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Fedora 15 FreeIPA: Identity/ Policy Management

Managing Identity and Authorization Policies for Linux-Based Enterprise Networks

Ella Deon Lackey

FreeIPA: Identity/Policy Management

Fedora 15 FreeIPA: Identity/Policy Management Managing Identity and Authorization Policies for Linux-Based Enterprise Networks Edition 0.1
Author Copyright 2011 Red Hat. The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons AttributionShare Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. The original authors of this document, and Red Hat, designate the Fedora Project as the "Attribution Party" for purposes of CC-BY-SA. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version. Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. For guidelines on the permitted uses of the Fedora trademarks, refer to https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/ Legal:Trademark_guidelines. Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Ella Deon Lackey dlackey@redhat.com

Identity and policy management for both users and machines is a core function for almost any enterprise environment. IPA provides a way to create an identity domain that allows machines to enroll to a domain and immediately access identity information reuqired for single sign-on and authentication services, as well as policy settings that govern authorization and access. This manual covers all aspects of installing, configuring, and managing IPA domains, including both servers and clients. This guide is intended for IT and systems administrators.

Preface ix 1. Audience and Purpose ................................................................................................... ix 2. Examples and Formatting ............................................................................................... ix 2.1. Brackets .............................................................................................................. ix 2.2. Client Tool Information ......................................................................................... ix 2.3. Text Formatting and Styles ................................................................................... x 3. Giving Feedback ............................................................................................................. x 4. Document Change History .............................................................................................. xi 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server 1 1.1. Preparing to Install the FreeIPA Server .......................................................................... 1 1.1.1. Hardware Requirements .................................................................................... 1 1.1.2. Software Requirements ...................................................................................... 1 1.1.3. System Prerequisites ......................................................................................... 2 1.2. Installing the FreeIPA Server Packages ......................................................................... 5 1.3. Creating a FreeIPA Server Instance .............................................................................. 5 1.3.1. About ipa-server-install ...................................................................................... 6 1.3.2. Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation .................................... 9 1.3.3. Examples of Creating the FreeIPA Server ......................................................... 11 1.3.4. Troubleshooting Installation Problems ............................................................... 15 1.4. Setting up FreeIPA Replicas ....................................................................................... 15 1.4.1. Prepping and Installing the Replica Server ........................................................ 16 1.4.2. Creating the Replica ........................................................................................ 16 1.4.3. Troubleshooting Replica Installation .................................................................. 18 1.5. Uninstalling FreeIPA Servers and Replicas .................................................................. 18 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients 2.1. What Happens in Client Setup .................................................................................... 2.2. Configuring a Fedora System as a FreeIPA Client ........................................................ 2.3. Configuring a Microsoft Windows System as a FreeIPA Client ....................................... 2.4. Configuring a Solaris System as a FreeIPA Client ........................................................ 2.4.1. Configuring Solaris 10 ...................................................................................... 2.4.2. Configuring Solaris 9 ....................................................................................... 2.5. Configuring an HP-UX System as a FreeIPA ................................................................ 2.5.1. Configuring NTP .............................................................................................. 2.5.2. Configuring LDAP Authentication ...................................................................... 2.5.3. Configuring Kerberos ....................................................................................... 2.5.4. Configuring PAM .............................................................................................. 2.5.5. Configuring SSH .............................................................................................. 2.5.6. Configuring Access Control .............................................................................. 2.5.7. Testing the Configuration .................................................................................. 2.6. Configuring an AIX System as a FreeIPA Client ........................................................... 2.6.1. Prerequisites ................................................................................................... 2.6.2. Configuring the AIX Client ................................................................................ 2.7. Configuring a Macintosh OS X System as a FreeIPA Client ........................................... 2.7.1. Configuring Kerberos Authentication ................................................................. 2.7.2. Configuring LDAP Authorization ........................................................................ 2.7.3. Configuring the LDAP Authorization Options ...................................................... 2.7.4. Configuring NTP .............................................................................................. 2.7.5. Testing the Configuration .................................................................................. 2.8. Uninstalling a FreeIPA Client ....................................................................................... 19 19 20 22 23 23 25 25 25 25 27 27 30 31 31 32 32 32 36 36 37 39 39 39 40

3. Basic Usage 41 3.1. Running FreeIPA Tools ............................................................................................... 41 3.2. Logging into FreeIPA .................................................................................................. 41

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FreeIPA: Identity/Policy Management 3.2.1. Logging into FreeIPA ....................................................................................... 3.2.2. Logging in When an FreeIPA User Is Different Than the System User .................. 3.2.3. Checking the Current Logged in User ............................................................... Opening the FreeIPA Web UI ...................................................................................... Configuring the Browser ............................................................................................. Using a Browser on Another System ........................................................................... Enabling Username/Password Authentication in Your Browser ...................................... Troubleshooting UI Connection Problems .................................................................... 41 41 42 42 42 44 44 45 47 47 47 47 48 48 50 50 50 50 51 53 53 53 54 55 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 60 61 62 62 62 63 64 65 65 65 65 66 66 69 69 71 71 72 74 76 77

3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7.

4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups 4.1. Setting up User Home Directories ............................................................................... 4.1.1. About Home Directories ................................................................................... 4.1.2. Enabling the PAM Home Directory Module ........................................................ 4.1.3. Manually Automounting Home Directories ......................................................... 4.2. Adding Users ............................................................................................................. 4.3. Editing Users ............................................................................................................. 4.4. Activating and Deactivating User Accounts .................................................................. 4.4.1. Using the Command Line ................................................................................. 4.5. Specifying Default User Settings ................................................................................. 4.6. Setting Default Search Limits ...................................................................................... 4.7. Deleting FreeIPA Users .............................................................................................. 4.7.1. Using the Command Line ................................................................................. 4.8. Creating User Groups ................................................................................................. 4.8.1. Creating FreeIPA Groups ................................................................................. 4.8.2. Editing FreeIPA Groups ................................................................................... 4.8.3. Deleting FreeIPA Groups ................................................................................. 4.9. Setting an Individual Password Policy .......................................................................... 4.9.1. Changing Passwords as the Directory Manager ................................................. 4.9.2. Changing Passwords as the FreeIPA Administrator ............................................ 4.9.3. Changing Passwords as a Regular User ........................................................... 4.9.4. Editing the Password Policy ............................................................................. 4.9.5. Setting Different Password Policies for Different User Groups ............................. 4.9.6. Password Policy Attributes ............................................................................... 4.9.7. Notifying Users of Password Expiration ............................................................. 4.9.8. Using SSH for Password Authentication ............................................................ 4.9.9. Using Local Logins .......................................................................................... 4.10. Searching for Users and Groups ............................................................................... 4.10.1. Searching for Users ....................................................................................... 4.10.2. Searching for Groups ..................................................................................... 5. Identity: Managing Hosts and Host Groups 5.1. A Summary of Host and Host Group Tools .................................................................. 5.2. Adding Host Entries .................................................................................................... 5.3. Extending the Permissions of FreeIPA Managed Hosts ................................................. 5.3.1. Delegating Service Management ...................................................................... 5.3.2. Delegating Host Management .......................................................................... 6. Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain 6.1. About Kerberos .......................................................................................................... 6.2. Setting Kerberos Ticket Policies .................................................................................. 6.3. Creating and Using Service Principals ......................................................................... 6.3.1. Creating a FreeIPA Service .............................................................................. 6.3.2. Configuring an NFS Service Principal on the FreeIPA Server .............................. 6.4. Refreshing Kerberos Tickets ....................................................................................... 6.5. Rotating Keys ............................................................................................................

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6.6. Kerberos Errors .......................................................................................................... 78 7. Identity: Using Automount 7.1. About Automount and IPA ........................................................................................... 7.1.1. Known Issues with Automount .......................................................................... 7.1.2. Assumptions .................................................................................................... 7.2. Configuring Automount ............................................................................................... 7.2.1. Configuring autofs on Linux .............................................................................. 7.2.2. Solaris automount ............................................................................................ 7.2.3. Configuring Indirect Maps ................................................................................ 7.2.4. Links ............................................................................................................... 8. Identity: Integrating with Microsoft Active Directory 8.1. About Active Directory, IPA, and Identity Management .................................................. 8.1.1. Domain Name Considerations .......................................................................... 8.2. Setting up Active Directory .......................................................................................... 8.3. Configuring Active Directory Synchronization ............................................................... 8.4. Creating Synchronization Agreements ......................................................................... 8.5. Modifying Synchronization Agreements ........................................................................ 8.5.1. Changing the Default Synchronization Subtree .................................................. 8.6. Deleting Synchronization Agreements .......................................................................... 8.7. Winsync Agreement Failures ....................................................................................... 9. Identity: Integrating with NIS Domains and Netgroups 9.1. About NIS and IPA ..................................................................................................... 9.1.1. What are Netgroups? ....................................................................................... 9.1.2. The IPA Approach to Netgroups ....................................................................... 9.1.3. Adding Netgroups ............................................................................................ 9.1.4. IPA Netgroup Commands ................................................................................. 9.2. Configuring the Network Information Service (NIS) ....................................................... 9.2.1. Exposing Automount Maps to NIS Clients ......................................................... 9.3. Migrating from NIS to IPA ........................................................................................... 9.3.1. Preparing Your Environment ............................................................................. 9.3.2. Migrating Netgroups ......................................................................................... 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 83 85 85 85 85 86 87 88 88 89 89 91 91 91 91 93 93 95 95 96 97 97

10. Policy: Managing DNS 99 10.1. About DNS in FreeIPA .............................................................................................. 99 10.2. Configuring DNS ..................................................................................................... 100 10.3. Finding and Displaying DNS Zones ......................................................................... 100 10.4. Adding DNS Zones ................................................................................................. 101 10.5. Modifying DNS Zones ............................................................................................. 101 10.6. Enabling Dynamic DNS Updates ............................................................................. 103 10.7. Enabling and Disabling Zones ................................................................................. 103 10.8. Adding Records to DNS Zones ................................................................................ 103 10.9. Deleting Records from DNS Zones .......................................................................... 105 10.10. Resolving Hostnames in the FreeIPA Domain ......................................................... 105 11. Policy: Configuring Authorization 11.1. Configuring Host-Based Access Control ................................................................... 11.2. HBAC Service Groups ............................................................................................ 11.3. HBAC Services ....................................................................................................... 12. Policy: Using sudo 12.1. About sudo and IPA ................................................................................................ 12.1.1. Sudo with LDAP .......................................................................................... 12.1.2. Limitations of the Existing Sudo LDAP Schema .............................................. 12.1.3. Benefits of the IPA Alternative Schema ......................................................... 107 107 107 107 109 109 109 109 109 v

FreeIPA: Identity/Policy Management 12.1.4. Compatibility and Managed Entry Plug-in Configuration .................................. 12.2. Configuring sudo .................................................................................................... 12.2.1. Server Configuration for Sudo Rules ............................................................. 12.2.2. Client Configuration for Sudo Rules .............................................................. 13. Configuring the FreeIPA Server 13.1. Defining Access Controls within FreeIPA .................................................................. 13.1.1. Server-side Access Control .......................................................................... 13.1.2. Creating Roles ............................................................................................. 13.1.3. Defining Self-Service Settings ....................................................................... 13.2. Disabling Anonymous Binds .................................................................................... 13.3. Managing Unique UID and GID Number Assignments ............................................... 13.3.1. About ID Range Assignments During Installation ............................................ 13.3.2. Adding New Ranges .................................................................................... 13.4. Configuring Certificates and Certificate Authorities .................................................... 13.4.1. Installing Your Own Certificate ...................................................................... 13.4.2. Using Your Own Certificate with Firefox ......................................................... 13.4.3. Using OCSP ................................................................................................ 13.5. Setting a FreeIPA Server as an Apache Virtual Host ................................................. 13.6. Using FreeIPA in a Cluster ...................................................................................... 13.6.1. Configuring Kerberos Credentials for a Clustered Environment ........................ 13.6.2. Using the Same Service Principal for Multiple Services ................................... 13.7. FreeIPA Server Logging .......................................................................................... 13.8. Promoting a Read-Only Replica to a FreeIPA Server ................................................ 13.9. Testing Before Upgrading the FreeIPA Server ........................................................... 14. Managing Client Machines in the FreeIPA Domain 14.1. About Machine Identity and Authentication ............................................................... 14.2. Enrolling Clients Manually ....................................................................................... 14.2.1. Performing a Split Enrollment ....................................................................... 14.2.2. Performing a Bulk or Kickstart Enrollment ...................................................... 14.3. Renaming Machines and Reconfiguring FreeIPA Client Configuration ......................... 14.4. Manually Unconfiguring Client Machines .................................................................. 14.5. Debugging Client Connection Problems ................................................................... 14.6. Working with certmonger ......................................................................................... 14.6.1. Requesting a Certificate with certmonger ....................................................... 14.6.2. Storing Certificates in NSS Databases .......................................................... 14.6.3. Tracking Certificates with certmonger ............................................................ 110 110 110 112 115 115 115 118 119 120 120 121 121 121 122 122 122 122 123 124 124 124 125 126 127 127 128 128 128 129 130 131 132 132 133 133

A. Frequently Asked Questions 135 Frequently Asked Questions ............................................................................................ 135 B. Migrating from a Directory Server to IPA B.1. Overview ................................................................................................................. B.1.1. Assumptions .................................................................................................. B.1.2. Known Issues ................................................................................................ B.1.3. Possible Scenarios ........................................................................................ B.1.4. Initial and Final States ................................................................................... B.1.5. Recommended Sequence of Steps ................................................................. B.1.6. Implementation Details ................................................................................... B.2. Performing a Server-based Migration ........................................................................ B.2.1. Phase 1: Migrating Existing Data to IPA .......................................................... B.2.2. Phase 2: Updating the Client Configuration ..................................................... B.2.3. Phase 3: Installing and Configuring SSSD ...................................................... B.2.4. Phase 4: Migrating Users ............................................................................... B.2.5. Phase 5: Decommission the DS ..................................................................... vi 137 137 137 137 137 138 140 141 141 141 142 143 143 143

B.3. Performing a Client-based Migration .......................................................................... B.3.1. Phase 1: Installing and Configuring SSSD ...................................................... B.3.2. Phase 2: Migrating Existing Data to IPA .......................................................... B.3.3. Phase 3: Migrate SSSD Clients from LDAP to IPA ........................................... B.3.4. Phase 4: Reconfigure non-SSSD Clients ........................................................ B.3.5. Phase 5: Decommission the Directory Server .................................................. Glossary Index

143 143 144 144 144 144 145 159

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Preface
FreeIPA is a Fedora-based way to create a security, identity, and authentication domain. The different security and authentication protocols available to Linux and Unix systems (like Kerberos, NIS, DNS, PAM, and sudo) are complex, unrelated, and difficult to manage coherently, especially when combined with different identity stores. FreeIPA provides a layer that unifies all of these disparate services and simplifies the administrative tasks for managing users, systems, and security. FreeIPA breaks management down into two categories: identity and policy. It centralizes the functions of managing the users and entities within your IT environment (identity) and then provides a framework to define authentication and authorization for a global security framework and user-friendly tools like single sign-on (policy).

1. Audience and Purpose


With FreeIPA, a Fedora system can easily become the center of an identity/authentication domain and even provide access to the domain for clients of other operating systems. FreeIPA is an integrated system, that builds on existing and reliable technologies like LDAP and certificate protocols, with a robust yet straightforward set of tools (including a web-based UI). The key to identity/policy management with FreeIPA is simplicity and flexibility: Centralized identity stores for authentication and single sign-on using both integrated LDAP services (with 389 Directory Server) and, optionally, NIS services Clear and manageable administrative control over system services like PAM, NTP, and sudo Simplified DNS domains and maintenance Scalable Kerberos realms and cross-realms which clients can easily join This guide is written for systems administrators and IT staff who will manage FreeIPA domains, user systems, and servers. This assumes a moderate knowledge of Linux-based systems administration and familiarity with important concepts like access control, LDAP, and Kerberos. This guide covers every aspect of using FreeIPA, including preparation and installation processes, administrative tasks, and the FreeIPA tools. This guide also explains the major concepts behind both identity and policy management, generally, and FreeIPA features specifically. Administrative tasks in this guide are categorized as either Identity or Policy in the chapter title to help characterize the administrative functions.

2. Examples and Formatting


Each of the examples used in this guide, such as file locations and commands, have certain defined conventions.

2.1. Brackets
Square brackets ([]) are used to indicate an alternative element in a name. For example, if a tool is available in /usr/lib on 32-bit systems and in /usr/lib64 on 64-bit systems, then the tool location may be represented as /usr/lib[64].

2.2. Client Tool Information


The tools for FreeIPA are located in the /usr/bin and the /usr/sbin directories. ix

Preface The LDAP tools used to edit the FreeIPA directory services, such as ldapmodify and ldapsearch, are from OpenLDAP. OpenLDAP tools use SASL connections by default. To perform a simple bind using a username and password, use the -x argument to disable SASL.

2.3. Text Formatting and Styles


Certain words are represented in different fonts, styles, and weights. Different character formatting is used to indicate the function or purpose of the phrase being highlighted. Formatting Style
Monospace with a background

Purpose This type of formatting is used for anything entered or returned in a command prompt. Any text which is italicized is a variable, such as instance_name or hostname. Occasionally, this is also used to emphasize a new term or other phrase. Most phrases which are in bold are application names, such as Cygwin, or are fields or options in a user interface, such as a User Name Here: field or Save button. This can also indicate a file, package, or directory name, such as /usr/ sbin.

Italicized text

Bolded text

Other formatting styles draw attention to important text.

NOTE
A note provides additional information that can help illustrate the behavior of the system or provide more detail for a specific issue.

IMPORTANT
Important information is necessary, but possibly unexpected, such as a configuration change that will not persist after a reboot.

WARNING
A warning indicates potential data loss, as may happen when tuning hardware for maximum performance.

3. Giving Feedback
If there is any error in this book or there is any way to improve the documentation, please let us know. Bugs can be filed against the documentation for FreeIPA through Bugzilla, http://bugzilla.redhat.com/ bugzilla. Make the bug report as specific as possible, so we can be more effective in correcting any issues: 1. x Select the Other group and the freeIPA product.

Document Change History 2. Set the component to Documentation. 3. Set the version number to 2.1. 4. For errors, give the page number (for the PDF) or URL (for the HTML), and give a succinct description of the problem, such as incorrect procedure or typo. For enhancements, put in what information needs to be added and why. 5. Give a clear title for the bug. For example, "Incorrect command example for setup script options" is better than "Bad example". We appreciate receiving any feedback requests for new sections, corrections, improvements, enhancements, even new ways of delivering the documentation or new styles of docs. You are 1 welcome to contact the Fedora docs team at docs@lists.fedoraproject.org .

4. Document Change History


Revision 2.1.0-1 May 10, 2011 Ella Deon Lackey dlackey@redhat.com Beginning draft for the Fedora docs project.

mailto:docs@lists.fedoraproject.org

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Chapter 1.

Installing a FreeIPA Server


The FreeIPA domain is defined and managed by a FreeIPA server which is essentially a domain controller. There can be multiple domain controllers within a domain for load-balancing and failover tolerance. These additional servers are called replicas of the master FreeIPA server. Both FreeIPA servers and replicas only run on Fedora systems. For both servers and replicas, the necessary packages must be installed and then the FreeIPA server or replica itself is configured through setup scripts, which configure all of the requisite services.

1.1. Preparing to Install the FreeIPA Server


Before you install FreeIPA, ensure that the installation environment is suitably configured. You also need to provide certain information during the installation and configuration procedures, including realm names and certain usernames and passwords. This section describes the information that you need to provide.

1.1.1. Hardware Requirements


A basic user entry is about 1 KB in size, as is a simple host entry with a certificate. The structure of the directory tree and the number of indexes in the Directory Server instance can impact the hardware required for the best performance. Table 1.1, Minimum Hardware Requirements lists the recommended minimums. For customized systems, additional indexes, or larger user entries, it is more effective to increase the RAM than to increase the disk space because the Directory Server stores much of its data in cache. Add info for disk layout/size recommendations, from https:// www.redhat.com/archives/freeipa-users/2011-May/msg00012.html

TIP
The Directory Server instance used by the FreeIPA server can be tuned to increase performance. For tuning information, see the Directory Server documentation at http://docs.redhat.com/docs/ en-US/Red_Hat_Directory_Server/8.2/html/Performance_Tuning_Guide/system-tuning.html.

The system requirements for both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms are the same. Table 1.1. Minimum Hardware Requirements Minimum Hardware Requirements CPU RAM Disk Space 1 GB 2 GB 10,000 250,000 Entries 250,000 1,000,000 Entries P3; 500MHz 1 GB 4 GB 1 GB 8 GB Over 1,000,000 Entries

1.1.2. Software Requirements


Most of the packages that a FreeIPA server depends on are installed as dependencies when the FreeIPA packages are installed. There are some packages, however, which are required before installing the FreeIPA packages: Kerberos 1.9 The named and bind-dyndb-ldap packages for DNS 1

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server

1.1.3. System Prerequisites


The FreeIPA server is set up using a configuration script, and this script makes certain assumption about the host system. If the system does not meet these prerequisites, then server configuration may fail.

1.1.3.1. Directory Server


There must not be any instances of 389 Directory Server installed on the host machine.

1.1.3.2. System Files


The server script overwrites system files to set up the FreeIPA domain. The system should be clean, without custom configuration for services like DNS and Kerberos, before configuring the FreeIPA server.

1.1.3.3. System Ports


FreeIPA uses a number of ports to communicate with its services. These ports, listed in Table 1.2, FreeIPA Ports, must be open and available for FreeIPA to work. They cannot be in use by another service or blocked by a firewall. To make sure that these ports are available, try iptables to list the available ports or nc, telnet, or nmap to connect to a port or run a port scan. Table 1.2. FreeIPA Ports Service OCSP responder HTTP/HTTPS LDAP/LDAPS Kerberos DNS NTP
1 1

Ports 9180 80 443 389 636 88 464 53 123 9445 (administrators 9443 (agents) 9444 (users, SSL) 9446 (users, client authentication) 9180 (OCSP responder, non-SSL) 9701 (Tomcat) 7389 (interal LDAP database)

Dogtag Certificate System

1 2

This service uses both TCP and UDP ports. This service uses UDP ports only.

1.1.3.4. DNS
FreeIPA uses DNS for the FreeIPA clients to find (discover) the FreeIPA servers. The DNS service can be managed by FreeIPA itself, or FreeIPA can use an existing DNS server. Without a properly configured and working DNS, server discovery for clients and FreeIPA services like, LDAP, Kerberos, and SSL may fail to work.

System Prerequisites

1.1.3.4.1. DNS Requirements


Regardless of whether the DNS is within the FreeIPA server or external, the server host must have DNS properly configured: The server's machine name must be set and resolve to its public IP address. The fully-qualified domain name cannot resolve to the loopback address. It must resolve to the machine's public IP address, not to 127.0.0.1. The output of the hostname command cannot be localhost or localhost6. The hostname must be fully qualified. For example, ipa.example.com. The reverse of the address that the hostname resolves to must match the hostname. The DNS must be correctly configured to resolve forward and reverse addresses. The DNS does not need to be on the same machine as the FreeIPA server, but it does need to be fully functional. If you do not have a functional DNS, you can use the --setup-dns option when you install FreeIPA to automatically configure a suitable DNS.

1.1.3.4.2. FreeIPA-Generated DNS File


To help create and configure a suitable DNS setup, the FreeIPA installation script creates a sample zone file. During the installation, FreeIPA displays a message similar to the following:
Sample zone file for bind has been created in /tmp/sample.zone.F_uMf4.db

You should use this file in your DNS zone file.

1.1.3.4.3. IPA, DNS, and NSCD


It is strongly recommended that you avoid or restrict the use of nscd (Name Service Caching Daemon) in a FreeIPA deployment. The nscd service is extremely useful for reducing the load on the server, and for making clients more responsive, but drawbacks also exist. This is especially true in deployments that take advantage of SSSD, which performs its own caching. nscd performs caching operations for all services that perform queries via the nsswitch interface, including getent. Because nscd performs both positive and negative caching, if a request determines that a specific FreeIPA user does not exist, it marks this as a negative cache. Values stored in the cache remain until the cache expires, regardless of any changes that may occur on the server. The results of such caching is that new users and memberships may not be visible, and users and memberships that have been removed may still be visible. To alleviate these effects, you can avoid the use of nscd altogether, or use a shorter cache time. In particular, consider changing the following values in the /etc/nscd.conf file to suit the usage patterns of your deployment:
positive-time-to-live negative-time-to-live positive-time-to-live negative-time-to-live group group hosts hosts 3600 60 3600 20

1.1.3.4.4. DNS and Kerberos


The Kerberos server requires a valid DNS A record, and reverse DNS needs to work correctly. It is safe to use CNAMEs if they point to the A name that corresponds to the principal name used to create SPNs (Service Principal Names) for the host. You should avoid the use of DDNS names, however, as this can cause major problems later on. 3

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server If necessary, add the hostname to the /etc/hosts file, as long as the fully qualified hostname must be listed first. For example:
10.0.0.1 ipa.example.com ipa

The realm name does not have to match any or all of the domain name. You can use the domain name example.com and the realm TESTIPA. It is only a convention that they match. FreeIPA adds the appropriate domain to realm mapping in the /etc/krb5.conf file. A typical resolver looks in the /etc/hosts file first and DNS second. If nscd is running this may also cause issues because it caches lookups. The FreeIPA installer does not kill nscd until after the installation process has started, so beware of cached entries if you modify /etc/hosts (killing nscd is recommended if you do). The FreeIPA installation process includes checks to ensure that the FreeIPA server name is a DNS A record and that its reverse and forward addresses match. This check is not performed if you are installing a FreeIPA DNS server (that is, if you are using the --setup-dns option), as it is assumed that the FreeIPA server will use itself as a DNS from that point forward. The FreeIPA DNS set-up procedure allows for the configuration of forwarders. In some instances, for example within some companies, you may not have direct access to root name servers, so the implementation of forwarders is necessary. These could be the company main DNS servers.

Note
DNS forwarders must be specified as IP addresses, not as hostnames.

1.1.3.5. Networking
1.1.3.5.1. Configuring Networking Services
The default networking service used by Fedora is NetworkManager, and due to the way this service works, it can cause problems with FreeIPA and the KDC. Consequently, it is highly recommended that you use the network service to manage the networking requirements in a FreeIPA environment and disable the NetworkManager service. 1. Boot the machine into single-user mode and run the following commands:
# chkconfig NetworkManager off; service NetworkManager stop

2. If NetworkManagerDispatcher is installed, ensure that it is stopped and disabled:


# chkconfig NetworkManagerDispatcher off; service NetworkManagerDispatcher stop

3. Then, make sure that the network service is properly started.


# chkconfig network on; service network start

4. Ensure that static networking is correctly configured. 5. Restart the system. 4

Installing the FreeIPA Server Packages

1.1.3.5.2. Configuring the /etc/hosts File


You need to ensure that your /etc/hosts file is configured correctly. A misconfigured file can prevent the FreeIPA command-line tools from functioning correctly and can prevent the FreeIPA web interface from connecting to the FreeIPA server. Configure the /etc/hosts file to list the FQDN for the FreeIPA server before any aliases. Also ensure that the hostname is not part of the localhost entry. The following is an example of a valid hosts file:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost ::1 localhost6.localdomain6 localhost6 192.168.1.1 ipaserver.example.com ipaserver

Important
Do not omit the IPv4 entry in the /etc/hosts file. This entry is required by the FreeIPA web service.

1.2. Installing the FreeIPA Server Packages


Installing only the FreeIPA server requires a single package, . If the FreeIPA server will also manage a DNS server, then it requires two additional packages to set up the DNS. All of these packages can be installed using the yum command:
# yum install freeipa-server bind bind-dyndb-ldap

Installing the also installs a large number of dependencies, such as 389-ds-base for the LDAP service and krb5-server for the Kerberos service, along with FreeIPA tools. After the packages are installed, the server instance must be created using the ipa-serverinstall command. The options for configuring the new server instance are described in Section 1.3, Creating a FreeIPA Server Instance.

1.3. Creating a FreeIPA Server Instance


The FreeIPA setup script creates a server instance, which includes configuring all of the required services for the FreeIPA domain: The network time daemon (ntpd) A 389 Directory Server instance A Kerberos key distribution center (KDC) Apache (httpd) An updated SELinux targeted policy The Active Directory WinSync plug-in A certificate authority Optional. A domain name service (DNS) server 5

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server The FreeIPA setup process can be minimal, where the administrator only supplies some required information, or it can be very specific, with user-defined settings for many parts of the FreeIPA services. The configuration is passed using arguments with the ipa-install-server script.

NOTE
The port numbers and directory locations used by FreeIPA are all defined automatically, as defined in Section 1.1.3.3, System Ports and . These ports and directories cannot be changed or customized.

1.3.1. About ipa-server-install


A FreeIPA server instance is created by running the ipa-server-install script. This script can accept user-defined settings for services, like DNS nad Kerberos, that are used by the FreeIPA instance, or it can supply predefined values for minimal input from the administrator. While ipa-server-install can be run without any options, so that it prompts for the required information, it has numerous arguments which allow the configuration process to be easily scripted or to supply additional information which is not requested during an interactive installation. Table 1.3, ipa-server-install Options lists the possible arguments with ipa-server-install, while Section 1.3.3, Examples of Creating the FreeIPA Server has examples of some common installation scenarios. In real life, the ipa-server-install options are versatile enough to be customized to the specific deployment environment. Table 1.3. ipa-server-install Options Argument Required Options
1

Alternate Argument

Description

-a ipa_admin_password

--adminThe password for the FreeIPA password=ipa_admin_password administrator. This is used for the admin user to authenticate to the Kerberos realm. The fully-qualified domain name of the FreeIPA server machine. --domain=domain_name The name of the LDAP server domain to use for the FreeIPA domain. This is usually based on the FreeIPA server's hostname.

--hostname=hostname

-n domain_name

-p directory_manager_password

--dsThe password for the password=directory_manager_password superuser, cn=Directory Manager, for the LDAP service. --realm=realm_name The name of the Kerberos realm to create for the FreeIPA domain. Instructs the installation script to generate a certificate request

-r realm_name

Certificate Authority Options --external-ca

About ipa-server-install Argument Alternate Argument Description that can be submitted to an external or third-party CA. -external_ca_file=CA_cert_chain_file Points to the PKCS#10 file which contains the CA certificate chain of the external CA. This is required to validate the certificate issued by the CA for the FreeIPA server. If an external CA is used, this is required in a second invocation of ipa-server-install to complete the setup process. Points to the PKCS#10 file which contains the certificate that was generated by an external CA. If an external CA is used, this is required in a second invocation of ipaserver-install to complete the setup process. Uses a self-signed certificate instead of a certificate issued by the internal Dogtag Certificate System or by an external CA. If this option is selected, then no Dogtag Certificate System instance is configured as part of the setup process, and the FreeIPA server itself functionally serves as a CA for clients in the domain. This is not recommended for production environments, but can be used in test or development environments. Sets the base element for the subject DN of the issued certificates. This defaults to O=realm. Gives a comma-separated list of DNS forwarders to use with the DNS service. Uses root servers with the DNS service instead of forwarders. Uses root servers with the DNS service instead of forwarders.

-external_cert_file=certificate_file

--selfsign

--subject=subject_DN

DNS Options --forwarder=forwarder

--no-forwarders --no-reverse

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server Argument --setup-dns Alternate Argument Description Tells the installation script to set up a DNS service within the FreeIPA domain. Using an integrated DNS service is optional, so if this option is not passed with the installation script, then no DNS is configured. Gives the email address to use for the DNS zone manager. If none is given, this defaults to root. Gives the IP address of the Kerberos master KDC. This can be used if there are multiple FreeIPA servers in the same realm. --masterThe password for the KDC password=kerberos_master_password account. This is randomly generated if no value is given. Does not configure the NTP service for the FreeIPA server. This is normally done by default.

--zonemgr=email_address

Kerberos Options --ip-address=ip_address

-P kerberos_master_password

NTP Options -N, --no-ntp

NOTE
If the FreeIPA server is running as a virtual guest, it should not run an NTP service.

FreeIPA Server Configuration Options --idmax=number Sets the upper bound for IDs which can be assigned by the FreeIPA server. The default value is the ID start value plus 199999. Sets the lower bound (starting value) for IDs which can be assigned by the FreeIPA server. The default value is randomly selected.

--idstart=number

Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation Argument --no_hbac_allow Alternate Argument Description Disables the allow_all rule for host-based access control in the FreeIPA domain. Does not use DNS to look up the hostname of the FreeIPA server machine during the installation process. --unattended Runs the ipa-serverinstall command without any interactive prompts. Uninstalls an existing FreeIPA server. --debug Runs the ipa-serverinstall command in debug mode and outputs debugging information. Prints the help information for the ipa-server-install command. Prints the version number of the ipa-server-install command.

