(?)

serviceable to the Father

Do

thou grant to

me (?) my

thy beer of thy [house], wine of the house

which has
sluice
(?).

eyes to see thee (11) thosp who hear thy voice (?), the King of the South and North, who lives in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, N., (12) Son of the Sun, A., [great in his
duration,]
Nefertiti,

been offered in the Presence and [water] from thy


hheru, Meryra."
6.
it

" The servant and agent of the Royal Scribe Any, maa-

and the

chief wife of the King,

whom

he

loves,

Any.

Shrine.

Right wall.

(Plate x.)

who lives for ever and ever. (13) "The Overseer of the Treasury, [Sutau, says] my lord(?), who made me into a man. Thou fosterest
.
. .

since thou art one of

the

King has ordered (?)

for thee goodly burial (in) the cliff of Akhetaten, [and a

me

larging

by thy bounty, though I was of no account, [enme and building me up, O Ruler Thou settest me (15) at the head of the daily with work(14)
(?)]
!

mansion thy lea.


"
Scribe

of] eternity

(?)

in which thou art, thy shrine for

the servant and agent' of the Royal

men

exceedingly [numerous

(?)],2

(16) saying

Any, maakheru, Meryra."

unto me: 'Do(?) so that (when) I call to one of ten, answer (thou) at (17) the order.' O Ruler .... production (?). Thou madest me Overseer of the Treasury of the Lord of the Two Lands, Servant of Him.

B.

Burial Petitions.
(Plate iv.)
:

who-is-great-in-his-duration, (18) the King's [Keeper


of silver, gold, unguents, (20) oils,

(?)]

(19) (22)

I.May.
PI. xxxi.
;

Left Jamb.

gums, (21)
(?),

Previous copies of both jambs

Mon. du Gulte d'Atonou,

a courageous
Sutau."
3.

man

(?),

thy favourite handservant

the

Daressy, Mecueil,
[Adoration of
"

xv., p. 41.

Overseer of the Treasury of the Lord of the

Two

Lands,

Col.

1.

Horakhti-Aten, the King

and

Queen.]

Any.

Left Door Jamb.

(Plate xi.)
:

Col. 2.

[A dy

hetep seten of the Aten, living

and

great,]

Previous copy of the Jambs


PI. xxvii.

Mon. du Gulte d'Atonou,

dwelling in the ed-festival. Lord of heaven and earth,


illuminates the

who

Two

Lands.

May

he grant that I see his

" Praise to thee,


light.

living Aten, lord of rays, Creator of

beauty day by day and that his rays be spread upon


body. " For the
to of

my
one

When he dawns all men live. May he grant a life happy with the sight of his beauty, and good burial in
Akhetaten.

Jca

one who greatly

gratifies his lord

"For the ha

of the Scribe of the

King, the Steward

Any, maahheru." Right Door Jamb. 4. Any.


" Praise to thee,

(Plate xi.)

manner of words are said that he may lay them before the Lord of the Two Lands ; Bearer of the Pan on the right hand of the King, Acting Scribe of the King, beloved by him, May, maalcheru."
all

whom

living Aten, lord of duration,

who

Col. 3. in Truth],
ever.

"

[A dy

hetep seten of the ha of the King, living

givest repetition (of Life), lord of Fate,

who

fosterest

....

Lord

of the

Two

Lands, N.,

who

gives Ufe for

.... May he grant a sight of Aten as often as he rises, and that thou adore him. May he listen to what thou say est and give thee breezes to thy nostril.^ " For the Jca of the Scribe of the King, the Scribe of the Altar of the Lord of the Two Lands, the Steward Any,
maaJeheru.''
5.

"May
demesne
"

he grant good burial by command of his ha in the


of

Akhetaten.
the

For

the ha of

unique

one,

excellent

in
fills

the the
of

presence of the Lord of the


ears of

Two

Lands, one

who

"

Any. Shrine. Left Wall. Mayest thou receive offerings *


[at]

(Plate

ix.)

Horus with Truth, the Overseer of the soldiery the Lord of the Two Lands, Acting Scribe, etc."
Col. 4.

"

[of the

King's gift

[A dy

hetep seten of the


of

(?)]

every shrine of thine, that thy

name

lives in Truth,

Lord

ha of the King, who Diadems, A.j, great in his duration.

may
1

flourish [in the abode]

which thou

lovest(?).

May

"

May

he grant ingress and exit in the King's house,

with favour of the good god, until the coming of the goodly
guerdon.
,

Cf.

Darbssy, Becueil,

xv., p. 50.

"For the ha
the

of

'^^^ may be conjectured.


I
I

excellent achievements,

Overseer of

him whom the King promoted for his whose success made his position, the House of Sehetep-Aten, the Acting

^-^
Emend

is

omitted in the plate.


52.

See Mon.

du Gulte

Scribe, etc."

d'Atonou,
4

I., p.

to

'~^
of

Compare

III., xx.,

a very similar
(cf.

Or "in which thou


Plate
X.).

art.

May

there be

made

for thee

"

prayer,
of this

by help

which we are able to

elicit

the meaning

fragmentary text.

Read V^

^
D

18

THE ROCK TOMBS OP EL AMAENA.


Col. 5. "

[A dy hetep seten of the Chief Wife of the King,] whom he loves, Lady of the Two Lands, Nefertiti, living
for ever

Col. 5. "

May

she grant

an entrance

of favour

and an

exit of love,

and gladness

of heart in

Akhetaten.

and

ever.

" For the ha of one

"

May

she grant her favour firm and fixed and that the

the South
the

body be provided with joy of her giving. " For the ka of the attendant of the King in his splendid barge, he who is sent after the Lord of the Two Lands, Overseer of all the works of the King, the Acting
Scribe,
2.
etc.''

who was a favourite of the King of when he was a youth and who (now) has reached goodly guerdon, the Bearer of the Fan on the right
of the King, [the

hand
3.

Acting Scribe,

etc.]

"

May.

May.

Right Jamb.

(Plate

iv.)

Col. 1. This

column and the opening phrases

of the others

(?) when thou dawnest on the horizon, O Aten, Horus (?) of the two Let there be no failure to see Ra; horizons (Horakhti). two eyes to see him ; may thy corpse be firm and open thy

Middle Column.

(Plate ii.) Ceiling Inscription. " An adoration of thee

are as on the left jamb.


Col. 2. "

thy name established

"

May

he grant a sluice of water and a scent of


^

North Column.
Overseer of
soldiery
(?)

"
all

For the ha of the


[the
land],

wind, a reception of favour


of the

in the presence of the

Lord

[works] in

Overseer of the

Two

Lands.
of

"

For the ha

the favourite of the


in the King's
house.

good god, one


Bearer of the

advanced in Fan, etc."


Col. 3. "

office

Lord of the Two Lands (?), May." 4. Tomb 18. Left Jamb. (Plate xiii.) Copy by Bouriant, Mission Frangaise, i., p. 368.^ Col. 1. "Life to the Divine and Sovereign Father,
of the

May

he grant

life,

prosperity and health, and

Horakhti- Aten

..."
*

readiness in the presence of the Lord of the

Two

Lands,

Col. 2. " Praise to thy

ka,

living Aten, according to


;

and a
"

life

happy with the sight


^

of the beauty of each

that which thy son says to thee

he who proceeded from


.
. .

(recurring) sun

without intermission.

For the a noble by


Col. 4. "

lea of

one great in his


the heart
is

office,

high in his rank, Overseer of the

thy body, thy child who knows thee and extols thee Col. 3. " Praise to thy ka, O Ruler of Truth who
eternal like Aten, thriving

."

(art)
^

whom

gratified,

and living and conducting


.
.

soldiery, etc."

he grant happy recollection (of him) in the King's house and continuance in the mouth of his
courtiers.

May

." things to which the living Aten has given birth Col. 4. " Praise to thy ka, O great royal wife of Ua-en.

ra, tall in

the plumes and gleaming in apparel


. . .

(?),

charming

of voice in the palace


lea

."

"

For the

of the unique one, approved in the heart of

his lord,

one

whom he

recognised as doing serviceably,

The

text,

which was never completely engraved, now

Overseer of the House of Ua-en-ra in On, [Acting Scribe,


etc.]"

lacks also the upper part.


*

Read

's

with Bouriant.

The

plate has followed

an

erroneous reproduction of Bouriant's copy in Mon. du Gulte

The sculptor began to write snw, " a reception from the Presence,'' and corrected it to hsw.
1

of food

d'Atonou, p. 129.
^

I follow Bouriant,

who

read ~7r~

before the

Or, perhaps, " his beauty every day."

inscription

was damaged.

19

CHAPTER
A.

V.

THE BOUNDARY STELAE.


Their Distribution.
Stelae of

southernmost on the west


lie

side,

does not pass

The Boundary
El

Akhenaten

in the

through

J, the

southernmost on the east bank

semi-circle of hills

which surround the plain of

of the river, but almost exactly through P, which


lies

Amarna on

the east side of the river and in

further south in the desert road behind the

the hills facing this on the west (Plate xxxiv.).

mountains.

parallel

line

through

passes

Fourteen are now known

three (A, B,

jF)^

being

through V, an obliterated

stela near the

mouth

on the west side and eleven on the

east.^

The

of the defile through which the mountain-path

three stelae on the western mountains seem to

from
B,
six

X enters

the plain.*

These

stelae,

then

be the northernmost, midmost and southern-

F and

X, V;

(or

P)

seem

A,

to represent the

most on

this side,

where the extent of

cliff suit-

landmarks (northern, southern and middle,


(p. 34).

monuments is very limited. ProbOf those on the ably no more were hewn there. possess the most northerly east side we seem to
able for such
in

on both banks) mentioned in the text from an


viz.,

Three of the stelae on the east bank date


earlier

year and contain a special text,

for it lies

beyond the plain at a point


tra-

(the northernmost),

M (at
for

the southern

where two narrow tracks into the plain diverge,


one keeping to the river-bank, the other
versing
the

limit of the plain),

and

(a

few hundred yards


road, where

south

of

M, on the
series)

river

every
miles).

mountains.
hills is

Its

position

on

the

vestige of cultivation

now ends

many

spur of the

accurately described in the

(first

and J (second
length
of

series)

seem to
to

phrase " the headland of the Northern Stela


(X, line 42).
then,

represent a wish

to include in the district of

A
it

line joining

A and X

represents,

Akhetaten
"^

some

the

approach

the
;

north boundary of the district


faces

of
of

Akhetaten by the river bank, so balancing


exactly.

Akhetaten

several

degrees

east

magnetic north, perhaps the true north of that A parallel line, however, drawn from F, day.^
I adopt the lettering initiated by Professor Petkie (Tell el Amarna, pp. 5, 6, Plate xxxiv.), who by his inde1

The
less

rest of the

known

stelae are distributed

unequally and their

sites are fixed


J, if

with more or

obvious intentions.

not already fixed

on the river bank as the Southern Stela, was

fatigable energy in this district in 1891-2 added so much to our knowledge, and, by the interest which he excited,

needed to make known the later form of the


proclamation
to
:
,

travellers

entering Akhetaten

became in no small measure responsible for the present His unpublished materials also have series of -volumes. unreservedly put at the disposal of other always been workers, and I shall have to acknowledge my indebtedness
to

by
*

this
It

route

P,

Q,

R, S draw a chain of

would have been at the mouth, no doubt, but for


it

the desire to place


^

exactly opposite (east of) B.

him
2

in several instances.

