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RESUMEN

Rincn M. J. Parto domiciliario y prcticas de atencin a la salud del nio wayu en una comunidad urbano-marginal de Maracaibo. Estudio correlacional de corte trasversal, cuyo objetivo fue caracterizar los cuidados que se ofrecen al nio wayu que nace en el hogar y determinar si el parto domiciliario est asociado con prcticas de salud inadecuadas. Se entrevistaron 31 mujeres wayu del Municipio Maracaibo, cuyos hijos menores nacieron en el hogar; el grupo control fue de 31 mujeres wayu cuyos hijos nacieron en servicios obsttricos. Se realiz tambin un focus group. Despus del anlisis con estadstica descriptiva, se determin el grado de asociacin entre el lugar del parto y las prcticas de atencin a la salud. Entre los hallazgos resaltan: la cura del mun umbilical con plantas y excremento de lagartija (Kutch Kul) (77%); la administracin de zumos de plantas medicinales (palisze y caujaro) al nacer; y la consulta al piache en caso de mal de ojo (27%). Estas prcticas no difieren de las del grupo control. El grupo de estudio tiende a utilizar menos los servicios mdicos, aunque cuando lo hace sigue las indicaciones. Se concluye que entre los wayu prevalecen prcticas de salud riesgosas independientemente del lugar de nacimiento del nio y que stas deben ser consideradas al planificar las actividades de educacin para la salud en esta poblacin. Palabra clave: educacin para la salud, partos domiciliarios, indgenas, medicina tradicional, guajiros.

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ABSTRACT
Rincn M. J. Care practices directed to indian children born from unassisted deliveries. Characterization and Risk Analysis. The University of Zulia. Faculty of Medicine. Maracaibo, Venezuela. May 2000 - February 2001. p. 63. A transverse, correlational study was carried out as part of the implementation of the IPIA Strategy, in order to identify the characteristics of care offered to indian children born from unassisted deliveries, and to make statistical associations between unassisted deliveries and maintenance of inadequate health practices. 31 wayu women residents of slums in the Parish Idelfonso Vsquez (Maracaibo County) whose smaller children were born at home (study group) were interwiewed, and answers were compared with those of 31 women of the same ethnic group that had there children in obstetric services (control group). Descriptive statistic was used to analyze data, and Chi Squared Test was applied to determine association between the type of childbirth and attention offered to children. The information obtained about practices were deepened then with the focus group technique. Among results, the following ones stand out: reasons adduced for unnasisted childbirth was the lack of economic resources and/or transportation; 100% of the newborns were laid in chinchorros (hammocks); mothers and grandmothers healed umbilical cord with plants and excrement of small lizards (ktuch kul) (77%); babys are administered juices of medicinal plants as palitsze and caujaro before maternal nursing, wich is differed by 24 hours (58,1%) and extended for 13 months (D.S. 7.3). Colostrum is rejected for "old, damaged or harmfull to the child". In weaning process chicha of corn and plantains are used (35,5%) as typical foods; 27% manifested to requiere services from a piache (folk healer). There were significant differences in the variables related to the requirement of health services. Those of the study group tend to consult less, although after having contact with health services they follow medical indications. Maternal illiteracy in the study group ascended to 67,7% but this characteristic did not affect other results since other differences beetween groups were not statistically significant. Another finding was that communicational process was more fluent when health workers use the wayuinaiki dialect. We concluded that indigean customs are still used and must be considered in the process of adaptation of IPIA Strategy to this population group. Key words: IPIA, unassisted deliveries, folk medicine, indian groups.

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