Other Setup Options --no-host-dns

-U

--uninstall General Tool Options -d

-h

--help

--version

The installation script will prompt for these options if they are not passed with the script.

1.3.2. Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation


All that is required to set up a FreeIPA server is to run the ipa-server-install script. This launchs the script interactively, which prompts for the required information to set up a server, but without more advanced configuration like DNS and CA options. 1. Run the ipa-server-install script.
# ipa-server-install

2. Enter the hostname. This is determined automatically using reverse DNS.


Server host name [ipa2.server.example.com]:

3. Enter the domain name. This is determined automatically based on the hostname.
Please confirm the domain name [example.com]:

4. The script then reprints the hostname, IP address, and domain name.
The IPA Master Server will be configured with Hostname: ipa2.server.example.com IP address: 1.2.3.4

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server


Domain name: example.com

5. Enter the new Kerberos realm name. This is usually based on the domain name.
Please provide a realm name [EXAMPLE.COM]:

6. Enter the password for the Directory Server superuser, cn=Directory Manager. There are password strength requirements for this password, including a minimum password length.
Directory Manager password: Password (confirm):

7. Enter the password for the FreeIPA system user account, admin. This user is created on the machine.
IPA admin password: Password (confirm):

8. After that, the script configures all of the associated services for FreeIPA, with task counts and progress bars.
Configuring ntpd [1/4]: stopping ntpd ... done configuring ntpd. Configuring directory server for the CA: Estimated time 30 seconds [1/3]: creating directory server user ... done configuring pkids. Configuring certificate server: Estimated time 6 minutes [1/17]: creating certificate server user .... done configuring pki-cad. Configuring directory server: Estimated time 1 minute [1/32]: creating directory server user ... done configuring dirsrv. Configuring Kerberos KDC: Estimated time 30 seconds [1/14]: setting KDC account password ... done configuring krb5kdc. Configuring ipa_kpasswd [1/2]: starting ipa_kpasswd [2/2]: configuring ipa_kpasswd to start on boot done configuring ipa_kpasswd. Configuring the web interface: Estimated time 1 minute [1/12]: disabling mod_ssl in httpd ... done configuring httpd. Setting the certificate subject base restarting certificate server Applying LDAP updates Restarting the directory server Restarting the KDC

10

Examples of Creating the FreeIPA Server


Restarting the web server Sample zone file for bind has been created in /tmp/sample.zone.ygzij5.db ============================================================================== Setup complete

9. Restart the SSH service to retrive the Kerberos principal and to refresh the name server switch (NSS) configuration file:
# service sshd restart

10. Authenticate to the Kerberos realm using the admin user's credentials to ensure that the user is properly configured and the Kerberos realm is accessible.
$ kinit admin Password for admin@EXAMPLE.COM:

11. Test the FreeIPA configuration by running a command like ipa user-find. For example:
# ipa user-find admin -------------1 user matched -------------User login: admin Last name: Administrator Home directory: /home/admin Login shell: /bin/bash Account disabled: False Member of groups: admins ---------------------------Number of entries returned 1 ----------------------------

1.3.3. Examples of Creating the FreeIPA Server


The way that a FreeIPA server is installed can be different depending on the network environment, security requirements within the organization, and the desired topology. These example illustrate some common options when installing the server. These examples are not mutually exclusive; it is entirely possible to use CA options, DNS options, and FreeIPA configuration options in the same server invocation. These are called out separately simply to make it more clear what each configuration area requires.

1.3.3.1. Non-Interactive Basic Installation


As shown in Section 1.3.2, Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation, only a few pieces of information are required to configured a FreeIPA server. While the setup script can prompt for this information in interactive mode, this information can also be passed with the setup command to allow automated and unattended configuration: Passwords for the FreeIPA administrative user and the Directory Server super user (Directory Manager) The server hostname The Kerberos realm name The DNS domain name

11

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server This information can be passed with the ipa-server-install, along with the -U to force it to run without requiring user interaction. Example 1.1. Basic Installation without Interaction
# ipa-server-install -a secret12 --hostname=ipa2.server.example.com -r EXAMPLE.COM -p secret12 -n example.com -U

The script then prints the submitted values:


To accept the default shown in brackets, press the Enter key. The IPA Master Server will be configured with Hostname: ipa2.server.example.com IP address: 1.2.3.4 Domain name: example.com

Then the script runs through the configuration progress for each FreeIPA service, as in Section 1.3.2, Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation.

1.3.3.2. Using Different CAs


The default installation of FreeIPA uses an integrated Dogtag Certificate System instance as a certificate authority to issue certificates. However, this configuration is not required. FreeIPA only requires a certificate authority. This can be an external CA like Verisign or a corporate CA inconjunction with the internal Certificate System, or it can even be the FreeIPA server itself, using a self-signed certificate. For the FreeIPA server itself to work as a CA, it uses a self-signed certificate, meaning that it approved and issued its own certificate. This is done by using the --selfsign option with the ipa-serverinstall command. When the FreeIPA server uses a self-signed certificate, the setup process is exactly the same as a normal installation, except that no Dogtag Certificate System instance is created. There is still a cacert.p12 file created that can be used by replicas and the domain functions exactly the same. The only difference is what CA issues the certificates. Example 1.2. Using a Self-Signed Certificate
# ipa-server-install -a secret12 --hostname=ipa2.server.example.com -r EXAMPLE.COM -p secret12 -n example.com -U --selfsign

NOTE
A self-signed certificate should only be used for a testing or development environment. A production environment should use the Dogtag Certificate System instance or an external, public CA.

Alternatively, the FreeIPA server can use a certificate issued by an external CA. This can be a corporate CA or a third-party CA like Verisign or Thawte. As with a normal setup process, using an external CA still uses a Dogtag Certificate System instance for the FreeIPA server for issuing all of its client and replica certificates; the initial CA certificate is simply issued by a different CA.

12

Examples of Creating the FreeIPA Server When using an external CA, there are two additional steps that must be performed: submit the generated certificate request to the external CA and then load the CA certificate and issued server certificate to complete the setup. Example 1.3. Using an External CA 1. Run the ipa-server-install script, using the --external-ca option.
# ipa-server-install -a secret12 -r EXAMPLE.COM -P password -p secret12 -n ipa.server.example.com --external-ca

2. The script sets up the NTP and Directory Server services as normal. 3. The script completes the CA setup and returns information about where the certificate signing request (CSR) is located, /root/ipa.csr. This request must be submitted to the external CA.
Configuring certificate server: Estimated time 6 minutes [1/4]: creating certificate server user [2/4]: creating pki-ca instance [3/4]: restarting certificate server [4/4]: configuring certificate server instance The next step is to get /root/ipa.csr signed by your CA and re-run ipa-server-install.

4. Submit the request to the CA. The process differs for every service. 5. Retrieve the issued certificate and the CA certificate chain for the issuing CA. Again, the process differs for every certificate service, but there is usually a download link on a web page or in the notification email that allows administrators to download all the required certificates. Be sure to get the full certificate chain for the CA, not just the CA certificate. 6. Rerun ipa-server-install, specifying the locations and names of the certificate and CA chain files. For example:
# ipa-server-install --external_cert_file=/tmp/servercert20110601.p12 -external_ca_file=/tmp/cacert.p12

7. Complete the setup process and verify that everything is working as expected, as in Section 1.3.2, Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation.

1.3.3.3. Using DNS


FreeIPA can be configured to manage its own DNS, use an existing DNS, or not use DNS services at all (which is the default). Running the setup script alone does not configure DNS; this requires the -setup-dns option. As with a basic setup, the DNS setup can either prompt for the required information or the DNS information can be passed with the script to allow an automatic or unattended setup process. Example 1.4. Interactive DNS Setup 1. Run the ipa-server-install script, using the --setup-dns option.
# ipa-server-install -a secret12 -r EXAMPLE.COM -P password -p secret12 -n ipa.server.example.com --setup-dns

2. The script configures the hostname and domain name as normal.

13

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server 3. The script then prompts for DNS forwarders. If forwarders will be used, enter yes, and then supply the list of DNS servers. If FreeIPA will manage its own DNS service, then enter no.
Do you want to configure DNS forwarders? [yes]: no No DNS forwarders configured

4. The script sets up the NTP, Directory Server, Certificate System, Kerberos, and Apache services. 5. Before completing the configuration, the script prompts to ask whether it should configure reverse DNS services. If you select yes, then it configures the named service.
Do you want to configure the reverse zone? [yes]: yes Configuring named: [1/9]: adding DNS container [2/9]: setting up our zone [3/9]: setting up reverse zone [4/9]: setting up our own record [5/9]: setting up kerberos principal [6/9]: setting up named.conf [7/9]: restarting named [8/9]: configuring named to start on boot [9/9]: changing resolv.conf to point to ourselves done configuring named. ============================================================================== Setup complete

6. Verify that everything is working as expected, as in Section 1.3.2, Setting up a FreeIPA Server: Basic Interactive Installation. If DNS is used with FreeIPA, then two pieces of information are required: any DNS forwarders that will be used and using (or not) reverse DNS. To perform a non-interactive setup, this information can be passed using the --forwarder | --no-forwarders option and --no-reverse option. Example 1.5. Setting up DNS Non-Interactively To use DNS always requires the --setup-dns. To user forwarders, use the --forwarder with a comma-separated list of forwarders.
# ipa-server-install ... --setup-dns --forwarder=1.2.3.0,1.2.255.0

Some kind of forwarder information is required. If no external forwarders will be used with the FreeIPA DNS service, then use the --no-forwarders option to indicate that only root servers will be used. The script always assumes that reverse DNS is configured along with DNS, so it is not necessary to use any options to enable reverse DNS. To disable reverse DNS, use the --no-reverse option.
# ipa-server-install ... --setup-dns --no-reverse

14

Troubleshooting Installation Problems

1.3.4. Troubleshooting Installation Problems


GSS Failures When Running IPA Commands
Immediately after installation, there can be Kerberos problems when trying to run an ipa-* command. For example:
ipa: ERROR: Kerberos error: ('Unspecified GSS failure. Minor code may provide more information', 851968)/('Decrypt integrity check failed', -1765328353)

There are two potential causes for this: DNS is not properly configured. Active Directory is in the same domain as the FreeIPA server.

named Daemon Fails to Start


If a FreeIPA server is configured to manage DNS and is set up successfully, but the named service fails to start, this can indicate that there is a package conflict. Check the /var/log/messages file for error messages related to the named service and the ldap.so library:
ipaserver named[6886]: failed to dynamically load driver 'ldap.so': libldap-2.4.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

This usually means that the bind-chroot package is installed and is preventing the named service from starting. To resolve this issue, remove the bind-chroot package and then restart the FreeIPA server.
# yum remove bind-chroot # ipactl restart

1.4. Setting up FreeIPA Replicas


In the FreeIPA domain, there are three types of machines: Servers, which manage all of the services used by domain members Replicas, which are essentially read-only clones of servers Clients, which belong to the Kerberos domains, receive certificates and tickets issued by the servers, and use other centralized services for authentication and authorization A replica is a clone of a specific FreeIPA server. The server and replica share the same internal information about users, machines, certificates, and configured policies. These data are copied from the server to the replica in a process called replication. The two Directory Server instances used by an FreeIPA server the Directory Server instance used by the FreeIPA server as a data store and the Directory Server instance used by the Dogtag Certificate System to store certificate information are replicated over to corresponding consumer Directory Server instances used by the FreeIPA replica.

15

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server

TIP
If you are using the integrated Dogtag Certificate System instance as the CA for the FreeIPA domain, then it is possible to make a replica of a replica. It is not possible to make a replica of a replica if you use the --selfsign option for the original FreeIPA server.

1.4.1. Prepping and Installing the Replica Server


Replicas are functionally the same as FreeIPA servers, so they have the same installation requirements and packages. Make sure that the machine meets all of the prerequisites listed in Section 1.1, Preparing to Install the FreeIPA Server. Install the server packages as in Section 1.2, Installing the FreeIPA Server Packages. However, do not run the ipa-server-install script.

IMPORTANT
The replica and the master server must be running the same version of FreeIPA.

If there is an existing Dogtag Certificate System or Red Hat Certificate System instance on the replica machine, make sure that port 7389 is free. This port is used by the master FreeIPA server to communicate with the replica. Make sure the appropriate ports are open on both the server and the replica machine during and after the replica configuration. Servers and replicas connect to each other over ports 9443, 9444, 9445, and 7389 during the replica configuration. Once the replica is set up, the server and replica communicate over port 7389.

1.4.2. Creating the Replica


NOTE
Make sure that the replica machine exists in the server's DNS before beginning to configure the replica. If the server cannot contact the replica machine during the configuration process, then the replica configuration fails.

1. C\On the master server, create a replica information file. This contains realm and configuration information taken from the master server which will be used to configure the replica server. Run the ipa-replica-repare command on the master FreeIPA server. The command requires the fully-qualified domain name of the replica machine. Using the --ip-address option automatically creates DNS entries for the replication, including the A and PTR records for the replica to the DNS.
# ipa-replica-prepare ipareplica.example.com --ip-address 192.168.1.2

16

Determining current realm name

Creating the Replica


Getting domain name from LDAP Preparing replica for ipareplica.example.com from ipaserver.example.com Creating SSL certificate for the Directory Server Creating SSL certificate for the Web Server Copying additional files Finalizing configuration Packaging the replica into replica-info-ipareplica.example.com

Each replica information file is created in the /var/lib/ipa/ directory as a GPG-encrypted file. Each file is named specifically for the replica server for which it is intended, such as replicainfo-ipareplica.example.com.gpg.

NOTE
A replica information file cannot be used to create multiple replicas. It can only be used for the specific replica and machine for which it was created.

WARNING
Replica information files contain sensitive information. Take appropriate steps to ensure that they are properly protected.

2. Copy the replica information file to the replica server:


# scp /var/lib/ipa/replica-info-ipareplica.example.com.gpg root@ipareplica:/var/lib/ipa/

3. On the replica server, run the replica installation script, referencing the replication information file:
# ipa-replica-install /var/lib/ipa/replica-info-ipareplica.example.com.gpg

The replica installation script runs a test to ensure that the replica file being installed matches the current hostname. If they do not match, the script returns a warning message and asks for confirmation. This could occur on a multi-homed machine, for example, where mismatched hostnames may not be an issue. 4. Enter the Directory Manager password when prompted. The script then configures a Directory Server instance based on information in the replica information file and initiates a replication process to copy over data from the master server to the replica, a process called initialization. 5. Once the installation process completes, update the DNS entries so that FreeIPA clients can discover the new server. For example, for a FreeIPA replica with a hostname of ipareplica.example.com:
_ldap._tcp _kerberos._tcp _kerberos._udp _kerberos-master._tcp _kerberos-master._udp _kpasswd._tcp _kpasswd._udp _ntp._udp IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN SRV SRV SRV SRV SRV SRV SRV SRV 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 389 ipareplica.example.com 88 ipareplica.example.com 88 ipareplica.example.com 88 ipareplica.example.com 88 ipareplica.example.com 464 ipareplica.example.com 464 ipareplica.example.com 123 ipareplica.example.com

17

Chapter 1. Installing a FreeIPA Server 6. Optional. Set up DNS services for the replica. These are not configured by the setup script, even if the master server uses DNS. Use the ipa-dns-install command to install the DNS manually, then use the the ipa dnsrecord-add command to add the required DNS records. For example:
# ipa-dns-install $ ipa dnsrecord-add example.com @ --ns-rec ipareplica.example.com.

IMPORTANT
Use the fully-qualified domain name of the replica, including the final period (.), otherwise BIND will treat the hostname as relative to the domain.

1.4.3. Troubleshooting Replica Installation


If the replica installation fails on step 3 ([3/11]: configuring certificate server instance), that usually means that the required port is not available. This can be verified by checking the debug logs for the CA, /var/log/pki-ca/debug, which may show error messages about being unable to find certain entries. For example:
[04/Feb/2011:22:29:03][http-9445-Processor25]: DatabasePanel comparetAndWaitEntries ou=people,o=ipaca not found, let's wait

The only resolution is to uninstall the replica:


# ipa-server-install --uninstall

After uninstalling the replica, ensure that port 7389 on the replica is available, and retry the replica installation.

1.5. Uninstalling FreeIPA Servers and Replicas


To uninstall both a FreeIPA server and a FreeIPA replica, pass the --uninstall option to the ipaserver-install command:
# ipa-server-install --uninstall

18

Chapter 2.

Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients


A client is any system which is a member of the FreeIPA domain. While this is frequently a Fedora system (and FreeIPA has special tools to make configuring Fedora clients very simple), machines with other operating systems can also be added to the FreeIPA domain. One important aspect of a FreeIPA client is that only the system configuration determines whether the system is part of the domain. (The configuration includes things like belonging to the Kerberos domain, DNS domain, and having the proper authentication and certificate setup.) FreeIPA does not require any sort of agent or daemon running on a client. This chapter explains how to configure a system to join a FreeIPA domain.

NOTE
Clients can only be configured after at least one FreeIPA server has been installed.

2.1. What Happens in Client Setup


Whether the client configuration is performed automatically on Fedora systems using the client setup script or manually on other systems, the general process of configuring a machine to serve as a FreeIPA client is mostly the same, with slight variation depending on the platform: Retrieve the CA certificate for the FreeIPA CA. Create a separate Kerberos configuration to test the provided credentials. This enables a Kerberos connection to the FreeIPA XML-RPC server, necessary to join the FreeIPA client to the FreeIPA domain. This Kerberos configuration is ultimately discarded. Setting up the Kerberos configuration includes specifying the realm and domain details, and default ticket attributes. Forwardable tickets are configured by default, which facilitates connection to the administration interface from any operating system, and also provides for auditing of administration operations. For example, this is the Kerberos configuration for Fedora systems:
[libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM dns_lookup_realm = false dns_lookup_kdc = false rdns = false forwardable = yes ticket_lifetime = 24h [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = ipaserver.example.com:88 admin_server = ipaserver.example.com:749 } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM example.com = EXAMPLE.COM

Run the ipa-join command to perform the actual join Obtain a service principal for the host service and installs it into /etc/krb5.keytab. For example, host/ipa.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM. 19

Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients Enable certmonger, retrieve an SSL server certificate, and install the certificate in /etc/pki/ nssdb. Disable the nscd daemon. Configures SSSD or LDAP/KRB5, including NSS and PAM configuration files. Configure NTP.

2.2. Configuring a Fedora System as a FreeIPA Client


There are two elements to prepare before beginning the client setup process for the Fedora client: There must be a way to connect the client machine to the Kerberos domain, either by having an available Kerberos identity (such as the admin user) or by manually adding the client machine to the KDC on the server with a one-time password before beginning the enrollment process for the client machine. If the network environment uses an Active Directory DNS, then manually provide the FreeIPA server details during the client configuration. Active Directory has its own SRV records for Kerberos and LDAP, and the ipa-client-install script retrieves those DNS records instead of any records that were added for FreeIPA. The most efficient way to install the required client packages is to use the FreeIPA server as a yum repository. This allows client packages to be installed directly from the FreeIPA server. 1. Install the client packages. These packages are used only as a simple way to configure the system; they do not install an agent or daemon on the client machine. For a regular user system, this requires only the ipa-client package:
# yum install freeipa-client

An administrator machine requires the freeipa-admintools package, as well:


# yum install freeipa-client freeipa-admintools

2. If the FreeIPA server is configured as the DNS server and is in the same domain as the client, add the server's IP address as the first entry in the client's /etc/resolv.conf file. 3. Run the client setup command.
# ipa-client-install

4. If prompted, enter the domain name for the FreeIPA's DNS domain.
DNS discovery failed to determine your DNS domain Please provide the domain name of your IPA server (ex: example.com): example.com

5. Enter the fully-qualified domain name of the FreeIPA server.


DNS discovery failed to find the IPA Server Please provide your IPA server name (ex: ipa.example.com): ipaserver.example.com

20

Configuring a Fedora System as a FreeIPA Client 6. The client script then prompts for a Kerberos identity to use to contact and then join the Kerberos realm. When these credentials are supplied, then the client is able to join the FreeIPA Kerberos domain and then complete the configuration:

Continue to configure the system with these values? [no]: yes Enrollment principal: admin Password for admin@EXAMPLE.COM: Enrolled in FreeIPA realm EXAMPLE.COM Created /etc/ipa/default.conf Configured /etc/sssd/sssd.conf Configured /etc/krb5.conf for FreeIPA realm EXAMPLE.COM SSSD enabled Kerberos 5 enabled NTP enabled Client configuration complete.

7. Test that the client can connect successfully to the FreeIPA domain and can perform basic tasks. For example, check that the FreeIPA tools can be used to get user and group information:
$ id $ getent passwd userID $ getent group ipausers

8. Set up NFS to work with Kerberos. a. Obtain a Kerberos ticket for the admin user.
# kinit admin

b. Add an NFS service principal on the client.


# ipa service-add nfs/ipaclient.example.com

c.

Obtain a keytab for the NFS service principal.


# ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver.example.com -p nfs/ipaclient.example.com -k /etc/ krb5.keytab

NOTE
Some versions of the Linux NFS implementation have limited encryption type support. If the NFS server is hosted on a version older than Fedora 15, use the -e des-cbc-crc option to the ipa-getkeytab command for any nfs/<FQDN> service keytabs to set up, both on the server and on all clients. This instructs the KDC to generate only DES keys. When using DES keys, all clients and servers that rely on this encryption type need to have the allow_weak_crypto option enabled in the [libdefaults] section of the /etc/krb5.conf file. Without these configuration changes, NFS clients and servers are unable to authenticate to each other, and attempts to mount NFS filesystems may fail. The client's rpc.gssd and the server's rpc.svcgssd daemons may log errors indicating that DES encryption types are not permitted.

21

Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients d. Add the following line to the /etc/sysconfig/nfs file:
SECURE_NFS=yes

e. Start the rpcgssd daemon.


# service rpcgssd start

f.

Test the NFS-Kerberos configuration:


# mount -v -t nfs4 -o sec=krb5 ipaserver.example.com:/ /mnt

2.3. Configuring a Microsoft Windows System as a FreeIPA Client


NOTE
FreeIPA does not support Microsoft Windows client authentication.

1. Download the MIT Kerberos 3.x package for Windows. 2. Run the kfw-3.x-exe file to launch the MIT Kerberos Installation Wizard. 3. Read and accept the license agreement. 4. Install the KfW client. All other components are optional. 5. Accept the default destination path. 6. Select Download from web path, and enter the URL to the FreeIPA server. For example:
http://ipaserver.example.com/ipa/config/

7. Select Autostart the Network Identity Manager each time you login to Windows. 8. Click Install to begin the installation. When the installation is complete, click Finish to exit the Wizard. 9. Edit the hosts file and add the FreeIPA server. For example:
1.2.3.4 ipaserver.example.com ipaserver

Depending on the version of Windows, the HOSTS file could be located in different directories.

22

Configuring a Solaris System as a FreeIPA Client

2.4. Configuring a Solaris System as a FreeIPA Client


2.4.1. Configuring Solaris 10
1. As with Fedora systems, FreeIPA provides an automated method of configuring Solaris 10 to function as a FreeIPA client. On the Solaris client, run the ldapclient with the name of the FreeIPA domain:
# ldapclient init ipa.example.com -v

When the command is run, it creates a configuration profile that will automatically set up the necessary PAM and /etc/ldap.conf configuration. 2. Configure the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file. The Kerberos configuration includes specifying the realm and domain details and default ticket attributes. The default file created by ldapclient configures forwardable tickets by default, which makes it possible to connect to the UI from any system and provides a way to audit administration operations.
[libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = ipaserver.example.com:88 admin_server = ipaserver.example.com:749 } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc_rotate = { period = 1d versions = 10 } [appdefaults] kinit = { renewable = true forwardable= true }

3. Configure and enable NTP and make sure that time is synchronized between the client and the FreeIPA server. 4. Configure SSH access so that the Solaris FreeIPA client to accept incoming SSH requests and authenticate with the user's Kerberos credentials. a. On the FreeIPA server, add a host service principal for the Solaris client.
# ipa service-add host/solarisipaclient.example.com

b. On the FreeIPA server, create the host keytab file.

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Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients

# ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver.example.com -p host/solarisipaclient.example.com -k / tmp/krb5.keytab -e des-cbc-crc

c.

Copy this keytab to the Solaris machine, and save it as /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab.


# scp /tmp/krb5.keytab root@solarisipaclient.example.com:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab

d. Reboot the Solaris client machine. 5. Configure NFS to work with the Kerberos domain. a. Obtain a Kerberos ticket for the admin user.
# kinit admin

b. Set up the NFS/Kerberos mapping for the Solaris client on the FreeIPA server. i. Add an NFS service principal for the client.
# ipa service-add nfs/solarisipaclient.example.com

ii.

Create the NFS keytab file.


# ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver.example.com -p nfs/solarisipaclient.example.com -k / tmp/krb5.keytab -e des-cbc-crc

NOTE
Some versions of the Linux NFS implementation have limited encryption type support. If the NFS server is hosted on a version older than Fedora 15, use the e des-cbc-crc option to the ipa-getkeytab command for any nfs/<FQDN> service keytabs to set up, both on the server and on all clients. This instructs the KDC to generate only DES keys. When using DES keys, all clients and servers that rely on this encryption type need to have the allow_weak_crypto option enabled in the [libdefaults] section of the /etc/krb5.conf file. Without these configuration changes, NFS clients and servers are unable to authenticate to each other, and attempts to mount NFS filesystems may fail. The client's rpc.gssd and the server's rpc.svcgssd daemons may log errors indicating that DES encryption types are not permitted.

iii. Use the klist command to verify that the ticket was created:
# klist -ket /tmp/krb5.keytab

iv. Copy the keytab from the server to the client.


# scp /tmp/krb5.keytab root@solarisipaclient.example.com:/tmp/krb5.keytab

24

Configuring Solaris 9 c. On the FreeIPA client, use the ktutil command to import the contents into the main host keytab.
# ktutil ktutil: read_kt /tmp/krb5.keytab ktutil: write_kt /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab ktutil: q

2.4.2. Configuring Solaris 9


1. Perform steps 1 through 4 in Section 2.4.1, Configuring Solaris 10 to set up the Solaris 9 client. 2. Configure the /etc/pam.conf file to use PAM Kerberos. For example:
login login login login login login auth auth auth auth auth auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1 sufficient pam_krb5.so.1 use_first_pass sufficient pam_unix.so.1 use_first_pass required pam_dhkeys.so.1 required pam_unix_auth.so.1 required pam_dial_auth.so.1

2.5. Configuring an HP-UX System as a FreeIPA


Note
The FreeIPA client installation process requires that a FreeIPA server already exist.

2.5.1. Configuring NTP


Configure and enable NTP and make sure that time is synchronized between the client and the FreeIPA server.

2.5.2. Configuring LDAP Authentication


1. Install the ldapux client.
# swinstall -s J4269AA_B.04.15.01_HP-UX_B.11.23_IA_PA.depot

2. Change to the configuration directory, and run the setup script.


# cd /opt/ldapux/config/ # ./setup

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Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients

NOTE
Running the setup script is only necessary for the first HP-UX client. Every subsequent HPUX client only needs to know where the LDAP profile is stored. All clients will then use the same configuration. For more information on this, see the HP-UX documentation at http://docs.hp.com/en/ J4269-90075/ch02s07.html.

The setup script prompts for information about the FreeIPA LDAP service, such as its port and host, Directory Manager credentials, and schema and directory suffixes.
Would you like to continue with the setup? [Yes] Select which Directory Server you want to connect to ? [RedHat Directory] Directory server host ? [ipaserver.example.com] Directory Server port number [389] Would you like to extend the printer schema in this directory server? [No] Would you like to install PublicKey schema in this directory server? [No] Would you like to install the new automount schema ? [No] Profile Entry DN: [cn=ldapuxprofile,cn=etc,dc=example,dc=com] User DN [cn=Directory Manager] Password ? [Directory Manager's Password] Authentication method ? [ SIMPLE ] Enter the number of the hosts you want to specify [1] Default Base DN ? [dc=example,dc=com] Accept remaining defaults ? [n] Client binding [Anonymous] Bind time limit [5 seconds] Search time limit [no limit] Do you want client searches of the directory to follow referrals? [Yes] Profile TTL [0 = infinite] Do you want to remap any of the standard RFC 2307 attribute? [Yes] Specify the service you want to map? [ 3=Group] Specify the attribute you want to map [3 for memberuid ] Type the name of the attribute memberuid should be mapped to [member] Specify the service you want to map? [ 0 = exit ] Do you want to remap any of the standard RFC 2307 attribute? [ no this time ] Do you want to create custom search descriptors? [ No ]

3. Ensure that the LDAP client daemon is running.


# ps -ef | grep ldapclientd

If necessary, start the daemon:


# /opt/ldapux/bin/ldapclientd

4. Check that the user and group entries in the LDAP client are correct and available:
# nsquery passwd admin # nsquery group admins

5. Create a new group on the FreeIPA server.

26

Configuring Kerberos

# ipa group-add testgroup

6. Add a test user to the new group.


# ipa group-add-member -a testuser testgroup

Validate the new user and group:


# nsquery passwd testuser # nsquery group testgroup

7. To ensure that the LDAP client daemon starts when the system boots, add the following lines to the /etc/opt/ldapux/ldapclientd.conf file:
[StartOnBoot] enable=yes

2.5.3. Configuring Kerberos


Edit the /etc/krb5.conf file to reflect the Kerberos domain used by the FreeIPA server. Setting up the Kerberos configuration includes specifying the realm and domain details, and default ticket attributes. Forwardable tickets are configured by default, which facilitates connection to the administration interface from any operating system, and also provides for auditing of administration operations. For example:
[libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM default_tkt_enctypes = DES-CBC-CRC default_tgs_enctypes = DES-CBC-CRC ccache_type = 2 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kpasswd_server = ipaserver.example.com kdc = ipaserver.example.com:88 admin_server = ipaserver.example.com:749 default_domain = example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [appdefaults] kinit = { forwardable = true }

2.5.4. Configuring PAM


The PAM configuration differs slightly between different versions of HP-UX.

2.5.4.1. HP-UX 11i v2


Edit the /etc/pam.conf file so that all of the required modules are loaded for authentication. For example:

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Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients

# # PAM configuration # # This pam.conf file is intended as an example only. # see pam.conf(4) for more details # Authentication management # login auth required libpam_hpsec.so.1 login auth sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 login auth required libpam_unix.so.1 try_first_pass su auth required libpam_hpsec.so.1 su auth sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 su auth required libpam_unix.so.1 try_first_pass dtlogin auth required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtlogin auth sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtlogin auth required libpam_unix.so.1 try_first_pass dtaction auth required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtaction auth sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtaction auth required libpam_unix.so.1 try_first_pass ftp auth required libpam_hpsec.so.1 ftp auth sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 ftp auth required libpam_unix.so.1 try_first_pass sshd auth required libpam_hpsec.so.1 sshd auth sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 sshd auth required libpam_unix.so.1 try_first_pass OTHER auth required libpam_unix.so.1 # # Account management # login account required libpam_hpsec.so.1 login account sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 login account required libpam_unix.so.1 su account required libpam_hpsec.so.1 su account sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 su account required libpam_unix.so.1 dtlogin account required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtlogin account sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtlogin account required libpam_unix.so.1 dtaction account required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtaction account sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtaction account required libpam_unix.so.1 ftp account required libpam_hpsec.so.1 ftp account sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 ftp account required libpam_unix.so.1 sshd account required libpam_hpsec.so.1 sshd account sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 sshd account required libpam_unix.so.1 OTHER account required libpam_unix.so.1 # # Session management # login session required libpam_hpsec.so.1 login session sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 login session required libpam_unix.so.1 dtlogin session required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtlogin session sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtlogin session required libpam_unix.so.1 dtaction session required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtaction session sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtaction session required libpam_unix.so.1 sshd session required libpam_hpsec.so.1 sshd session sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 sshd session required libpam_unix.so.1

28

Configuring PAM
OTHER session required libpam_unix.so.1 # # Password management # login password required libpam_hpsec.so.1 login password sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 login password required libpam_unix.so.1 passwd password required libpam_hpsec.so.1 passwd password sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 passwd password required libpam_unix.so.1 dtlogin password required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtlogin password sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtlogin password required libpam_unix.so.1 dtaction password required libpam_hpsec.so.1 dtaction password sufficient libpam_krb5.so.1 dtaction password required libpam_unix.so.1 OTHER password required libpam_unix.so.1

2.5.4.2. HP-UX 11i v1


Edit the /etc/pam.conf file to reflect the following example:
# # PAM configuration # # This pam.conf file is intended as an example only. # see pam.conf(4) for more details # # Authentication management # login auth sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 login auth required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 try_first_pass su auth sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 su auth required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 try_first_pass dtlogin auth sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtlogin auth required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 try_first_pass dtaction auth sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtaction auth required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 try_first_pass ftp auth sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 ftp auth required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 try_first_pass OTHER auth required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 # # Account management # login account sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 login account required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 su account sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 su account required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 dtlogin account sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtlogin account required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 dtaction account sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtaction account required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 ftp account sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 ftp account required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 OTHER account required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 # # Session management # login session sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 login session required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 dtlogin session sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1

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Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients


dtlogin session required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 dtaction session sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtaction session required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 OTHER session required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 # # Password management # login password sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 login password required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 passwd password sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 passwd password required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 dtlogin password sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtlogin password required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 dtaction password sufficient /usr/lib/security/libpam_krb5.1 dtaction password required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1 OTHER password required /usr/lib/security/libpam_unix.1

2.5.5. Configuring SSH


1. Ensure that you have version A.05.10.007 or later of ssh installed. A current package can be downloaded from the HO website at http://software.hp.com/portal/swdepot/displayProductInfo.do? productNumber=T1471AA. 2. Edit the /etc/opt/ssh/ssh_config file: Remove any PreferredAuthentications entries. Add the following three lines:
Host * GSSAPIAuthentication yes PreferredAuthentications "gssapi-with-mic,publickey,password"

IMPORTANT
Include the tab character before the GSSAPIAuthentication and PreferredAuthentications lines, and include the double quotes around the PreferredAuthentications value.