I cannot admit that

should be included.

It

is

3 feet, retaining only a trace little tablet, about 5 feet by to the other inscription, and having no resemblance of It may hot even be of this period. monuments.
3

X and M seem then to have been the first stelae to be fixed, K soon after replacing M as the South Stela. Later, P was made on the mountain-road, and from X and P (or J) the positions of A and P were determined on the western
mountain.
bold

The

site of
itself

was

fixed

on because no such

In these discussions of position I

am

entirely depen-

cliff offers

further to the south on this side.

dent on Prof. Petrie's map.

From

it

the position of

V was taken.

20

THE ROCK TOMBS OP EL AMAENA.


his project

information across the wide valley in which the

with enormous energy and

initiative.

mountain roads from the south run

lies in

Apparently he did not wait for the completion


of his designs, but planned out a whole series of

the middle of the mountain-wall south of the


plain,

U
is

simila]'ly

on the

east,

near the entrance


is

temples, palaces, and tombs in advance, carrying

to the ravine

where the Eoyal tomb

hewn and
same proonly in

out their most essential features to begin with.


It

which

also a

back-way into Akhetaten.

may

be that even at the end of his reign the


it

The eleven
clamation,
spelling

later stelae contain the

great temple lagged far behind the pictures of

and

as

the

copies

differ

which the tombs display, and we have already


seen the feverish haste in which sepulchral halls

and

in the addition or omission of unis

important phrases, the text


restored
stelae

now completely

were laid out and then abandoned because the

A
is

by collation (Plates xxvii., xxviii.). The and B on the western bank make an addiend of the usual text (Plate
xxxiii.).

tion at the
It

workmen were needed to push forward other schemes. The same procedure probably governed the foundation of Akhetaten, for we find that at
the

possible that a few

more
;

stelae

have

end of the King's fourth year^ he could

perished or remain to be discovered


limits

but, as the

describe

Akhetaten

as

containing

numerous
of the 4th

seem now to have been found, only a


earlier

temples, palaces, and royal and private tombs.*

copy of the
tion could

and sadly-injured proclama-

On

the 4th day^ of the 8 th

month

add much to our knowledge/

year the King

made

a public appearance

and

held a great ceremony of dedication, but neither


B.

Their History and Contents.


(or

the place of the ceremonial nor the exact scope


of
it is

now

clear.

If

it

was not the ceremony


itself

When Akhenaten
Amarna

Amenhetep-neter-heqa-

of dedicating
ofiicially

Akhetaten
its

as

well
it

as

of

Uast, as the orthodox

knew him) came

to El

marking

boundaries,

probably

(probably in the second decided to found a

year of his

took place on the anniversary of that event.

reign), having

new

capital

here which should at least prove a counterpoise


to Thebes^

and form a

soil

where the worship of


uncontaminated by

Professor Petrie's story of the reign

is

largely governed

Aten could

flourish in purity,

by the rejection of this date of the early stelae, which, though not absolutely certain, is vouched for by the
presence of one daughter only, by the peculiar form of the Queen's name, and by the contents, which show plainly
projected.

older traditions

and without being overshadowed


cult,

by
1

more imposing

he must have set about


made

I have personally visited and

notes

of,

or com-

K, (or M, X) were Moreover, the date " Year 4 " occurs again in the body of the text, though, unfortunately, in a dubious
that, at that time, only the Stelae
(1.

pletely copied, all of them, according to their importance,

connection

20).

The

oil-

except Stela F.
and,
in spite
of

This
the

is

almost or completely sanded up, kind assistance afforded me by

second and third years, therefore,


T.

and wine-jars dated to the may not need to be

assigned to Akhenaten's successor (Griffith, in Petrie's


If Akhenaten by the fourth year had 32). abandoned his old name, the adoption of the new titulary would in itself be a sufficient reason for the

M. Lefebvre and
native guards.
this

his officials, could not

be found by the

A.,

p.

This,

remote

spot,

combined with the inhospitality of drove me back on two occasions, after


reach
it.

definitely

making planned
Petrie copied

efforts to

Fortunately, Professor
it,

erection of these three stelae.


*

all

that remains of
little

and

as

my

visit

I take the wording of the proclamation (K,

col. xi.)

to

could have added but

to the information he gives,

refer to projects already

taken in hand, even

if

am

their full

alone, since

almost glad that this stela must remain to his credit no one can appreciate the fatigue involved

in beating the

bounds of Akhetaten but he who has

essayed

it.

^ have not sufficient material at present to enable us to form any just idea of the position Thebes took during

We

and much else must be reconsidered. ^ It may well be "the 13th day," and so allow the ceremony which the later stelae describe to have taken place on the second anniversary of the first. The procedure on both occasions was so similar that the earlier
this

completion was was a mere boy,

still

a thing of the future.

If the Kino-

this reign.

phraseology could be closely followed.

THE BOUNDARY STELAE.


After a great sacrifice had been
city
all
?),

21

made

(in the

for other officiants

(?).

Then, in a few words, we

the

King proceeded
stelae.

to the site of one or

have what seems to be a brief relation of the


evils

of

the

There

he assembled

the

which had led to the religious reformation.

dignitaries of the land

and recounted to them

So little is known of Akhenaten's activity in Nubia

how
come

that he had founded Akhetaten in this

beyond what the ruins of the temples of Sedeinga,


Soleb,

spot in obedience to a divine message which had


to

and Sesebe

disclose, that

we must

regret

him

personally.

Aten had chosen


for

this

the loss of the connection in which the land of

place for his worship without a rival, and the

Kush
the

is

mentioned (K,
for the

line 25).

The proclama-

him over the whole of Greater Egypt for the Aten was god also of all the known lands. Then the King, lifting his hand to heaven, made a solemn vow that he would not remove Akhetaten from the exact bounds marked out by the stelae on the north
Royal pair were to reign
;

tion closes with regulations for the festivals of

Aten and
dues.

upkeep of the temples


comprising the royal

by

This

recital,

oath and decree, were engraved on the three


boundary-tablets

K,

and

but

before

the task was quite completed (probably well on


in the 5 th year)

"and south of the chosen


city

district,

and that the

Meketaten had been born to

would be confined to the east bank of the

the King, and her figure was inserted on the

river.

By
new

settling in this formal

way

the limits

Southern Stela, K.

of the

enclave on which the duty of supin

On

or about the second anniversary of this

porting the worship of Aten


to
fall,

Akhetaten was

proclamation another oath was taken in public

the legal burdens on the land were fixed


tenure.

by the King.*
on the
river,

The

limits

of the district of

and security given to

The proclamation
at

Akhetaten had now been marked out, not only


but also on the desert
sides.

informs us also what had -been accomplished or

Six

undertaken by the King.


least five temples built to

The list includes Aten in the city

(additional

?) stelae

were to be engraved, giving


in

of

the side-boundaries of Akhetaten


:

new and

Akhetaten or on

its

island, palaces for himself

and

his Queen, a

Royal tomb which he commands

more exact terms one to north, one to south, and one between these on the mountain ranges
on both sides of the
river.
it

shall be the burial-place of himself, his wife,

and
die,^

his daughter, wherever they

may

chance to

From
the

the description given (S, line 9)

would

and sepulchres
tion of

for the

Mnevis-buU (the incarna-

seem that the King made


Stela
J.^

his oath at the site of

Ra

of Heliopolis),^ for the high-priests of

Aten^ and the "Divine Fathers" of Aten, and

visited the

Afterwards he seems to have Northern and Middle Stelae on the

east side (S, lines 14, 16, 17).

The tomb in the ravine where Meketaten was buried is therefore almost certainly the tomb which the King intended to be the resting-place of himself and his family. The early death of his daughter may have rendered an But the prealteration of the original plan advisable. suddenly, and was sumption is that the King also died buried here. It would be no wonder if, under the circum^

On
*
^

the

given date

6th
ia
S, line

year,

8th month,

See note 5 on page 20.


" South-east " can

mean
(cf.

the stela the


16,

southern

point on the east side


tablet''

where "the NE.

probably J

stances, the walls failed to be suitably inscribed.

so the east si^e the hills closed in on the river on the north and south, there were no
is

must mean X).


meant.

The King " makes southward,"

As on

and surprising reading, which I more assured, I owe to the Editor. 3 The tomb of Meryra, in the N. group, is the only one known to come under this head, and its decoration at least
'^

This

interesting

could wish were a

little

Stelae till and S were hewn at from the south and north boundaries respectively. Stela S is due south-east from the city, so that P or S might be indicated by the phrase, but P is almost

true

NE. and SE.

similar distances

seems to be of a later date, though it may have been projected from the first, or have replaced an uninscribed tomb
in the
S. group.

inaccessible

by

chariot.

The roads which are

still

to be seen

leading up to several of the stelae were probably

made

for

Ay was

not a " Divine Father " of Aten.

the King's

visit.

22

THE BOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.

13th day

the

King, after a great

sacrifice to

eastern stelae (and also on F)

it

took a simple
in

Aten
east

in the city, as

on the former occasion, drove


"

form
. .

" This

oath

was repeated

the year

southwards in his chariot, and " on the south-

."

On

and B, however, the

brief

sum-

mountain of Akhetaten

made

a proclama-

mary

in

which the substance of the previous


it.

tion defining the boundaries of

Akhetaten more

oath had been repeated was appended to

precisely

that he

by means of the six stelae, and swore would never overstep them or suffer
^

Before this longer text could be engraved,

Akhenaten's third daughter had been born, and


her

them

to fall into decay.

The

district (of

which

name and

figure were accordingly

added at

he gave the exact length) he declared to belong


to the Aten, with all its inhabitants, animals

the side of the " altars " of these


C.

two

stelae.^

and
Description' of the Stelae.

products, for ever and ever, from the eastern


hills to

the western.

These monuments are of an almost invariable


form, of which Plate xxvi. gives an excellent

Probably the work of engraving these land-

marks had not been begun


while
it

at

this

time,

and

example.

They

are

rounded at the top, and the


corres-

was in progress an increase in thennumbers was resolved on. In consequence the


eleven or more stelae were not ready
till

sky from which Aten sends his divergent rays

on the

altar

and on the royal pair

is

the

pondingly arched.

The upper part

is

occupied

beginning of the 8th year.^

By

that time a

by

a scene showing the King, Queen,

and two
generally

new
for,

asseveration of the oath

had been arranged

princesses

adoring Aten, the former

probably in connection with the dedication

having their arms outstretched from the shoulder,


while
the princesses carry sistrums.

of the additional stelae, for the ceremonial seems


this

Part of

time to have taken place on the south-east


(S, line 26),

this division,

however,

is

often taken

up by the

boundary

where three or four new


S).

beginning of the inscription, arranged in vertical


columns, the rest of
it

stelae had been set up (P, Q, E,

This was

being written on the

in the 8th year, 5th

month, 8th day, and the


last day).

lower part of the stela in horizontal lines in


either direction.

western stelae seem to have been visited a few

days

earlier (4th

month,

The pro-

In the scene above, the titulary of the sun,


of the royal pair,
in columns.

ceedings perhaps took place on some anniversary


or festival,

and of the
is

princesses,

is

added

and were fixed long

in advance, so

There

generally an altar-table of

that the record of

them could be added

before-

common

form, the two or three panels of which


the five cartouches.

hand to the rest of the inscription.^

On

the

are decorated with

The

This must not be too strictly interpreted. J was pushed some hundreds of yards south of K, and the Royal Tomb lies beyond the boundary eastwards.
1 2

then added the new oath thus " 8th year, 4th month, last day the oath which the King spake when fixing the stelae ." of Akhetaten. But he gives a different date in the
:

In consequence

of the

heavy work entailed on quarriers

6th year from that which


later proclamation,

no work could be done upon the tombs. For this reason no tomb shows two daughters, and perhaps all in the S. group are later than the stelae. ^ On every stela the oath and the record of its renewal

and

sculptors, little or

is unanimously given for the even by A, which presumably followed

in ending.
*

F,

which does not share the


it

peculiarities of

A and

B,

seems to be earlier; since

gives a

date (according to

run on in the same Une, and, so far as I can see, without sign of erasure, though V, P, J, the .stelae most concerned,
have lost the part in question. It seems, 'therefore, that the whole was cut on all at one time. The engraver of B
also

Petrie) for the (forthcoming?) ceremonial

on the east

side

which proved four months too soon.


^

The three

dedications, then,

seem to have

briefly pre-

knew

the form prescribed for the addition

but, wishing
it
.
.

ceded the birth of three successive children. Did this domestic King invite the favour of Aten, who " makes the
son to live in the body of his mother, nursing him in the body," by these gifts and engagements?

to give the

spective

new oath at length, he changed note " The oath was in the 6th year

to a retro"
.

and

THE BOUNDARY STELAE.


table
is

23

piled with jars, meats, birds, vegetables,

Aten and the royal


together and
to

pair.^

As

these are joined

flowers,

and dishes of burning

incense,

and often

the

statues in

solid

mass

has a back like that of a chair at one end, and


at

(concealing the figures for rather


their

more than half

the other a kneeling figure holding a dish

breadth,

and so obviating the need of

filled

with a cone of food


duplicated

(?).

The

altar, or
is

one

drapery), they resemble altars, but really

show

of the two replaced

royal

groups,

often

by the columns The King and Queen

of text.
are clothed in garments

King and Queen "upholding the name of Aten."^ The tablet is sometimes upright, somethe

times leaning outwards at the top, as

if to

be
are

of the usual form.

The King usually wears the

read the better.


joined to the
cliff"

The heads and


by a stay of
rock.

figures

hhepersh head-dress, the Queen the two feathers

with horned

The bodies are given their most exaggerated forms, and the faces their most repulsive outlines, on these stelae of the early
disc.

The statues of the little princesses are always two in number. The girls are nude, and wear

years of the reign.


tortions

Indeed, these worst dislimited


to
stelae,
trial-

They hold one another's hands, and with her free arm Merytaten reaches
an enormous
side-lock.

are

almost

out to touch her mother.

These figures are set


as if they

pieces, etc.

on a

base,

and against an arched back,


(Plates
xli., xliii.) lies

The

stelae of the later series, unlike the earlier,

were a free-standing group (Plate

xliv.).

are almost invariably flanked on both sides with

Stela
western

three miles to

groups of statuary of a special character.


are formed in

the following way.


in a

They The King


combined

the south of Tuneh-el-Gebel, on the face of the


hills.

It

is

14 feet high and 7 feet

and Queen stand side by side group, the King being on the
stela
;

6 inches broad, with eight columns of text

and

side nearer the

twenty-five horizontal lines.


fair

The former

are in

he

is

somewhat stouter

in build than she,


difier.

preservation (PI. xxxiii.); the latter seem

but the forms do not greatly


ever, only in
.

It
is

is,

how-

to

have been systematically battered, but the

and

S,

where the stone


is

of good

first six

and

last six lines


legible.

and the ends of the

quality,

that the

statuary

sufiiciently well

rest

are

fairly

The lower
is

lines

are

preserved to inform us on points of detail, and


here the moulding of the body
is

rapidly decaying.
right.

The writing

from

left to

exquisitely

soft and delicate, despite the exaggerated dimen-

text on the

The upper scene shows vertical lines of left, and on the right the King and

sions

of the

hips

and thighs (Plates

xxxiv.,

The bodies seem usually to be nude, or nearly so. The King wears either the hhepersh or the crown of Lower Egypt, the
xxxix.,
xl., xliv.).

Queen adoring Aten behind a table of offerings. Merytaten and Meketaten shake sistrums behind
her.*

The horizontal ram's horns

are

added to

the disc in the Queen's head-dress.

Queen her
away.^

flat

head-dress or a cap
case,

but the

On

the south side of the stela are two groups

heads or faces have, in every

been broken
2

The

figures always

have their arms outone group of each

The

tablets have

rounded tops in

stretched either from the shoulder or from the

(detached frag-

ment).
^

elbow (generally there

is

In the case

of
;

form), and each grasps the upper rim of a narrow


vertical tablet inscribed with the

god and the King


Probably this
*

S the lower altar holds the names of the the higher one adds that of the Queen.

names of the

is the explanation of the two models. Their names are totally misread by Prisse, Mon..^g.,

PI. xiv.

Drawn by Kay,.MSS.,
reproduced in Plate

29814,

fols.

32-34; the

the fragments were left where they fell, they are sometimes to be recovered from the sands. See below (N
1

As

first

is

the Director of

and

Q).

The heads

of the statues

were often separate, and

L'H6te, Lettres
303-306.

by kind permission of the British Museum. Sketched also by Rentes, pp. 59, 131, and MSS., III.,
xliii.

attached to the rock by an inset.

24

THE BOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


groups of the royal pair and their two daughters. Three daughters are shown and named on the
side of the south " altar."

of statuary, one of each model (Plates xxxiv.,


xxxvi.).

On

both, the figures are draped.

The
and

King wears a broad


indicated on her

girdle with falling ends,


is

the clinging drapery of the Queen

delicately

Stela F.
stela is "

According

to Professor Petrie, this

body and
is

limbs.

The fringed
its

on a low scarp of rock in the middle of


is

upper

hem

of her robe

seen crossing above

a wide bay of desert" south of Gildeh, and


usually buried in sand.

and
open

between

her

breasts,

and

folds

are
It is

The scene
lines,

is

gone, as

gathered together in a knot below them.


in front,

well as the first five discernible horizontal lines.

but a narrow sash knotted on the

There

are

nine

more
short

49 inches long,

navel seems to indicate an under-garment.

The

the last seven being fairly complete.


scription
is

The

in-

upper arms and the breast of both figures are


adorned with cartouches of the Aten.
liar to

so

that

it

would not even


that

It is pecu-

contain the royal oath.^


either there

I think, therefore,

A and B

that,

though only two daughters

are

shown

in statuary, the figure

and name of

was no upper scene at all and that the remaining forty-one inches under the disc
were entirely occupied by inscription, or that the
top of the stela
is

Ankhes-en-pa-aten were added to those of the


other two on

one

side of the north " altar,"

quite gone.

The text runs


high up on the
hills

showing that she was born before the completion


of the work.

from right to

left. is

The names
iii.,

are in the invariable

Stela
which

J.

This

situated

form (cf

L., D.,

91a-/).

north side of the


rise

first

ravine entering the

Stela B.

This

lies

about two miles to the

from the western river-bank, south


It lies a

south of Stela A, but halfway between them


a rock face has been cut, which
the preparation for another
likely that
it

of the village of Hawata.

few hundred

may have
It is

been

yards to the south of Stela K.

stela.

more

The

stela is in great ruin (Plate xxxvi.) ap-

is

only a quarry, perhaps even

parently from natural causes, the lower part of


the rock here being

of

Eoman

date.^

By

the side of

it

forty-one

now

a rough

cave.

The

steps,

7 feet broad,

making use of a natural


low
cliff,

stone was bad to begin with, having to be ex-

gully, ascend to the top of the

where

signs of surface quarrying are frequent.

A few

by the engravers with insets which now have fallen out. The eight columns
tensively patched
of inscription are
in

steps lead from the foot of this to the quarried


face,

very bad condition, the

which

is

14 feet high and 35 feet long.


size as the last,

date being indecipherable.

The eight horizontal


which
is

Stela
in

is

about the same

and

lines,

75

inches

broad,

remain,

show

much

the same condition.

There are seven or

many

gaps.^

The scene above

on the right of

eight vertical columns of inscription, and twenty-

the columns of text

and shows the King, Queen,

seven horizontal
illegible

lines.

Columns 1-4 are nearly


so,

and

line

27 entirely

while the whole

and two princesses* adoring Aten with outstretched arms, behind an offering-table. The
text
is

has been very badly defaced by hammering.

The

written from left to right.


left of

The

cliff is

scene above shows the King, the Queen, and two

smoothed down on the


statues
;

the stela to receive


is

daughters lifting hands in adoration of Aten on


either side of the

but,

though their place


(Plates

visible,

they

columned

text.

The The

figures

on

have perished.

the left are almost destroyed.


is

initial

date
^ ^

Stela

xxix.,

xxx.,

xxxvii.,

also gone.

On both

sides of

the stelae are


Line 8 begins near the end of
line

21 of Stela

S.

"^

This must be the spot which

M. Daressy

erroneously

describes {Becueil, xv., p. 61, no. 7).

The text extends to the end of line 16 of Stela S. The negative was kindly furnished by Professor Steindorfi. * The upper one is gone ; the lower is named Meketaten.

THE BOUNDAKY STELAE.


xxxviii.). This
clifF

25

monument

is

cut in tHe high


It is

Stela

(Plates

xxxiii.,

xl.).

About

half-

to the

north of Stela
the

J.

70 inches

way along
and 13

the southern boundary of the plain,


It is

horizontal lines, which I reckon to have been eighty in number, measure eleven feet in height.^ There were, besides,

broad,

and

just under the summit.


feet

82 inches broad
height being

high,

half of

the

occupied by

twenty-six horizontal lines of text


left

twenty-one vertical columns.

This magnificent

reading from
this is in

to

right.

What
or

is

left

of
is

monument

is

ruined by natural decay, the lower


It contains the
to
right.

good condition, but the upper half


theft

two-thirds being almost useless.


earlier text, written

from

left

The

by the falling away patching-stones. The date is lost.


largely
lost

of

The scene

scene above

shows the King adoring the Aten

shows two daughters.*

Steindorfi" cleared the

on the right of the

vertical columns. Behind him, his wife and his daughter Merytaten rattle

lower part in 1898 and found heads of the King

and Queen (replaced

in Plate

xl.).^

sistrums (the Queen's


front of her
is

name both above and

in

written

Q^

I]

s=i

\\

f^ J simply).
;

but the border has been erased and, a little space having been smoothed at the side, a tiny figure of
Meketaten, accompanied by an attendant,* has been rudely inserted, and her name added in a

This leaves no room for further figures

To right and left of the stela, and sheltered by the overhang of the rock, are combined statues of the King and Queen and of the two The group on the right hand (west) princesses. The arms of the larger group bend is smaller. upwards from the elbow. The character of the
group of children photograph
will best

be learnt from the

column near her


an
addition

sister's.

This might represent


is

(PI. xliv.).*

a miscalculation by the sculptor, but

probably

Stela
stelae

P.

This

is

the

westernmost of four

implying the birth of a second


There

which are set in a straight line (59)


This contains

daughter after the scene was executed.


are

across the great valley which leads southwards

no

statues.

from the SE. corner of the plain.