3. Remove the /etc/krb5.keytab file. 4. Set up the NFS/Kerberos mapping for the Solaris client on the FreeIPA server. a. Add a host service principal for the HP-UX client.
# ipa service-add host/hpuxipaclient.example.com

b. Create the host keytab file.


# ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver.example.com -p host/hpuxipaclient.example.com -k /tmp/ krb5.keytab -e des-cbc-crc

c. 30

Copy this keytab to the HP-UX machine, and save it as /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab.

Configuring Access Control

# scp /tmp/krb5.keytab root@hpuxipaclient.example.com:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab

2.5.6. Configuring Access Control


HP-UX systems provide the pam_authz PAM module, which can be used to control login access to the system based on a user's group membership. For details on how to configure access control with this module, see the HP documenttion at http://docs.hp.com/en/B3921-60631/pam_authz.5.html. Example 2.1. pam_authz.policy File: Allow User Access, Deny Admin Access This configuration in /etc/opt/ldapux/pam_authz.policy prevents the admin user from logging in while still allowing regular users to log in.

# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #

pam_authz.policy.template: An example file that could be copied over to /etc/opt/ldapux/pam_authz.policy. pam_authz.policy is a local policy file that PAM_AUTHZ would use to help determine which users would be allowed to login to the local host. In this template file, by default, the only active access rule is "allow:unix_local_user" All the local users are authorized to login. The policy file contains one or more access rule. The format of an access rule is <action>:<type>:<object> where <action> could be "deny", "allow", "status" "PAM_SUCCESS", "PAM_PERM_DENIED", "PAM_MAXTRIES" "PAM_AUTH_ERR", "PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD", "PAM_AUTHTOKEN_REQD, "PAM_CRED_INSUFFICIENT", "PAM_AUTHINFO_UNAVAIL", "PAM_USER_UNKNOWN" "PAM_ACCT_EXPIRED", "PAM_AUTHOK_EXPIRED" Note: "status" must use along with "rhds" or "ads" <type>. could be "unix_user", "unix_local_user", "unix_group", "netgroup", ldap_filter", "ldap_group" "rhds" or "ads"

<type>

Note: When <type> is set to "rhds" or "ads", the <action> filed must set to "status". <object> contains search information. For example,

deny:unix_group:admins allow:unix_local_user

2.5.7. Testing the Configuration


NOTE
By default, the admin user is given /bin/bash as the shell to use and /home/admin as the home directory. It may be necessary to install bash to be able to log in.

There are three quick ways to check the Kerberos and PAM configuration for the HP client: 31

Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients Attempt to log into the Kerberos realm from the client machine by using the admin credentials:
# kinit admin # klist

Attempt to log into the HP machine from another machine in the domain using SSH. The admin user should be able to log in using SSH without being asked for a password.
# ssh admin@hpuxipaclient.example.com

Log into the FreeIPA web UI using the administrator credentials on the HP machine.

2.6. Configuring an AIX System as a FreeIPA Client


2.6.1. Prerequisites
Make sure that all of these packages are installed on the AIX machine before beginning the client configuration: v5.3 OS v5.3 Updates krb5 client packages openssh wget bash krb5 server ldap.client openssl modcrypt.base (for gssd) Configure and enable NTP and make sure that time is synchronized between the client and the FreeIPA server.

2.6.2. Configuring the AIX Client


Setting up an AIX client requires setting up the client to work in the FreeIPA Kerberos domain and, optionally, to enable SSH authentication to the AIX client using FreeIPA credentials. Kerberos configuration includes specifying the realm and domain details, and default ticket attributes. Forwardable tickets are configured by default, which facilitates connection to the administration interface from any operating system, and also provides for auditing of administration operations. For example: 1. Configure the krb5 client settings to use the FreeIPA Kerberos domain:

32

Configuring the AIX Client

# mkkrb5clnt -r EXAMPLE.COM -d example.com -c ipaclient.example.com -s ipaserver.example.com

2. Get a Kerberos ticket:


# kinit admin

3. Configure the LDAP client settings to use the FreeIPA directory services:
# mksecldap -c -h ipaserver.example.com -d cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com -a uid=nss,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=example,dc=com -p secret

4. In the /etc/security/ldap directory, create user and group map files: For example, for the FreeIPAuser.map file:
#FreeIPAuser.map file keyobjectclass SEC_CHAR

posixaccount

# The following attributes are required by AIX to be functional username SEC_CHAR uid s id SEC_INT uidnumber s pgrp SEC_CHAR gidnumber s home SEC_CHAR homedirectory s shell SEC_CHAR loginshell s gecos SEC_CHAR gecos s spassword SEC_CHAR userpassword s lastupdate SEC_INT shadowlastchange s

For example, for the FreeIPAgroup.map file:


#FreeIPAgroup.map file groupname SEC_CHAR id SEC_INT gidNumber users SEC_LIST member

cn s m

5. Modify the /etc/security/ldap/ldap.cfg file to set the REALM and base DN values for the FreeIPA domain.
userbasedn:cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com groupbasedn:cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com userattrmappath:/etc/security/ldap/FreeIPAuser.map groupattrmappath:/etc/security/ldap/FreeIPAgroup.map userclasses:posixaccount

6. Start the LDAP client daemon:


# start-secldapclntd

7. Test the LDAP client connection to the FreeIPA server:


# lsldap -a passwd

33

Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients 8. Add the following sections to the /usr/lib/security/methods.cfg file to configure the system login to use Kerberos and LDAP:
KRB5A: program = /usr/lib/security/KRB5A program_64 = /usr/lib/security/KRB5A_64 options = authonly LDAP: program = /usr/lib/security/LDAP program_64 =/usr/lib/security/LDAP64 KRB5ALDAP: options = auth=KRB5A,db=LDAP

9. Edit the /etc/security/user file, and modify the default section to use the Kerberos/LDAP system and the LDAP user registry.
SYSTEM = "KRB5ALDAP" registry = LDAP

10. To test the Kerberos configuration, log in as a FreeIPA user and verify that the user and group information is correct:
$ id

11. Optionally, configure the FreeIPA client to accept incoming SSH requests and authenticate with the user's Kerberos credentials. a. Set the SSH syslog configuration:
auth.info auth.info auth.crit auth.warn auth.notice auth.err /var/log/sshd.log /var/log/sshd.log /var/log/sshd.log /var/log/sshd.log /var/log/sshd.log /var/log/sshd.log

b. Set the SSH logging configuration:


SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO

c.

Configure sshd to use GSSAPI:


vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config # GSSAPI options GSSAPIAuthentication yes #GSSAPICleanupCredentials yes

d. Restart the sshd daemon:


# stopsrc -s sshd # startsrc -s sshd

34

Configuring the AIX Client e. Restart the syslogd daemon:


# stopsrc -s syslogd # startsrc -s syslogd

f.

Add the client to the FreeIPA server's Kerberos configuration. i. Add a host service principal for the client.
# ipa service-add host/ipaclient.example.com

ii.

Retrieve the host keytab.


# ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver -p host/ipaclient.example.com -k /tmp/krb5.keytab e des-cbc-crc

iii. Copy the keytab from the server to the client.


# scp /tmp/krb5.keytab root@ipaclient.example.com:/tmp/krb5.keytab

g. On the FreeIPA client, use the ktutil command to import the contents into the main host keytab.
# ktutil ktutil: read_kt /tmp/krb5.keytab ktutil: write_kt /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab ktutil: q

h. On the FreeIPA server, add a user that is only used for authentication. (This can be substituted with krb5 authentication if that works from the LDAP client). Otherwise go to the FreeIPA server and use ldapmodify, bind as Directory Manager and create this user. The user should be assigned a shared password.
ldapmodify -D "cn=directory manager" -w secret -p 389 -h ipaserver.example.com -x -a dn: uid=nss,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: account objectClass: simplesecurityobject objectClass: top uid: nss userPassword: secretpassword

i.

On the FreeIPA server, get a ticket for the admin user.


# kinit admin

j.

To test the SSH configuration, try to log in as the admin user using SSH without providing a password.
# ssh admin@ipaclient.example.com

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Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients

NOTE
By default, the admin user is given /bin/bash as the shell to use and /home/admin as the home directory. It may be necessary to install bash to be able to log in.

2.7. Configuring a Macintosh OS X System as a FreeIPA Client


These instructions are specific to Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger) because this version includes the required Kerberos tools by default.

2.7.1. Configuring Kerberos Authentication


Configuring the Macintosh to use Kerberos for authentication with FreeIPA is a two-step process. First, Kerberos needs to be correctly installed and configured. Then, Kerberos authentication needs to be enabled.

2.7.1.1. Configuring Kerberos


Setting up the Kerberos configuration includes specifying the realm and domain details, and default ticket attributes. Forwardable tickets are configured by default, which facilitates connection to the administration interface from any operating system, and also provides for auditing of administration operations. For example, this is the Kerberos configuration for Fedora systems: 1. Make sure that the Kerberos version is 4.2 or higher. The Kerberos directory is /System/ Library/CFMSupport/Kerberos. If that directory does not exist or is the wrong version, install the Kerberos Extras support. 2. Launch the Kerberos management application. This is in /System/Library/Coreservices/ Kerberos. 3. From the Edit menu, choose Edit Realms. 4. In the Settings tab, enter the FreeIPA server's Kerberos realm, for example, EXAMPLE.COM. 5. In the Servers tab, enter the FreeIPA server's hostname for the kdc and admin values:
kdc ipaserver.example.com 88 admin ipaserver.example.com 749

6. In the Domains tab, replace the existing domains with the FreeIPA server's actual domain, such as example.com:
.example.com example.com

7. Click Make default to create the necessary configuration file, and then close the Kerberos tool. This creates the /Library/Preferences/edu.mit.kerberos file. Check this file manually to ensure that it is correct. For example:
[domain_realm] example.com = EXAMPLE.COM

36

Configuring LDAP Authorization


.example.com = .EXAMPLE.COM [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM dns_lookup_realm = true dns_lookup_kdc = true ticket_lifetime = 24h forwardable = yes [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { admin_server = ipaserver.example.com:749 default_domain = example.com kdc = ipaserver.example.com:88 }

2.7.1.2. Enabling Kerberos Authentication


1. Log in as the admin user and launch a terminal. 2. Change to the /private/etc directory and make a backup of the existing authorization file.
# cd /private/etc # cp -p authorization authorization_bak

3. Open the authorization file.


# vim /private/etc/authorization

4. Locate the string system.login.console, and then edit the dict and the mechanisms entry just beneath this line. 5. Change authinternal to builtin:krb5authnoverify,privileged.

WARNING
Several instances of authinternal may occur in this file. Change only the instance for system.login.console.

6. Save and close the file. 7. Restart the machine to enable Kerberos authentication.

2.7.2. Configuring LDAP Authorization


2.7.2.1. Creating the LDAP Configuration
1. Launch the Directory Access utility. 2. In the Services tab, clear all check boxes except LDAPv3 and Bonjour. 3. Select the LDAPv3 entry, and click Configure. 37

Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients 4. Make sure the Add DHCP-supplied LDAP servers checkbox is not selected. 5. Click the arrow next to the Show Options label, and then click New. 6. Enter the server hostname in the Server Name field, such as ipaserver.example.com. 7. Clear the Encrypt using SSL checkbox, and then click Manual. 8. Enter the configuration name, such as FreeIPA LDAP. 9. Select the Enable checkbox, and clear the SSL checkbox.

2.7.2.2. Setting up the LDAP Service Configuration Options


1. Select the newly-created LDAP configuration, and click Edit. 2. In the Connection tab, specify the connection settings: a. Open/close times out in 10 seconds b. Query times out in 10 seconds c. Re-bind attempted in 10 seconds

d. Connection idles out in 1 minute Clear all checkboxes. 3. In the Search & Mappings tab, set the Access this LDAP server using value to CUSTOM. 4. Still in the Search & Mappings tab, configure the naming attributes used by entries: a. In the Record Types and Attributes panel, select Default Attribute Types. b. Click Add. c. Select the Attribute Types option, then select RecordName from the list.

d. Select the newly-added RecordName attribute, and then click Add under the Map to any items in list panel. e. Type uid in the text box to set the LDAP attribute used for naming. Click outside the text box to set the value. 5. Still in the Search & Mappings tab, add a users record: a. Under the Record Types and Attributes panel, click Add. b. Select the Record Types option, and select Users from the list. c. Select the newly-added Users record type, and then click Add under the Map to any items in list panel.

d. Type inetOrgPerson in the text box. Click outside the text box to set the value. e. In the Search base field, type the base DN of the FreeIPA LDAP service, such as dc=example,dc=com f. Select the Search in all subtrees option.

38

Configuring the LDAP Authorization Options 6. Add attributes to the users record as appropriate. a. Under the Record Types and Attributes panel, click Add. b. Select the Attribute Types option, and then use Ctrl to select multiple attributes. Common attributes to add include: AuthenticationAuthority PrimaryGroupID RealName RecordName UniqueID UserShell 7. Specify appropriate mappings for the new attributes. Select the Authentication Authority record type, and then click Add under the Map to any items in list panel. The attribute mappings have the format #;Mac-attribute;;$LDAP-attribute$;value. For example, for the Kerberosv5 principal, the UID, and the realm, the mapping is #;Kerberosv5;;$uid$;EXAMPLE.COM. These are common mappings: Kerberosv5 and UID PrimaryGroupID and gidNumber UniqueID and uidNumber 8. Click OK to finish setting up the LDAP service configuration options.

2.7.3. Configuring the LDAP Authorization Options


1. In the Authentication tab, change the Search value to Custom path. 2. Click Add. 3. Select the configuration created in Section 2.7.2.2, Setting up the LDAP Service Configuration Options, and click Add. 4. Click Apply to update the LDAP configuration.

2.7.4. Configuring NTP


Open the Date and Time utility and point it to the FreeIPA server URL to set the date and time automatically.

2.7.5. Testing the Configuration


If client authentication is properly configured, a user can connect to the FreeIPA server using SSH without being prompted for a password. 1. Obtain a Kerberos ticket for the admin user.
# kinit admin

39

Chapter 2. Setting up Systems as FreeIPA Clients 2. Log into the server using SSH.
# ssh admin@ipaserver.example.com

Also, check the system login. 1. Log in as a FreeIPA user. 2. Check the user ID to make sure that both the user and group IDs are correct for the current account.
$ id uid=10678(jsmith) gid=10678(jsmith) groups=3(sys),100(users),1070(devel2),10678(jsmith)

3. Then, check that there is a valid Kerberos ticket.


$ klist Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_10678 Default principal: jsmith@EXAMPLE.COM Valid starting Expires Service principal 05/12/11 12:12:26 05/12/11 22:12:26 krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM renew until 05/12/11 12:12:26

Kerberos 4 ticket cache: /tmp/tkt10678 klist: You have no tickets cached

2.8. Uninstalling a FreeIPA Client


For Fedora clients, the ipa-client-install utility can be used to uninstall the client and remove it from the FreeIPA domaine. To remove the client, use the --uninstall option.
# ipa-client-install --uninstall

NOTE
There is an uninstall option with the ipa-join command. This is called by ipa-clientinstall --uninstall as part of the uninstallation process. However, while the ipa-join option removes the client from the domain, it does not actually uninstall the client or properly remove all of the FreeIPA-related configuration. Do not run ipa-join -u to attempt to uninstall the FreeIPA client. The only way to uninstall a client completely is to use ipa-client-install --uninstall.

40

Chapter 3.

Basic Usage
All of the access to FreeIPA, both through the web UI and through the command line, is done by a user authenticating to the FreeIPA domain. This chapter covers the basics of setting up browsers to handle Kerberos authentication, logging into FreeIPA, and troubleshooting some common connection issues.

3.1. Running FreeIPA Tools


The FreeIPA command-line tools are run as any other utilities in a shell. If there are special characters in the command such as angle brackets (> and <), ampersands (&), asterisks (*), and pipes (|) the characters must be escaped. Otherwise, the command fails because the shell cannot properly parse the unescaped characters.

3.2. Logging into FreeIPA


Users are authenticated to FreeIPA services, including the command-line tools and the web UI, using Kerberos authentication. This means that logging into FreeIPA requires running kinit. As a result of this operation you will acquire what is known as a Kerberos ticket. You can use the klist command to inspect the details of the ticket that you have acquired.

3.2.1. Logging into FreeIPA


Logging into FreeIPA requires running kinit. Simply running kinit logs into FreeIPA as the currently logged-in user account. This user account must also be an FreeIPA user for them to authenticate to the FreeIPA Kerberos domain successfully. For example, if you are logged into the machine as jsmith:
$ kinit Password for jsmith@EXAMPLE.COM:

NOTE
If SSSD or pam_krb5 is configured on the FreeIPA client machine, then when a user logs into the machine, a ticket is created which can be used for machine serivces which require authentication, such as sudo.

3.2.2. Logging in When an FreeIPA User Is Different Than the System User
To specify an FreeIPA username because a person's system username is different then the FreeIPA username or to switch FreeIPA user accounts simply rerun the kinit command, specifying the new user. For example:
$ kinit userName Password for userName@EXAMPLE.COM:

When the server was first set up, an administrative user, admin, is created to perform normal administrative activities. To authenticate as the admin user, use the name admin when running kinit:
$ kinit admin

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Chapter 3. Basic Usage

NOTE
Only one set of tickets can be stored per logged-in user. The current stored credentials are the ones that will be used when accessing FreeIPA services. If you were already connected to the FreeIPA web UI as another user, refresh the browser to display the updated details for the new user.

3.2.3. Checking the Current Logged in User


Use the klist command to verify the identity and the ticket granting ticket (TGT) from the server:
$ klist Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_500 Default principal: ipaUser@EXAMPLE.COM Valid starting 11/10/08 15:35:45 Expires 11/11/08 15:35:45 Service principal krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM

Kerberos 4 ticket cache: /tmp/tkt500 klist: You have no tickets cached

It's important to know who the authenticated user is because the currently-authenticated user is the only one who can access the FreeIPA services. The Kerberos client libraries for kinit have some limitation, one of them being that the current ticket is overwritten with any new invocation of kinit. Authenticating as User A and then authenticating as User B overwites User A's ticket. To allow there to be multiple authenticated users on a machine, set the KRB5CCNAME environment variable. This variable keeps credential caches separate in different shells.

3.3. Opening the FreeIPA Web UI


The browser must be properly configured, as described in Section 3.4, Configuring the Browser, to support Kerberos authentication so that the user can connect to the UI. To open the web UI: 1. Get a valid Kerberos ticket using kinit, as in Section 3.2, Logging into FreeIPA. 2. Open the FreeIPA URL. The full URL is http://IPAserver-FQDN/ipa/ui, but this service is also accessed simply by opening http://IPAserver-FQDN. For example:
http://server.example.com http://server.example.com/ipa/ui

3.4. Configuring the Browser


Firefox can use Kerberos credentials to authenticate to the FreeIPA UI, but Kerberos negotiation needs to be configured to use the FreeIPA domain. 1. Open Firefox. 2. Type about:config in the address bar. 3. In the Search field, type negotiate to filter out the Kerberos-related parameters. 42

Configuring the Browser 4. On Fedora, enter the domain name for the URI parameters, including the preceding period (.) and set the gsslib parameter to true:
network.negotiate-auth.trusted-uris .example.com network.negotiate-auth.delegation-uris .example.com network.negotiate-auth.using-native-gsslib true

On Windows, enter the domain name for the URI parameters, including the preceding period (.) and set the sspi parameter to false:
network.negotiate-auth.trusted-uris .example.com network.auth.use-sspi false network.negotiate-auth.delegation-uris .example.com

5. Open the web UI by going to the fully-qualified domain name of the FreeIPA server such as http://ipaserver.example.com. Make sure that you can open the web UI and that there are no Kerberos authentication errors. 6. Next, download the FreeIPA server's CA certificate from http://ipa.example.com/ipa/ config/ca.crt. 7. Select the first (Trust this CA to identify web sites) and third (Trust this CA to identify software developers) check boxes. 8. Click OK.

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Chapter 3. Basic Usage

3.5. Using a Browser on Another System


It is possible to connect to the FreeIPA web UI from a system which is not a member of the FreeIPA domain. In this case, it is possible to specify a FreeIPA-specific Kerberos configuration file on the external (non-FreeIPA) machine before running kinit, and then the user can authenticate against the FreeIPA server domain. This is especially useful there are multiple realms or overlapping domains across your infrastructure. 1. Copy the /etc/krb5.conf file from the FreeIPA server.
# scp /etc/krb5.conf root@externalmachine.example.com:/etc/krb5_ipa.conf

WARNING
Do not overwrite the existing krb5.conf file.

2. On the external machine, set the terminal session to use the copied FreeIPA Kerberos configuration file:
$ export KRB5_CONFIG=/etc/krb5_ipa.conf

3. Configure Firefox on the external machine as in Section 3.4, Configuring the Browser.

3.6. Enabling Username/Password Authentication in Your Browser


If Kerberos authentication fails, then browser login also fails. That prevents access to the FreeIPA web UI. Configuring username/password authentication for the UI allows users to log in even if there are problems with the Kerberos service. 1. Open the ipa.conf file used by the Apache web service.
vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa.conf

2. In the <Location "/ipa"> location definition, change the KrbMethodK5Passwd attribute from off to on.
KrbMethodK5Passwd on

3. Restart the httpd service:


# service httpd restart

When this is configured, the web UI prompts for a FreeIPA username and password if it can't detect any Kerberos credentials.

44

Troubleshooting UI Connection Problems

Figure 3.1. FreeIPA Password Prompt

NOTE
This must be configured on every FreeIPA server in the domain.

3.7. Troubleshooting UI Connection Problems


If negotiate authentication is not working, turn on verbose logging for the authentication process to help diagnose the issue: 1. Close all browser windows. 2. In a terminal, set the new log levels for Firefox:
export NSPR_LOG_MODULES=negotiateauth:5 export NSPR_LOG_FILE=/tmp/moz.log

This enables verbose logging and logs all information to /tmp/moz.log. 3. Restart the browser from the same terminal window and attempt t . Some of the common error messages and workarounds are in Table 3.1, UI Error Log Messages. Table 3.1. UI Error Log Messages Error Log Message
-1208550944[90039d0]: entering nsNegotiateAuth::GetNextToken() -1208550944[90039d0]: gss_init_sec_context() failed: Miscellaneous failure No credentials cache found -1208994096[8d683d8]: entering nsAuthGSSAPI::GetNextToken() -1208994096[8d683d8]: gss_init_sec_context() failed: Miscellaneous failure

Description and Fix There are no Kerberos tickets. Run kinit.

This can occur when you have successfully obtained Kerberos tickets but are still unable to authenticate to the UI. This indicates that there is a problem with the Kerberos configuration. 45

Chapter 3. Basic Usage Error Log Message


Server not found in Kerberos database

Description and Fix The first place to check is the [domain_realm] section in the /etc/krb5.conf file. Make sure that the FreeIPA Kerberos domain entry is correct and matches the configuration in the Firefox negotiation parameters. For example:
.example.com = EXAMPLE.COM example.com = EXAMPLE.COM

Nothing is in the log file.

It is possible that you are behind a proxy which is removing the HTTP headers required for negotiate authentication. Try to connect to the server using HTTPS instead, which allows the request to pass through unmodified. Then check the log file again.

46

Chapter 4.

Identity: Managing Users and User Groups


4.1. Setting up User Home Directories
A home directory is required for any FreeIPA user. Without a home directory in the expected location, a user may be unable to log into the domain. While systems administrators can manage home directories outside of FreeIPA, it is also possible to use a PAM module to create home directories automatically on both FreeIPA servers and clients.

4.1.1. About Home Directories


FreeIPA, as part of managing users, can manage user home directories. However, FreeIPA has certain defined parameters for any managed home directories: The default prefix for users' home directories is /home. FreeIPA does not automatically create home directories when users log in. Automatically creating home directories requires either the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir module or the pam_mkhomedir module. This module can be configured as part of client installation or after installation, as described in Section 4.1.2, Enabling the PAM Home Directory Module. The home directory process for FreeIPA first attempts to use the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir module because this requires fewer user privileges and access to create the home directories, as well as integrating smoothly with SELinux. If this module is not available, then the process falls back to the pam_mkhomedir module. It is possible to use an NFS file server that provides /home that can be made available to all machines in the domain and then automounted on the FreeIPA server. Using automounts for home directories is described in Section 4.1.3, Manually Automounting Home Directories. If a suitable directory and mechanism are not available for to create home directories, users may not be able to log in.

4.1.2. Enabling the PAM Home Directory Module


For a home directory to be created automatically when a user logs in, FreeIPA can use either the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir module or the pam_mkhomedir module. Because it requires fewer permissions and works well with SELinux, FreeIPA preferentially uses the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir module. If that module is not installed, then it falls back to the pam_mkhomedir module.

NOTE
FreeIPA does not require the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir module or pam_mkhomedir module because it may try to create home directories even when the shared storage is not available. The system administrator must activate this module on each client or server as needed.

There are two ways to enable the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir (or pam_mkhomedir) module: The --mkhomedir option can be used with the ipa-client-install command. While this is possible for clients, this option is not available to servers when they are set up. 47

Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups The pam_oddjob_mkhomedir module can be enabled using the system's authconfig command. For example:
authconfig --enablemkhomedir

This option can be used for both server and client machines post-installation.

4.1.3. Manually Automounting Home Directories


While PAM modules can be used to create home directories for user automatically, this may not be desireable behavior in every environment. In that case, home directories can be manually added to the FreeIPA server from separate locations using NFS shares and automount. 1. Create a new location for the user directory maps:
$ ipa automountlocation-add userdirs Location: userdirs

2. Add a direct map to the new location's auto.direct file. In this example, the mount point is / share:
$ ipa automountkey-add userdirs auto.direct --key=/share --info="-ro,soft, ipaserver.example.com:/home/share" Key: /share Mount information: -ro,soft, ipaserver.example.com:/home/share

Using automounts with FreeIPA is described in detail in Chapter 7, Identity: Using Automount.

4.2. Adding Users


FreeIPA supports a wide range of username formats, but you need to be aware of any restrictions that may apply to your particular environment. For example, a username that starts with a digit may cause problems for some UNIX systems. The range of username formats supported by FreeIPA can be described by the following regular expression:
[a-zA-Z0-9_.][a-zA-Z0-9_.-]{0,252}[a-zA-Z0-9_.$-]

The trailing $ symbol is permitted for Samba 3.x machine support. Use the ipa user-add command to add users to FreeIPA. You can pass attributes directly on the command line, or run the command with no parameters to enter interactive mode. Interactive mode prompts you to enter the basic attributes required to add a new user. You can add further attributes using the ipa user-mod command. Use the ipa user-mod --list command to view a list of the attributes that you can modify using this command. Procedure 4.1. To create the user jlamb using the command line: Open a shell and run the following command:
$ ipa user-add jlamb --first=John --last=Lamb --password

This will prompt for a password and then complete the new entry with default values.

48

Adding Users The following example illustrates using the ipa user-add command in interactive mode to create a user account:
# ipa user-add First name: Jinny Last name: Pattanajee User login [jpattanajee]: jpattan -------------------Added user "jpattan" -------------------User login: jpattan First name: Jinny Last name: Pattanajee Home directory: /home/jpattan GECOS field: jpattan Login shell: /bin/sh Kerberos principal: jpattan@MYDOMAIN.NET UID: 387115841

Press Enter at each prompt to accept the default values (enclosed in square brackets), or type an alternative. Refer to the ipa user-add help page for more information.

IMPORTANT
When a user is created without specifying a UID or GID number, then the user account is automatically assigned an ID number that is next available in the server or replica range. (Number ranges are described more in Section 13.3, Managing Unique UID and GID Number Assignments.) This means that a user always has a unique number for its UID number and, if configured, for its private group. If a number is manually assigned to a user entry, the server does not validate that the uidNumber is unique. It will allow duplicate IDs; this is expected (though discouraged) behavior for Posix entries. If two entries are assigned the same ID number, only the first entry is returned in a search for that ID number. However, both entries will be returned in searches for other attributes or with ipa user-find --all.

You can now authenticate using the newly-created user and temporary password. Type kinit userLogin to log in to FreeIPA. This will prompt you for a password and then immediately request a password change.

NOTE
Only one set of tickets can be stored per logged-in user. The current stored credentials are the ones that will be used when accessing FreeIPA services. If you authenticated as admin, added a new user, set the password, and then tried to authenticate as that user, the administrator's ticket is lost. To prevent this from happening, a special environment variable, KRB5CCNAME, can be used. This allows you to keep credential caches separate in different shells.

49

Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups

4.3. Editing Users


Use the ipa user-mod command to modify user account details, such as adding, removing or changing attributes. Refer to the following examples: To update attributes for the user jsmith:
$ ipa user-mod jsmith --email=johnsmith@mydomain.com --title=Editor

To retrieve a list of attributes for a user:


$ ipa user-show --raw userName

The list of attributes corresponds to those available in the web interface, not including any custom attributes that may have been defined.

4.4. Activating and Deactivating User Accounts


FreeIPA user accounts can be set to a status of Active or Inactive. If you deactivate a user account, that user can no longer log in to FreeIPA, change their password, or perform any other tasks. Any existing connections will remain valid until their Kerberos TGT and other tickets expire, but they will not be able to renew them. The account and all associated information still exists, but is inaccessible by the user.

4.4.1. Using the Command Line


Use the ipa user-enable and ipa user-disable commands to enable and disable user accounts, respectively. Refer to the following examples: To disable the jsmith user account: $ ipa user-disable jsmith To enable the jsmith user account: $ ipa user-enable jsmith

4.5. Specifying Default User Settings


You can configure the default settings for FreeIPA users to suit your deployment. For example, you can specify the maximum username length, the default path to the /home directory, the default shell, and other attributes. FreeIPA supports the following User Settings: Maximum Username Length (ipaMaxUsernameLength): The maximum length of any username. The default value is eight. Root for Home Directories (ipaHomesRootDir): The root directory for all home directories. The default value is /home. Default Shell (ipaDefaultLoginShell): The default shell for all user accounts. The default value is / bin/sh. Default User Group (ipaDefaultPrimaryGroup): The default group to which all newly created accounts are added. The default value is ipausers, which is automatically created during the FreeIPA server installation process. 50

Setting Default Search Limits Default E-mail Domain (ipaDefaultEmailDomain): The default domain used to create email addresses for all newly created accounts. The default is the domain to which the FreeIPA server belongs. Use the ipa config-mod command to modify the default configuration attributes. The following is an example of how to set the maximum username length to 64 characters, and the default home directory to /users/home:
# ipa config-mod --maxusername=64 --homedirectory=/users/home Max username length: 64 Home directory base: /users/home Default shell: /bin/sh Default users group: ipausers Default e-mail domain: mydomain.net Search time limit: 2 Search size limit: 100 User search fields: uid,givenname,sn,telephonenumber,ou,title Group search fields: cn,description Migration mode: FALSE Certificate Subject base: O=MYDOMAIN.NET

Refer to the ipa help config page for more information.

Note
The default root directory for all home directories is /home, but it is the responsibility of the system administrator to ensure that whatever value is specified for this attribute is actually available. Fedora includes a PAM module called pam_mkhomedir that can automatically create a home directory if one does not exist for the user authenticating against the system. FreeIPA does not force the use of this module because it may try to create home directories even when the shared storage is not available. It is the responsibility of the system administrator to activate this module on the clients if needed.