18 feet high (13

Stela
inscription
stela
is

MAbout
possible)

two
feet of

khors, one

on the west side of the valley


east.

and

feet

broad.

The

and one on the


mountain-side,
east Mior,

is

placed on the west


k/ior,

almost obliterated, but

fragments of

in the west

in the

the

first

eleven lines can be read, written from

S on the east mountain -side.


to pieces

Stela

left to right.

These belong to the


to have

earlier pro-

P was blown

by gunpowder
all

a few years

clamation.

The scene seems


or

shown King,

ago by Copts, who expected, as


do, to find that the stela
treasure-chamber.'^
It

Egyptians

two daughters adoring Aten to the right of several columns of text.


There are no statues.

Queen and possibly one

was a door to a hidden

was

70

inches

broad

The

stela is only a
lies

few
*

hundred yards north of K, and


It is set deep in a

For the scene above see


faces of the
iii.,

L.,

D.,

iii.,

110a,

and

at the turn

my

sketch (based on that and on photographs) on Plate xxxiii.

of the mountain, just behind a sheikh's tomb.

The
D.,

hewn

recess.

295, nos.

King and Queen are reproduced in L., 45, 48, and are characteristic for the

stelae.
^
1

Steindoepp, Durch die Lyhische Wiiste, pp. 11, 12.


d.

Prom

the top of line 40 to the end of the inscription

Bericht

Km.

Sachs.

Ges. Leipzig,

1900,

pp.

210-212
were

is

66 inches. The negative of the photograph on Plate xxxvii. was kindly furnished by Professor Steindorff.
2

(photographs).
*

The negatives
Cf.

for both photographs of this stela

For the scene see

L.,

X>.,

iii.,

1106, which includes

kindly furnished by Professor Steindorff.


'

twenty-one of the horizontal


^

lines.

Hay's account

of his visit to

the stela at Tuneh.

Not a second daughter. An attendant is not elsewhere shown on the stelae, but the child was so young that a
nurse seemed
fitting.

The principal personage commenced by asking why we had shut up the door as soon as we saw them coming
. . .

"

for he insisted that the tablet could

be nothing

less "

(Add.

26

THE BOOK TOMBS OF EL AMABNA.


feet

Only a fragment The pair remains. with the heads of the Eoyal King, Queen and two princesses were shown

and 12

inches

high.

former well formed and

little

injured

(5)

many

fragments of the

tablets.^
xlii.)
is

Stela
of

(Plate

on the east slope


of
It

praying to the Aten on either side a central


altar-table.

the

eastern

khor,

about three-quarters

On

the left the heads of both

King

an hour's walk from the southern tombs.


is

and Queen are -preserved, but are removed on The King wears the crown of Lower the right. ^ Egypt on the left, that of Upper Egypt on the
right
;

88

inches

high

and

58

inches
in

broad.

The
nine

text,
(?)

which

was

contained

twentyleft,
is

lines

written

from right to

the Queen wears the plumes.

Of the text
There are

terribly mutilated, partly


loss

by natural decay and and


partly

I copied

two large detached fragments.

of

patching-stones,
injury.

through

groups of the King and Queen and of the two


princesses on either side the stela.

wanton

The scene above shows the

The Queen's contains the name of Aten and her own, tablet One the King's that of Aten and his own.^
head of Merytaten remains. from right to
left.

royal family worshipping in the usual

way on

both sides of an
with lotus-flowers.

altar,

near which are stands

The writing

is

There are fragments

still

on the

left (N.)

of

the stela, showing that there was a group of the


stela occupies a

Stela Q.

This

commanding
xlii.).

King and Queen and another


on
this side.

of the princesses

position at the top of a spur facing northwards

down
is

the western track (Plates


feet

xli.,

It

Stela S (Plates
a

xxvi., xxxix., xl., xliv.)* lies

high and 52 inches broad, containing


horizontal
to
lines

few hundred yards behind


It is

at the foot of

twenty-seven

of

inscription

the mountain-side.

60 inches broad and

written from right


nearly
all is lost.

left,

but below line 12

100

inches

high,

and contains four columns


from
sculptors chanced

and twenty-six
right to
left.

lines of inscription written

The scene above shows the King and Queen


praying and the two princesses shaking sistrums

The

on a vein of

limestone as hard as alabaster, so that the greater


part of the

on either side of a central


cartouches are injured.

altar.

None

of the

monument
The work
is

is

marvellously preserved,

There were the usual


sides,

though
it

spiteful

attacks have been


in

made upon
the

groups

of statues

on both

the higher

lately.

the

scene above

tablet being on the right.

They

are completely

inscription are

beautifully fine; though the profiles


of the

smashed, the injuries apparently being contemporary


the
;

hideous and the forms

body outfound on

hill

and on searching the slope and foot of I found the remains strewn about, but

rageous.

The usual groups


both
sides

of statuary are

badly weatherworn.
of the

They included

(1 )

the head

of the

Queen

(or a princess) in
;

an enveloping

modelling.

show admirable The royal group on the right (S)


stela

and

wig, almost defaced


(3)

(2) the face of the

Queen (?)

of the stela holds the tablets at shoulder-height

head of the King wearing the crown of the


;

the others are held with bent arm.

North

(4)

torso

and head of a

princess, the

Except for narrow girdle round the loins of the King, a The south figure of the both figures are nude.

MSS. 31054,
of

p. 163).

Natural caverns at the foot of some

King wears

the khepersh

the stelae (especially curious in S), help this fancy,


is

(?),

that on the North

which
Egypt.
1

responsible for

many

injuries to

monuments
profile

in

has the crown of the North.


No. 3

The south
Museum
of

tablet

I discovered and

brought away the

of

the

See Plate
;

xliv.

is

in the

Melbourne,

Queen.
-

Australia
tablet is 43 inches high; that

Nos. 2 and 4 are in the Cairo Museum.


to have

The south

on the north,

'

Pbisse, Mon. Eg.,

35 inches.

who appears

PL xiii. Copy by De Brynestyn drawn the scene from memory.

THE BOUNDARY STELAE.


shows the cartouches of Kin.ff, Queen and Aten that on the north shows those of the King
;

27

Stela X, the most northern


side, lies

on the

east

at the point where the track through

and the Aten only/ Stela U (Plates


gigantic

the defile just mentioned strikes the river again.


xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii.). This
It
is

set

high up on the

shoulder of

the

monument, measuring
bottom,
cliff

25

feet

from
entire

mountain, above the ruined tomb of the Lady


Zebayda, facing the river (225).
It

top

to

occupies
in a little

almost

the

contains
is

height of the

bay of the eastern

the proclamation of the fourth year, but


a state of ruin even

in

mountain-range, just to the north of the mouth


of the great ravine in which the Royal
It
is

tomb

lies.

absolutely impossible

of

close

approach

more lamentable than that The stela is of K, its fellow on the south. 81 inches broad, and there is more than 12
feet

except by rope-ladder from above, and the text


is

of height

above the lowest extant

line

therefore difficult to secure.


lines

There are three


of text written

(No. 57).

It affords

room
is

for the full text of

columns and twenty-four

eighty

lines.

from

The scene shows the King and Queen praying with extended arms,^ and two
left to right.

The

scene

above

only to be made

out

daughters shaking sistrums.

with difficulty. On the left the King stands in adoration, and with him the Queen and Merytaten
(?).

On

each side of the stela a deep recess has

In the centre are twenty-one columns

been cut in the rock to hold the groups of


statuary.

of text,

and beyond

this there

seems to have

On

the right (S) was. a group of the

been an altar
is

heaped with
left.

offerings.

The writing

King and Queen with tablets held breast-high and inscribed with fuller eulogies of the King (?) and Queen than usual. The princesses are almost destroyed. On the left the remains show separate statues, more than life-size, of the King and Queen, each holding a narrow tablet shoulderThe statues of the high against the body. daughters are more than infantine in comparative size.
city.

from right to

D. PiiEvious

Work on

the

Site.^

Stela A, near Tuneh El Gebel on the West


side,

was the

first

to

be discovered.

It

was

broad road leads to


high up on the
defile

it

from the
a little

known already to Wilkinson,* and probably Hay, who drew it in 1827, learnt of its existence from
him.

Nestor L'Hote

visited

it

in

1839 and

Stela
in

made rough drawings


hills,

of

it.'

Prisse did more,

lies

to the south of the

which pierces them


tombs,
as

publishing the entire monument.


lished only the date

Lepsius pub-

and names.

the

midst

of

the

northern

Daressy,

the

in

position

being apparently chosen

1893, included this text in a collation.


directly

opposite B.

Owing

Stela U, being near to the Northern tombs,


signs,

to the nature of the rock,

nothing

now remains but

half-a-dozen

apparently from line 19

(S).
it

There are faint

was discovered by Harris and Gliddon in 1840,^ sketched by L'Hote, and copied by Prisse. It
is

included also in M. Daressy 's collation.

traces of a road leading to

from the

city.

Stela S was found and copied by

De Brynes-

tvn, Prisse's companion, and published by the


1

made an attempt

to find the heads, but failed.

A
^
*

frao'ment showing a cartouche of Aten was sent to the National Museum, Melbourne, Australia, by M. Maspero's

Fuller references are given elsewhere.

kind permission.
2
iii.

Topography of Thebes, p. 383.


Lettres Ecrites, pp. 129-134,

Prissb,
302.

Mm.

^g.,

PL

xii.

Sketch in L'Hote, Papiers,

^
''

The

figures in Prisse should conform in attitude

Becueil de Travaux, xv., pp. 51-58, also


PiussE, Mon. Eg.,
p. 3.

p. 61.

and dress

to those in Plate xxvi.

'

28

THE EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAKNA.


M. Daressy published a
(v.

latter.^

fine

photograph

[Liveth Father]

rHor-Atonj
]"'

etc.i"

and printed the text


Stela Stela

supra).
[Liveth Horus]

^kI

Ta.

was published by Lepsius,


found,

] etc."

as also

....
I'

appearing on the throne of I''

Re
(J)

of the living

(?)

the upper part of Stela N.^

like his father

Aton every day, the good


doing service to
to

god

Q was

first

believe,

by Mr.

might

Him that
1"'

formed

(?)

Newberry.

him
J, P,

the

sky

....

when he

places

Stelae B, F,
Prof.
Petrie's

M, R,

V
R

were the reward of


scrutiny
of

himself

....

the living Aton, lord


I'"

Re], living in Truth, [lord of] diadems,


in his duration, living for ever
;

[Son of Akhenaton, great

indefatigable
1892.^
is

the

whole

district in

included also in

(and) the hereditary-princess

(?),

great in the palace, fair

M. Daressy's

collation.

of face, beauteous with the double plume, mistress of happiness,

Stela X, the farthest


an Arab in

to the north yet dis-

rejoices, 12 ]""

[endowed with favours] at hearing whose voice one lady of grace, great of love, by whose nature
is

covered on the east bank, was shown to


IQCl."*

me by
it

the lord of the two lands


to the Aton, contenting

well-pleased, great of

Breasted has made use of

in the horizon, for


is

for his recent work.^

whom
the
I

every (word) that

spoken

is

done,'

I'"

chief wife of

king,

whom

he loves, mistress of the

Two

lands,
for

Steindorff, Borchardt and GRiiNAu visited


the
eastern stelae
in

Beauty

of the Beauties of

Aton, Nef erteit

living

1898, copied the text of


ever;

eight of them, securing excellent photographs,

On

this

day (Royalty) was


rises

'*

in [Akhetaton
]"

?].

His
like

and made excavations at N.

[Majesty ascended] a great chariot

of

electrum,

Aton when he
his love,
to]

from

his horizon
;

and

fills

the land with

....

the

Aton

(and) started [a goodly course

Akhetaton, his place of the beginning which he had


I""'

E.

The Earlier
fourth

Proclamation'.'^
4
(?).'

made

for himself that he might rest within


' '

it

daily

(?)

for

Year 4

month

his son
of the second season, [day]
etc.

Liveth the Good God,

The unique one of Re had made for him his monument in founding for him [Akhetaton] according (?) as [his father had given command] to make it [Heaven was]

in joy,i^ earth in rejoicing,]"" every heart in gladness,

when

they saw him.


1

(And

his
I

Majesty) offered a [great] oblation


of bread, beer,

Peisse, Mon. Eg., p. 3


L.,

and

PI. xiii.

D. Text,

p.

129.

There are squeezes of


5, 6, Pis. xxxiv.,

in

to

Father

Hor-Aton

horned p"

bulls,

BerUn.
^ * ^ *
'

Petrie, Tell

el

Amarna, pp.

xxxv.
1"

Aton was probably the true pronunciation

Davies, Sheikh Said, pp.


Becords,
ii.,

of the god's

5, 6.

p. 393.
p. 25.

name, which thus differed by only one letter from Am6n, Amiln, the god whom he displaced.
11

For references, see

Plates xxix.-xxxii., xxxviii. (photograph).

The sources

The rendering
is

as far as line xiv.

is

much guided by
the

used are the Stelae K, X, and

Of only a few phrases For and I have used my squeezes are now legible. and photographs and plates revised on the spot. For K,

M.

the later proclamation,


similar titularies

where a

full translation of

given.

The ordinary titulary of Akhen(

aten

is

abbreviated elsewhere in these pages to


of the

N.

A.

see also L., D.,

iii.,

1106.

fragmentary translation

is

given in Breasted, Becords, pp. 392-394. The numbers of the Unes, where not otherwise marked, are those of K.

and the cartouches


12

god to

Hor-Aton

The above

titles of

the Queen are those which she

The

lines of

X are marked off


K.

as far

and as accurately

as

bears in the later proclamation.


scribed Nefertiti.

Her name

is

often tran-

possible in the text of

By much
Mr.
*

the larger share of any responsibility or credit

i^Cf.IL.p.

14.

Read
I

Q
I

at the end of line

for the translation of these


Griffith,

to

whom
is

two proclamations must fall the final form it has taken

vi.

to
is

at the end of line vii


of line viii.
1*

at the end

also due.

The reading
(1.

confirmed by the recurrence of " year 4

"

S-.^

at the end of line ix.

below
^

20).

Lit. "

One was." "

On

this

day

" refers of

course to the

"Day

13,"

which the broken signs

easily permit us to

opening date, what has intervened being merely protocol.


1^

read,

would date the

later proclamation to the anniversary

Read

of this.

III.

THE BOUNDAEY
polled
bulls,

STELA.E.

29

beasts, fowl, wine, fruits, incense, frankin-

cense

[on the day of demarcating] (?), all goodly herbs' Akhetaton [for the living Aton who acjcepted [favoured and loved] 1=^" the Sovereign (L. P. H.), ^ Lord of the two

regarding Akhetaton for ever P and ever. Every eye seeth (?) rays beauteous with(?) love, at sight of which every land
liveth,

he making (?).. upoa ^N.

|*

his child

J
i

(?)

lands

Beautiful of the forms of Re, Unique one of

Re

for ever
J

and

ever.

For Akhetaton

Beauty

After these things, the good pleasure (J) of the Aton was done making for him joy .... |"' Akhetaton
in gladness, he rested
is

of the beauties of

Aton, Neferteit 1 to wife (?).... for


. . .
.

ever and ever, said

on

[his gre]at
(?)

throne with which he


eternity.
!

Hor-Aton j by command ....

well pleased, which uplifts


1^"

[his] beauties

.... knowing the bounds of f monument of the Aton Lo it is he that putteth in thy heart regarding
:

(And)

[his

Majesty stood] before Father fHor-Aton


J

[and Aton radiated upon him in

life

and length

of days,
:

auy place that he desires he doth not uplift the name of any king ' [except] thy Majesty, [he] doth not |^
.

invigorating his body every day]. [Said] j""" his Majesty " Bring me the companions of the king, the great ones and

another except

beneficent

(?)....

of

To-

mighty

(?)

ones, the captains of soldiers,


its entirety."

[of

the land] in

They were I""" conducted

to

him

immediately.

They were on

then- bellies before his Majesty,

Mera (Egypt) .... like the horizon of heaven .... Aton .... great .... of making a monument to the living Aton ........ Aton thou drawest (?) unto him every land (?), p.
.
.

smelling [the ground to his mighty will]. His [Majesty said] unto them " Behold
:

thou adornest for him village[s?]


^

.... which

he hath

[Akhetaton (?)

which]

monument

me to make unto him as a name of [my Majesty] for ever * it was the Aton my father that [brought me to] 1"^ Akhetaton. Not a noble directed (?) me to it,^ not [any man in] the whole laud directed (?) me to it say[ing "It is fitting for his Majesty] that he j"*' make an Horizon-of-Aton
1''^

the

Aton

desires

[made?] for his own self, all lands, all countries, the Ha-nebu with their products, their tribute on their backs
for

in the [great]

him that made their life, him by whose rays one liveth and breathes the air .... ]^ [may he grant me] eternity verily (?) Akhetaton is in seeing his rays thriving like Aton in heaven for ever and eternally. Then his Majesty lifted his hand to heaven unto Him
that formed him,
(

(Akhetaton) in

father that [directed

Nay, but it was the Aton my me] to it, to make it for him as (?) Behold p I did not an Horizon-of-Aton (Akhetaton).
this place."
find(?)'5

Hor-Aton
|

saying
^
|

As Father

Hor-Aton

liveth,

the great and living

.... Aton

for the
it

Aton my

father

behold Pharaoh
it

L. P. H. found that

belonged not to a god,


it

belonged

not to a goddess,
to princess as
'

it
.

belonged not to prince,


[There
is

belonged not

^
|

no right

for] -any

owner

of it

....
(

I found

....
J

witness

man to act .... everyof truth

Aton, ordaining life, vigorous in life, my father, my wall of a million cubits, my remembrancer of eternity, my witness of that which belongs to eternity,'" that formeth himself with his hands, whom no artificer hath known, who is
established in rising

Whether he
without

is

in

]'" and setting each day without ceasing. heaven or on earth [every] eye sees him

thing.

For Father

Hor-Aton

related to

me ....

....

while he

fills

[the land with] his

beams and
eyes

makes every
be
1

face to live.

With

seeing

whom may my

satisfied daily,

when he

The term probably The salutation "

includes flowers.
Life,

Akhetaton, and

fills

Prosperity,

Health

"

often

beauteous with love,


length of days
[O]
(?)

House of Aton '' in it with his own self by his beams p' and lays them upon me in life and
rises in this

attached to mention of Royalty. The preceding phrase may be a standing expression for the acceptance of a royal
offering

for ever

and

ever.'^

by the god.
should be read in the Plate.

not
*

^^^i-WZ^l^i
from a revised copy.

(M.)

Read 1

M gives
Or

here.

"testified to it."

has

ii ^^

.,^=^t]'^<:^ij\'^='
I
1

"mm
111^
pictures
in

J
^
III

^'^

Compare the

which the King


life

is

seen

covered and embraced by the rays of the sun, some of

them extending to him the sign of the uas sign of Length of Days (?).

and (more

rarely,

30

THE BOCK TOMBS OP EL AMABNA.


I will

place.

I will not
it,

make ^ Akhetaton for the Aton my father in this make for him Akhetaton south of it,
west of
it,

Neferteit
J
^

shall be

made

therein in that [multitude of


of]

north of

or east of
of

it.

will

not pass

years]

Y^
If I die in

[and the burial


it

the King's

beyond

the southern

tablet

Akhetaton

southward,

daughter Merit-aton shall be made in


of years.^

in that multitude

Akhetaton [northward, to] p^ make [for him] Akhetaton therein neither wUl I make for him on the western side of Akhetaton. Nay, but I will make (?) Akhetaton for the Aton my Father upon the Orient side of Akhetaton, the place which he did enclose for his own self with cliff (?), and made a liryt in the midst of it, that I might offer to him thereon this is it. Neither shall the Queen say unto me P " Behold there is a goodly place for Akhetaton in another place " and I hearken unto her neither shall any noble .... .... of all men who are in the whole land [say unto me] " Behold there is a goodly place for Akhetaton in another place " and I hearken to them, whether it be downstreamward, or southward or westward, or Orient-ward. I will not say " I will abandon Akhetaton, I will hasten away and make Akhetaton in this other goodly place for ever (?)." Nay, but [I did find (?)] this Akhetaton for the Aton, which he had himself desired, and with which he is delighted for ever and ever. I will make a House of Aton for the Aton my father in Akhetaton in |'^ this place
neither will I pass beyond the northern tablet of
: :

any town

of the north, south, west.

Orient in the multitude of years, I will be brought and


burial

my
j

made

in Akhetaton.

If the great

Queen

Neferteit

who

lives, die in

any town

of north, south, west, or Orient,

in the [multitude of years, she shall be

brought p' and

buried in Akhetaton.
die] in

If the King's daughter

Meritaton

in the multitude of years, she shall be brought and buried in Akhetaton. And the sepulchre ' of Mreu (Mnevis) shall be

any

city of north, south, west, or Orient,

made

in the Orient

mountain

of

Akhetaton, [and he
*

shall

be buried] therein.
[The] tombs of the " Great of Seeing "
fathers of the
shall

Aton ' and the

[prie]sts

(?)

l'^^

be made in the Or[ient] mountain

[of

and the divine [of the A]ton Akhetaton and

they shall be buried in them, p"

The tomb of the officers, etc., shall be made in the Orient mountain of Akhet]aton and they shall be fburied]
therein.

For,
priests

as
(?)

Father

rHor-AtonJ
are
4,

liveth,

more

evil

they than those things which


evil

I will
in

make
this place
;

Aton
of

for the

Aton my f athet

I heard unto year

[more

are th]ey than [those

Akhetaton in
I will

make the Shade


Neferteit
J

Re

of the [great] wife of the

This shortened form of the Queen's

name
it

is

used in

King

for the

Aton my

father in Akhet-

every case on these three stelae where

can be tested,

aton in this place


I will make a House of Rejoicing for the Aton my father in the island of " Aton distinguished in Jubilees" in

(though in broken cartouches the longer title seems indicated)

and seems a sign of the early date. ^ In each case the day of burial
infinitely.
^

is

postponed almost

Akhetaton in
I will

this place

make a House p* of

Rejoicing

[for]

the

Evidently only the eldest daughter was yet born.

Aton my father in the island of " Aton distinguished in Jubilees " in Akhetaton in this place ;
I will make
for the
all

Dr. Elliott Smith's examination of the skeleton found with


the furniture of Queen Taia points to the startling conclusion that the

I will

Aton my make

works which [are required] to be done father in Akhetaton in this place ;


for the
;

old
'

King could scarcely have been when he pronounced this oath.