4.6. Setting Default Search Limits


You can set limits on the number of records returned when performing various queries, for example when you run the ipa user-find command. These limits are specified by the Search size limit attribute in the default FreeIPA configuration. The default value for this attribute is 100. To view the current configuration, run the # ipa config-show command. Refer to the ipa help config help page for more information. The following is a sample FreeIPA configuration:
[ming@myserver ~]$ ipa config-show Max username length: 32 Home directory base: /home Default users group: ipausers Default e-mail domain: mydomain.net Search time limit: 2 Search size limit: 20 User search fields: uid,givenname,sn,telephonenumber,ou,title Group search fields: cn,description Certificate Subject base: O=MYDOMAIN.NET

51

Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups You can use the ipa config-mod command to specify a suitable value for the Search size limit attribute. For example, if you set this value to 10, the ipa user-find command will only return 10 entries, even if many more entries exist. If you set this value to 0 (zero) or 1, it means that there are no restrictions on the number of entries that can be returned. Setting search size limits 1. To set the Search size limit attribute to 50, run the following command:
# ipa config-mod --searchrecordslimit=50

Important
You need to be aware of the potential performance impact of setting the search size limit too high. You need to determine a suitable balance between the benefits of always returning all entries matched by a search, and the performance gained by implementing a search filter. Note also that if the size limit is set too high or removed completely it might affect the behavior of UI screens.

You can configure various aspects of the FreeIPA search functionality to suit your deployment. For example, you can restrict the number of fields upon which a user can base a search, or limit the number of records returned for any particular search. FreeIPA supports the following search configuration attributes: Search Time Limit: The maximum time, in seconds, that a search will run before failing. Search Records Limit: The maximum number of records that a search can return. Set this value to zero (0) to specify no limit. The directory server limit (the default value is 2000) still applies. User Search Fields: For a user search, specifies the fields to search for the values entered by a user. Group Search Fields: For a group search, specifies the fields to search for the values entered by a user. Use the ipa config-mod command to modify the default configuration attributes. For example, to specify a search time limit of 60 seconds, use the following command:
# ipa config-mod --searchtimelimit=60

Refer to the ipa help config page for more information. If you add attributes to the user or group search fields, you should also create a new LDAP index for those attributes to avoid performance degradation. Conversely, the existence of too many indexes can impact write performance, so you need to balance one against the other. Refer to Creating Indexes in the 389 Directory Server Administration Guide for information on creating indexes.
1

http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/dir-server/ag/8.0/Managing_Indexes-Creating_Indexes.html

52

Deleting FreeIPA Users

4.7. Deleting FreeIPA Users


If you delete a FreeIPA user account, all of the information stored in the entry for that identity is lost. This includes the user's full name, group membership, phone numbers, and passwords. The actual user account and home directory still exist, be they on a server, local machine, or other provider, but they are no longer accessible by FreeIPA. Unlike deactivation, if you delete a user account, it cannot be retrieved. If you need this user account again, you need to recreate it and add all of the account details manually.

Note
Unlike in earlier versions of FreeIPA, it is now possible to delete the admin user. If, however, you delete all of the admin users then you will need to use the Directory Manager account to create a new administrative user. Alternatively, if you have a user in the group management role, they can add a new admin user.

4.7.1. Using the Command Line


Use the ipa user-del command to delete user accounts. For example: To delete the jsmith user account: $ ipa user-del jsmith If you intend to delete multiple users, you can use the --continue option to prevent the command from stopping should it encounter any errors. For example: $ ipa user-del --continue user_01 user_02 user_03 If you run this command without using the --continue option, FreeIPA will delete the listed user accounts unless it encounters any errors, at which point it stops. For example, if user_02 did not exist, the previous command would only delete user_01; user_03 would not be affected. The --continue option returns a summary of successes and failures to stdout.

4.8. Creating User Groups


FreeIPA uses groups to facilitate the management and administration of all types of objects, such as users, hosts, tasks, roles, and others. This section introduces User Groups and how they are used within FreeIPA. Other object groups behave and are used in similar ways; these are discussed elsewhere.

User Groups
Three groups are created during the installation process: ipausers, admins, and editors. All of these groups are required for FreeIPA operation. The FreeIPA Administrator is a member of the admins group. All other users belong to the global group ipausers, and you can create as many additional groups as you require.

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Note
Some operating systems limit the number of groups that you can create. For example, Solaris and AIX allow only 16 groups per user. FreeIPA Administrators need to be aware of this limitation, especially when using nested groups.

The editors group is a special group used by the web interface. Members of this group have at least one delegation, which means they can edit records apart from their own. You can create groups based on the departments within your organization, for example, Development, Finance, and HR. You can also create groups based on the permissions, or roles, required to manage your departmental or other groups.

Nested Groups
You can also create nested groups. For example, you can create a group called "Documentation", and then create sub-groups such as "Writers", "Translators", and "Editors". You can add users to each of the sub-groups to suit the needs of your organization. Any users that you add to a sub-group automatically become members of the parent group.

Warning
Avoid the creation of cyclic groups; that is, groups that contain groups that in turn contain their own ancestors, and avoid creating group names that contain spaces. Either of these conditions can lead to unexpected behavior.

4.8.1. Creating FreeIPA Groups


4.8.1.1. Using the Command Line
Use the ipa group-add command to add groups. You can include attributes on the command line or use the command interactively. For example: To create a group called "Engineering" using the command line:
$ ipa group-add Group name: Engineering Description: All members of the engineering group ------------------------Added group "engineering" ------------------------Group name: Engineering Description: All members of the engineering group GID: 387115842

Alternatively, include all of the required attributes on the command line:


$ ipa group-add --desc='All authors, editors, and translators' Documentation --------------------------Added group "documentation" --------------------------Group name: documentation Description: All authors, editors, and translators GID: 387115845

54

Editing FreeIPA Groups The group name and description are mandatory fields. If either of these are not included on the command line, you will be prompted to include them.

IMPORTANT
When a group is created without specifying a GID number, then the group entry is assigned the ID number that is next available in the server or replica range. (Number ranges are described more in Section 13.3, Managing Unique UID and GID Number Assignments.) This means that a group always has a unique number for its GID number. If a number is manually assigned to a group entry, the server does not validate that the gidNumber is unique. It will allow duplicate IDs; this is expected (though discouraged) behavior for Posix entries. If two entries are assigned the same ID number, only the first entry is returned in a search for that ID number. However, both entries will be returned in searches for other attributes or with ipa group-find --all.

Adding members to a new group


You cannot add members to a newly-created group using the ipa group-add command. First you need to create the group, and then use the ipa group-add-member command to add members. For example:
$ ipa group-add-member --users=user01,user02,user03 engineering Group name: engineering Description: All members of the engineering group GID: 387115842 Member users: user01,user02,user03 ------------------------Number of members added 3 -------------------------

You can use the same process to create nested groups:


$ ipa group-add-member --groups=group01,group02 engineering Group name: engineering Description: All members of the engineering group GID: 387115842 Member groups: group01,group02 ------------------------Number of members added 2 -------------------------

4.8.2. Editing FreeIPA Groups


You can edit many of the attributes that define a group, as well as add or remove members. Some attributes are read-only by default, however you can edit these attributes if required. You cannot edit the group name. The group name is the primary key, so changing it is the equivalent of deleting the group and creating a new one.

4.8.2.1. Using the Command Line


Use the ipa group-mod command to modify specific attributes of FreeIPA groups. FreeIPA provides numerous commands for working with groups, such as ipa group-add-member and ipa group55

Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups detach; run the ipa help group command to access the FreeIPA group help page for more information.

4.8.3. Deleting FreeIPA Groups


When you delete a FreeIPA group, only the immediate group is removed; members of the group are not affected. When you delete a FreeIPA group, any delegations that apply to that group are also removed. For example, suppose you added an "EngineeringManager" group specifically to set up delegations for the Engineering Manager. If you delete the EngineeringManager group, then those delegations are also lost. These delegations cannot be retrieved. If you need this group and delegation again, you need to recreate them.

4.8.3.1. Using the Command Line


Use the ipa group-del command to delete groups. For example: To delete the Engineering group: $ ipa group-del Engineering

4.9. Setting an Individual Password Policy


FreeIPA has a default policy of never exposing passwords, even hashed passwords, to clients, in the interests of system security. This policy applies even if you still rely on NIS server functionality to some degree, for example, as a result of a full or partial migration from NIS to FreeIPA. FreeIPA normally expects a switch to Kerberos for authentication, but this may not always be possible. The FreeIPA password policy supports the specification of various password attributes that help to ensure the security of your system, and also that of individual user accounts. You can specify the password lifetime, length, and the types of characters required, all as part of the FreeIPA password policy.

Note
In Fedora 15, the FreeIPA password policy is enforced by the KDC. Only a limited number of attributes are currently supported, but this will be extended in later versions. Because the password policy is enforced by the KDC, any further policy specifications that you implement as part of the Directory Server password policy will not be visible in FreeIPA, and neither will they be enforced. Different rules apply to changing passwords, depending on your login credentials.

4.9.1. Changing Passwords as the Directory Manager


If you reset a password using cn=Directory Manager credentials (only possible if you manually perform an LDAP password change operation) then you override any checks and the password is set to whatever you specify. The FreeIPA password policy is ignored.

4.9.2. Changing Passwords as the FreeIPA Administrator


If you reset a password using admin credentials (that is, as part of the admins group), the FreeIPA password policy is ignored, but the expiration date is set to "now". This means that the user is forced 56

Changing Passwords as a Regular User to change the password at login time, and the password policy is then enforced. This is also true for users who have had password changing rights delegated to them. Consequently, the FreeIPA Administrator can easily create users with "default" passwords and reset user's passwords, but will not know the actual, final password entered by the user. Further, any password that is transmitted from the FreeIPA Administrator to the user, even over insecure channels, is a temporary password. Consequently, it is not critical if it is accidentally disclosed, provided that the user promptly resets it.

4.9.3. Changing Passwords as a Regular User


If you are logged in as a regular user (that is, you are not part of the admins group, or possessed of any elevated privileges), then you can only change your own password, and these changes are always subject to the FreeIPA password policy.

4.9.4. Editing the Password Policy


You can use either the web interface or the command line to edit the FreeIPA password policy. However, you can only edit those attributes supported by FreeIPA.

4.9.4.1. Using the Command Line


Use the ipa pwpolicy-* commands to create and modify FreeIPA password policies. These commands are provided as part of the ipa pwpolicy plug-in functionality. The ipa help pwpolicy command displays the help page and some examples of using this plug-in. For example, use the following command to update the minimum global password length to 10 characters, and to specify that no history of passwords be kept: # ipa pwpolicy-mod --minlength=10 --history=0 To display the global password policy: # ipa pwpolicy-show Refer to Section 4.9.6, Password Policy Attributes for information on password policy attributes.

4.9.5. Setting Different Password Policies for Different User Groups


The FreeIPA password policy plug-in (ipa pwpolicy) manages both global and per-group password policies. You can use this plug-in to display or modify existing password policies to suit the needs of your environment. The following examples demonstrate how to display and modify existing password policies. To display the password policy for a specific group: # ipa pwpolicy-show --group=example To add a new policy for a specific group: # ipa pwpolicy-add --minlife=10 --priority=10 --group=example

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Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups

Note
When adding or modifying the password policy for a group, that group needs to already exist but does not need to contain any members.

To remove an attribute from a password policy, use the ipa pwpolicy-mod command to set an empty value for the required attribute to delete it. The following example illustrates adding a password policy with three specific attributes to an existing group:
# ipa pwpolicy-add --minlife=1 --maxlife=5 --priority=1 g1 Group: g1 Max lifetime (days): 5 Min lifetime (hours): 1 Priority: 1

The following command uses the ipa pwdpolicy-mod command to set an empty value to the minlife attribute:
# ipa pwpolicy-mod --minlife= g1 Group: g1 Max lifetime (days): 5

To display the policy for a given user: # ipa pwpolicy-show --user=tuser1

Note
Password policies are not cumulative. That is, you cannot override a single setting in a policy and let it fall back to the global policy on all the others; it is all or nothing.

4.9.5.1. Setting the Priority of Password Policies


The following example demonstrates the use of password priority, where a user and two groups are created, with a separate password policy for each group. Each policy has a different priority, and the user is added to both groups. 1. Adding a user Use the ipa user-add command to add a new user:

# ipa user-add --first=Tim --last=User tuser1 --------Added user "tuser1" --------User login: tuser1 First name: Tim Last name: User Home directory: /home/tuser1 GECOS field: tuser1 Login shell: /bin/sh Kerberos principal: tuser1@IPANETWORK.ORG

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Setting Different Password Policies for Different User Groups 2. Use the ipa group-add command to add two new groups:

# ipa group-add --desc=Group1 g1 ---------Added group "g1" ---------Group name: g1 Description: Group1 # ipa group-add --desc=Group2 g2 ---------Added group "g2" ---------Group name: g2 Description: Group2

3.

Use the ipa pwpolicy-add command to specify different policies for each group:

# ipa pwpolicy-add --minlife=10 --priority=10 --group=g1 --------------------------Added policy for group "g1" --------------------------Group: g1 Minimum lifetime (in hours): 10 # ipa pwpolicy-add --minlife=20 --priority=20 --group=g2 --------------------------Added policy for group "g2" --------------------------Group: g2 Minimum lifetime (in hours): 20

4.

Use the ipa group-add-member command to add the user that you previously created to each group. You can then use the ipa pwpolicy-show command to display the policy that is in effect for the user. 1. Add the user to the g1 group and then check the policy:

$ ipa group-add-member --users=tuser1 g1 Group name: g1 Description: Group1 Member Users: tuser1 Users: Groups: ------------------------Number of members added 1 ------------------------$ ipa pwpolicy-show --user=tuser1 Group: g1 Minimum lifetime (in hours): 10

2.

Add the user to the g2 group and recheck the policy:

$ ipa group-add-member --users=tuser1 g2 Group name: g2 Description: Group2

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Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups


Member Users: tuser1 Users: Groups: ------------------------Number of members added 1 ------------------------$ ipa pwpolicy-show --user=tuser1 Group: g1 Minimum lifetime (in hours): 10

Notice that the password policy that is in effect for the user tuser1 is taken from the g1 group, because it has a higher priority. 5. Finally, use the ipa group-remove-member command to remove the user from the g1 group to demonstrate that they still have a custom policy.

$ ipa group-remove-member --users=tuser1 g1 --------------------------Number of members removed 1 --------------------------Users: Groups: $ ipa pwpolicy-show --user=tuser1 Group: g2 Minimum lifetime (in hours): 20

4.9.6. Password Policy Attributes


The password policy is enforced by the pwd_extop SLAPI plug-in. FreeIPA supports the following password policy attributes: Minimum Password Lifetime (krbMinPwdLife): The minimum period of time, in hours, that a user's password must be in effect before the user can change it. The default value is one hour. You can use this attribute to prevent users from changing their password to a "temporary" value and then immediately changing it back to the original value. Maximum Password Lifetime (krbMaxPwdLife): The maximum period of time, in days, that a user's password can be in effect before it must be changed. The default value is 90 days. Minimum Number of Character Classes (krbPwdMinDiffChars): The minimum number of different classes, or types, of character that must exist in a password before it is considered valid. The default value is 0 (zero). For example, setting krbPwdMinDiffChars = 3 requires that passwords contain at least one character from three of the supported classes. There are six supported character classes: Upper-case characters Lower-case characters Digits Special characters (for example, punctuation) 8-bit characters (characters whose decimal code starts at 128 or below)

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Notifying Users of Password Expiration Number of repeated characters This weights in the opposite direction, so that if you have too many repeated characters you will not meet the quorum to satisfy the "level" expressed by krbPwdMinDiffChars. Minimum Length of Password (krbPwdMinLength): The minimum number of characters that must exist in a password before it is considered valid. The default value is eight characters. Password History Size (krbPwdHistoryLength): The number of previous passwords that FreeIPA stores, and which a user is prevented from using. For example, if you set this value to 10, FreeIPA prevents a user from reusing any of their previous 10 passwords. The default value is 0 (zero) (disable password history).

Note
If password history checking is enabled, and a user attempts to use one of the passwords in the history list, the error message returned by the system may be misleading. For example, you may see the following error:
A database error occurred: Constraint violation: Password fails to meet minimum strength criteria

This is because python-ldap prevents the retrieval of extended information on password policy failures over LDAP.

Note
Even with krbPwdHistoryLength set to zero, users cannot reuse their existing password.

Priority (priority): The priority determines which policy is in effect. The lower the number the higher priority. This is important if a user is in several groups, each with a password policy set. Maximum Consecutive Failures (maxfail): Specifies the maximum number of consecutive failures to input the correct password before the user's account is locked. Fail Interval (failinterval): Specifies the period (in seconds) after which the failure count will be reset. Lockout Time (lockouttime): Specifies the period (in seconds) for which a lockout is enforced. Refer to the ipa help pwpolicy-add help page for more information on configuring the FreeIPA password policy.

4.9.7. Notifying Users of Password Expiration


If it is installed and configured, SSSD can use the PAM module to send messages to users, warning them about imminent password expiration. Fedora has a pam_pwd_expiration_warning option to fine tune this feature. You can also manually search for passwords that are due to expire by a specified date. For example, to retrieve all user entries whose passwords are due to expire before March 1st, 2011, run the following command: 61

Chapter 4. Identity: Managing Users and User Groups

$ ldapsearch -Y GSSAPI -b "cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com" '(krbPasswordExpiration<=20110301000000Z)'

4.9.8. Using SSH for Password Authentication


If you use password authentication (no GSSAPI authentication, and no ticket on the client) with a new user, or with a user whose password has expired, you need to enable Challenge-Response authentication. Otherwise, the password changing dialog box will not display. This is not enabled by default because some older SSL clients may not support Challenge-Response authentication, and it is needed only if the password has expired.

To enable Challenge-Response authentication:


Set ChallengeResponseAuthentication to yes in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file.

4.9.9. Using Local Logins


User identity and authentication is managed by SSSD in recent versions of Fedora. The default settings specified by the FreeIPA installation script include timeout settings that still allow local logins to succeed if the client cannot access the FreeIPA server. These settings are specified in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file, and can be tuned to suit your particular deployment. Further, if SSSD's password caching feature is enabled, a user can log in even if the FreeIPA server is down. A typical deployment would normally include two or more servers for redundancy, and so this would not normally be a problem.

Warning
These timeout settings are only set on operating systems that support the FreeIPA installation script, meaning Fedora 15 and later. On other versions, specify these values manually or it may be impossible to log into the host if no FreeIPA servers are available.

4.10. Searching for Users and Groups


FreeIPA provides extensive search capabilities, which enable you to perform simple and partial-match searches on a range of attributes, including: First Name (givenname) Last Name (sn) Login (uid) Job Title (title) Organizational Unit Name (ou) Phone Number (telephoneNumber) Searches are not case sensitive, and automatically search across multiple fields. Search results are displayed with exact matches listed first, followed by partial matches. The default display lists users in alphabetical order. Click any column title to sort in alphabetical or numerical order. Click the title again to sort in reverse order. The sort order is indicated by an icon next to the title. 62

Searching for Users Not all fields are indexed for searching. For example, you cannot search on the following user details: Initials Account Status Home Directory Login Shell Gecos Home Page

Note
You cannot use wildcards to search for users or groups. The search string must include at least one character that appears in one of the indexed search fields.

4.10.1. Searching for Users


4.10.1.1. Using the Command Line
Use the ipa user-find command to search for users from the command line. The basic syntax of this command is as follows: ipa user-find [ options ] { string }

Note
Unlike the web version of the Find User utility, you can only search for a single string using the command line version.

Refer to the ipa user-find man page for more information on the options available. The following example demonstrates using the ipa user-find command to find users whose record contains the string "kay":
$ ipa user-find kay --------------2 users matched --------------User login: klim First name: Kay Last name: Lim Home directory: /home/klim Login shell: /bin/sh Account disabled: False Member of groups: ipausers User login: kming First name: Kay Last name: Ming Home directory: /home/kming Login shell: /bin/sh Account disabled: False

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Member of groups: ipausers ---------------------------Number of entries returned 2 ----------------------------

If you do not see the entry that you are looking for, you may need to adjust the -searchrecordslimit option in the default FreeIPA configuration.

4.10.2. Searching for Groups


4.10.2.1. Using the Command Line
Use the ipa group-find command to search for groups from the command line. The basic syntax of this command is as follows: ipa group-find { string }

Note
Unlike the web version of the Find Group utility, you can only search for a single string using the command-line version.

Refer to the ipa group-find man page for more information on the options available. The following example demonstrates using the ipa group-find command to find groups that contain the string "documentation":
$ ipa group-find documentation --------------1 group matched --------------Group name: documentation Description: Group for all documentation authors GID: 1453400012 Member users: dkim, mkang, lming, klim ---------------------------Number of entries returned 1 ----------------------------

Note
The ipa group-find command searches both group names and group descriptions. If your search results are too extensive, use a more specific search string.

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Chapter 5.

Identity: Managing Hosts and Host Groups


5.1. A Summary of Host and Host Group Tools
Table 5.1. Host Commands Command ipa host-add ipa host-mod Description Adds a new host entry. Modifies an existing host entry, either by changing attribute values or adding new attributes. Deletes the host from the DNS for the FreeIPA domain. Disables the host entry, which functionally removes the host from the service but does not delete the entry.

ipa host-del ipa host-disable

5.2. Adding Host Entries


The first part of enrollment is creating a host entry in the FreeIPA Directory Server and, if configured, its DNS. There are several FreeIPA command line tools that manage host entries, as well as managing host entries in the Example 5.1. Creating Host Entries with DNS If you are using a FreeIPA-based DNS system, you can use the --ip-address and --force options to the ipa host-add command to provide the IP address and hostname of the FreeIPA machine to the DNS. For example,
$ ipa host-add --force --ip-address=192.168.166.31 puma.example.com

IPA provides the ipa host-del command to delete FreeIPA hosts. You can pass the -updatedns option to this command to remove the associated records from the DNS. It will attempt to remove any record, A, AAAA, PTR, NS, SRV, and other entries that reference this host. For example,
$ ipa host-del --updatedns puma

5.3. Extending the Permissions of FreeIPA Managed Hosts


The definition of "manage" is "being able to retrieve a keytab and certificates on behalf of another host or service". Every host and service has a managedby entry. By default, a host can manage itself and all of its services. It is also possible to allow a host to manage other hosts, or services on other hosts, by updating the appropriate delegations or providing a suitable managedby entry.

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Chapter 5. Identity: Managing Hosts and Host Groups

Note
If a host is provided with a managedby entry to another host, it does not mean management of all services on that host. Each delegation has to be performed independently.

5.3.1. Delegating Service Management


This section describes how to create a new host and a service on that host, and then delegate management of that service to another host. In this example, the FreeIPA server is installed on slinky.example.com Procedure 5.1. To delegate service management to another host 1. Create a new host:
# kinit admin # ipa host-add panther.example.com

2.

Create a service on this host:


# ipa service-add test/panther.example.com

3.

Delegate managing the service:


# ipa service-add-host --hosts=slinky panther

You can now use the host service principal on slinky to manage panther:
# kinit -kt /etc/krb5.keytab host/`hostname` # ipa-getkeytab -s `hostname` -k /tmp/test.keytab -p test/panther.example.com Keytab successfully retrieved and stored in: /tmp/test.keytab

4.

To create a ticket for this service, create a CSR and then run the following command:
# ipa cert-request --add --principal=test/panther.example.com panther.csr Certificate: MIICETCCAXqgA...[snip] Subject: CN=panther.example.com,O=EXAMPLE.COM Issuer: CN=EXAMPLE.COM Certificate Authority Not Before: Tue Feb 08 18:51:51 2011 UTC Not After: Mon Feb 08 18:51:51 2016 UTC Fingerprint (MD5): c1:46:8b:29:51:a6:4c:11:cd:81:cb:9d:7c:5e:84:d5 Fingerprint (SHA1): 01:43:bc:fa:b9:d8:30:35:ee:b6:54:dd:a4:e7:d2:11:b1:9d:bc:38 Serial number: 1005

5.3.2. Delegating Host Management


This section describes how to delegate management of one host to another host. This example uses the same hosts as those used in the previous example. Procedure 5.2. To delegate host management to another host 1. Ensure you have admin credentials and then add the appropriate managedby entry:
# kinit admin

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Delegating Host Management


# ipa host-add-managedby --hosts=slinky panther

2.

Obtain a TGT as the host slinky and then retrieve a keytab for panther:
# kinit -kt /etc/krb5.keytab host/`hostname` # ipa-getkeytab -s `hostname` -k /tmp/panther.keytab -p host/panther.example.com Keytab successfully retrieved and stored in: /tmp/panther.keytab

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Chapter 6.

Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain


6.1. About Kerberos
The Kerberos server is a part of FreeIPA. When you run the kinit command you invoke a client that connects to the Kerberos server. As a result of the authentication the client receives a ticket. This ticket is a temporary pass; or a better description might be a pass-book. The best example from real life might be a pass to a movie festival. A single pass to such a festival would allow someone to attend different movies at their discretion. Kerberos is very similar. When a user tries to access any resource that is protected by Kerberos, that resource requires the user to present a valid ticket, the same as in the movies. To obtain such a ticket the user needs to prove their identity; that they are who they claim to be. Asking the user to constantly authenticate with their password would soon prove to be too annoying and hard to manage. This is why a multi-tier process exists, where the user first authenticates and obtains a so-called ticket-granting ticket (TGT). This ticket can then be presented to the Kerberos server at any time and a new ticket specific to the resource that the user wants to access can be acquired. All of these tickets have a configurable expiration time, so the user occasionally needs to reauthenticate, but it is much less of a burden. Kerberos is a network authentication protocol which allows users to authenticate to services with the help of a KDC. Kerberos authentication requires that both the user and the service be known to the KDC and that each has previously shared a set of encryption keys with the KDC. A user's keys are derived from the user's password, and while a service's keys can also be derived from a password, it is more likely that they are randomly generated. Users and services are known to the KDC by what are referred to as their principal names, and those users and services are often referred to simply as principals. A service principal consists of three components: the service name the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) the Kerberos realm The service name is an arbitrary case-sensitive string, such as host, HTTP, ldap, or DNS. By convention, daemons use a specific service; sometimes this service name is obvious, but not always. The sshd daemon, for example, uses the host service principal. The syntax, or structure, of a service principal is as follows: service/FQDN@REALM. For example, the host service principal for a machine named test.example.com in the Kerberos realm EXAMPLE.COM would be host/test.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM. By convention, this principal is stored in /etc/krb5.keytab.

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Chapter 6. Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain

Important
When you run the ipa-client-install command, it retrieves the host service principal and stores it in the /etc/krb5.keytab file. This host principal is stored within the host record so that the service commands cannot be used with this principal. The idea behind this is that after you have run the ipa-client-install command, your client should be fully prepared to participate in the FreeIPA network.

Clients use service principals to inform the KDC which service they need a ticket for. The KDC uses the key assigned to the service principal to encrypt the service ticket it grants to client. Service principals and their associated keys are stored in a keytab file. If the KDC has the service principal and the key assigned to that principal, it can still provide the client with a ticket, but the service server will not be able to decrypt the ticket without the key stored in that keytab file. Service principals are typically released per service, although it is possible for one service principal to be used for more than one service.

The Importance of Service Principals and keytabs


Service principals and their associated keys play a critical role in a Kerberos-aware environment. This is especially true when services are accessed by multiple users. As long as a valid ticket exists for a specific service, users can access that service using their Kerberos credentials. For example, if a user tries to mount an NFS directory using Kerberos, then both the NFS server and the user require their own valid principal, and share their own secret key with the KDC. The NFS server key is established during the FreeIPA NFS configuration on the server. If the secret key is replaced on the server, for example, by getting a new keytab, then you need to export this new keytab to the KDC, which will then distribute it to the clients.

Protecting keytab Files


To protect your keytab files, consider the following general rules with respect to their permissions and ownership: Owner: uid of the process that will use the keytab Mode: 0600 For example, set the owner of the Apache keytab (/etc/httpd/conf/ipa.keytab) to httpd and the mode to 0600.

Warning
Clients attempting to mount NFS exports rely on the existence of a valid principal and secret key on both the NFS server and the client host. Clients themselves should not have access to the NFS keytab. The ticket for the NFS connection will be given to clients from the KDC. Failure to export an updated keytab can cause problems that are difficult to isolate. For example, existing service connections may continue to function, but no new connections may be possible. Due to the critical role that keytabs play in authenticating users and services, and the issues that can arise if they are compromised, ensure that all keytab files are appropriately secured, and have suitable file ownership and permissions established.

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Setting Kerberos Ticket Policies

6.2. Setting Kerberos Ticket Policies


Kerberos tickets are issued subject to the restraints of the Kerberos ticket policy. This policy defines the maximum ticket lifetime and also the maximum renewal age, the period during which the ticket is renewable. You can use the ipa krbtpolicy-mod command to modify the policy to suit your environment. You can also use the ipa krbtpolicy-reset command to reset the policy to the default values.

Important
Any change to the global Kerberos ticket policy requires a restart of the KDC for the changes to take effect. Use the following command to restart the KDC:
# service krb5kdc restart

Kerberos authentication is the core of the FreeIPA server. For a full discussion of how Kerberos works, configuration, and other aspects of Kerberos, see the MIT Kerberos project documentation at http:// web.mit.edu/kerberos/www/. FreeIPA uses a single Kerberos ticket policy. This policy defines the maximum ticket lifetime and the maximum renewal age; that is, the period during which the ticket is renewable. You can also create a per-user ticket policy by specifying the user login.

Note
Changes to the global policy require a restart of the KDC service to take effect, as follows:
# service krb5kdc restart

Changes to per-user policies take effect immediately for newly-requested tickets, for example, when the user next runs kinit.

6.3. Creating and Using Service Principals


You can use the web interface to create service principals and also to search for existing service principals. For security and other reasons, however, it is not possible to retrieve a keytab using the web interface. This has to be done either on the command line on the system where the service is accessed, or on the FreeIPA server itself, and the keytab then exported to the client host. The following example demonstrates creating a service principal and keytab on a client host for the HTTP service. In this example, the client host is ipaclient.example.com and the FreeIPA server is ipaserver.example.com:
# kinit admin # ipa host-add ipaclient.example.com # ipa service-add HTTP/ipaclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM # ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver.example.com -p HTTP/ipaclient.example.com / -k /etc/httpd/conf/ipa.keytab

Note the location of the keytab. By default, FreeIPA saves its HTTP keytab to /etc/httpd/conf/ ipa.keytab. This keytab is used in the webUI, and so you should be aware that if a key were stored in ipa.keytab and you later deleted that keytab file, the FreeIPA interface would stop working, because the original key would also be deleted. 71

Chapter 6. Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain Similar locations can be specified for each service that needs to be made Kerberos aware. There is no specific location that must be used, but, when using ipa-getkeytab, you should avoid using / etc/krb5.keytab. This file should not contain service-specific keytabs; each service should have its keytab saved in a specific location and the access privileges (and possibly SELinux rules) should be configured so that only this service has access to the keytab.

Note
The realm name is optional. The FreeIPA server automatically appends the Kerberos realm for which it is configured. You cannot specify a different realm. The hostname must resolve to a DNS A record for it to work with Kerberos. You can use the --force flag to force the creation of a principal should this prove necessary. The ipa-getkeytab command is part of the freeipa-client package, which is only available for Fedora 15 or later. For other clients, you need to use this procedure on the server and manually copy the keytab to the client. You can use the -e flag to include a comma-separated list of encryption types to include in the keytab. This supersedes any default encryption type. Refer to the ipa-getkeytab man page for more information.

Warning
The ipa-getkeytab command resets the secret for the specified principal. This means that all other keytabs for that principal are rendered invalid.

FreeIPA provides a range of tools and commands to facilitate the creation and administration of services and the service principals and certificates required to use them. Some of this can be automated, but there will always be a certain amount of manual intervention required to create services and certificates after the initial joining of a host to a realm. These requirements and procedures are discussed in the following sections.

6.3.1. Creating a FreeIPA Service


Prerequisites
Before you can create a service for a FreeIPA host, you need to ensure that the host exists. This should be true if it has already joined the realm. Use the following command to determine if the host exists:
# ipa host-show myserver.mydomain.net

If the host does not exist in the realm, you will see an error message similar to the following:
ipa: ERROR: myserver.mydomain.net: host not found

To create a FreeIPA service:


Use the following command to create a service for that host: 72

Creating a FreeIPA Service

# ipa service-add test/myserver.mydomain.net

This will produce output similar to the following:

------------------------------------------------------Added service "test/myserver.mydomain.net@MYDOMAIN.NET" ------------------------------------------------------Principal: test/myserver.mydomain.net@MYDOMAIN.NET Managed by: myserver.mydomain.net

6.3.1.1. Requesting a Certificate for a Service


Use the following command to request a certificate for the new service. The certificate request is contained in the example.csr file.
# ipa cert-request --principal=test/myserver.mydomain.net example.csr

Note
You can use the --add option to create the service when requesting the certificate.