Or
perhaps
" necropolis."

fifteen years

Aton my
palace
of

father

in

Read

i>^^^

Akhetaton in
1
will
;

this place

make
I will

for

myself

P'

the

Pharaoh
in Akhet*

(L.P.H.)

make

the palace of the

Queen

The
still

title of

the chief priest of

Re

at Heliopolis.

This

aton in this place.

and,

more, the adoption of the sacred bull Mnevis show

There shall be made for me a sepulchre in the Ori[ent] mountain ; my burial shall be [made] therein in the multitude of jubilees which the Aton my father hath ordained
for me,

a close connection of

Aton worship with the

cult of the
;

sun-god at Hehopolis, at any rate in the early years


is

it

very unexpected to find animal-worship thus retained in


heretic."

and the burial


it

of

the

chief wife of

the King

some degree by the "

Perhaps this was a conces-

sion to Egyptian prejudice


^

Grammatically,

is

equally possible to translate " I

conciliate the second or third greatest of the religious bodies in the

and intended to

have made," and so in all cases. 2 Taia and Merytaton are each given a "Shade of Re" Nothing is known of a "Shade of Re" of in the texts.
Neferteit, but it is not likely that Taia would be entitled simply " King's wife " in the reign of Akhenaton.

struggle with Amon-worship.


possible

On

the other hand,

it

is

that Heliopolis was one of the main sources of the "heresy."


^

have neglected to enter in the plate the clearer


:

reading of K, which I obtained on revision

a large cultivable island opposite Et but the river-bed shifts a good deal there.
^

There

is still

Til,

-I^,>,^'>lflr^"fl~i-Il

THE BOUNDAEY STELAE.


things] which I have heard in
evil are
i the year (?) they tha,n those things which King

31

more Year
day.3

F.
6,

The Later Proclamation.''


month
of the second season, thirteenth

[heard],
f

more

evil are
|(?)

they than those things which pi


in the
. .
.

fourth

Men-kheperu-re

heard

mouth (?)
.^

of negroes, in the
|K 2B (=

26)
_ _

mouth (?) of [any ?] people of Kush as far as ...


_

Liveth the Good God, well pleased with Truth, |" Lord of heaven. Lord of earth, Living Aton', Great, Illuminating the

two

regions.

^'

....

it shall

not be said
(?),

....
. .
.

Liveth

Father

'

|"i

TRa-hor, Horizon-god," rejoicing in

|X 29

[of gaz]elles

of addax[es]

1X31

the headland of the


as

.... [tablet] ....


liveth
J
.

'

The materials which


:

have used for the Plates


Eg.
xiv.

xxvii.,

my

father

Hor-Aton

xxviii., xxxiii., are


.

|K 31 (=

31)

....
Aton

likewise all feasts, every season


. .

....
Akhet-

Stela A.

Peisse, Mon.

Daeessy, collation

the chief wife of the King, Neferteit


)'^

.^

in Becueil xv., pp. 50-58, with appendix of type-printed). hand-copy and squeezes.

iu full (all

My

These only

32

in the district

covered the portions of the stela which could be styled


legible. The rest is not absolutely erased, but for the most part has very little evidential value. For two or A three phrases I found myself dependent on Daressy. partial copy in L'Hote, MS. III., 303, 304. Stela B. Only my hasty hand-copy of the more legible parts (last four vertical lines, end of lines 1-5, lines 8 to

aton,

and I
_ _

will not
_

make
(?)

1^ 33

iQ tiie central

foreshore[s],* in the cenoffer


(?)

tral

(?)

islands

which I
I indeed will
[the
;

to the

Aton
Aton

[my
in

fatjier].
. . . .

1^ 34

make .... Aton my] father in the House


shall

of

Akhetaton
IK 35
. .

he

not

offer

(?).

If

be

(?)

if

I be in

any

city,* in

any town
it
is

....

near the end).

A date in Petrie's notes.


Peteie's hand-copy.
it

likewise the festival (?) [of] Aton, the offering ....


. .

Stela F.
this in

IX 36
.

every place [unto?] which

my

Only

I did not obtain

desire

time to add

to the Plates, but

have noted

its

to go

...
_

readings where they have any importance.

P 37
p39
aton to
,
.

which he found for himself


.

....
Akhetor

Stela

J.

My hand-copy

of the

more legible parts. Hand-

[ships supplied] with everything in

copy by Peteie.

let

him voyage, whether he voyage northward

southward
|K4o(=x40)

.... ^Hor-Atonl
the south
the Jubilee
(?)

The

celebration

(?)

of

a Jubilee
1^
^'^
.

.....
(?)
. .
.

tablet of Akhetaton.

I will celebrate

....

the headland of the northern tablet


(?),

....
to

Stela N. My Stela P. My hand-copy of a few shattered fragments. Stela Q. My hand-copy (revised) and photographs. Also hand-copies kindly furnished me by Mr. Newberry and M. Maspero (copy by Shabaan Effendi). Stela R. Daeessy (loc. cit.). My own copy and

Photographs by myself and Steindorff. hand-copy. Photographs by Steindorff.

P ^1
^
52

unto the west

to the Orient, to

.......

photographs.

the water in the river


. .
.

....
things that are in the whole land;

Stela

S.

Peisse, Mon.

Eg., PI.

xii.

Daeessy,

loc.

cit.

trees (?),- all

(photograph).

Cast from squeezes by Peteie.

My

own

copy (revised), complete squeezes and photographs.

they are for father

T Hor-Aton
J

....
(?)

Stela U.
copy.
his(?) palette

Peisse,

Mon. ^g.,

PI.

xiii.

Peteie, Hand-

p53 the granary (?) Superior of the house of Akhetaton


being in
|X64

of Aton under

the hand of the

My own

....

by

Steindorff.

hand-copy (revised) and revision of this Photographs by Steindorff and myself.

...

My

their

(?) lord,
. .
.

upon their bellies unto Pharaoh, L.P.H., and the Queen (?) [their mistress].
.

Petrie for his copy of

most serious indebtedness therefore is to Professor F and to Professor Steindorff for his

generous contribution of negatives for use and pubHcation, his revision of Plate xxv.,

|K79

with

life

and length

of

days

(?),

(n.J_
(End).

and general support


of squeezes.

of the

The whole land was in [joy] and holiday .... |K 80 in Akhetaton for ever and ever.

enterprise.

Plates xxxiii. (vertical lines), xxvi., xxix.-

xxxii. are published

from tracings

K has %%.

1^

In the collation no notice has been taken of the different ways of writing t, m, w, pa, or the plural.
*

<^A (revised reading).

" Fourteenth day

"

in Q.

In TJ the date

is

written in

sil

(revised reading of K).

reverse direction (Plate xxxiv., where

should be read for

N), an Egyptian device for calling attention to a passage.


^

II 11+
4

is

See Vol. ii., p. 15. But probably the true explanation that " Father mine " was the original meaning of this

^'O

(M33).

group, but became a standing epithet, used where


is

"mine"
is

inappropriate.

The

suffix of the first


it

person singular

written with the royal sign, because


"*

refers to the
(i.e.

King.

A place

of royal residence is probably meant.

10

" Hor, Horizon-god," or later "

(P)Ra-Hor

the Sun-

32

THE EOCK TOMBS OP EL AMAENA.


name
of

the Horizon ] Tin his

The Light which


|"

is

in

Aton
J

Akhetaton, the name of which

is

"

The Aton

is

well-

who

giveth

Hf e for ever and eternity,

Living Aton, Great,

His Majesty (L.P.H.) ascended a span of horses pleased." a great chariot p of electrum,i^ like Aton when he and
rises

within the temple of Aton in Akhetaton.^ In |i Liveth the'Horus " Strong Bull, Beloved of Aton " The Two mistresses, * " Great in Sovereignty in Akhetaton " the
sed-iestival,^
;

from the horizon and


occasion
(?)

fills

the two lands with his love


to Akhetaton, (as
?)

(and) started a goodly course


first
i' i' it

i*

on the
it,i^

that his Majesty L.P.H. found


as a

to

Upholding the name of Aton " the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, " Living in Truth, Lord of the Two
Golden Horus
"
;

demarcate
his father
(

monument

to the
life

Aton

even

as p

Hor-Aton 1 who giveth

for ever

and

eternity,

lands

Beauty of the Forms of Re, Unique one


(

of

Re
J

"
;

the

Son of Re, " Living in Truth, Lord of diadems


Great in his duration, p

Akhenaton
J,^

had given command to make a monument to him within it causing to be offered ^o a great oblatioii of bread, beer,
horned
a,ll

Who giveth
of

bulls, polled bulls, beasts, fowl,

wine, fruits, incense,

life

for ever

and

ever."

The Good God,* Unique one

Re,

Whose beauties Aton

goodly herbs, on the day P

of

demarcating Akhetaton

for the living Aton,

who
(?)

accepted, favoured, and loved the

created, Truly pious of heart to his Maker,' Contenting

Him
put

with the pleasures of His ha,^ Doing services to Him that formed him, p Presenting the earth to Him ^ that

Sovereign (L.P.H.) for

And

his

King ^N.J (^A.J. Majesty (L.P.H.) went p southward and halted


the
his

him on

His

throne.

Provisioning

His

Eternity" with millions and myriads of holding Aton, Magnifying His name, Causing the earth to
belong to his

House of things. Up-

on his chariot before


east

Father

Hor-Aton
J

at the south-

Maker the King

fK J

him
^

mountain of Akhetaton,^! and Aton radiated P" upon in life and length-of-days (?),22 invigorating his body
oath pronounced by the king
pi (

(^\-

every day.

Great in the palace. Pair of face, Beauteous with the double plume. Mistress of happiness, Endowed with favours, at hearing whose voice
(?)-princess.

(and) The hereditary

An
"

N.
as to

| (

A.

As Father

Hor-Aton

j liveth,

my

heart

is

happy
it

one

^^

rejoices,

Chief wife of the King, beloved by him,


/

in the

Queen and her children

as
of

whom, may
f

be

Mistress of the two lands, ^^


Neferteit
I,

Beauty

of the beauties of

Aton

granted that the chief wife of the King


for ever

Neferteit V living

Living for ever and eternity.'^

and

ever,

f On this day (Royalty) was in Akhetaton in the particoloured pavilion i* made for his Majesty L.P.H. in

years,^^ she being in the

grow aged hand

p^ with that multitude of

Pharaoh (L.P.H.), and


old,

may

it

be granted that the king's daughter Meritaton and

the king's daughter

Meketaton, her children, grow

Horus),

Horizon-god,"
" to

is

the

name

they being in the hand of the chief wife of the king, p'
of

the

sun-god of

their mother, eternally for ever


1^

Heliopolis.
1

Or

whom

is

granted."
" celebrating (his

Meaning, of course, " rode on a two-horse chariot."