If necessary, create the CSR file using openssl. The following is an example session creating such a file:
# openssl req -out example.csr -new -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout private.key Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key .........................................................+++ .............................+++ writing new private key to 'private.key' ----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:AU State or Province Name (full name) []:QLD Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:BNE Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:MYDOMAIN.NET Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:ECS Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:myserver.mydomain.net Email Address []:authors@mydomain.net Please enter the following 'extra' attributes to be sent with your certificate request A challenge password []: An optional company name []:

6.3.1.2. Using certmonger to Manage Certificate Requests


You can also use certmonger to manage the certificate request process for you. Use the following command to request a certificate: 73

Chapter 6. Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain

# ipa-getcert request -d /etc/pki/nssdb -n Server-Cert

The /etc/pki/nssdb file is the global NSS database, and Server-Cert is the nickname of this certificate. There is nothing special about this name; it can be anything, but it does need to be unique within this database. Use the ipa-getcert list command to display the current status of certificates managed by certmonger. If you use certmonger to request a certificate for a service, you need to use the -K <principal> option. Without this option, certmonger assumes it is requesting a certificate for the host service (host/fqdn@REALM). For example:
# ipa-getcert request -d /etc/httpd/alias -n Server-Cert -K HTTP/myserver.mydomain.net@MYDOMAIN.NET -N 'CN=myserver.mydomain.net,O=MYDOMAIN.NET'

You need to use the -N option to specify the subject when using the -K option. The subject format is as follows: CN=<fqdn>,O=<subject base> You can configure the FreeIPA subject base as part of the FreeIPA server installation process; the default value is the same as the default value for the realm name, which is derived from the hostname by default. Use the following command to determine the subject base:
$ ipa config-show | grep -i subject

FreeIPA will reject requests with invalid subject base values.

6.3.1.3. Using NSS


If you need to create an NSS database in which to store your key, use the certutil command as follows:
$ certutil -N -d /path/to/database/dir $ certutil -R -s "CN=myserver.mydomain.net, O=MYDOMAIN.NET" \ -d /path/to/database/dir -a > example.csr

CSR File Formats


The format of the CSR is partly dependent upon the CA back end you are using. If you are using Dogtag, then the Common Name (CN) is the only part of the request subject that is used; all other components are ignored. If you are using the selfsigned CA back end, then the subject must match the configured certificate subject base. You can find this with:
$ ipa config-show | grep -i subject Certificate Subject base: O=MYDOMAIN.NET

This means you need to use MYDOMAIN.NET for the organization. FreeIPA will reject requests whose subject base differs from this value.

6.3.2. Configuring an NFS Service Principal on the FreeIPA Server


The following procedure describes how to configure NFS on the FreeIPA server and to set up an NFS service principal. 74

Configuring an NFS Service Principal on the FreeIPA Server Procedure 6.1. Configuring NFS on the FreeIPA Server 1. Configure the export directory.
# mkdir /export # chmod 777 /export

2.

Configure the /etc/exports file as follows:


/export /export /export /export *(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_subtree_check) gss/krb5(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_subtree_check) gss/krb5i(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_subtree_check) gss/krb5p(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_subtree_check)

3.

To enable secure NFS, add the following line to /etc/sysconfig/nfs


SECURE_NFS=yes

4.

Add a service principal and keytab for NFS.


# ipa service-add nfs/ipaserver.example.com # ipa-getkeytab -s ipaserver.example.com -p nfs/ipaserver.example.com \ -k /etc/nfs/conf/nfs.keytab

NFS Encryption Support


Some versions of the Linux NFS implementation have limited encryption type support. If your NFS server is hosted on an older Fedora machine, you may need to use the -e des-cbccrc option to the ipa-getkeytab command for any nfs/<FQDN> service keytabs you want to set up, both on the server and on all clients. This instructs the KDC to generate only DES keys. If you use this option to generate DES keys, then all clients and servers that rely on this encryption type need to have the allow_weak_crypto option enabled in the [libdefaults] section of the /etc/krb5.conf file. Without these configuration changes, NFS clients and servers will be unable to authenticate to each other, and attempts to mount NFS filesystems may fail. The client's rpc.gssd and the server's rpc.svcgssd daemons may log errors indicating that DES encryption types are not permitted.

5.

Run the following commands to reload the NFS configuration and restart the required services:
# # # # exportfs -a restart services service nfs restart service rpcgssd restart -k /etc/nfs/conf/nfs.keytab

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Chapter 6. Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain

Note
Note the use of the -k option when restarting rpcgssd. This is necessary to update the NFS configuration with the path to the NFS keytab.

6.4. Refreshing Kerberos Tickets


Some compliance or company security policies may require that system administrators manually refresh Kerberos tickets, perhaps annually or more frequently. The current version of FreeIPA does not provide automatic renewal of Kerberos tickets. Manually refreshing Kerberos tickets is a two step process: you first need to find all of the keytabs that are older than a certain date, and then obtain a new keytab for the host or service in question. This process is described in detail below. Procedure 6.2. How to manually refresh Kerberos keytabs 1. Find all keytabs, both for host services and for any other services, issued before today. Use the following queries (update the dates as necessary):
# ldapsearch -x -b "cn=computers,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com" "(&(krblastpwdchange<=20110110000000) (krblastpwdchange>=19710101000000))" dn krbprincipalname

# ldapsearch -x -b "cn=services,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com" "(&(krblastpwdchange<=20110110000000) (krblastpwdchange>=19710101000000))" dn krbprincipalname

Note
Dates are expressed in YYYYMMDD format, and times in HHMMSS format (GMT).

2.

Log into each machine and obtain a new keytab for the given service. To do this, you need to know the location of the keytab on the target system. For example, the default location for the host/ principal is /etc/krb5.keytab. Use the ipa-getkeytab command to retrieve a new host/principal:
# ipa-getkeytab -p host/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \ -s ipa.example.com -k /etc/krb5.keytab

To retrieve a new keytab for the HTTP service, run the following command instead:
# ipa-getkeytab -p HTTP/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \ -s ipa.example.com -k /etc/httpd/conf/ipa.keytab

76

Rotating Keys

Note
The ipa-getkeytab command does not delete the old keytab in case it already exists in the file.

You can use the klist command to view the new key version number (KVNO):
# klist -kt /path/to/keytab

Important
Some services, such as NFSv4, only support a limited set of encryption types. Ensure that you pass the appropriate arguments to the ipa-getkeytab command.

6.5. Rotating Keys


Kerberos keys are similar to passwords, and in the interests of security they should occasionally be changed. The frequency of these changes may be determined by company or other policies. Each key has an associated version number, which are stored in the KVNO parameter.

Obtaining a new service principal Kerberos key


Use the ipa-getkeytab command to create a new Kerberos key. For example, use the following command to refresh your FreeIPA keytab:
# ipa-getkeytab -s ipa.example.com -k /etc/dirsrv/ds.keytab -p ldap/ ipa.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

This will add a new set of keys to your existing keytab. That is, you should now have two identical sets of principals, each with a separate KVNO. Use the klist command to view the existing keys:
# klist -kt /etc/dirsrv/ds.keytab Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0 Default principal: admin@EXAMPLE.COM Valid starting 03/08/11 13:57:18 03/08/11 13:57:27 03/08/11 13:57:32 Expires 03/09/11 13:57:16 03/09/11 13:57:16 03/09/11 13:57:16 Service principal krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM HTTP/ipa.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM ldap/ipa.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

Use the kvno command to display the version number of a service ticket that you have been issued:
# kvno -c /tmp/krb5cc_0 ldap/ipa.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

The -c option specifies which credentials cache to use. The credentials cache (Ticket cache) is included in the output of the klist command, above. Tickets issued against the old service will continue to work as expected but new tickets will be issued using the highest KVNO. This is to avoid any disruption to system operations. No service restart should be needed. 77

Chapter 6. Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain You should maintain the old records for at least the amount of time that valid tickets are issues (8 hours by default) so that any clients that have a ticket encrypted with the old key will continue to work. However, there is no real need to remove old keys. FreeIPA does not currently provide an automated method of performing this task for all service tickets. Use the following queries to display a list of all services that have been issued keytabs:
# ldapsearch -LLL -x -b 'cn=services,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com' \ '(krblastpwdchange=*)' krbprincipalname # ldapsearch -LLL -x -b 'cn=computers,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com' \ '(krblastpwdchange=*)' krbprincipalname

This will display service and host keytab information. It is not possible to determine if it has a key directly, but you can infer that a keytab was issued by looking at the last change date.

6.6. Kerberos Errors


If kinit fails or you see an unusual Kerberos error back in the framework, inspect the following files for possible causes: On the server: /var/log/krb5kdc.log If you were using the framework also look in /var/log/httpd/error_log

78

Chapter 7.

Identity: Using Automount


7.1. About Automount and IPA
This chapter describes how to configure automount on Linux and Solaris for use with IPA. It details the procedures and configuration changes necessary to set up automount, the auto.master file and other map files used by autofs.

7.1.1. Known Issues with Automount


Additional Schema Required for Some Systems
If you are supporting Solaris clients, you need to use the 2307bis-style automount schema, although Sun's version is NOT identical to the one at http://people.redhat.com/nalin/schema/ autofs.schema.

7.1.2. Assumptions
In order to illustrate the automount configuration procedures, this chapter assumes that: The IPA server is correctly installed and operational. The domain is example.com. The NFS server is also configured as an IPA client. You have root access to the server where you want autofs to work. For the purposes of this exercise, this server is called nfsserver.example.com The nfsserver.example.com server can communicate with the LDAP server for users and groups. The NFS service is running on nfsserver.example.com This chapter also assumes that the user has at least a basic understanding of NFS and automount.

NFS Configuration
Configuring NFS is beyond the scope of this document. Refer to the http://docs.redhat.com/docs/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/96/html/Storage_Administration_Guide/ch-nfs.html for information on how to configure NFS. The following is an example of a suitable entry in the /etc/exports file:
/home 192.168.1.0/16 (rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_subtree_check,sync,anonuid=65534,anongid=65534)

You should test that you can mount the /home directory from the command line before proceeding with the automount configuration. This makes troubleshooting easier if the configuration does not work.

7.2. Configuring Automount


IPA natively supports automount and so only minimal configuration is required. IPA 2.0 also introduces the concept of a location, which allows for different sets of maps for different purposes, or locations. 79

Chapter 7. Identity: Using Automount

Note
You can direct different clients to use different map sets. These map sets use a tree structure, which means that you cannot share maps between locations.

Any extra steps required for configuring automount on Linux or Solaris are described below. Refer to the ipa help automount help page for more information and a list of available commands.

7.2.1. Configuring autofs on Linux


Procedure 7.1. To configure autofs on Linux: 1. Edit the /etc/sysconfig/autofs file as follows. This specifies the attributes that autofs searches for:
# # Other common LDAP naming # MAP_OBJECT_CLASS="automountMap" ENTRY_OBJECT_CLASS="automount" MAP_ATTRIBUTE="automountMapName" ENTRY_ATTRIBUTE="automountKey" VALUE_ATTRIBUTE="automountInformation"

2.

You also need to specify which LDAP server to use, and the basedn for LDAP searches:
LDAP_URI="ldap://ipa.example.com" SEARCH_BASE="cn=<location>,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com"

Note
The default value for location is default.

3.

Save the file and restart autofs:


# service autofs restart

7.2.1.1. Testing the Configuration


Test the configuration by attempting to list a user's /home directory:
# ls /home/<username>

If this does not mount the remote file system, check the /var/log/messages file for errors or other indications of what the problem might be. You can also increase the debug level in the /etc/ sysconfig/autofs file by setting the LOGGING parameter to debug.

7.2.2. Solaris automount


The following procedure describes the steps required to configure automount for Solaris. 80

Configuring Indirect Maps 1. If the NFS server is running on Linux, you need to specify on the Solaris machine that NFSv3 is the maximum supported version. Edit the /etc/default/nfs file and set the following parameter:
NFS_CLIENT_VERSMAX=3

2.

IPA does not configure automount by default, so you need to use the ldapclient command to manually configure your host to use LDAP:
ldapclient -v manual -a authenticationMethod=none \ -a defaultSearchBase=dc=example,dc=com \ -a defaultServerList=ipa.example.com \ -a serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com \ -a serviceSearchDescriptor=group:cn=groups,cn=compat,dc=example,dc=com \ -a serviceSearchDescriptor=auto_master:automountMapName=auto.master, \ cn=<location>,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com?one \ -a serviceSearchDescriptor=auto_home:automountMapName=auto_home, \ cn=<location>,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com?one \ -a objectClassMap=shadow:shadowAccount=posixAccount \ -a searchTimelimit=15 \ -a bindTimeLimit=5

3.

Enable automount as follows:


# svcadm enable svc:/system/filesystem/autofs

7.2.2.1. Testing the Configuration


Procedure 7.2. To test the automount configuration, run the following commands: 1. # ldapclient -l auto_master
dn: automountkey=/ home,automountmapname=auto.master,cn=<location>,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: automount objectClass: top automountKey: /home automountInformation: auto.home

2.

Attempt to list a user's /home directory:


# ls /home/<username>

7.2.3. Configuring Indirect Maps


An indirect map defines a container for mount points. For example, if you create an indirect map / share, then all automount keys are relative to that map. If you define an automount key ipauser, the map would appear as /share/ipauser. In other words, indirect maps specify relative paths. Compare this to the absolute paths specified by direct maps. The following example creates an indirect map for /usr/man using the built-in IPA commands. This creates a single indirect map, /usr/man/man1, which: Creates a new automount map called auto.man Adds auto.man to auto.master on the mount point /usr/man 81

Chapter 7. Identity: Using Automount Adds an indirect mount of man1 to auto.man Procedure 7.3. How to create an indirect map: 1. Create a new location:
$ ipa automountlocation-add baltimore Location: baltimore

2.

Create a map for man pages:


$ ipa automountmap-add baltimore auto.man Map: auto.man

3.

Add this map to the location's auto.master on the mount point /usr/man:
$ ipa automountkey-add baltimore auto.master --key=/usr/man --info=auto.man Key: /usr/man Mount information: auto.man

Use the following command to export information on the automount configuration for a specific location. This is useful if you perform file-based automount. For example:
$ ipa automountlocation-tofiles baltimore /etc/auto.master: //etc/auto.direct /usr/man /etc/auto.man --------------------------/etc/auto.direct: --------------------------/etc/auto.man:

Configuring an Indirect Map on Solaris


On Solaris, use the following arguments with the ldapclient command:
-a serviceSearchDescriptor=auto_man:automountMapName=auto.man, \ cn=<location>,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com?one \

7.2.3.1. Configuring Direct Maps


Direct maps list exact locations to mount specified maps, for example /usr/local/bin or /mnt. That is, they specify absolute paths as mount points. Compare this to the relative paths specified by indirect maps. To add a direct map configuration, IPA requires a number of modifications to the auto.direct file. The following two entries are created during the installation process:
dn: automountkey=/-,automountmapname=auto.master,cn=default,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: automount automountKey: '/-' automountInformation: auto.direct

automountmapname=auto.direct,cn=default,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: automountMap

82

Links
automountMapName: auto.direct

Use the following procedure to add a mount to this direct map for the /share directory: Procedure 7.4. How to create a direct map: 1. Create a new location:
$ ipa automountlocation-add brisbane Location: brisbane

2.

Add the map to the location's auto.direct file on the mount point /share:
$ ipa automountkey-add brisbane auto.direct --key=/share \ --info="-ro,soft, ipaserver.ipadocs.org:/home/share" Key: /share Mount information: -ro,soft, ipaserver.ipadocs.org:/home/share

On Solaris, use the following arguments with the ldapclient command:


-a serviceSearchDescriptor=auto_direct:automountMapName=auto.direct, \ cn=<location>,cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com?one \

7.2.4. Links
The following pages were used as references for this work: http://efod.se/blog/archive/2006/06/27/autofs-and-ldap http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6266 http://forums.fedoraforum.org/showthread.php?t=138992 http://forums.fedoraforum.org/forum/showthread.php?t=135635&highlight=autofs+ldap http://blogs.sun.com/rohanpinto/entry/nis_to_ldap_migration_guide

83

84

Chapter 8.

Identity: Integrating with Microsoft Active Directory


To synchronize user identity information between 389 Directory Server and Windows Active Directory, IPA employs a plug-in that extends the functionality of the 389 Directory Server Windows Sync utility. This plug-in allows IPA to perform the data manipulation necessary to achieve synchronization between 389 Directory Server and Windows Active Directory. The IPA Windows Sync plug-in uses the ipaWinSyncUserAttr parameter to specify which attributes and values to add to new users that are synchronized from Active Directory.

8.1. About Active Directory, IPA, and Identity Management


8.1.1. Domain Name Considerations
IPA clients find, or discover, IPA servers using a process known as Service Discovery. This can occur automatically, using DNS, or manually, by entering the IPA server details during the client configuration phase. If your Active Directory installation is in the same domain as the IPA server, it is possible that when you install IPA clients they will not discover the IPA server, but rather the Active Directory DNS. This means that IPA commands run on the client will fail because the client cannot contact the IPA server. To avoid this situation, use a separate domain for your IPA and Active Directory servers. If this is not possible, use the --force parameter when you run the ipa-client-install script.

8.2. Setting up Active Directory


The Windows Sync utility requires TLS/SSL to synchronize password changes. Therefore, you need to set up Active Directory as an SSL server. The easiest way to achieve this is to install Microsoft Certificate System in Enterprise Root Mode; Active Directory will then automatically enroll to retrieve its SSL server certificate.

Note
You need to install both the winsync and passsync utilities to synchronize User IDs and attributes as well as passwords. You need to install the passsync utility on all AD domain controllers to enable password synchronization from AD to IPA.

Refer to the Fedora Project Windows Sync Howto for information on setting up Active Directory as an SSL server. After you have installed Microsoft Certificate System, you need to save the CA certificate in ASCII (PEM) format. This CA Certificate is required to create the synchronization agreement. Procedure 8.1. To save the CA certificate in ASCII format: 1. Navigate to My Network Places and drill down to the CA distribution point. On Windows 2003 Server this is typically C:\WINDOWS\system32\certsrv\CertEnroll\
1

http://directory.fedoraproject.org/wiki/Howto:WindowsSync

85

Chapter 8. Identity: Integrating with Microsoft Active Directory 2. 3. 4. 5. Double-click the security certificate file (.crt file) to display the Certificate dialog box. On the Details tab, click Copy to File to start the Certificate Export Wizard. Click Next, select Base-64 encoded X.509 (.CER) and then click Next. Specify a suitable directory and file name for the exported file. The file name is not important. Click Next to export the certificate, and then click Finish. You should receive a message stating that the export was successful. Click OK to exit the wizard.

6.

Refer to Section 8.4, Creating Synchronization Agreements for information on how to use the CA Certificate to create the synchronization agreement.

Figure 8.1. Select Base-64 encoded X.509 to export the security certificate as ASCII

8.3. Configuring Active Directory Synchronization


The Windows Sync plug-in is installed on the IPA server, and enables one-way replication of users and groups from Windows to IPA. The ipa-server-install script automatically installs the plug-in configuration entry and enables it by default. The Windows Sync plug-in is only ever called if Windows Sync is used.

86

Creating Synchronization Agreements The passsync plug-in for Windows uses a standard ldapmodify operation to change users' passwords. These operations take effect immediately, and are still normally subject to password policy settings. When the special user used by passsync sets the password, these password policies should be bypassed and the password should not be set to immediately expire, as is the case when a normal administrator resets a user password. To achieve this, you need to add a list of passSync Manager DNs to the password plug-in configuration. These users will be exempt from password policy enforcement in the same way that the Directory Manager is exempt. This currently requires a manual configuration, as follows: Procedure 8.2. To add a list of passSync Manager DNs to the password plug-in configuration: 1. As Directory Manager, modify the entry cn=ipa_pwd_extop,cn=plugins,cn=config 2. Add or update the passSyncManagersDNs attribute. This is a multi-valued list of DNs that bypass password policy.

The following is an example of adding the new entry uid=admin:


% ldapmodify -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -W Enter LDAP Password: ******* dn: cn=ipa_pwd_extop,cn=plugins,cn=config changetype: modify add: passSyncManagersDNs passSyncManagersDNs: uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com

Note
The entry cn=Directory Manager always bypasses policy and does not need to be explicitly listed.

8.4. Creating Synchronization Agreements


Use the ipa-replica-manage connect command to create synchronization agreements. The following command-line arguments apply to creating synchronization agreements: --winsync specifies that this is a Windows Sync agreement. Winsync replication occurs every five minutes. --binddn the full DN of the user to use. The DS will bind to Active Directory as this user to read and write changes. This user requires read, search, and write permissions on the Active Directory subtree, including password changes, as well as permission to use the DirSync control (that is, it must be able to use replication). --bindpw the password for the user specified by the --binddn argument. --passsync the password for the Windows PassSync user, and a required argument to ipareplica-manage when creating winsync agreements. --cacert the full path and file name of the ASCII/PEM-encoded Windows Active Directory CA certificate. This certificate will be installed in the Directory Server certificate database as "Imported CA". --win-subtree the DN of the Windows subtree containing the users you want to synchronize. The default value is cn=Users,$SUFFIX this is what Windows AD typically uses as the default value. The following example illustrates adding a new WinSync agreement: 87

Chapter 8. Identity: Integrating with Microsoft Active Directory

Example 8.1. Adding a WinSync agreement between an IPA server and an AD server.
ipa-replica-manage connect --winsync --binddn cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=example,dc=com \ --bindpw password --passsync password --cacert /path/to/certfile.cer adserver.example.com -v

8.5. Modifying Synchronization Agreements


You can change the behavior of the synchronization agreement to suit the changing needs of your organization. You can modify a number of attributes related to the synchronization agreement using default tools provided with IPA. The following example illustrates changing the synchronization behavior of account lock status. By default, account lock status is synchronized between IPA and AD. This means that accounts that are locked in IPA are also locked (disabled) in AD, and vice versa. You can change this synchronization behavior as follows: Example 8.2. Configuring the IPA WinSync agreement to not synchronize account lock status information.
$ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=directory manager" -w password dn: cn=ipa-winsync,cn=plugins,cn=config changetype: modify replace: ipaWinSyncAcctDisable ipaWinSyncAcctDisable: none modifying entry "cn=ipa-winsync,cn=plugins,cn=config"

The default value of the ipaWinSyncAcctDisable attribute is both. If you change this value to none, as described in the example, account lock status synchronization is completely disabled. Valid values for ipaWinSyncAcctDisable are both, to_ad, to_ds, and none.

8.5.1. Changing the Default Synchronization Subtree


When you create synchronization agreements, two default containers are used as the source of the user accounts to synchronize between IPA and Windows Active Directory. IPA uses the cn=users,cn=accounts,$SUFFIX subtree as the default container, and Windows uses the CN=Users,$SUFFIX subtree. You can use the --win-subtree argument to the ipa-replicamanage connect command to override the default Windows subtree.

Note
If you pass such arguments to the bash or other shell, ensure that you quote spaces and other shell metacharacters. For example, the argument --win-subtree=cn=users, dc=example, dc=com will fail. The argument --win-subtree="cn=users, dc=example, dc=com" will succeed.

IPA does not currently support modifying the default synchronization container while you are creating the synchronization agreement. You can, however, change the container after the agreement has been established. To do so, you can either modify the dse.ldif file directly 88

Deleting Synchronization Agreements (ensure that you stop the directory server before editing this file), or use ldapmodify to change nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree.

8.6. Deleting Synchronization Agreements


You can use the IPA administration tools to delete existing synchronization agreements. For example, to delete an agreement with the AD server adserver.example.com, run the following command: # ipa-replica-manage disconnect adserver.example.com This removes the replication agreement between the IPA and AD servers. To complete the operation, you need to remove the AD certificate from the IPA server. Run the following command to remove the AD certificate: # certutil -D -d /etc/dirsrv/slapd-$REALM/ -n "Imported CA"

8.7. Winsync Agreement Failures


Symptom
If the creation of a winsync agreement fails, you may see an error message similar to the following:
"Update failed! Status: [81 - LDAP error: Can't contact LDAP server]

Cause
One example of this error occurring is if you use an invalid Windows Server Certificate when creating the winsync agreement. This can result in the wrong certificates being created in the certificate database in the /etc/dirsrv/slapd-DOMAIN-NAME/ directory, and with same name, for example "Imported CA". The following is an example of a corrupt certificate database after such a failure (note the duplicate "Imported CA" entries):
$ certutil -L -d /etc/dirsrv/slapd-DOMAIN-NAME/ Certificate Nickname SSL,S/MIME,JAR/XPI CA certificate Imported CA Server-Cert Imported CA Trust Attributes

CTu,u,Cu CT,,C u,u,u CT,,C

Solution
To resolve this issue, you need to clear the certificate database, as follows:
# certutil -d /etc/dirsrv/slapd-DOMAIN-NAME -D -n "Imported CA"

This will delete the CA from the AD server ("Imported CA"). You need to do this after each failed invocation. You may also see the following message:
"Windows PassSync entry exists, not resetting password"

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Chapter 8. Identity: Integrating with Microsoft Active Directory This is not an error, but rather a notification that IPA is not re-adding the passync user, and neither is it changing the original password. The passync user is a special user entry that can change passwords in IPA.

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Chapter 9.

Identity: Integrating with NIS Domains and Netgroups


9.1. About NIS and IPA
9.1.1. What are Netgroups?
Netgroups are a concept introduced in the directory service NIS. They were designed to contain users, hosts (machines) and other netgroups. A netgroup is a user-host-domain triplet. Refer to the following for more details about netgroups and their uses: http://compute.cnr.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/man-cgi?netgroup+4 http://directory.fedoraproject.org/wiki/Howto:Netgroups#What_are_NIS_netgroups_good_for.3F

Note
Do not read beyond the section "What are NIS netgroups good for?"; netgroup entries are different in IPA.

Despite this difference, it is important to underline that there are two plug-ins in IPA that make the data in the new format available via NIS or the old standard RFC2307 and RFC2307bis LDAP schema. For 1 details, refer to the documentation and examples at: https://fedorahosted.org/slapi-nis . The entries stored using the new schema are converted into the standard NIS netgroup map and served via the NIS protocol by the first plug-in described on the slapi-nis project page and the compatibility plug-in can be used to create a virtual LDAP view that matches the standard 2307 or 2307bis schema for netgroups using the IPA-specific schema. Historically, netgroups have been used to define groups of hosts or users. The advantage of netgroups for user aggregation has been that netgroups allow nesting while normal UNIX user groups do not. Netgroups also provide the only way to aggregate hosts. There is no notion of host groups in NIS, although for effective centralized system management they are definitely needed. It is important to understand that netgroups are collections of entities, be they users, hosts, or both, but there is no relation between particular user-host pairs defined in the netgroup triplet.

9.1.2. The IPA Approach to Netgroups


IPA defines both user groups and host groups, each of which allow nesting. This is a much cleaner way of aggregation and allows better separation of duties and access control. In an IPA deployment, netgroups are a much less attractive approach to grouping than with other LDAP-based systems compliant with RFC 2307 (this defines the LDAP schema for users, groups, netgroups and other maps). Client-side applications, for example, SUDO, need netgroups because there is no alternative to host grouping on the client side. Consequently, netgroups are far from obsolete on the client side. A lot of effort is still required within SSSD and IPA to provide clean interfaces to reliably (both online and
1

https://fedorahosted.org/slapi-nis/

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Chapter 9. Identity: Integrating with NIS Domains and Netgroups offline) relay centrally-managed information to applications running on a client machine. IPA therefore provides a way to define and store netgroups, but they are viewed as secondary to user groups and host groups.

9.1.2.1. How IPA Stores Netgroups


IPA stores netgroups in a different format from that specified in RFC2307 and RFC2307bis. The netgroup entries defined by the IPA schema allow relating different objects (users, groups, hosts, host groups) to each other. IPA also provides what is known as a compat (compatibility) plug-in. This plug-in creates a virtual view of the data stored in native IPA entries in the format expected by the RFC-compliant clients. This means that even though the internal data representation of netgroups is different from the RFC, this deviation does not affect clients due to the presence of the compat plugin.

Comparison of Schema
To realize the differences, we can compare the standard RFC schema for netgroups and the schema used by IPA. IPA defines the following object class:
objectClasses: (2.16.840.1.113730.3.8.4.8 NAME 'ipaNISNetgroup' DESC 'IPA version of NIS netgroup' SUP ipaAssociation STRUCTURAL MAY ( externalHost $ nisDomainName $ member $ memberOf ) X-ORIGIN 'IPA v2' )

The IPA netgroup object class is derived from the association object class:
objectClasses: (2.16.840.1.113730.3.8.4.6 NAME 'ipaAssociation' ABSTRACT MUST ( ipaUniqueID $ cn ) MAY ( memberUser $ userCategory $ memberHost $ hostCategory $ ipaEnabledFlag $ description ) X-ORIGIN 'IPA v2' )

The RFC2307bis schema defines the netgroup object as:


objectClasses: (1.3.6.1.1.1.2.8 NAME 'nisNetgroup' SUP top STRUCTURAL DESC 'Abstraction of a netgroup. May refer to other netgroups' MUST cn MAY ( nisNetgroupTriple $ memberNisNetgroup $ description ) )

Discussion
The nisNetgroupTriple is a string consisting of the host-user-domain triplet. The IPA format allows referencing of other objects present in IPA, such as users and groups, instead of manually adding them to the value of the netgroup triplet. Such an arrangement provides a better administrative experience when a user or group is removed or renamed. Inspecting the memberUser attribute of the association, you can see that it can hold the DN of a user or a user group. In the same way, the memberHost attribute can hold a reference to a host or a host group entry. This means that the netgroup can function as a wrapper for groups of users and groups of hosts. For examples and more information on the meaning of the user and host category attributes, refer to: http://www.freeipa.org/page/DS_Design_Summary#Association_of_Different_Entities 92

Adding Netgroups http://www.freeipa.org/page/DS_Design_Summary#Netgroups

9.1.3. Adding Netgroups


NIS groups traditionally contain a so-called netgroup triple of the format: (machine, user, domain)
machine - machine name, a host name user - user name domain - NIS domain of the machine and user

IPA does not use this triple. Instead, it uses the membership relationship between LDAP entries. It is a simple matter to add users, hosts, and even their groups as members of a netgroup. The domain field is constant for each netgroup and defaults to the current IPA domain. The following is an example of a netgroup displayed using the IPA CLI:
# ipa netgroup-show net1 Netgroup name: net1 Description: test netgroup NIS domain name: panda Member User: admin Member Host: icefloat.panda

Note
There is no necessary relationship between the machine and the user. Only one of those fields is usually used at a time to avoid confusion.

9.1.4. IPA Netgroup Commands


The IPA netgroup management plug-in conforms to the Create, Read, Update, Delete (CRUD) command-naming conventions used in all other plug-ins that ship with the default IPA installation. You can use the following command to display a list of the IPA commands available for working with netgroups:
# ipa help netgroup

Creating New Netgroups


Use the ipa netgroup-add command to add new netgroups to IPA:
# ipa netgroup-add NAME [--desc=DESCRIPTION] [--nisdomain=NISDOMAIN]

NAME - the name of the netgroup (can be anything, but must be unique) DESCRIPTION - the netgroup description (required) NISDOMAIN - the NIS domain name. Defaults to the current IPA domain

Deleting Netgroups
Use the ipa netgroup-del command to delete IPA netgroups:
# ipa netgroup-del NAME

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Chapter 9. Identity: Integrating with NIS Domains and Netgroups

Displaying Netgroups
Use the ipa netgroup-show command to display information about IPA netgroups:
# ipa netgroup-show NAME

Modifying Netgroups
Use the ipa netgroup-mod command to modify details about IPA netgroups:
# ipa netgroup-mod NAME [--desc=DESCRIPTION] [--nisdomain=NISDOMAIN]

Same as ipa netgroup-add, except modifying the description is required and NISDOMAIN does not default to anything.

Searching for Netgroups


Use the ipa netgroup-find command to search for IPA netgroups:
# ipa netgroup-find [CRITERIA] [--name=NAME] [--desc=DESCRIPTION] [--nisdomain=NISDOMAIN] [-uuid=UUID]

CRITERIA is an optional substring, and if included in the query it must appear in either the name, the description or the NIS domain of the groups you are searching for. Other options are the same as ipa netgroup-add, except that nothing is required and there are no default values. There is a new UUID option that allows searching netgroups by ipaUniqueID. If one of these options is set, the command returns only exact matches of this option.

Adding Users and Hosts to Netgroups


Use the ipa netgroup-add-member command to add users and hosts to IPA netgroups:
# ipa netgroup-add-member NAME [--users=USERS] [--groups=GROUPS] [--hosts=HOSTS] \ [--hostgroups=HOSTGROUPS] [--netgroups=NETGROUPS]

USERS, GROUPS, HOSTS, HOSTGROUPS, and NETGROUPS are comma-separated lists of names of the appropriate objects.

Removing Users and Hosts From Netgroups


Use the ipa netgroup-remove-member command to remove users and hosts from IPA netgroups:

ipa netgroup-remove-member { NAME } [ --users=USERS ] [ --groups=GROUPS ] [ --hosts=HOSTS ] [ --hostgroups=HOSTGROUPS ] [ --netgroups=NETGROUPS ]

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Configuring the Network Information Service (NIS) USERS, GROUPS, HOSTS, HOSTGROUPS, and NETGROUPS are comma-separated lists of names of the appropriate objects.