Apparently meaning

own) Jubilee,"

16

Or " took the goodly road

"

the idea must be that

which the sun-god might be supposed to do unceasingly. ^ Meaning " Horizon of Aton."

the royal tent was pitched in the plain of Akhetaton and

the King

now

goes to the city itself in which the temple of

The king is identified with the vulture, goddess of the South, and the cobra, goddess of the North. 5 Meaning " Pious (?) to Aton." 6 " Liveth the good God." Q, U. " Doing services to Him that formed ' A substitutes
*

Aton
1'

was.

difficult

passage, unless the

word

" as "

may be

supplied.
1^

Lit. "

on the

first

occasion of finding

it,

which H. M.

did."
1' This seems to be the original meaning of the word, but " dedication " may be more exact here. 2" It is not clear whether the sacrifice was on the

him," omitting this phrase where 8 " That which his A;a loveth."
' '"

it

occurs below.

R.

Or perhaps "administering the earth for Him." " House of Eternity " is a phrase for the endowment estate of tomb or temple. 11 The indefinite pronoun probably, as elsewhere, refers
to the King.
12 1^

previous occasion, or the J)resent.


21

It is not certain whether this

hill -side

hills

means the southernmost on the east bank of the river where J is, or the which lie south-east of the city, near the tablets

"

Regent

of the

South and North Lands."

U.
for

B. substitutes "

Who

is

hale, blooming,

and strong

P, Q, R, S.
22

ever and ever."


(1

J||

1]

^ J]

fl

n
is

joy(?)."
left
23

Or "the rays of Aton were upon him in life and The sculptor of B has made mistakes here and
i.e.

the signs in confusion.

o|. Cf. VI., xxvii. " Probably variegated matwork


or possibly " tent of spreading."

or the like

meant

the years granted by Aton. The prayer seems to be that King, Queen and children may all live long
together (in each other's han(Js).

THE BOUNDARY STELAE.


"

33

My oath of
of
:

truth,

which

it is

my
is

desire to pronounce,^

south-west tablet of Akhetaton to the north-west tablet on


the west mountain of Akhetaton, amounting to 6 ater, p'

and
ever
"

which I

will not say,

"it

false" eternally for

^ and
tablet,

;^

of a khe

and 4

cubits, likewise exactly.

on the eastern mountain of Akhetaton. ]" It is the tablet of Akhetaton, (namely) this (one) by which 2 I have made ^ halt I will not pass beyond it* southwards, eternally |" for ever. Make the
is
:

The southern

which

the P" area within these four tablets, from the east mountain to the west mountain is Akhetaton in its proper
p"^

"

And

self

'

it

belongs to Father

Hor-Aton

mountains,
(?)

south-west tablet opposite

it

on the western mountain of


is

deserts,

meadows,

islands, upper-ground, lower-ground,

Akhetaton, exactly.
" The middle tablet, which

land, water, villages,

embankments, men,

beasts, groves,

Akhetaton.

It

is

the tablet of
^

on the eastern mountain of Akhetaton by which I have

and

all

things p^ which the

Aton my

father shall

bring

into existence eternally for ever.'"

made
will

Ji^

halt on the orient


it

mountain
is

of

Akhetaton

not pass beyond


of

orient-wards, eternally for ever.


(to be?)

"I will not neglect this oath which I have made to the Aton my father eternally for ever nay, but p^ it shall
;

Make

the middle tablet which

on the western

be set on a tablet of stone as the south-east boundary,'^


likewise as the north-east

mountain

Akhetaton opposite

it

exactly.*

boundary

of

Akhetaton, and shall


the south-west

" The north-eastern tablet p' of Akhetaton, by which I have made halt. It is the northern tablet of Akhetaton
:

be

set

likewise on a tablet of stone as


as

boundary, likewise

the north-west
it

I will not pass beyond


ever.

it
'

down-stream-wards, eternally for


tablet which
is

Akhetaton.

It shall not be erased,

boundary J^* of shall not be washed


'^ '^ If it be missing,

Make
(!

the north

(to

be ?) on the

out, it shall not be.kicked, it shall not


its spoiling (?) shall
if

be struck with stones,


it
is

western mountain of Akhetaton opposite


|i8

it,

exactly.

not be brought about.


p^ the
stela

^iid Akhetaton (extends) from the south tablet as


the north tablet, measured

it

be

spoilt,

if

on which

shall

far as

between tablet and tablet on the east mountain of Akhetaton, amounting to 6 ater, J and j of a Tche and 4 cubits ^ ; likewise from the

fall,

I will renew

it

again afresh in the place in which

it

was."

This oath was repeated in year


second season, eighth day.'*

8,

first

month

of the

p^ Royalty

was in Akhet-

Petrie's earlier copy of

J shows the same text as

U
no

without omission.

Head
evidence. 3 " I will
*

1^1

in

the

other

texts

afford

make " would be a

possible translation.

the earlier decree it is evident that Akhenaton does not bind himself to remain personally within the limit, but only not to increase the territory of Akhetaton.

From

The wording " the south ... on the east mountain," as opposed to the " south-west tablet " and " northwest tablet," imply that the measurement on the east bank is taken on the river (X to J), not in the desert (X to P).
about 4500 cubits to the
ater.

tablet as far as the north tablet

^jJ (N and U) "in regard to

its

body

"

perhaps

meaning " sunrise," used for " east " only in these texts of Akhenaton. * Of the texts on the west bank, F is destroyed, and A is very fragmentary; but B, which must have been the
^

word from the

root

" bodily," " exactly." B seems to read " from the west mountain to the east mountain of (?) Akhetaton." The /wwvA before the name of Akhetaton is probably a mistake.
10

In S

was omitted by the


(Plate xxxix.).
;

sculptor,

and had to be

tablet here referred to, gives the following special variation, " Make (?) the middle tablet which is on the western mountain (?) of Akhetaton opposite it upon the western

written over
11

reads " of Akhetaton


is

likewise on the
[of]

middle

mountain of Akhetaton: I will not pass beyond it westwards eternally for ever." ' So S. B seems to read " west," the others " [north]west.''

the equivalent of the Greek schoenus, the length of which is still uncertain ; the khe is the schoenium According to Professor Petrie's map of a hundred cubits.
8

The

ater

is

Akhetaton ; likewise on(?) the north-east boundary of Akhetaton; likewise [on ?] the south-west boundary of Akhetaton likewise on the middle tablet on the west mountain of Akhetaton ; likewise on (?) the [north]-west boundary of
tablet which

on

(?)

the [east] boundary

Akhetaton."
12

appears to give only " west,"

" north[-west]," the

(Tell el

Amarna,

PI.

xxxiv.

see

also

this volume, PI.

and earlier stelae xxxiv.), the distance between the 4000 cubits to the ater, and the distance X-J gives almost would give
this to within

S seems to give only room others have lost the passage. " likewise [the north-west] of Akhetaton." for

a few cubits.

It is to be hoped

On the west taken. that a precise measurement will be distance A to F seems to correspond precisely bank the being opposite X, B opposite V, F opposite P. to P, to

whh,

whwh compare

gOVgE

" abortus."

w 0a

with the sense carere also in the hymns.

Thus measured, the length

is

considerably greater, giving

" The

texts generally agree in this date, but

F
F

(Petrie)

34

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMABNA.


and Pharaoh L.P.H.
^

aton,

stood,

mounted
^

on a great
of

chariot of electrum, inspecting the tablets

the

Aton
of

which are on the mountain


Akhetaton.*

as the south-east

boundary

The six tablets which I have fixed for boundaries of Akhetaton (are) the three tablets upon the orient mountain of Akhetaton together with the three tablets opposite them [the south stela which is upon] the orient mountain of Akhetaton measured to the south stela which is opposite
"
'*

On
Year

A, B, there
8,

is

added

to

it

upon the western mountain of Akhetaton, becoming

fourth

month

of the first season, last day.*


(

An oath
"

the south boundary of Akhetaton; and the north tablet which is on the orient mountain of Akhetaton, measured
(?) tablet, which is opposite [to it upon] the western mountain of Akhetaton, becoming the northern boundary of Akhetaton likewise the middle tablet which

pronounced by King

N.

A.

at the fixing of

to the north

the tablets of [the] boundary of Akhetaton

As Father

Hor-Aton
J

liveth

gives y

c_)

'

and

gives the

curious

date of the

upon the eastern mountain of Akhetaton measured to the middle tablet which is opposite it upon the western mountain of Akhetaton.
is

" sixth year,


1

first (?)

month

of second season,
a,

day

4."
it

"And

the breadth of Akhetaton

is

mountain, from

the eastern horizon of

from mountain to heaven to the

The

sculptor of S omitted -

and had to insert

western horizon of heaven.


" It shall be' for Father T

Hor-Aton

j, its

mountains

(?),

There were by this time many tablets for the south-

its

deserts,

....
?]

its fowl, all its

people,

all

its cattle, all

things which the


east boundary.
tablets.
'

S reads
h

probably for

as

on the other

Aton produces, on which


are in the

his rays shine,


of.

all

I'

things [which

Akhetaton,

S has a larger space, perhaps originally


(?)

left

vacant.

[they?] being for the Father, the living Aton, unto the temple of Aton in Akhetaton for ever eternally ; they are
all oifered

reads " on the east mountain as the south


*

boundary."
*^

to his ha,
^

and

his rays are beauteous

when they

fills

up the

line

with " for the Father, the living


n
1*"***^ "\
'

receive them."

Aton," and
n Awwv
"T"

n
;

with

~^

^9^

^ ^
=^

/wvw\

"

" established to eternity and for ever, for


is

seems to read " five,"

" six "

the latter

is

what

required.

the living Aton."


5

Read
is

M ^^

'Read ^^'^n
For the rest
of

the date,
*

The rays

of

Aton

in the scenes end in hands which

which

quite clear, I have Petrie's support.

reach out to the offerings.

85

INDEX.
PAGES

36

INDEX.
PAGES

Inset stones

6,

23, 24, 25, 26

Paea

....
.

PASES
9

Island "

Aton

distinguished in J ubilees

"

30

Parapet
Petrie, Professor

.14.

15, 19, 20, 24, 28, 31, 33,


2, 6, 13,
1, 7, 8,

34
14

Jubilee (see " iSed-festival

").

Pilasters

Portals

10, 13

Karnak
Kiosks

3,

9 3

,,

with double cornice


.

2, 13,
.

14

Port-holes

4
6,

KtrsH

21, 31

Porticoes

'

14
11

Portraiture

8, 9, 10,
.

Lacau,

M.

9,

11

Pottery

12, 13, 14

Lamps, niches for


Later remains
.

8
1, 8,

Prayers

2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16,

17

12, 14,

24
3

Princesses (see " Royal Family

Loggia

Ptahmay
Queen

....
Nepeetiti
"
. .

").

9,

10, 11

May

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

10, 11, 13, 16, 17


.

(see also "

" Royal Family

")

tomb

of

1,2,3,4
32 33
21

4, 16; 17, 18, 26, 30, 31,

32

Meketaten
Mensuration

21, 23, 24, 25,


.

laudation of

.4,

28, 32

sister of (see also "

Mutbeneet ")

1,14
20, 25,

Mertea
Mbrytatbn
Mnevis-bull

8, 17,

shortened

name

of

30

23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 32 21, 30


1
.

Ra, " shade " of


temple of

30

Mummies
Museum, Cairo

3, 7, 9, 14,

4,5
5,

26

Melbourne
.

26, 27
1, 2,

Rambs Rb-neheh
Behhyt, the

13
2

MUTBENEET

14

16
3,

Nebwawi
Nefeeteit
Nbpeetiti

.......
(see "

Rewards, royal
10

10

Ribbons

4
,

Nefeetiti

").