9.1.4.1. Examples
The following examples provide an introduction to using the ipa netgroup-* commands:

# ipa netgroup-add net0 --desc="test netgroup" Netgroup name: net0 Description: test netgroup NIS domain name: pavlova IPA unique ID: 9e6e089c-2089-11df-b677-5452004c033a # ipa netgroup-mod net0 --desc="description change" Netgroup name: net0 Description: description change NIS domain name: pavlova # ipa netgroup-add-member net0 --users=admin --hosts=testbox.pavlova Netgroup name: net0 Description: description change NIS domain name: pavlova Member User: admin Member Host: testbox.pavlova ------------------------Number of members added 2 ------------------------# ipa netgroup-remove-member net0 --users=admin Netgroup name: net0 Description: description change NIS domain name: pavlova Member Host: testbox.pavlova --------------------------Number of members removed 1 --------------------------# ipa netgroup-del net0 # ipa netgroup-show net0 ipa: ERROR: no such entry

9.2. Configuring the Network Information Service (NIS)


The Network Information Service (NIS) is an RPC service, used in conjunction with portmap and other related services to distribute maps of usernames, passwords, and other sensitive information to any computer claiming to be within its domain. IPA provides a NIS server plug-in to facilitate the integration of NIS clients with an IPA domain, including exposing any automount maps that have been configured.

9.2.1. Exposing Automount Maps to NIS Clients


Currently, when the NIS service is enabled, the server is automatically configured to serve the NIS domain with the IPA domain's name, and to serve IPA users, groups, and netgroups (passwd, group, and netgroup maps) to the NIS domain. If you have defined automount maps, these maps need to be manually added to the NIS server plugin's configuration in the directory server in order to expose them to NIS clients. 95

Chapter 9. Identity: Integrating with NIS Domains and Netgroups The NIS plug-in needs to know the name of the NIS domain, the name of the NIS map, how to find the directory entries to use as the NIS map's contents, and which attributes to use as the NIS map's key and value. Most of these settings will be the same for every map. The IPA server stores the automount maps, grouped by automount location, in the cn=automount branch of the IPA domain's tree.

9.2.1.1. Example Automount Map Configuration


If you have created an automount map named auto.example in a location named "default", you first need to add an entry to the configuration for the NIS server running on a host named dirsrv, as follows:
LOCATION=default NISDOMAIN=example.com NISMAP=auto.master NISSERVER=dirsrv IPASUFFIX=`echo ${NISDOMAIN} | sed -e 's,^,dc=,g' -e 's,\.,\,dc=,g'` ldapadd -h ${NISSERVER} -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -W << EOF dn: nis-domain=${NISDOMAIN}+nis-map=${NISMAP}, cn=NIS Server, cn=plugins, cn=config objectClass: extensibleObject nis-domain: ${NISDOMAIN} nis-map: ${NISMAP} nis-filter: (objectclass=automount) nis-key-format: %{automountKey} nis-value-format: %{automountInformation} nis-base: automountmapname=${NISMAP}, ${LOCATION:+cn=${LOCATION},} cn=automount, ${IPASUFFIX} EOF

This entry instructs the plug-in to create a map named auto.master in the domain named ${NISDOMAIN}, and that the data for that map should be read from the entries at and below automountmapname=${NISMAP}, which exists inside a container named cn=${LOCATION}. This container is in the automount section of the IPA data store. The keys for the entries in the automount map in NIS are the values of the automountKey attribute for the directory server entries, and the corresponding values in the NIS map are the values of the automountInformation attribute in those same entries. You then need to repeat the process for the auto.direct map, and then any other maps that you have defined.

9.3. Migrating from NIS to IPA


The IPA development team researched the topic of how netgroups are typically used in order to better determine an optimal migration design solution. This research shows that the main use cases for netgroups are the aggregation of users and the aggregation of hosts, but not both at the same time. IPA does not provide a special script or command to facilitate the migration of customers' existing netgroups to IPA. This operation must be performed by the system administrator himself or with the help of professional services. This chapter provides some guidelines to ease the process of migrating netgroups to IPA.

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Preparing Your Environment

9.3.1. Preparing Your Environment


Note
These procedures are guidelines only, and are provided to help clean your environment and make it more manageable. It is not a definitive set of instructions, and administrators need to be creative and factor in the real constraints present in their environment. If any steps described below are not possible due to independent conditions, we recommend migrating netgroups on a one-to-one basis. This is described later in this chapter.

Procedure 9.1. To prepare your environment 1. Inspect your client applications and determine which kind of grouping information they need from the central server. For example, if netgroups exist that contain only users, and any applications that rely on these netgroups can be converted to use UNIX groups instead of netgroups, then we recommend doing so. If this is not possible, we still recommend creating UNIX groups out of the netgroups. If no applications use them, we recommend deleting these netgroups altogether. Refer to the following example: a. Given the following netgroup: (host1, user1, )(host2, user2,)(host3, user3, )..., create a group consisting of the users user1, user2, and user3 (assuming it does not already exist). Create a netgroup that has a memberUser attribute equal to the DN of the newly-created group. This netgroup will be equivalent to your original netgroup.

b. 2.

Migrating hosts is more straightforward. The creation of a host group automatically triggers the creation of a netgroup that is linked to the newly-created host group. This functionality is enabled by default, and can be managed with the following commands: ipa-host-net-manage status ipa-host-net-manage disable ipa-host-net-manage enable This can be disabled when the clients no longer use netgroups for aggregation of hosts.

3.

If none of the above recommendations are possible and the netgroups need to be converted on a one-to-one basis, then: a. b. c. d. Ensure that all users referenced by a netgroup have been migrated. If not, then create them. Ensure that all hosts referenced by a netgroup have been migrated. If not, then create them. Create a netgroup with the same name as the original netgroup. Add users and hosts as direct members of the netgroup, or, alternatively, put them into groups and then add those groups as members to the netgroup. For IPA clients, both methods result in the same thing having the users and hosts managed in the netgroup but from an administrative perspective, it may be simpler in some environments to use one option instead of the other.

9.3.2. Migrating Netgroups


There are three main approaches that can be taken to the actual migration procedure: 97

Chapter 9. Identity: Integrating with NIS Domains and Netgroups 1. a. Dump the netgroups from the source into an LDIF file. b. Create a script that follows the instructions in Procedure 9.1, To prepare your environment to convert the LDIF format into an LDIF file that contains IPA native objects. c. Run the conversion script and load the resulting LDIF file into IPA using the ldapmodify command. Refer to http://linux.die.net/man/1/ldapmodify or a similar man page for more details. 2. a. Create a script to retrieve data from the source (by parsing the LDIF file or by connecting to the original source of information using the client utility). b. Create a second script that invokes a sequence of IPA CLI commands. This script uses the information from the first script to create user, user group, host, host group and netgroup entries, and to create the appropriate associations. Refer to the IPA CLI help system for more details. Use the ipa help command to display a list of available topics. 3. a. Use the UI to manually create a new structure of netgroups.

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Chapter 10.

Policy: Managing DNS


If the FreeIPA server was installed with DNS configured, then all of the DNS entries for the domain host entries, locations, records can be managed using the FreeIPA tools.

10.1. About DNS in FreeIPA


DNS is one of the services that can be configured and maintained by the FreeIPA domain. DNS is critical to the performance of the FreeIPA domain; DNS is used for the Kerberos services and SSL connections for all servers and clients and for connections to domain services like LDAP. While FreeIPA can use an external DNS service, there is a lot more flexibility and control over FreeIPA DNS interactions when the DNS service is configured within the domain. For example, DNS records and zones can be managed within the domain using FreeIPA tools, and clients can update their own DNS records dynamically. When a host is added to FreeIPA, a DNS record is automatically created in FreeIPA's DNS service for that host machine. FreeIPA stores all DNS information as LDAP entries. Every resource record for each machine is stored for the domain. For example, the client1 resource has three IPv4 (A) records and one IPv6 (AAAA) record:
dn: idnsname=client1,idnsname=example.com,cn=dns,dc=example,dc=com idnsname: client1 arecord: 10.0.0.1 arecord: 10.0.0.2 arecord: 10.0.0.3 aaaarecord: fc00::1 objectclass: top objectclass: idnsrecord

The schema used to define the the DNS entries is in the /usr/share/ipa/60basev2.ldif schema file. FreeIPA communicates with both the BIND services and the LDAP directory using the bind-dyndb-ldap plug-in. The ipa command has several subcommands to manage the DNS service. Table 10.1. DNS Management Tools Command dns-resolve dnsrecord-add and dnsrecord-del dnsrecord-find and dnsrecord-show dnszone-add and dnszone-del dnszone-enable and dnszone-disable Description Resolves a hostname to see if it exists within the FreeIPA domain. Adds and deletes DNS records. Finds and displays DNS records. Adds and deletes DNS SOA records. Enables and disables DNS zones. These tools control whether a DNS zone is active and available without deleting the configuration entries in the LDAP directory. Finds and displays DNS zone configuration.

dnszone-find and dnszone-show

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10.2. Configuring DNS


DNS can be configured as part of the FreeIPA server installation, simply by using the --setupdns option. If DNS is not configured then, it can be configured later using the ipa-dns-install command. For example:
ipa-dns-install -p secret --ip-address=1.2.34.56 --no-forwarders

-p gives the password for the Directory Manager user in the 389 Directory Server. All of th DNS entries are stored in the LDAP directory, so this directory must be accessed to add the DNS configuration. --ip-address gives the IP address for the master DNS server. --no-forwarders means that there are no forwarders used with the DNS service, only root servers. Alternatively, a comma-separated list of forwarders can be given, using the --forwarders option. Reverse DNS is configured automatically. It is possible to disable reverse DNS by using the --noreverse option.

10.3. Finding and Displaying DNS Zones


The first part of managing a DNS domain is simply knowing what the domain configuration is. This is done by finding and displaying DNS zone records. Finding and displaying records can be done using the dnszone-find command. This command can be used either to return a list of all zones or to find a specific record based on any of the attirbutes in the zone entry. Using either the dnszone-find or the dnszone-show command lists the full start of authority (SOA) record for the DNS zone. At its simplest, simply running the dnszone-find returns all of the zones for the DNS service:
$ ipa dnszone-find Zone name: example.com Authoritative nameserver: server.example.com. Administrator e-mail address: root.server.example.com. SOA serial: 2011130701 SOA refresh: 3600 SOA retry: 900 SOA expire: 1209600 SOA minimum: 3600 Active zone: TRUE Zone name: 1.2.3.in-addr.arpa. Authoritative nameserver: server.example.com. Administrator e-mail address: root.1.2.3.in-addr.arpa. SOA serial: 2011130701 SOA refresh: 3600 SOA retry: 900 SOA expire: 1209600 SOA minimum: 3600 Active zone: TRUE ---------------------------Number of entries returned 2 ----------------------------

Alternatively, the DNS zones can be filtered by searching for a particular attribute in the SOA record. For example, this searches for the example.com zone by the hostname: 100

Adding DNS Zones

$ ipa dnszone-find --name-server=server1.example.com

The dnszone-show command is equivalent to the dnszone-find --name command because it only displays the record for the specific zone by its fully-qualified domain name.
$ ipa dnszone-show example.com

10.4. Adding DNS Zones


The ipa dnszone-add command add a new zone to the DNS domain. At a minimum, this requires the name of the new subdomain:
$ ipa dnszone-add domainName

If the name is not given, the script prompts for it. Other command-line options can also be passed with the ipa dnszone-add command; these are described in . To add a zone entry: 1. Add the new zone. For example:
$ ipa dnszone-add newserver.example.com --admin-email=admin@example.com --minimum=3000 -allow-dynupdate

2. Reload the named service to load the new zone into the DNS domain configuration. If the service is not restarted, the DNS server will not respond to queries for records in the new zone.
# service named reload

10.5. Modifying DNS Zones


A zone is created with a certain amount of configuration, set to default values:
dn: idnsname=example.com,cn=dns,dc=example,dc=com idnsname: example.com idnssoamname: server.example.com. idnssoarname: root.server.example.com. idnssoaserial: 2011130701 idnssoarefresh: 3600 idnssoaretry: 900 idnssoaexpire: 1209600 idnssoaminimum: 3600 idnsupdatepolicy: grant EXAMPLE.COM krb5-self * A; grant EXAMPLE.COM krb5-self * AAAA; idnszoneactive: TRUE idnsallowdynupdate: TRUE nsrecord: server.example.com. objectclass: top objectclass: idnsrecord objectclass: idnszone

The zone can be created with additional attributes and values different from the default by passing additional options with the dnszeon-add command. Likewise, attributes can be added or modified in the zone entry by passing the same attribute options with the dnszone-mod command. These are listed in Table 10.2, Zone Attributes. 101

Chapter 10. Policy: Managing DNS If an attribute does not exist in the DNS zone entry, than the dnszone-mod command adds the attribute. If the attribute exists, then it overwrites the current value with the specified value. For example, to set a time to live for SOA records:
$ ipa dnszone-mod server.example.com --ttl=1800

This adds a new attribute to the DNS zone entry:


dn: idnsname=example.com,cn=dns,dc=example,dc=com idnsname: example.com idnssoamname: server.example.com. idnssoarname: root.server.example.com. idnssoaserial: 2011130701 idnssoarefresh: 3600 idnssoaretry: 900 idnssoaexpire: 1209600 idnssoaminimum: 3600 dnsttl: 1800 idnsupdatepolicy: grant EXAMPLE.COM krb5-self * A; grant EXAMPLE.COM krb5-self * AAAA; idnszoneactive: TRUE idnsallowdynupdate: TRUE nsrecord: server.example.com. objectclass: top objectclass: idnsrecord objectclass: idnszone

Table 10.2. Zone Attributes Attribute Zone name Authoritative nameserver Administrator e-mail address Command-Line Option --name --name-server --admin-email Description Sets the name of the zone. Sets the fully-qualified domain name of the DNS name server. Sets the email address to use for the zone administrator. This defaults to the root account on the host. Sets a version number for the SOA record file. Sets the interval, in seconds, for a secondary DNS server to wait before requesting updates from the primary DNS server. Sets the time, in seconds, to wait before retrying a failed refresh operation. Sets the time, in seconds, that a secondary DNS server will try to perform a refresh update before ending the operation attempt. Sets the minimum amount of time, in seconds, that data are kept in cache.

SOA serial SOA refresh

--serial --refresh

SOA retry

--retry

SOA expire

--expire

SOA minimum

--minimum

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Enabling Dynamic DNS Updates Attribute SOA time to live Command-Line Option --ttl Description Sets the maximum time, in seconds, that information is kept in the data cache. Sets the type of record. This is almost always IN, which stands for Internet. Sets the permissions allowed to clients in the DNS zone. Enables dynamic updates to DNS records for clients. Adds the DNS name server by its IP address.

SOA class

--class

BIND update policy Dynamic update Name server

--update-policy --allow-dynupdate --ip-address

10.6. Enabling Dynamic DNS Updates


Dynamic DNS updates are not enabled by default for new DNS zones in FreeIPA. If dynamic updates are not allowed, then it may not be possible for the ipa-client-install script to join a client to the domain because it cannot add a DNS record pointing to the new client. To allow dynamic updates to the DNS zones, set the --allow-dynupdate option.
$ ipa dnszone-mod server.example.com --allow-dynupdate

10.7. Enabling and Disabling Zones


Active zones can have clients added to them, are available for lookups, and are used by FreeIPA services like Kerberos. Deleting a DNS zone removes the zone entry and all the associated configuration. There can be situations when it is necessary to remove a zone from activity without permanently removing the zone. This can be done by using the dnszone-disable command. For example:
$ ipa dnszone-disable server.example.com

When the zone needs to be brought back online, it can be re-enabled using the dnszone-enable command.

10.8. Adding Records to DNS Zones


FreeIPA supports several different types of DNS records, listed in Table 10.3, DNS Record Types. Table 10.3. DNS Record Types A AAAA A6 AFSDB APL DS HIP IPSECKEY KX LOC NSEC3PARAM PTR RRSIG RP SIG

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Chapter 10. Policy: Managing DNS CERT CNAME DHCID DLV DNAME DNSKEY The ipa dnsrecord-add command adds records to DNS zones, based on the type. Adding a record has the same basic command format:
$ ipa dnsrecord-add domainName urlLabel --recordType--rec record

MX NAPTR NS NSEC NSEC3

SPF SRV SSHFP TA TXT

The recordType is an identifier, such as a for A or IPv4 records. The record value is the actual entry, which has a value corresponding to the record type.

NOTE
The ipa dnsrecord-add command only creates forward entries, not reverse entries.

Example 10.1. IPv4 Record Type A resource records map hostnames to IPv4 addresses. The record value for these commands, then, is a standard IPv4 address. The URL label is usually www.
$ ipa dnsrecord-add example.com www --a-rec 10.64.14.165

This creates the record www.example.com with the IP address 10.64.14.165. More information about A records is in RFC 1035 . Example 10.2. IPv6 Record Type AAAA resource records (quad-A records) map hostnames to IPv6 addresses. The record value for these commands is an IPv6 address. As with Type A records, the URL label is usually www.
$ ipa dnsrecord-add example.com www --aaaa-rec fe80::20c:29ff:fe02:a1b3
1

This creates the record www.example.com with the IP address fe80::20c:29ff:fe02:a1b3. More 2 information about AAAA records is in RFC 3596 . Example 10.3. SRV Record Service (SRV) resource records map service names to the DNS name of the server that is providing that particular service. For example, this record type can map a service like an LDAP directory to the DNS server which manages it. As with Type A and Type AAAA records, SRV records specify a way to connect to and identify the service, but the record format is different.
1 2

http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1035 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3596

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Deleting Records from DNS Zones The urlLabel identifies the service type and the connection protocol, in the format _service._protocol. The record information has the format "priority weight port target".
$ ipa dnsrecord-add server.example.com _ldap._tcp --srv-rec="0 100 389 server1.example.com" $ ipa dnsrecord-add server.example.com _ldap._tcp --srv-rec="1 100 389 server2.example.com"

More information about SRV records is in RFC 2782 .

10.9. Deleting Records from DNS Zones


Records are removed from the zone using the ipa dnsrecord-del command. As with adding records, records are deleted using an option that specifies the type of record (--recordType-rec) and the record value. For example, to remove the A type record:
$ ipa dnsrecord-del example.com www --a-rec 10.64.14.213

Alternatively, using the --del-all option removes all associated records for the zone.

10.10. Resolving Hostnames in the FreeIPA Domain


It is possible to check the DNS entries for FreeIPA domain members using the dns-resolve command. If the record exists and is properly formatted in the DNS configuration, then the command returns the DNS record. If not, the command returns an error, that the hostname is not recognized within the DNS service.
$ipa dns-resolve server1.example.com

This can be helpful with troubleshooting connection problems between servers, clients, and services.

http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2782

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Policy: Configuring Authorization


11.1. Configuring Host-Based Access Control
Host-based access control (HBAC) uses rules to determine who can access what services on what hosts and from where. You can use HBAC to control which users or groups on a source host can access a service, or group of services, on a target host. Target hosts and source hosts in HBAC rules must be hosts managed by IPA. You can also specify a category of users, target hosts, and source hosts. This is currently limited to "all", but might be expanded in the future. The available services and groups of services are controlled by the hbacsvc and hbacsvcgroup plug-ins, respectively.

11.2. HBAC Service Groups


HBAC service groups can contain any number of individual services (members), and are typically used to group similar services to make it easier to create HBAC rules. All HBAC service groups require a name and description. IPA provides a single default group, SUDO, used for SUDO-related services. Use the ipa hbacsvcgroup-find command to display the existing HBAC groups:
# ipa hbacsvcgroup-find ---------------------------1 HBAC service group matched ---------------------------Service group name: SUDO Description: Default group of SUDO related services ---------------------------Number of entries returned 1 ----------------------------

IPA provides commands for adding, removing and modifying HBAC service groups, adding and removing members to and from those groups, and displaying group information. Refer to the ipa help hbacsvcgroup help page for more information.

11.3. HBAC Services


HBAC services refer to the PAM services that the IPA HBAC system can control access to. HBAC service names must exactly match the service name that PAM is evaluating. For example, use the following command to add the tftp service as an HBAC service:
# ipa hbacsvc-add tftp ------------------------Added HBAC service "tftp" -------------------------

Use the ipa hbacsvc-find command to search for HBAC services. Note that in this example, two results are returned; the newly-added tftp service and the preexisting ftp service:
# ipa hbacsvc-find ftp ----------------------2 HBAC services matched -----------------------

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Service name: ftp Description: ftp Service name: tftp ---------------------------Number of entries returned 2 ----------------------------

Refer to the ipa help hbacsvc help page for more information.

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Chapter 12.

Policy: Using sudo


12.1. About sudo and IPA
The sudo command allows a system administrator to delegate authority, allowing certain users (or groups of users) the ability to run one or more commands as root or as another user, and at the same time providing an audit trail of the commands and their arguments. For more information, including coverage of the options available for use with sudo, refer to the sudo and sudoers man pages.

12.1.1. Sudo with LDAP


In the past, sudo used a single, local, configuration file, /etc/sudoers. It is possible to share the same sudoers file among machines, but there is no built-in mechanism to distribute it. Some have attempted to work around this by synchronizing changes using CVS, RSYNC, RDIST, RCP, SCP, and even NFS. By using LDAP for sudoers, IPA provides a centrally-administered, globally-available configuration source for sudo.

12.1.2. Limitations of the Existing Sudo LDAP Schema


Groups of Users
The current schema relies on LDAP-stored POSIX groups for its groups of users. The limitation here is that you cannot use a group of users for sudo without the users inheriting potential POSIX rights.

Groups of Hosts
The current schema does not have a concept of host groups. Instead, it relies on the legacy LDAP nisNetgroupTriple to manage groups of hosts.

Groups of Commands
The current schema does not have a concept of command groups. This requires that individual commands be present in each Sudo rule. It also limits the ability to reuse a group of commands for multiple Sudo rules.

12.1.3. Benefits of the IPA Alternative Schema


Groups of Users
Groups of users can be either POSIX or non-POSIX groups within IPA. This provides the flexibility to group users without assigning POSIX rights or GID information to the group.

Groups of Computers
The IPA alternative schema also addresses the issue of host groups and netgroups for the purpose of sudo. The sudo utility itself does not support host groupsa better and cleaner host grouping mechanismbut instead expects netgroups. To resolve this issue, IPA automatically creates a "shadow netgroup" with the same name as every host group that you create. This means that you can create host groups but still use netgroups with sudo without encountering any problems.

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Groups of Commands
Command groups are a new concept introduced by IPA. These objects allow administrators the ability to create groups of sudo commands that can be reused for multiple rules without the need of assigning individual commands throughout.

12.1.4. Compatibility and Managed Entry Plug-in Configuration


Compatibility Translation for Native Sudo
The native sudo binary does not yet support SSSD or the IPA Sudo Schema. As an interim solution, IPA has implemented a compatibility plug-in which transparently translates IPA Sudo rules into those supported by the current sudo binary.

Managed Entries for NIS Netgroups


In order to seamlessly support the current implementation of sudo, IPA provides a managed entry plug-in for NIS netgroups. Whenever an IPA host group is created, a translated nisNetgroupTriple is also created.

12.2. Configuring sudo


To fully implement Sudo rules, you need to perform various configuration steps on both the IPA server and client. You should first create a Sudo command object, and optionally create any Sudo command groups. Finally, create a Sudo rule, which should contain at least the following components: One or more: users or groups of users hosts or groups of hosts commands or groups of commands These steps are described in detail in the following sections.

12.2.1. Server Configuration for Sudo Rules


Procedure 12.1. How to configure your server to use Sudo rules: 1. Set up a host group, and add the client to the host group: a.
$ ipa hostgroup-add bne_doc Description: BNE Documentation hosts ------------------------------Added hostgroup "bne_doc" ------------------------------Host-group: bne_doc Description: BNE Documentation hosts

b.

$ ipa hostgroup-add-member bne_doc --hosts ipaclient.ipadocs.org Host-group: bne_doc Description: BNE Documentation hosts Member hosts: ipaclient.ipadocs.org ------------------------Number of members added 1 -------------------------

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Server Configuration for Sudo Rules 2. Set up a user group, and add the required users to this group. This procedure assumes that the IPA users already exist: a.
$ ipa group-add translators Description: Translation team ------------------------Added group "translators" ------------------------Group name: translators Description: Translation team GID: 1014000006

b.

$ ipa group-add-member translators --users yhuang,klim,hchoi Group name: translators Description: Translation team GID: 1014000006 Member users: yhuang, klim, hchoi ------------------------Number of members added 3 -------------------------

3.

Set up a bind user. This requires setting the password for the sudo bind user.
$ LDAPTLS_CACERT=/etc/ipa/ca.crt /usr/bin/ldappasswd -S -W -h ipaserver.ipadocs.org -ZZ \ -D "cn=Directory Manager" uid=sudo,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=ipadocs,dc=org New password: <sudo user's password> Re-enter new password: <sudo user's password> Enter LDAP Password: <Directory Manager's password>

4.

Set up the Sudo commands. a. Add one or more logically-related Sudo commands:
$ ipa sudocmd-add --desc 'For reading log files' '/usr/bin/less' ---------------------------------Added sudo command "/usr/bin/less" ---------------------------------Sudo Command: /usr/bin/less Description: For reading log files

b.

Add a suitable Sudo command group:


$ ipa sudocmdgroup-add --desc 'Read-only commands' readonly ----------------------------------Added sudo command group "readonly" ----------------------------------Sudo Command Group: readonly Description: Read-only commands

c.

Add the command to the command group:


$ ipa sudocmdgroup-add-member --sudocmds '/usr/bin/less' readonly Sudo Command Group: readonly Description: Read-only commands Member Sudo commands: /usr/bin/less ------------------------Number of members added 1

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-------------------------

5.

Set up the Sudo rules. a. Add the Sudo rule:


$ ipa sudorule-add readonly-commands ----------------------------------Added sudo rule "readonly-commands" ----------------------------------Rule name: readonly-commands Enabled: TRUE

b.

Add the allowable commands. These are the commands enabled by this Sudo rule when it is active.
$ ipa sudorule-add-allow-command --sudocmdgroups readonly readonly-commands Rule name: readonly-commands Enabled: TRUE Sudo Command Groups: readonly ------------------------Number of members added 1 -------------------------

c.

Add the hosts. These are the hosts and host groups to which this Sudo rule applies when it is active.
$ ipa sudorule-add-host --hostgroups bne_doc readonly-commands Rule name: readonly-commands Enabled: TRUE Host Groups: bne_doc Sudo Command Groups: readonly ------------------------Number of members added 1 -------------------------

d.

Add the users (or groups of users). These are the IPA users affected by this Sudo rule:
$ ipa sudorule-add-user --groups translators readonly-commands Rule name: readonly-commands Enabled: TRUE Groups: translators Host Groups: bne_doc Sudo Command Groups: readonly ------------------------Number of members added 1 -------------------------

12.2.2. Client Configuration for Sudo Rules


Procedure 12.2. How to configure your client to use Sudo rules: 1. Configure sudo to look to LDAP for the sudoers file. Add the following line to /etc/ nsswitch.conf:
sudoers: ldap

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Client Configuration for Sudo Rules You can still use the local /etc/sudoers file in preference to the LDAP version. The following configuration uses the local file before referring to LDAP to find sudo rules:
sudoers: files ldap

2.

Configure SSSD to look for NIS netgroups. a. Add the following line immediately after the ipa_server entry in the /etc/sssd/ sssd.conf file:
ldap_netgroup_search_base = cn=ng,cn=compat,dc=ipadocs,dc=org

b.

Restart the SSSD daemon:


# service sssd restart

3.

Edit the LDAP configuration file for sudo: a. Add the following lines to the /etc/nss_ldap.conf file. You may have to create this file if it does not already exist:
sudoers_base ou=SUDOers,dc=ipadocs,dc=org binddn uid=sudo,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=ipadocs,dc=org bindpw <sudo user's password> ssl start_tls tls_cacertfile /etc/ipa/ca.crt tls_checkpeer yes bind_timelimit 5 timelimit 15 uri ldap://ipaserver.ipadocs.org

Note
The sudo user's password in this configuration is the same password you set up in Procedure 12.1, How to configure your server to use Sudo rules:.

If desired, you can also add the sudoers_debug parameter to this file to assist with any troubleshooting processes. Valid values for this parameter are 0, 1, and 2. Refer to http:// www.gratisoft.us/sudo/readme_ldap.html for more information. b. To support compatibility with the legacy configuration, create the following symbolic link:
# ln -s /etc/nss_ldap.conf /etc/ldap.conf

4.

Set up the NIS domain. Sudo still utilizes NIS netgroups, and so to support the client-side identification of NIS netgroup domains, you need to define your NIS domain name, as follows:
# nisdomainname example.com

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Note
A bug has been filed in Fedora to have this configuration requirement addressed during the boot process.

12.2.2.1. NIS Configuration Notes


Originally called Yellow Pages (YP), NIS was created by Sun Microsystems and stands for Network Information Service. It was primarily used by UNIX to centrally manage authentication and enumeration information such as user/password, host/IP address, POSIX groups, and netgroups. NIS (the service) does not actually need to be configured on either the client or the server. Not only is it unnecessary, but might be considered a security risk if it were running. NIS is an RPC service and is insecure by today's standards, partly because: It provides no host authentication mechanisms It transmits all of its information over the network unencrypted, including password hashes Modern Linux/BSD systems implement the Name Service Switch (NSS), which provides a means of controlling and directing look ups for authentication and enumeration information. The IPA LDAP implementation provides the schema to support NIS as defined in RFC 2307 . NIS objects are automatically created inside of LDAP and NSS_LDAP, or SSSD fetches them using an encrypted LDAP connection. Utilizing SSSD or NSS_LDAP, a client system can enumerate the necessary NIS information using authenticated and encrypted queries to the back end LDAP service provided by the IPA Server. This eliminates the need for NIS client configuration for systems that can support NIS using LDAP when utilizing IPA.
1

http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2307

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Chapter 13.

Configuring the FreeIPA Server


13.1. Defining Access Controls within FreeIPA
Access control is a mechanism which defines user access. That is, it defines the rights that users and other objects have been granted in order to perform operations on other users or objects. When the FreeIPA directory server receives a request, it uses the authentication information provided by the user in the bind operation together with access control instructions (ACIs) defined in the server to allow or deny access to directory information. The server can allow or deny permissions for actions, such as read, write, search, and compare, on directory server entries. The permission level granted to a user may depend on the authentication information provided. FreeIPA implements a number of different methods for controlling access to the various objects, commands and processes that exist within a FreeIPA domain. This includes a Kerberos Ticket Policy, a Password Policy, Host-based Access Control and SUDO Command Policies for controlling client access to services and commands; that is, outside of the FreeIPA server, and a separate Access Control Model for controlling server-side objects; that is, LDAP entries within the FreeIPA server. FreeIPA relies on three separate types of access control rules: Role-based rules: specify what operations an entity can perform based on its FreeIPA Role. Self-service rules: specify what an entity can change within its own entry. Delegation rules: specify which groups can modify members of another group. These three types of access control complement each other, and allow FreeIPA administrators to create a very flexible set of access control permissions and restrictions. Role-based access control (RBAC) is a hierarchical way of organizing access to the data managed by FreeIPA. Users, groups, hosts, and host groups can be added to different FreeIPA Roles. These roles provide the necessary permissions for access. You can create as many roles as you need to suit the requirements of your deployment. There are several aspects to working with roles. Because it is a hierarchical system, to create a fully operational role you need to create the role itself, add privileges to this role to establish what tasks it can and cannot perform, and finally add members to the role, such as users, groups, etc. The reverse is also true; if you remove a role, then any users or groups who relied on this role to perform certain tasks will no longer be able to do so.

Note
You cannot create nested roles. That is, a role cannot contain another role.

13.1.1. Server-side Access Control


The FreeIPA Access Control Model is based on the underlying 389 Directory Server access control model, which uses access control instructions (ACIs) to define user access within the system. An ACI is a construct that can express a complex set of access control information. As explained in the directory server documentation, the three main parts of an ACI statement are: Target Permission 115

Chapter 13. Configuring the FreeIPA Server Bind Rule The ACI structure itself is very flexible, but can also be confusing. FreeIPA attempts to structure these ACIs in order to provide a formalized input and output that can be expressed on the command line and in the WebUI, while at the same time maintaining sufficient flexibility to create complex access control rules. In order to achieve this, FreeIPA implements three types of access control. These are discussed in the following sections.

13.1.1.1. Types of Access Control


FreeIPA relies on three separate types of access control rules: Role-based Self-service Delegation These three types of access control complement each other, allowing FreeIPA administrators to create a very flexible set of access control permissions and restrictions.