Roads
2,

to tombs

10, 21,

27
5

(see also "


.

Queen," " Eoyal Family ")


. . .
. .

28, 30

Royal barges

3,

Nekht-pa-aten
Netting

5, 12,

13
3

"Royal Chancellor
Royal family

,,

"
4,

16

1, 2, 3,
.

5, 7, 14, 15, 23, 24,

25 26, 27, 32
3, 23,

Nubia
Oars

21

head-dress

26

oath

21, 22, 24, 29, 30^ 32, 33,


"
.
.

34
18

"
4, 5, 9, 12,
.

Royal Scribe

1, 2, 7,

10, 15

16, 17,

Officials

29

Royal statues
,,

23,

24

25, 26, 27
22, 27,

promotion of
" Heliopolis
")

4,5 4,5
5,

tomb

20, 21

30
3

On

(see also

Ostraca of El

Amarna
.

20

Sailors depicted

" Overseer of Cattle " " Overseer of Porters


"

4,5
15

" Scribe of Recruits "

4,5
7 7

" Scribe of the King

"

(i

see

'

Royal Scribe

").

" Overseer of Soldiery " Overseer of the house of Aa-kheperu-ra "


" Overseer of the house of Sehetep-Aten "
"

15, 16, 17, 18


.

" Scribe of the Altar " " Scribe of the Ofiering Table"
Scribes depicted
Sed-iestival
.

7, 9

4, 5, 16,
.

17 18

10

" Overseer of the house of Ua-en-ra


" Overseer of the Treasury " Overseer of works "
.

4, 5,

4,

15 30, 31, 32
10, 11, 17
.

"

14, 17
4, 5, 9,

" Servant " (sedem ash)


"

15, 18
.

Shade

of

Ra "

30
3

Ox,

sacrificial

10

Shipping depicted
Shrines
2, 7,

8, 9

10, 13,

14

Pa-aten-em-heb

5, 11,

15
9

Sistrums
Smith, Dr. Elliot
" Sole
.

22, 23

25, 26, 27
.

Pakha
Palace of Akhenaten
3, 4, 5, 6,

30
4,

20, 21,

30

Companion "

16

INDEX.

37

PLATES.

NOTE.
An
index to the passages
of

the text which are explanatory of the several plates

will

be found on pp.

vii., viii.

Erratum

On

Plate xxxiv. read Vertical Lines.

U.

El Amarna

V.

TOMB

14-(MAY).

Plate

SECTION ON A.B.C.D.

Scale

El Amarna

V.

TOMB

14 (MAY).

Plate

II.

3iaaiw

":SI?l:i^'!-aflffl|!fti.tl|:ii
hiyoN
.,.
:
'

40

-111

!,)piijv

,j=fc''i!:

El Amarna

V.

TOMB OF MAY.

Plate

ill.

Scale f

ROYAL FAMILY WORSHIP ATEN.

TOMB OF MAY.

Plate

IV.

r^

^-^

i
t
(HP

m
I

t5^
Ill

%
^^

fi!
tip

as
!L^

^
-

^
iT,l
/wvwv^

'"'III
o

fefe

1o? A A

Scale 1

LEFT JAMB.

SOUTH THICKNESS.

RIGHT JAMB

El Amarna

V.

TOMB OF

MA\

\
I

idz\
3T(a\
Scale \

LINTEL-N. END.

0*?
4 \'
/Y""^

I**

5eo?e i

GRAFFITI.

1111

Mil

Mil

Hii

nil

nn

mi

mi

mi :

Scale 2

THE QUAY

"

-WEST WALL.

Plate V.

..A"

i
II

^ %

"y

S).

T
! I

If

..il

II

im

III!

III!

I I

I!

Ill

OF

AKHETATEN.

El Amarna V.

TOMB

16-PLAN.

Plate

VI.

4-

Eu Amarna

V.

TOMB

16.

Plate

VII.

El Amarna

TOMBS
V.

16 AND2'

TOMB 16-SECTION ON

E.F.

SECTION ON

A.B.

Scale

23 (ANY).

Plate

VIII.

TOMB 23-SECTION ON CD.

lO

El Amarna

V-

TOMB OF ANY.

Plate

IX.

<

nuniye

Iu.
LLl

LU

Z
oc CO

[i:i.-irft..t5

naiiFr-

El Amarna

V.

TOMB OF ANY.

Plate

X.

\"*"'*

Mm}
m<^i
1

/!!_4'

<
H I O

Mh
}

I^

U 2
ct:

I
CO

^4
p

mrr:h

El Amarna

V.

TOMB OF

ANY.

Plate XI.

03(

^
D-jis;

liS,

fm

(m

m
fit

A^
o

^m

^^
rii

OKI
IIIO

O
p
II

mi
GRAFFITO.

Scale i

# m

0666

"JR

n
;ra7

EXTERIOR.
I

DOOR JAMBS.

El Amarna

V.

TOMBS

17

AND

20-

Plate

XII.

CD

< z o 2 g o
UJ CO

2 <
_l Q.
I

IS

O
I-

o
I-

2 g Io
LU OT

o CI
CD

o
I-

El Amarna

V.

TOMBS

18

AND 24-(PA-ATEN-EM-HEB).

Plate

XIII.

TOMB 24-lNSCRIPTION
ON LEFT JAMB.
(now erased.)

TOMB 24PLAN AND SECTION.

TOMB

18,J,

SECTION ON CD.

El Amarna

v.

TOMBS

12, 19

(SUTAU), 25a.

Plate XIV.

El Amarna

V.

TOMBS

19

(SUTAU)

AND

20.

Plate XV.

^
vc-

'J'^ti<yn:^m^

:^>^.;s$

'"

^qr^4-inif^:/(/ii'

;:/Ji!(.i.'..i

JNOii^CTcj^-^^^
CO

-J LU

,">

'

XE-,R^

o CN
CD

,^>^>^Wfi^i<rmA
^*;iO"'"C^s;:/n's
:*."',t^M^\X'Wl' CSSD.

z o X 3
<
ICO

CO UJ

y(^i'.v
.i^

O
I-

i>.'..

.'1?^';tl;31:'ri<^.:.).0lJl/

r^^lC

''^ii^

^2:V/-/%1:
^r
"
i

;(

^/U
n
_,;J-':i
J

t3

?^Z..^
Iter-*

^'

i>

:'.-^

/0I'4;

El Amarna V.

TOMB

21.

Plate XVI.

\ ^y

^H
TRANSVERSE SECTION.

Scale i

B 21- PLAN.

Scale

LONGITUDINAL SECTION.
Scale h,

El Amarna

V.

TOMB

22.

Plate XVII.

SECTION ON

A.B.

TRANSVERSE SECTION.

Scale

TOMBS

7c

AND

24a.

Plate

XVIII.

Na>V'

SECTION.

TOMB 24A-PLAN.

COLUMN A

TOMB 7C-PLAN.

Scale

SECTION ON

A. B. C. D.

EL

AMARNA V

TOMB OF MAY

PLATE XIX

SITE

OF TOMBS 14-22

PRAYER OF MAY

EL

AMARNA V

TOMB OF ANY

PLATE XX

z z M u z
cc

I-

Z <

EL

AMARNA V

TOMB OF ANY

PLATE XXI

I
DO UJ

U.

O
W

< X <
a.

O
UJ I-

EL AMARNA V

TOMB OF ANY

PLATE

XXII

< X
I-

iij

z <

LJ

'^y**

-r ur

EL

AMARNA V

TOMB OF ANY

PLATE

XXIII

=5

u.

CO

< S

o
UJ

EL

AMARNA V

TOMB

16

PLATE XXIV

111

-J

<

< z u o
cc K-

CO

<
111

u > CO z < oc H

CO cc

El Amarna V.

STELA U-LOWER PART.

Plate XXV.

i!^?^ffi?"fl^M^tVla.
1 1

piii /A^*^

'

V' iCi

@r^ AfS
I

(i^lfllil^^lfl^i:^SiSIilft>ati
lA
ji

r-3
^Ljiii

^m?sa^iP^

= mM^w w,(Wiim'(^iw

Da;TSP:isii'M!lEmi>^SfSiiilf 15
5
6

MS

V. a^ Q

Ms f

a?AXH'if^iflisflss,ji;ii^i.i:

Pi>^^% iii 1%

<^^^mhBimm^^'SMm^
ii

^>Tfl?^witiis^^flt*i>?sfMi?^iigi^tff55ii?^iif
fifty SlJ^

Sii:!^^ W5H$i!JSf ;>:

umi

ijmmm=mM'^iw^^i^ht:)fi^^m<^mu
lo
II

12

13

m^'^^^^']-ium!i\m^^mi^mMmM?m<itm-\Ms i 3Ms\mJATm.^'^\<\\'^^n^mn a ^siafit > fd ^^ma^-j 1 ^11 mi^efif+Bfi5^Mn? imwrnrn'^wt r; ai t-M^iMi^t ?^^x" wi^^^
^>!

I1F

Wism.mmmmMmmw^^^^i^^MA'^m^
l>Ili?Sfl^1^
iti

15

mmBMmi^^mnrcm^M^iMmi\tM\\[imi\

16

7
18

'9

#53^ilMilt^^Fi
21

flgx^y(it!?i#mi

Ti^m^.s w S8e
5^1

fl^^i

%>Jni

22.

^ J ^^^^ ^/j^ .^ ^ T^^^/l^ ^m^. ^_^


^-/^ ////.

/^.

1
=1

^fiMfl^W
-s

as

M^fJ^i
_''9"
1

^ll^^lf?^

ixw^as^siipwis^

El Amarna

V.

BOUNDAR*

Y STELA

S.

Plate XXVI.

El Amarna

V.

TEXT OF BOUN

S
Q
U
A

i^= Mf
(^4.

4'

fp@iiwj:Pa
i
iy

:M^A^%mM^m ^p ?sw+
GT
"S"
iSi

.20"IS)'

omits

-+P

ah

35PIW fS ^(f 3 (^ iS'^^C


U

m^MML %m\ ^"4.


DL^ O ? n
1

u;s:

Q
u

A
R

-q^t

_r

#rm
o

Ill

-iLf
its

-Jtft-

Qom
-)N

-i^

1^^

^ ^tlt
4_:t^l

Anj
Ml-

^}

S^!^^a -sPg 2^ ft fj-^Y-m = -^.


-<2^

g ff^SLf
a

fPPi

gj
OO O n

:^

om.
t;

^2

T^

A^A

a
_
"('')^'

(^^^1 )^

wm\u^4U'fznm^nMm''4S2n^Mm\rzrnr^^^t
a^^4
Q\

l^^ 4.\\4.^ -^
_2i_
10

/^^^

w^vx^

-w

oT 'sc^ o_^

^ j^ <#

)ARY STELAE.

Plate XXVII.

IV

'^ffPMi^fAiMlDIt
v=^

II

tiSi/

^^rTf-^Hll o );i ,=> o


I

'omm
m

'm

^^ w

<=> ST T inn m ^
^-^
=>

-> 0'=. 'Ill tr-D

111^ "
'
1 1

O]

S
Q
U
A

t po

01 Tiiiin

i#

;f-^-4l
n

iCi SIC

El Amarna

V.
'1-

TEXT OF BOUNDA

S
PI..
.

"

'

""

"

"

AAATVV

J.

'
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