Role-based Access Control


Role-based access control (RBAC) is a hierarchical way of organizing access to the data managed by FreeIPA. Different users who perform the same tasks within an organization are typically combined into a group, and this group is made a member of a FreeIPA Role. This Role provides the member groups and users the necessary permissions to perform their assigned tasks.

Self-service Access Control


Self-service access control defines what operations an entity can perform on itself. This method of control is attribute based; that is, it defines what attributes can be modified for any particular entity. The ability of a user to update their own password is an example of self-service access control. Selfservice access control applies to any authenticated entity performing an operation, not only to users. This method of access control should also be used with caution, to avoid the possibility that it lead to the elevation of an entity's privileges.

Delegation Access Control


Delegation access control defines what operations one group of users or entries can perform on another group of users or entries. In each case, the group of users or entries may be identified by a provided filter. The core difference between delegation access control rules and other rules is that the targetthe object of the access control ruleis not a class of entries but rather a set of specific entries that are members of a group or retrieved by a specific filter. The delegation rules allow targeted management of specific user entries. In each case, the access control rule resolves the constituents of the FreeIPA access control expression: "Who can do What to Whom". The following section explains these constituents in more detail.

13.1.1.1.1. The FreeIPA Access Control Expression


The "Who" of Access Control
In simple grammatical terms, the "who" of a FreeIPA access control instruction (ACI), or expression, is the subject. It specifies the entity that interacts with the system and tries to perform an administrative 116

Server-side Access Control task. This task could be an administrator adding a user, a user changing his home address, or a host requesting a certificate for a service running on the host. It is important to understand that the "who" is not necessarily a person; it can be any entity that has successfully authenticated against FreeIPA. In order to authenticate against the FreeIPA server, this entity, the "who", needs to have a Kerberos principal. After the entity has authenticated, it can connect to the FreeIPA server and try to issue administrative commands. The system will either allow or deny the requested operation based on this entity's permissions.

The "What" of Access Control


To continue the analogy with grammatical terms, the "what" of a FreeIPA ACI is the verb. This specifies the actual administrative operation that the subject, the "who", is trying to perform. Such operations can target actual entries, such as adding or deleting users, or they can target specific attributes of entries, such as changing phone numbers for a user entry, or changing the member attributes of a group entry. Most entry attributes are optional, and the operations against attributes can be any of the following: Add allows the creation of a new attribute, or new values for multi-valued attributes. Delete allows the removal of an attribute. Read makes attributes accessible. Write allows modification of existing attributes.

The "Whom" of Access Control


The "whom" of a FreeIPA ACI is the object, or target, upon which the ACI acts. Targets can be expressed in different ways: As a class of entries, for example: user; group; host. As a location in a specific part of the directory tree, for example: everything under cn=accounts. As a specific attribute potentially used in many types of entries, for example: the cn attribute. As a specific entry, for example: fqdn=mycomp.mywork.com. As a set of entries selected by filter, for example: cn="filter".

13.1.1.1.2. 389 Directory Server ACIs and FreeIPA Access Control Types
The following table summarizes the relationship between the different 389 Directory Server ACI components and the FreeIPA access control types. Table 13.1. Mapping 389 Directory Server and FreeIPA Access Control Types Type of Access Control Role-based Target An entry as a whole (for add and delete), or a set of attributes of an entry. Permission Write, Add, or Delete. Read is implied. Bind Rule Taskgroup. (A taskgroup is a special internal entry developed as part of FreeIPA to construct the access control hierarchy. A taskgroup is a "container" that is 117

Chapter 13. Configuring the FreeIPA Server Type of Access Control Target Permission Bind Rule granted permission to perform specific tasks.) Self-service Attributes within the entity's own entry. Write permission for specific attributes. All attributes are readable unless globally hidden. Write, Add, or Delete. Read is implied. The entity who authenticated.

Delegation

A group of users or a set of entries selected by a filter.

A group of users, usually a group of administrative users.

13.1.2. Creating Roles


1. Add the new role:
# ipa role-add --desc="User Administrator" useradmin -----------------------Added role "useradmin" -----------------------Role name: useradmin Description: User Administrator

2. Add the required privileges to the role:


# ipa role-add-privilege --privileges="User Administrators" useradmin Role name: useradmin Description: User Administrator Privileges: user administrators ---------------------------Number of privileges added 1 ----------------------------

3. Add the required groups to the role. In this case, we are adding only a single group, useradmin, which already exists.
# ipa role-add-member --groups=useradmins useradmin Role name: useradmin Description: User Administrator Member groups: useradmins Privileges: user administrators ------------------------Number of members added 1 -------------------------

The result of this procedure is that any user in the useradmins group can add, modify, and remove users, change user passwords, add users to the default group, and unlock user accounts. You can use the ipa privilege-show command to determine exactly which command set the user or group can access:
# ipa privilege-show 'user administrators' Privilege name: User Administrators Description: User Administrators Permissions: add users, change a user password, add user to default group, unlock user accounts, remove users, modify users

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Defining Self-Service Settings


Granting privilege to roles: useradmin

As the needs of your enterprise change, you may need to modify the roles that you have established. For example, you may need to change the members of the role, or change the privileges associated with the role. You can use the ipa role-* commands to perform these functions. For example, to remove an existing privilege from a role, use the ipa role-remove-privilege command. To remove members from a role, use the ipa role-remove-member command. Refer to the ipa role help pages for more information. You can use the ipa role-del command to delete FreeIPA roles from your configuration. Bear in mind, however, that any entities that rely on this role for access to FreeIPA objects or to perform certain tasks will no longer have that ability.

13.1.3. Defining Self-Service Settings


Self-service access control rules define the operations that an entity can perform on itself. These rules are attribute based; that is, they define what attributes can be modified for any particular entity. You can create self-service rules so that users can manage their own addresses, keep their contact details current, change their passwords, etc. Self-service rules are defined and managed by a number of sub-commands. Use the ipa help selfservice command to display the list of available commands. The following example demonstrates how to add a new self-service rule that allows users to maintain their own name details. Note that access control rules whose names contain spaces or other special characters need to be quoted.
$ ipa selfservice-add "Users can manage their own name details" --permissions=write -attrs=givenname,displayname,title,initials ----------------------------------------------------------Added selfservice "Users can manage their own name details" ----------------------------------------------------------Self-service name: Users can manage their own name details Permissions: write Attributes: givenname, displayname, title, initials

You can use the ipa selfservice-show command to display the newly-created rule. You can use the ipa selfservice-mod command to manage your self-service rules. For example, you can add or remove various attributes from any of the defined rules, or change the permissions. For example, you can add telephone contact details to the rule we created in the previous example:
$ ipa selfservice-mod "Users can manage their own name details" -attrs=givenname,displayname,title,initials,homephone,mobile,telephonenumber -------------------------------------------------------------Modified selfservice "Users can manage their own name details" -------------------------------------------------------------Self-service name: Users can manage their own name details Permissions: write Attributes: givenname, displayname, title, initials, homephone, mobile, telephonenumber

Important
You need to include all of the required attributes when you modify a self-service rule, including existing ones.

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13.2. Disabling Anonymous Binds


Even though the XML-RPC and WebUI always require authentication, the default FreeIPA configuration allows anonymous binds to the LDAP port by anyone in the same domain as the FreeIPA server, and consequent retrieval of a range of data, including user, group, netgroup, host, host group, and service records. This is generally considered insecure, and some RFC standards require that it be disabled to achieve compliance. With anonymous binds disabled, all connections to the directory server need to provide a valid identity. To disable anonymous binds, perform this LDAP modification:
# ldapmodify -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -W Enter LDAP Password: dn: cn=config changetype: modify replace: nsslapd-allow-anonymous-access nsslapd-allow-anonymous-access: off # service dirsrv restart

13.3. Managing Unique UID and GID Number Assignments


A FreeIPA server must generate random UID and GID values and simultaneously ensure that replicas never generate the same UID or GID value. The need for unique UID and GID numbers might even cross FreeIPA domains, if a single organization has multiple disparate domains. The UID and GID numbers are divided into ranges. By keeping separate numeric ranges for individual servers and replicas, the chances are minimal that any numbers issued by one server or replica will duplicate those from another. Ranges are updated and shared intelligently between servers and replicas through the Dynamic Numeric Assignment (DNA) Plug-in, as part of the backend 389 Directory Server instance for the domain. The same range is used for user IDs (uidNumber) and group IDs (gidNumber). A user and a group may have the same ID, but since the ID is set in different attributes, there is no conflict. Using the same ID number for both a user and a group also allows an administrator to configure user private groups, where a unique system group is created for each user and the ID number is the same for both the user and the group.

IMPORTANT
When a user is created interactively or without specifying a UID or GID number, then the user account is created with an ID number that is next available in the server or replica range. This means that a user always has a unique number for its UID number and, if configured, for its private group. If a number is manually assigned to a user entry, the server does not validate that the uidNumber is unique. It will allow duplicate IDs; this is expected (though discouraged) behavior for Posix entries. The same is true for group entries: a duplicate gidNumber can be manually assigned to the entry. If two entries are assigned the same ID number, only the first entry is returned in a search for that ID number. However, both entries will be returned in searches for other attributes or with ipa user-find --all.

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About ID Range Assignments During Installation

13.3.1. About ID Range Assignments During Installation


The FreeIPA administrator can initially define a range during server installation, using the --idstart and --idmax options with ipa-server-install. These options are not required, so the setup script can assign random ranges during installation. If no range is set manually when the first FreeIPA server is installed, a range of 200,000 IDs is randomly selected. There are 10,000 possible ranges. Selecting a random range from that number provides a high probability of non-conflicting IDs if two separate FreeIPA domains are ever merged in the future. With a single FreeIPA server, IDs are assigned to entries in order through the range. With replicas, the initial server ID range is split and distributed. When a replica is installed, it is configured with an invalid range. It also has a directory entry (that is shared among replicas) that instructs the replica where it can request a valid range. When the replica starts, or as its current range is depleted so that less than 100 IDs are available, it can contact one of the available servers for a new range allotment. A special extended operation splits the range in two, so that the original server and the replica each have half of the available range.

13.3.2. Adding New Ranges


If the range for the entire domain is close to depletion, a new range can be manually selected and assigned to one of the master servers. All replicas then request ID ranges from the master as necessary. The changes to the range are done by editing the 389 Directory Server configuration to change the DNA Plug-in instance. The range is defined in the dnaNextRange parameter. For example:
ldapmodify -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -W -h server.example.com -p 389 Enter LDAP Password: ******* dn: cn=Posix IDs,cn=Distributed Numeric Assignment Plugin,cn=plugins,cn=config changetype: modify add: dnaNextRange dnaNextRange: 123400000-123500000

NOTE
This command only adds the specified range of values; it does not check that the values in that range are actually available. This check is performed when an attempt is made to allocate those values. If a range is added that contains mostly values that were already allocated, the system will cycle through the entire range searching for unallocated values, and then the operation ultimately fails if none are available.

13.4. Configuring Certificates and Certificate Authorities


FreeIPA creates a self-signed Certificate Authority (CA) during the installation process. If you have your own or a preferred CA, however, and want to use your own certificates, FreeIPA provides the necessary tools to import certificates for use by 389 Directory Server and the HTTP server. While not a prerequisite for the correct operation of FreeIPA, it is recommended that you save an ASCII copy of your CA certificate as /usr/share/ipa/html/ca.crt to ensure that users download the correct certificate.

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13.4.1. Installing Your Own Certificate


Use the ipa-server-certinstall command to install your own certificate. You can install the certificate for use by 389 Directory Server, HTTP Server, or both.
# /usr/sbin/ipa-server-certinstall -d /path/to/pkcs12.p12

13.4.2. Using Your Own Certificate with Firefox


To continue using the Firefox auto-configuration feature, you need an object-signing certificate, and you need to regenerate the /usr/share/ipa/html/configure.jar file. To use your own certificate with Firefox: 1. Create a suitable directory and then create the new certificate database in that directory.
# mkdir /tmp/signdb # certutil -N -d /tmp/signdb

2. Import the PKCS #12 file for the signing certificate into that same directory.
# pk12util -i /path/to/pkcs12.p12 -d /tmp/signdb

3. Make a temporary signing directory, and copy the FreeIPA javascript file to that directory.
# mkdir /tmp/sign # cp /usr/share/ipa/html/preferences.html /tmp/sign

4. Use the certificate you created earlier to sign the javascript file and to regenerate the configure.jar file.
# signtool -d /tmp/signdb -k Signing_cert_nickname -Z /usr/share/ipa/html/configure.jar e .html

13.4.3. Using OCSP


The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is natively provided by the CA embedded into FreeIPA. This is so that any client that supports it can use OCSP for certificate validity checks. The OCSP responder URL is encoded into the certificates issued by FreeIPA. In order for that responder to be available, port 9180 needs to be open in the firewall. The OCSP URL uses the following format:
http://ipa.example.com:9180/ca/ocsp

For more information on OCSP, refer to the RFC at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2560.txt.

13.5. Setting a FreeIPA Server as an Apache Virtual Host


If you have a standard Apache instance running on port 80, you can configure FreeIPA to run on a secondary port, for example, on port 8089. You should be aware, however, that in this configuration, FreeIPA does not use SSL; all requests will use standard HTTP. The following procedure assumes that FreeIPA is configured to run on port 80, and that you want to move it to port 8089.

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Using FreeIPA in a Cluster To configure FreeIPA to run on port 8089: 1. Log in as the root user. 2. Edit the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa.conf file. Add the following three lines to the beginning of the file:
Listen 8089 NameVirtualHost *:8089 <VirtualHost *:8089>

3. Add the following line to the end of the file:


</VirtualHost>

This wraps the entire FreeIPA configuration in a virtual host, and ensures that Apache is listening to that port.

Note
You cannot use port 8080. This port is used by the ipa_webgui service.

4. Comment out the following rewrite rules from the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa.conf file:
---------------------------------------------------------------------# Redirect to the fully-qualified hostname. Not redirecting to secure # port so configuration files can be retrieved without requiring SSL. RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^host.foo.com$ [NC] RewriteRule ^/(.*) http://host.foo.com/$1 [L,R=301] # Redirect to the secure port if not displaying an error or retrieving # configuration. RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$ RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/(errors|config|favicon.ico) RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://host.foo.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC] ---------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Reload the httpd service.


# service httpd reload

This configures FreeIPA to run on port 8089, leaving port 80 free for your normal web site.

13.6. Using FreeIPA in a Cluster


The FreeIPA server currently does not specifically handle the case of a service running in a cluster. That is, the FreeIPA server is not cluster aware. It is possible to configure a clustered service to be part of FreeIPA, although a certain amount of manual configuration is required. This involves sharing and synchronizing Kerberos keys across all of the participating hosts, and also configuring services running on the hosts to respond to whatever names the clients want to use.

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13.6.1. Configuring Kerberos Credentials for a Clustered Environment


Use the following procedure to set up the Kerberos credentials for an environment where your managed host is a cluster of nodes. Configuring Kerberos Credentials for a Clustered Environment 1. Enroll all of the hosts in the FreeIPA domain, and collect any keytabs that have been set up. At a minimum, this is /etc/krb5.keytab, although additional services may have their keys in other files. 2. Use the ktutil command to produce a single keytab file that contains the contents of all of the keytab files. a. For each file, use the rkt command to read the keys from that file. b. Use the wkt command to write all of the keys which have been read to a new keytab file. 3. Replace the keytab files on each host with the newly-created keytab file. Each host in this cluster should now be able to impersonate any other host.

13.6.1.1. Service-specific Configuration


Additional service-specific configuration may be required if cluster members do not reset their hostnames when they take over for a failed service. For sshd, set GSSAPIStrictAcceptorCheck no in /etc/ssh/sshd_config For mod_auth_kerb, set KrbServiceName Any in /etc/httpd/conf.d/auth_kerb.conf

13.6.1.2. SSL Server Configuration


For SSL servers, it is important that the subject name or a subjectAlternativeName value for the server's certificate look correct when a client connects to the clustered item. The simplest way to do this is to keep the private key and certificate synchronized across all of the hosts, but it is better to share the private key if possible. Ensuring that certificates issued to each cluster member contain subjectAlternativeName values naming all of the cluster members should satisfy any client connection requirements.

13.6.2. Using the Same Service Principal for Multiple Services


One aspect of applying FreeIPA in a cluster use case is using the same service principal for multiple services, spread across different machines. This is a simple procedure and could be implemented as follows: 1. Retrieve a service principal in the normal way, using the ipa-getkeytab command, or use the keytab that is set up when the host joins the realm. That is, by using ipa-join, which creates or updates the /etc/krb5.keytab file with a host/principal. 2. When you have the principal in a keytab on the system, you can direct multiple servers or services to use the same file, or you can copy the file to discrete locations as required.

13.7. FreeIPA Server Logging


If you are using the FreeIPA command-line tools or the WebUI to manage FreeIPA data then you should refer to the following sections to help troubleshoot any problems. 124

Promoting a Read-Only Replica to a FreeIPA Server You should first check the /var/log/httpd/error_log file. This may contain more information on the error and/or a python stacktrace. To see the LDAP queries that are being made by the framework you can inspect the /var/log/ dirsrv/slapd-INSTANCE/access file. Note that this file is buffered and so it only writes to disk about every 30 seconds.

Increasing Server Debugging Output


To increase the server debugging output you can create the /etc/ipa/server.conf file and include the following entry:
[global] debug=True

You need to restart the httpd daemon for this change to take effect.

Increasing Client Debugging Output


You can increase debugging output on the client with the -v global option:
$ ipa -v user-show admin

You can use the -v option twice to display the XML-RPC exchange:
$ ipa -vv user-show admin

13.8. Promoting a Read-Only Replica to a FreeIPA Server


The only difference between a replica and the master server is that the master owns the self-signed CA. If you copy the appropriate files from the master to the replica, import the CA into the replica directory server, and delete the existing replication agreements, that replica will then appear as a master server.

Note
If you install with the --selfsign option, follow this procedure if you want to promote a replica to a master. This is because the private key for the self-signed CA is stored in the Apache database (/etc/httpd/alias). The private key for a Dogtag Certificate System CA is stored in its own security database.

To promote a replica to a master server: 1. Copy the /var/lib/ipa/ca_serialno file from the master to the replica. 2. Import the CA into the replica 389 Directory Server NSS database, as follows:
# cd /etc/dirsrv/slapd-REALM # pk12util -i /path/to/cacert.p12 -d .

The password on the PKCS#12 file is stored as /etc/dirsrv/slapd-REALM/pwdfile.txt on the original server. 3. Delete the existing replication agreements, as follows: 125

Chapter 13. Configuring the FreeIPA Server

# ipa-replica-manage del master.example.com

You now have two identical FreeIPA servers, neither of which know about the other. You can shut down the old master and bring up the new machine (if you are introducing a new replica into your network). Create a replica file on the new master and install it on the new machine.

13.9. Testing Before Upgrading the FreeIPA Server


It can be beneficial, and safer, to test newer versions of FreeIPA before upgrading production systems. There is a relatively simple way to do this, by creating a sacrifical replica (which is a read-write server) and testing on that system. 1. Set up a replica based on one of the production servers, with the same version of FreeIPA as is running in production, as described in Section 1.4, Setting up FreeIPA Replicas. For this example, this is called Test Replica. Make sure that Test Replica can successfully connect to the production server and domain. 2. After verifying that Test Replica has been successfully added to the production domain, disconnect Test Replica from the network. 3. Remove the replication agreements for Test Replica from the original FreeIPA server and from Test Replica. 4. Reconnect Test Replica to the network. 5. Upgrade the packages on Test Replica using yum or whatever tools are appropriate. For example:
# yum update freeipa*

6. Test common things on Test Replica, like getting Kerberos credentials, opening the server UI, and running commands. If the update affects the ds-replication package or features which are used for replication between servers and replicas, then create two test replicas which communicate with each other (such as, make a test replica off a production server and then a replica off the test replica). Make sure that the two replicas can communicate with each other before and after updating the FreeIPA packages.

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Chapter 14.

Managing Client Machines in the FreeIPA Domain


Both DNS and Kerberos are configured as part of the initial client configuration. This is required because these are the two services that bring the machine within the FreeIPA domain and allow it to identity the FreeIPA server it will connect with. After the initial configuration, FreeIPA has tools to manage both of these services in response to changes in the domain services, changes to the IT environment, or changes on the machines themselves which affect Kerberos, certificate, and DNS services, like changing the client hostname. This chapter describes how to manage identity services that relate directly the the client machine: DNS entries and settings Machine authentication Hostname changes (which affect domain services)

14.1. About Machine Identity and Authentication


A FreeIPA domain establishes a commonality between machines, with common identity information, common policies, and shared services. Any machine which belongs to a domain functions as a client of the domain, which means it uses the services that the domain provides. A FreeIPA domain provides three main services specifically for machines: DNS Kerberos Certificate management Machines are treated as another identity that is managed by FreeIPA. Clients use DNS to identify FreeIPA servers, services, and domain members which, like user identities are stored in the 389 Directory Server instance for the FreeIPA server. Like users, machines can authenticated to the domain using Kerberos or certificates to verify the machine's identity. From the machine perspective, there are several tasks that can be performed that access these domain services: Joining the DNS domain (machine enrollment) Managing DNS entries and zones Managing machine authentication Authentication in FreeIPA includes machines as well as users. Machine authentication is required for the FreeIPA server to trust the machine and to accept FreeIPA connections from the client software installed on that machine. After authenticating the client, the FreeIPA server can respond to its requests. FreeIPA supports two different approaches to machine authentication: Key tables (or keytabs, a symmetric key resembling to some extent a user password) and machine certificates. Kerberos tickets are generated as part of the Kerberos services and policies defined by the server. Initially granting a Kerberos ticket, renewing the Kerberos credentials, and even destroying the Kerberos session are all handled by the FreeIPA services. Managing Kerberos is covered in Chapter 6, Identity: Using FreeIPA for a Kerberos Domain. 127

Chapter 14. Managing Client Machines in the FreeIPA Domain Machine certificates. In this case, the machine uses an SSL certificate that is issued by the FreeIPA server's certificate authority and then stored in FreeIPA's Directory Server. The certificate is then sent to the machine to present when it authenticates to the server. On the client, certificates are managed by a service called certmonger, which is described in Section 14.6, Working with certmonger.

14.2. Enrolling Clients Manually


Enrolling machines as clients in the FreeIPA domain is a two-part process. A host entry is created for the client (and stored in the 389 Directory Server isntance), and then a keytab is created to provision the client. Both parts are performed automatically by the ipa-client-install command. It also also possible to perform those steps separately; this allows for administrators to prepare machines and FreeIPA in advance of actually configuring the clients. This allows more flexible setup scenarios, including bulk deployments. When performing a manual enrollment, the host entry is created separately, and then enrollment is completed when the client script is run, which creates the requisite keytab.

NOTE
There are two ways to set the password. You can either supply your own or have FreeIPA generate a random one.

14.2.1. Performing a Split Enrollment


There may be a situation where an administrator in one group is prohibited from creating a host entry and, therefore, from simply running the ipa-client-install command and allowing it to create the host. However, that administrator may have the right to run the command after a host entry exists. In that case, one administrator can create the host entry manually, then the second administrator can complete the enrollment by running the ipa-client-install command. 1. An administrator creates the host entry, as described in Section 5.2, Adding Host Entries. 2. The second administrator installs the FreeIPA client packages on the machine, as in Section 2.2, Configuring a Fedora System as a FreeIPA Client. 3. When the second administrator runs the setup script, he must pass his Kerberos password and username (principal) with the ipa-client-install command. For example:
$ ipa-client-install -w secret -p admin2

4. The keytab is generated on the server and provisioned to the client machine, so that the client machine is not able to connect to the FreeIPA domain. The keytab is saved with root:root ownership and 0600 permissions.

14.2.2. Performing a Bulk or Kickstart Enrollment


Two variations of a split enrollment are a bulk enrollment and a kickstart enrollment. Combined, that allows automatic provisioning of multiple hosts or virtual machines. This requires pre-creating the hosts on the FreeIPA server, with a predefined password that can be used to authenticate to complete the enrollment operation. 128

Renaming Machines and Reconfiguring FreeIPA Client Configuration 1. An administrator creates the host entry, as described in Section 5.2, Adding Host Entries. Set a password to use for the bulk or automatic enrollment. For example:
$ ipa host-add bulkserver.example.com --password=secret

The password is set to expire after the first authentication attempt. After enrollment completes, the password expires and the host is authenticated using its keytab. 2. Run the kickstart script, using the given bulk password. The kickstart script performs all of the tasks performed manually by the second administrator in Section 14.2.1, Performing a Split Enrollment: Kickstart installs the FreeIPA packages. Kickstart runs the enrollment script, passing in the password. The enrollment script connects to the FreeIPA server using the provided password and a bind DN derived from the machine name. It then authenticates using a simple bind over SSL.

14.3. Renaming Machines and Reconfiguring FreeIPA Client Configuration


The hostname of a system is critical for the correct operation of Kerberos and SSL. Both of these security mechanisms rely on the hostname to ensure that communication is occurring between the specified hosts. Infrastructures which use virtual machines or clusterd servers will commonly have hosts which are renamed because systems are copied, moved, or renamed. Fedora does not provide a simple rename command to facilitate the renaming of a FreeIPA host. Renaming a host in a FreeIPA domain involves deleting the entry in FreeIPA, uninstalling the client software, changing the hostname, and re-enrolling using the new name. Additionally, part of renaming hosts requires regenerating service principals. To reconfigure the client: 1. Identify which services are running on the machine. These need to be re-created when the machine is re-enrolled.
# ipa service-find server.example.com

Each host has a default service which does not appear in the list of services. This service can be referred to as the "host service". The service principal for the host service is host/<hostname>, such as host/server.example.com. This principal can also be referred to as the host principal. 2. Identify all host groups to which the machine belongs.
# ipa hostgroup-find server.example.com

Identify which of the services have certificates associated with them. The host service always has an associated certificate. 3. For any service principals (in addition to the host principal), determine the location of the corresponding keytabs on server.example.com. The keytab location is different for each service, and FreeIPA does not store this information.

129

Chapter 14. Managing Client Machines in the FreeIPA Domain Each service on the client system has a Kerberos principal in the form service name/ hostname@REALM, such as ldap/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM. 4. Unenroll the client machine from the FreeIPA domain:
# ipa-client-install --uninstall

5. For each identified keytab other than /etc/krb5.keytab, remove the old principals:
# ipa-rmkeytab -k /path/to/keytab -r EXAMPLE.COM

6. On another FreeIPA machine, as a FreeIPA administrator, remove the host entry. This removes all services and revokes all certificates issued for that host:
# ipa host-del server.example.com

At this point, the host is completely removed from FreeIPA. 7. Rename the machine. 8. Re-enroll the system with FreeIPA:
# ipa-client-install

This generates a host principal for with the new hostname in /etc/krb5.keytab. 9. For every service that needs a new keytab, run the following command:
# ipa service-add serviceName/new-hostname

10. To generate certificates for services, use either certmonger or the FreeIPA administration tools. 11. Re-add the host to any applicable host groups.

14.4. Manually Unconfiguring Client Machines


A machine may need to be removed from one FreeIPA domain and moved to another domain or a virtual machine may be copied. There are a number of different situations where a FreeIPA client needs to be reconfigured. The easiest solution is to uninstall the client and then configure it afresh.
ipa-client-install --uninstall

If it is not possible to uninstall the client directly, then the FreeIPA configuration can be manually removed from the virtual machine.

WARNING
When a machine is unenrolled, the procedure cannot be undone. The machine can only be enrolled again.

130

Debugging Client Connection Problems 1. Remove the old hostname from the main keytab. This can be done by removing every principal in the realm or by removing specific principals. For example, to remove all principals:
$ ipa-rmkeytab -k /etc/krb5.keytab -r EXAMPLE.COM

To remove specific principals:


$ ipa-rmkeytab -k /etc/krb5.keytab -p host/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

2. Disable tracking in certmonger for every certificate. Each certificate must be removed from tracking individually.
$ ipa-getcert stop-tracking -n Server-Cert -d /etc/pki/nssdb $ ipa-getcert stop-tracking -n Server2-Cert -d /etc/pki/nssdb

3. Remove the old host from the FreeIPA DNS domain. While this is optional, it cleans up the old FreeIPA entries associated with the system and allows it to be re-enrolled cleanly at a later time.
$ ipa host-del server.example.com

4. If the system should be re-added to a new FreeIPA domain such as a virtual machine which was moved from one location to another then the system can be rejoined to FreeIPA using the ipa-join command.
$ ipa-join

14.5. Debugging Client Connection Problems


Client connection problems are apparent immediately. This can mean that users cannot log into a machine or attempts to access user and group information fails (for example, getent passwd admin). Authentication in FreeIPA is managed with the SSSD daemon, which is described in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. If there are problems with client authentication, then check the SSSD information. First, check the SSSD logs in /var/log/sssd/. There is a specific log file for the DNS domain, such as sssd_example.com.log. If there is not enough information in the logs at the default logging level, then increase the log level. To increase the log level: 1. Open the sssd.conf file.
vim /etc/sssd/sssd.conf

2. In the [domain/example.com] section, set debug_level.


debug_level = 9

3. Restart the sssd daemon. 131

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service sssd restart

4. Check the /var/log/sssd/sssd_example.com.log file for the debug messages.

14.6. Working with certmonger


Part of managing machine authentication is managing machine certificates. The FreeIPA server can handle this through an internal certificate authority. On clients, FreeIPA manages the certificate lifecycle with the certmonger service. The certmonger daemon, and its command-line clients, simplifies the process of generating public/ private key pairs, creating certificate reqests, and submitting requests to a CA for signing. As part of managing certificates, the certmonger daemon monitors certificates for expiration and can renew certificates that are about to expire. The certificates that certmonger monitors is tracked in files stored in a configurable directory. The default location is /var/lib/certmonger/requests. certmonger uses the getcert command to manage all certificates, but there are essentially container commands that perform the certificate management tasks depending on the certificate authority type the FreeIPA CA or self-signed. The command line tool used has different prefixes to identify the different CA types: ipa-getcert selfsign-getcert

NOTE
Because of general security issues, self-signed certificates are not typically used in production, but can be used for development and testing.

14.6.1. Requesting a Certificate with certmonger


With the FreeIPA CA, certmonger uses the ipa-getcert command. Example 14.1. Using certmonger with FreeIPA
ipa-getcert request -r -f /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt -k /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/ server.key -N CN=`hostname --fqdn` -D `hostname` -U id-kp-serverAuth

The options vary depending on whether you are using a self-signed certificate (selfsign-getcert), the desired configuration for the final certificate, and other settings. In Example 14.1, Using certmonger with FreeIPA, these are common options to use: The -r option will automatically renew the certificate if the keypair already exists. This is used by default. The -f option stores the certificate in the given file. The -k option either stores the key in the given file or, if the key file already exists, uses the key in the file. The -N option gives the subject name. 132

Storing Certificates in NSS Databases The -D option gives the DNS domain name. The -U option sets the extended key usage flag.

14.6.2. Storing Certificates in NSS Databases


By default, certmonger uses plaintext files to store the key and the certificate, but these keys and certificates can also be stored in NSS databases. This is done using the -d option to set the security database location and -n to give the certificate nickname which is used for the certificate in the database. These options are used instead of the PEM files given in the -f and -k options. For example:
# ipa-getcert request -d /export/alias -n ServerCert ...

14.6.3. Tracking Certificates with certmonger


certmonger can manage the entire certificate lifecycle. Along with generating requests, certmonger can track a certificate and automatically renew it when it expires, at the end of its validity period. This is done using the start-tracking command with the getcert command. The -I option creates the tracking entry, and then there are pointers to the key and certificate files, either in NSS databases (-d and -n) or in the PEM files (-f and -k). The -r option tells certmonger to renew the certificate.
# ipa-getcert start-tracking -I cert1-tracker -d /export/alias -n ServerCert -r

TIP
The -r option can be passed with the request command, in Example 14.1, Using certmonger with FreeIPA. In that case, the requested certificate is automatically tracked and renewed by certmonger. Then, it is not necessary to configure tracking manually.

A certificate can be untracked by certmonger by using the stop-tracking command.

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Appendix A. Frequently Asked Questions


Q: A: Is it possible to change the IP address of the master server? Yes. If you are only changing the IP address then it is sufficient to update the /etc/hosts file, the system configuration and the DNS entry. Why are there restrictions on the length of user and group names? How can I change this? User and group name lengths are specified in the policy. The default maximum username length is 32 characters. The maximum configurable length for user or group names is 255 characters. This restriction was introduced because some non-Linux operating systems have limitations on the length of username that they can support. You can modify these settings either in the user interface or on the command line. For example, to specify the maximum username length, run the following command: ipa config-mod -maxusername=INT Q: A: What is the difference between a replica and a master server? The only difference between a replica and the initial IPA install (the "master") is that the first server owns the self-signed CA. Can I promote a replica to function as the master? How? Yes. Refer to Section 13.8, Promoting a Read-Only Replica to a FreeIPA Server. Why does the ipa-client-install script fail to find the IPA server on a network that uses Active Directory DNS? This is probably due to the fact that Active Directory has its own SRV records for Kerberos and LDAP, and so the ipa-client-install script retrieves those records instead of any that you may have added for IPA. Can an administrator who is connected to "Server B" revoke a certificate issued by "Server A"? Yes, assuming that Servers A and B contain non-cloned CAs whose portion of internal storage has been replicated to share revocation information only.

Q: A:

Q: A: Q: A:

Q: A:

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136

Appendix B. Migrating from a Directory Server to IPA


B.1. Overview
This appendix addresses the situation where a customer has previously deployed an internal Directory Server (DS) and is planning to use IPA instead. The customer needs to transfer all user data from the DS to IPA so that IPA can function fully and correctly. The goal is to perform this migration without requiring that users change their passwords or perform some other specific action.

B.1.1. Assumptions
It is not practical to identify and address each of the scenarios in which a DS and IPA might be deployed, and where migration might be required. Consequently, the following assumptions are made: This is a one-to-one transition from one DS realm to one IPA realm. No consolidation is involved. User passwords are stored as a hash in the source DS in a form that the IPA DS can understand You are using LDAP as the central authentication service, and the client machines are configured to use pam_ldap and nss_ldap Some machines might be present that are managed by NIS or are not part of the DS deployment, but are planned to be part of the IPA domain Machines that cannot be moved from the NIS domain to LDAP or IPA because they are old and do not support nss_ldap are assumed to remain in and be served by the NIS domain. The migration of such machines to the IPA domain, while possible, is a challenging task and is out of the scope of the current use case.

B.1.2. Known Issues


A number of issues exist that need to be considered when planning the migration: A generic DS uses a different schema and Directory Information Tree (DIT) when compared to IPA. No known DS uses the same flat DIT structure that IPA uses. IPA is optimized for performance, and attempts to avoid any architectural design flaws that have occurred in the past. IPA uses Kerberos for authentication, and so each user requires that Kerberos keys be stored in the IPA DS, in addition to the standard LDAP hashes used by the DS In order to generate these keys, the password needs to be available in clear text to IPA's DS password plug-in. It is available when the user is created in IPA using IPA tools or LDAP, but this is not the case when the user is migrated from other external storage such as another DS. Consequently, the existing password hashes can be reloaded, but the Kerberos hashes cannot be generated. IPA provides a number of solutions to overcome this issue; these are described later in this appendix.

B.1.3. Possible Scenarios


The following have been identified as typical migration scenarios: Migrate an existing environment to IPA but do not use its Kerberos features for now 137

Appendix B. Migrating from a Directory Server to IPA Migrate an existing environment to IPA and use its Kerberos features using only IPA v1 functionality. That is, do not use SSSD. Migrate an existing environment to IPA and use its Kerberos features on some machines, while some machines will use SSSD and some will not; this is the primary use case.

B.1.4. Initial and Final States


The following sections describe the initial, premigration state, and the final, postmigration state of a DS deployment when migrating to a single IPA domain.

B.1.4.1. Initial State


In the initial state, there is a single data source (the Directory Server) and a single client machine configuration. This client configuration uses LDAP to connect to the Directory Server and retrieve information about users and groups. This configuration uses PAM_LDAP and NSS_LDAP for authentication and identity lookups. These modules enable the client systems to use data retrieved from the DS just as if it were stored in /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow. The following diagram illustrates this type of implementation, where LDAP is used to connect to the DS for both authentication and authorization. The case where Kerberos is used for authentication and LDAP for identity, and where these two data stores are synchronized, is not described here. Consequently, the initial state may not be as simple or as straightforward as displayed here, however the approach and the final state will be similar.

Figure B.1. Initial state of deployment before migrating to IPA.

B.1.4.2. Final State


In the final state, even though only a single data source exists, multiple possible machine configurations are now possible. This is illustrated in Figure B.2, Final state of deployment after migrating to IPA

138

Initial and Final States

Figure B.2. Final state of deployment after migrating to IPA

B.1.4.2.1. Configuration Options


Connected to IPA via SSSD Using SSSD's LDAP Back End
Clients connect to IPA via SSSD. SSSD is integrated into the PAM and NSS stacks by means of PAM_SSS and NSS_SSS, respectively. SSSD's LDAP back end is configured for both authentication and for identity lookups. In this use case, IPA functions like a normal DS.

Note
Kerberos authentication can be configured instead of LDAP authentication. In this case, IPA acts as a normal DS for identity lookups and a normal KDC for Kerberos authentication.

Connected to IPA via SSSD Using IPA's Back End


This configuration is similar to that described above, except that SSSD has a special back end that is more IPA-aware. If this back end is configured, then SSSD can take advantage of specific IPA features, such as silent password migration and host-based access control.

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LDAP-connected Machines
Clients connect directly to IPA and use PAM_LDAP and NSS_LDAP. In this use case, too, IPA functions like a normal Directory Server.

KRB5/LDAP-connected Machines
Clients connect directly to IPA and use PAM_KRB5 and NSS_LDAP. This is the same configuration as that provided for IPA v1.x In the initial state, clients use LDAP to communicate with the Directory Server to retrieve information about users and groups. PAM_LDAP and NSS_LDAP are modules that enable the client systems to use data retrieved from the Directory Server as if it were stored in /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow. In the final state, IPA provides all of the same functionality and many more features besides.

B.1.5. Recommended Sequence of Steps


The migration from DS to IPA requires: 1. Installing IPA on a suitable machine 2. Migrating the user data. This step is performed by an IPA command which: a. Dumps the data from DS b. Converts the data into a format suitable for IPA c. Loads the converted data into IPA

3. Reconfiguring clients to connect to IPA. This is required because the IPA Directory Information Tree (DIT) is different from the DS DIT. To achieve a successful migration, changes are required both on the client and on the server machines. Reconfiguration of the clients is not required immediately after changes are made to the server. This allows for a transition period, without which it would not be possible to deploy the solution. At present the only option is to run IPA and DS concurrently until all the clients are reconfigured to point to IPA. Two main migration strategies currently exist: Migrate the server first Deploy SSSD first Each approach is valid and accomplishes the same goal, but using a different sequence of operations.

B.1.5.1. Comparison of Migration Strategies


Each approach has a different impact on the IT team and the users. You need to select the approach that best suits your deployment. These scenarios can be modified to meet the needs of your enterprise. Provided you understand the implications and reasoning behind each step, there is no requirement to follow the steps in the given order. It is important to understand that until the Kerberos keys are generated in IPA, users will not be able to authenticate with Kerberos credentials using PAM_KRB5 or kinit. You should also consider an alternative migration scenario, where passwords are not migrated. In this scenario, users are not migrated into IPA but rather added as new users with new passwords. Users would then change their password the first time they authenticate. The initial password would be defined by IT and sent to users by email or communicated in some other way. 140

Implementation Details Migrating users from an existing system provides a smoother transition but also requires parallel management of DS and IPA during the migration. If you do not preserve passwords, the migration can be performed more quickly and you can avoid the period of double management of IPA and DS.

B.1.6. Implementation Details


The following sequence of operations occurs when users are migrated using SSSD: A user tries to log in to the machine. SSSD passes authentication to the IPA identity provider back end. The IPA identity provider back end attempts Kerberos authentication. Even though the user exists in the system, the authentication will fail with the error "key type is not supported", because the Kerberos keys do not yet exist. If SSSD is configured to migrate users, it will continue to the next step. Otherwise, it will fail authentication. The IPA identity provider back end then attempts to perform an LDAP bind. Because it is going to perform a simple bind and send the password in the clear, this LDAP bind operation must use startTLS. Perform a simple bind. The server-side plug-in will intercept this bind request and if the user has a Kerberos principal but no Kerberos keys, then the plug-in will generate the keys and store them in the user entry. If the bind operation fails for any reason, the IPA identity provider back end will fail authentication, otherwise it will continue. The IPA identity provider back end will unbind and try Kerberos authentication again. This time it is expected to succeed because the keys already exist in the entry.

B.2. Performing a Server-based Migration


Note
Each phase of the migration should be performed as a single step.

B.2.1. Phase 1: Migrating Existing Data to IPA


The first phase of the migration consists of setting up IPA and migrating data from the existing DS to that used by IPA. This involves the use of the ipa migrate-ds command, which dumps the user data from the original DS, converts it into a format suitable for use by IPA, and then loads the converted data into IPA. The ipa migrate-ds command connects to the DS and binds as the Directory Manager, and then extracts all objectClass=person objects from ou=People. This can be changed using the -user-container option. It also extracts all objects from ou=Groups. This can be changed using the --group-container option. It adds all object classes and attributes required by IPA (if they are missing) and coverts DNs in attributes to match the IPA Directory Information Tree (DIT). The command returns an error if migration is not enabled. 141

Appendix B. Migrating from a Directory Server to IPA Refer to the ipa migrate-ds help page for more details about this command (ipa help migrate-ds). Procedure B.1. To migrate existing data to IPA: 1. Install IPA, including any custom DS schema, on a different machine from the existing DS. Refer to 2. Use the following command to enable IPA migration mode: # ipa config-mod --enable-migration=TRUE 3. To migrate users and groups from an existing Directory Server using a default configuration, reachable at ldap://example.com, use the following command: # ipa migrate-ds ldap://example.com:389 To migrate users and groups from an existing IPAv1 installation using a default configuration, whose DS is reachable at ldap://example.com, use the following command: # ipa migrate-ds --user-container=cn=users,cn=accounts \ --groupcontainer=cn=groups,cn=accounts ldap://example.com:389 In this example, ldap://example.com:389 is the LDAP-URI and port number of the existing directory server from which you want to migrate your data. Update this URI to suit your own environment. Enter the Directory Manager password for the DS when prompted. 4. Check the log file for errors and instructions on how to address them.

Note
The migration log file is currently not implemented. Instead, any error messages are printed to standard output.

B.2.2. Phase 2: Updating the Client Configuration


Procedure B.2. To update the client configuration: Update the client configuration to use PAM_LDAP and NSS_LDAP to connect to IPA instead of connecting to DS, NIS, or using local files. If the intention is to automatically generate the Kerberos keys when a user authenticates, the configuration should use startTLS and simple bind authentication. For this to occur, the IT department needs to ensure the IPA server certificate is copied to the client. If the intention is to install SSSD on a client at a later date, the startTLS and certificate requirements do not apply.

142

Phase 3: Installing and Configuring SSSD

Important
You should not update your client configuration to use PAM_KRB5 and NSS_LDAP (that is, the equivalent of IPA v1) at this stage unless absolutely necessary. This is because the Kerberos keys will not yet exist in the IPA user entries, and consequently users will not be able to log in. If such a configuration is required, users can be directed to a specific web page on the IPA server after the data has been loaded into the IPA server. This page will prompt the user for their password and perform an LDAP bind. The DS password plug-in will capture these passwords and generate the Kerberos keys.

B.2.3. Phase 3: Installing and Configuring SSSD


To install and configure SSSD:
1. Install SSSD on the machines that can support it: # yum install sssd 2. Configure SSSD to use IPA as a back end (Kerberos and LDAP). Installing SSSD and enrolling the client with IPA will ensure delivery of the machine Kerberos key and server certificate to the client. Refer to

B.2.4. Phase 4: Migrating Users


To migrate the users from DS to IPA:
1. Instruct users to log in to IPA using either an SSSD client or a client that supports PAM_LDAP with startTLS and simple bind. An SSSD client configured as described in Section B.2.3, Phase 3: Installing and Configuring SSSD will perform a silent migration. Clients configured with startTLS and simple bind will also trigger key generation. A Kerberos key is created the first time a user logs in, and this key is stored in the IPA back end. 2. As the migration of the user population progresses (that is, as the Kerberos keys are generated on the IPA server), you can begin to configure other, non-SSSD clients to suit your requirements.

B.2.5. Phase 5: Decommission the DS


When the migration of all clients and users is complete, decommission the DS.

B.3. Performing a Client-based Migration


B.3.1. Phase 1: Installing and Configuring SSSD
Install SSSD first on the machines that can support it: # yum install sssd Configure SSSD with the LDAP back end and point it to the existing DS deployment.

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Appendix B. Migrating from a Directory Server to IPA

B.3.2. Phase 2: Migrating Existing Data to IPA


Install IPA and migrate the existing DS data as described in Section B.2.1, Phase 1: Migrating Existing Data to IPA

B.3.3. Phase 3: Migrate SSSD Clients from LDAP to IPA


Start moving clients that have SSSD installed from the LDAP back end to the IPA back end, and enroll them with IPA. This will download the required keys and certificates. Instruct users to use (that is, to log in at least once) the machines with SSSD and IPA back end, or go to the web page and authenticate. Monitor the user migration process using the following LDAP query. This query detects the state of the migration by determining which users do not have a Kerberos principal key but do have a password. This query will prompt for the Directory Manager password.
$ ldapsearch -LL -x -D 'cn=Directory Manager' -W -b 'cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com' \ '(&(!(krbprincipalkey=*))(userpassword=*))' uid

Important
It is important to include the quotes around the filter so that it is not interpreted by the shell.

B.3.4. Phase 4: Reconfigure non-SSSD Clients


As the user population is migrated (the Kerberos keys are generated), you can start reconfiguring other (nonSSSD) clients as required. The clients can be set up in any state shown on the diagram above.

B.3.5. Phase 5: Decommission the Directory Server


When the migration of the clients is complete, decommission the DS.

144

Glossary
A
access control instruction access control list access rights See ACI. See ACL. In the context of access control, specify the level of access granted or denied. Access rights are related to the type of operation that can be performed on the directory. The following rights can be granted or denied: read, write, add, delete, search, compare, selfwrite, proxy and all. Disables a user account, group of accounts, or an entire domain so that all authentication attempts are automatically rejected. An instruction that grants or denies permissions to entries in the directory. See Also access control instruction. ACL The mechanism for controlling access to your directory. See Also access control list. All IDs Threshold Replaced with the ID list scan limit in Directory Server version 7.1. A size limit which is globally applied to every index key managed by the server. When the size of an individual ID list reaches this limit, the server replaces that ID list with an All IDs token. See Also ID list scan limit. All IDs token A mechanism which causes the server to assume that all directory entries match the index key. In effect, the All IDs token causes the server to behave as if no index was available for the search request. When granted, allows anyone to access directory information without providing credentials, and regardless of the conditions of the bind. Allows for efficient approximate or "sounds-like" searches. Holds descriptive information about an entry. Attributes have a label and a value. Each attribute also follows a standard syntax for the type of information that can be stored as the attribute value. A list of required and optional attributes for a given entry type or object class. In pass-through authentication (PTA), the authenticating Directory Server is the Directory Server that contains the authentication credentials of the requesting client. The PTA-enabled host sends PTA requests it receives from clients to the host. (1) Process of proving the identity of the client user to the Directory Server. Users must provide a bind DN and either the corresponding 145

account inactivation ACI

anonymous access approximate index attribute

attribute list authenticating directory server

authentication

Glossary password or certificate in order to be granted access to the directory. Directory Server allows the user to perform functions or access files and directories based on the permissions granted to that user by the directory administrator. (2) Allows a client to make sure they are connected to a secure server, preventing another computer from impersonating the server or attempting to appear secure when it is not. authentication certificate Digital file that is not transferable and not forgeable and is issued by a third party. Authentication certificates are sent from server to client or client to server in order to verify and authenticate the other party.

B
base distinguished name base DN See base DN. Base distinguished name. A search operation is performed on the base DN, the DN of the entry and all entries below it in the directory tree. See bind DN. Distinguished name used to authenticate to Directory Server when performing an operation. In the context of access control, the bind rule specifies the credentials and conditions that a particular user or client must satisfy in order to get access to directory information. An entry that represents the top of a subtree in the directory. Software, such as Mozilla Firefox, used to request and view World Wide Web material stored as HTML files. The browser uses the HTTP protocol to communicate with the host server. Speeds up the display of entries in the Directory Server Console. Browsing indexes can be created on any branch point in the directory tree to improve display performance. See Also virtual list view index .

bind distinguished name bind DN bind rule

branch entry browser

browsing index

C
CA cascading replication See Certificate Authority. In a cascading replication scenario, one server, often called the hub supplier, acts both as a consumer and a supplier for a particular replica. It holds a read-only replica and maintains a changelog. It receives updates from the supplier server that holds the master copy of the data and in turn supplies those updates to the consumer. A collection of data that associates the public keys of a network user with their DN in the directory. The certificate is stored in the directory as user object attributes.

certificate

146

Certificate Authority

Company or organization that sells and issues authentication certificates. You may purchase an authentication certificate from a Certification Authority that you trust. Also known as a CA. Common Gateway Interface. An interface for external programs to communicate with the HTTP server. Programs written to use CGI are called CGI programs or CGI scripts and can be written in many of the common programming languages. CGI programs handle forms or perform output parsing that is not done by the server itself. A method for relaying requests to another server. Results for the request are collected, compiled, and then returned to the client. A changelog is a record that describes the modifications that have occurred on a replica. The supplier server then replays these modifications on the replicas stored on replica servers or on other masters, in the case of multi-master replication. Distinguishes alphabetic characters from numeric or other characters and the mapping of upper-case to lower-case letters. Encrypted information that cannot be read by anyone without the proper key to decrypt the information. Specifies the information needed to create an instance of a particular object and determines how the object works in relation to other objects in the directory. See CoS. A classic CoS identifies the template entry by both its DN and the value of one of the target entry's attributes. See LDAP client. An internal table used by a locale in the context of the internationalization plug-in that the operating system uses to relate keyboard keys to character font screen displays. Provides language and cultural-specific information about how the characters of a given language are to be sorted. This information might include the sequence of letters in the alphabet or how to compare letters with accents to letters without accents. Server containing replicated directory trees or subtrees from a supplier server. In the context of replication, a server that holds a replica that is copied from a different server is called a consumer for that replica. A method for sharing attributes between entries in a way that is invisible to applications. Identifies the type of CoS you are using. It is stored as an LDAP subentry below the branch it affects. Contains a list of the shared attribute values. 147

CGI

chaining changelog

character type ciphertext class definition

class of service classic CoS client code page

collation order

consumer consumer server CoS CoS definition entry CoS template entry

Glossary See Also template entry.

D
daemon A background process on a Unix machine that is responsible for a particular system task. Daemon processes do not need human intervention to continue functioning. Directory Access Protocol. The ISO X.500 standard protocol that provides client access to the directory. The server that is the master source of a particular piece of data. An implementation of chaining. The database link behaves like a database but has no persistent storage. Instead, it points to data stored remotely. One of a set of default indexes created per database instance. Default indexes can be modified, although care should be taken before removing them, as certain plug-ins may depend on them. See CoS definition entry. See DAP. The privileged database administrator, comparable to the root user in UNIX. Access control does not apply to the Directory Manager. A database application designed to manage descriptive, attributebased information about people and resources within an organization. The logical representation of the information stored in the directory. It mirrors the tree model used by most filesystems, with the tree's root point appearing at the top of the hierarchy. Also known as DIT. String representation of an entry's name and location in an LDAP directory. See directory tree. See Directory Manager. See distinguished name. Domain Name System. The system used by machines on a network to associate standard IP addresses (such as 198.93.93.10) with hostnames (such as www.example.com). Machines normally get the IP address for a hostname from a DNS server, or they look it up in tables maintained on their systems. A DNS alias is a hostname that the DNS server knows points to a different hostspecifically a DNS CNAME record. Machines always have one real name, but they can have one or more aliases. For example, an alias such as www.yourdomain.domain might point to a real machine called realthing.yourdomain.domain where the server currently exists.

DAP data master database link

default index

definition entry Directory Access Protocol Directory Manager directory service directory tree

distinguished name DIT DM DN DNS

DNS alias

148

E
entry A group of lines in the LDIF file that contains information about an object. Method of distributing directory entries across more than one server in order to scale to support large numbers of entries. Each index that the directory uses is composed of a table of index keys and matching entry ID lists. The entry ID list is used by the directory to build a list of candidate entries that may match the client application's search request. Allows you to search efficiently for entries containing a specific attribute value. entry distribution

entry ID list

equality index

F
file extension The section of a filename after the period or dot (.) that typically defines the type of file (for example, .GIF and .HTML). In the filename index.html the file extension is html. The format of a given file. For example, graphics files are often saved in GIF format, while a text file is usually saved as ASCII text format. File types are usually identified by the file extension (for example, .GIF or .HTML). A constraint applied to a directory query that restricts the information returned. Allows you to assign entries to the role depending upon the attribute contained by each entry. You do this by specifying an LDAP filter. Entries that match the filter are said to possess the role.

file type

filter

filtered role

G
general access When granted, indicates that all authenticated users can access directory information. Generic Security Services. The generic access protocol that is the native way for UNIX-based systems to access and authenticate Kerberos services; also supports session encryption. GSS-API

H
hostname A name for a machine in the form machine.domain.dom, which is translated into an IP address. For example, www.example.com is the machine www in the subdomain example and com domain. Hypertext Markup Language. The formatting language used for documents on the World Wide Web. HTML files are plain text files with formatting codes that tell browsers such as the Mozilla Firefox 149

HTML

Glossary how to display text, position graphics, and form items and to display links to other pages. HTTP HTTPD Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The method for exchanging information between HTTP servers and clients. An abbreviation for the HTTP daemon or service, a program that serves information using the HTTP protocol. The daemon or service is often called an httpd. A secure version of HTTP, implemented using the Secure Sockets Layer, SSL. In the context of replication, a server that holds a replica that is copied from a different server, and, in turn, replicates it to a third server. See Also cascading replication.

HTTPS hub

I
ID list scan limit A size limit which is globally applied to any indexed search operation. When the size of an individual ID list reaches this limit, the server replaces that ID list with an all IDs token. Each index that the directory uses is composed of a table of index keys and matching entry ID lists. An indirect CoS identifies the template entry using the value of one of the target entry's attributes. Speeds up searches for information in international directories. See ISO. Also Internet Protocol address. A set of numbers, separated by dots, that specifies the actual location of a machine on the Internet (for example, 198.93.93.10). Directory Server supports both IPv4 and IPv6 IP addresses. International Standards Organization.

index key indirect CoS international index International Standards Organization IP address

ISO

K
knowledge reference Pointers to directory information stored in different databases.

L
LDAP LDAP client Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Directory service protocol designed to run over TCP/IP and across multiple platforms. Software used to request and view LDAP entries from an LDAP Directory Server. See Also browser. 150

LDAP Data Interchange Format LDAP URL

See LDAP Data Interchange Format. Provides the means of locating Directory Servers using DNS and then completing the query via LDAP. A sample LDAP URL is ldap:// ldap.example.com. Version 3 of the LDAP protocol, upon which Directory Server bases its schema format. A high-performance, disk-based database consisting of a set of large files that contain all of the data assigned to it. The primary data store in Directory Server. LDAP Data Interchange Format. Format used to represent Directory Server entries in text form. An entry under which there are no other entries. A leaf entry cannot be a branch point in a directory tree. See LDAP. Identifies the collation order, character type, monetary format and time / date format used to present data for users of a specific region, culture, and/or custom. This includes information on how data of a given language is interpreted, stored, or collated. The locale also indicates which code page should be used to represent a given language.

LDAPv3 LDBM database

LDIF leaf entry Lightweight Directory Access Protocol locale

M
managed object A standard value which the SNMP agent can access and send to the NMS. Each managed object is identified with an official name and a numeric identifier expressed in dot-notation. Allows creation of an explicit enumerated list of members. See MIB. A data structure that associates the names of suffixes (subtrees) with databases. See supplier. See SNMP master agent. Provides guidelines for how the server compares strings during a search operation. In an international search, the matching rule tells the server what collation order and operator to use. A message digest algorithm by RSA Data Security, Inc., which can be used to produce a short digest of data that is unique with high probability and is mathematically extremely hard to produce; a piece of data that will produce the same message digest. 151

managed role management information base mapping tree master master agent matching rule

MD5

Glossary MD5 signature MIB A message digest produced by the MD5 algorithm. Management Information Base. All data, or any portion thereof, associated with the SNMP network. We can think of the MIB as a database which contains the definitions of all SNMP managed objects. The MIB has a tree-like hierarchy, where the top level contains the most general information about the network and lower levels deal with specific, separate network areas. Management Information Base namespace. The means for directory data to be named and referenced. Also called the directory tree. Specifies the monetary symbol used by specific region, whether the symbol goes before or after its value, and how monetary units are represented. An advanced replication scenario in which two servers each hold a copy of the same read-write replica. Each server maintains a changelog for the replica. Modifications made on one server are automatically replicated to the other server. In case of conflict, a time stamp is used to determine which server holds the most recent version. The server containing the database link that communicates with the remote server.

MIB namespace

monetary format

multi-master replication

multiplexor

N
n + 1 directory problem The problem of managing multiple instances of the same information in different directories, resulting in increased hardware and personnel costs. Multiple entries with the same distinguished name. Allows the creation of roles that contain other roles. Network Management Station component that graphically displays information about SNMP managed devices, such as which device is up or down and which and how many error messages were received. See NMS.

name collisions nested role network management application

network management station NIS

Network Information Service. A system of programs and data files that Unix machines use to collect, collate, and share specific information about machines, users, filesystems, and network parameters throughout a network of computers. Powerful workstation with one or more network management applications installed. Also network management station. Red Hat's LDAP Directory Server daemon or service that is responsible for all actions of the Directory Server. See Also slapd.

NMS

ns-slapd

152

O
object class object identifier Defines an entry type in the directory by defining which attributes are contained in the entry. A string, usually of decimal numbers, that uniquely identifies a schema element, such as an object class or an attribute, in an objectoriented system. Object identifiers are assigned by ANSI, IETF or similar organizations. See Also OID. OID operational attribute See object identifier. Contains information used internally by the directory to keep track of modifications and subtree properties. Operational attributes are not returned in response to a search unless explicitly requested.

P
parent access When granted, indicates that users have access to entries below their own in the directory tree if the bind DN is the parent of the targeted entry. See PTA. In pass-through authentication, the PTA directory server will pass through bind requests to the authenticating directory server from all clients whose DN is contained in this subtree. A file on Unix machines that stores Unix user login names, passwords, and user ID numbers. It is also known as /etc/passwd because of where it is kept. A set of rules that governs how passwords are used in a given directory. Encoded messages which form the basis of data exchanges between SNMP devices. Also protocol data unit. In the context of access control, permission states whether access to the directory information is granted or denied and the level of access that is granted or denied. See Also access rights. pointer CoS presence index protocol protocol data unit A pointer CoS identifies the template entry using the template DN only. Allows searches for entries that contain a specific indexed attribute. A set of rules that describes how devices on a network exchange information. See PDU. 153

pass-through authentication pass-through subtree

password file

password policy PDU permission

Glossary proxy authentication proxy DN A special form of authentication where the user requesting access to the directory does not bind with its own DN but with a proxy DN. Used with proxied authorization. The proxy DN is the DN of an entry that has access permissions to the target on which the clientapplication is attempting to perform an operation. Mechanism by which one Directory Server consults another to check bind credentials. Also pass-through authentication. In pass-through authentication (PTA), the PTA Directory Server is the server that sends (passes through) bind requests it receives to the authenticating directory server. In pass-through authentication, the URL that defines the authenticating directory server, pass-through subtree(s), and optional parameters.

PTA PTA directory server

PTA LDAP URL

R
RAM Random access memory. The physical semiconductor-based memory in a computer. Information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is shut down. A file on Unix machines that describes programs that are run when the machine starts. It is also called /etc/rc.local because of its location. The name of the actual entry itself, before the entry's ancestors have been appended to the string to form the full distinguished name. Also relative distinguished name. A replica that refers all update operations to read-write replicas. A server can hold any number of read-only replicas. A replica that contains a master copy of directory information and can be updated. A server can hold any number of read-write replicas. Mechanism that ensures that relationships between related entries are maintained within the directory. (1) When a server receives a search or update request from an LDAP client that it cannot process, it usually sends back to the client a pointer to the LDAP sever that can process the request. (2) In the context of replication, when a read-only replica receives an update request, it forwards it to the server that holds the corresponding read-write replica. This forwarding process is called a referral. relative distinguished name replica replica-initiated replication See RDN. A database that participates in replication. Replication configuration where replica servers, either hub or consumer servers, pull directory data from supplier servers. This method is available only for legacy replication.

rc.local

RDN

read-only replica read-write replica referential integrity referral

154

replication replication agreement

Act of copying directory trees or subtrees from supplier servers to replica servers. Set of configuration parameters that are stored on the supplier server and identify the databases to replicate, the replica servers to which the data is pushed, the times during which replication can occur, the DN and credentials used by the supplier to bind to the consumer, and how the connection is secured. Request for Comments. Procedures or standards documents submitted to the Internet community. People can send comments on the technologies before they become accepted standards. An entry grouping mechanism. Each role has members, which are the entries that possess the role. Attributes that appear on an entry because it possesses a particular role within an associated CoS template. The most privileged user available on Unix machines. The root user has complete access privileges to all files on the machine. The parent of one or more sub suffixes. A directory tree can contain more than one root suffix.

RFC

role role-based attributes root root suffix

S
SASL schema An authentication framework for clients as they attempt to bind to a directory. Also Simple Authentication and Security Layer . Definitions describing what types of information can be stored as entries in the directory. When information that does not match the schema is stored in the directory, clients attempting to access the directory may be unable to display the proper results. Ensures that entries added or modified in the directory conform to the defined schema. Schema checking is on by default, and users will receive an error if they try to save an entry that does not conform to the schema. See SSL. When granted, indicates that users have access to their own entries if the bind DN matches the targeted entry. Java-based application that allows you to perform administrative management of your Directory Server from a GUI. The server daemon is a process that, once running, listens for and accepts requests from clients. Interface that allows you select and configure servers using a browser. A process on Windows that, once running, listens for and accepts requests from clients. It is the SMB server on Windows NT. 155

schema checking

Secure Sockets Layer self access Server Console server daemon Server Selector server service

Glossary service A background process on a Windows machine that is responsible for a particular system task. Service processes do not need human intervention to continue functioning. Server Instance Entry. The ID assigned to an instance of Directory Server during installation. See SASL. See SNMP. The most basic replication scenario in which multiple servers, up to four, each hold a copy of the same read-write replicas to replica servers. In a single-master replication scenario, the supplier server maintains a changelog. See supplier-initiated replication. LDAP Directory Server daemon or service that is responsible for most functions of a directory except replication. See Also ns-slapd. SNMP Used to monitor and manage application processes running on the servers by exchanging data about network activity. Also Simple Network Management Protocol. Software that exchanges information between the various subagents and the NMS. Software that gathers information about the managed device and passes the information to the master agent. Also called a subagent. See start of authority (SOA). A software library establishing a secure connection between two parties (client and server) used to implement HTTPS, the secure version of HTTP. Also called Secure Sockets Layer. An index maintained by default. A record which contains the core information about a DNS zone. A branch underneath a root suffix. See SNMP subagent. Allows for efficient searching against substrings within entries. Substring indexes are limited to a minimum of two characters for each entry. The name of the entry at the top of the directory tree, below which data is stored. Multiple suffixes are possible within the same directory. Each database only has one suffix. The most privileged user available on Unix machines. The superuser has complete access privileges to all files on the machine. Also called root.

SIE Simple Authentication and Security Layer Simple Network Management Protocol single-master replication

SIR slapd

SNMP master agent SNMP subagent SOA SSL

standard index start of authority (SOA) sub suffix subagent substring index

suffix

superuser

156

supplier supplier server supplier-initiated replication symmetric encryption system index

Server containing the master copy of directory trees or subtrees that are replicated to replica servers. In the context of replication, a server that holds a replica that is copied to a different server is called a supplier for that replica. Replication configuration where supplier servers replicate directory data to any replica servers. Encryption that uses the same key for both encrypting and decrypting. DES is an example of a symmetric encryption algorithm. Cannot be deleted or modified as it is essential to Directory Server operations.

T
target target entry TCP/IP template entry time/date format TLS topology Transport Layer Security In the context of access control, the target identifies the directory information to which a particular ACI applies. The entries within the scope of a CoS. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The main network protocol for the Internet and for enterprise (company) networks. See CoS template entry. Indicates the customary formatting for times and dates in a specific region. The new standard for secure socket layers; a public key based protocol. Also Transport Layer Security. The way a directory tree is divided among physical servers and how these servers link with one another. See TLS.

U
uid URL A unique number associated with each user on a Unix system. Uniform Resource Locater. The addressing system used by the server and the client to request documents. It is often called a location. The format of a URL is protocol://machine:port/document. The port number is necessary only on selected servers, and it is often assigned by the server, freeing the user of having to place it in the URL.

V
virtual list view index Speeds up the display of entries in the Directory Server Console. Virtual list view indexes can be created on any branch point in the directory tree to improve display performance. See Also browsing index. 157

Glossary

X
X.500 standard The set of ISO/ITU-T documents outlining the recommended information model, object classes and attributes used by directory server implementation.

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Index

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