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Areas which will be on the final test: 1) Clausal and non-clausal negation 2) Open interrogatives 3) Question tags 4) Types

of clause (especially canonical & non-canonical clauses) 5) Progressive / Perfective aspect 6) Part-of-speech categories 7) Grammatical categories 8) Tenses 9) Non-finite forms Explanation: 1) Clausal and non-clausal negation: Your task will be to recognize whether a sentence has clausal or non-clausal negation. Clausal negation occurs when we have an element which negates the entire sentence, such as the absolute negators no, not, nor, never and sub-clausal or non-clausal negation occurs when only one element within the clause is negated and not the entire clause. For example: I never want to see your face around here again! This is clausal negation, due to absolute negator never. There is no chalk in the drawer. Again a clausal negation, due to no. You really are such a nobody. Non-clausal negation, as only nobody is negated, not the whole clause. 2) Open interrogatives: Your task will be to form open interrogatives from a given sentence. Open interrogatives are questions which can have any word as an answer, not just yes or no. Typically, we refer to these as WH-questions (What, who, where, when, why, how). For example: Mr. Jenkins is steadily smoking a big black pipe early in the afternoon. Who is smoking a big black pipe early in the afternoon? What is Mr. Jenkins doing? What is Mr. Jenkins smoking? What sort of pipe is Mr. Jenkins smoking early in the afternoon? When is Mr. Jenkins smoking a big black pipe? How is Mr. Jenkins smoking a big black pipe early in the afternoon?

3) Question tags: Your task will be to write the appropriate question tag for the given declarative sentence. Question tags are used to check or clarify information, or simply to involve the listener in a more interactive way. They consist of an auxiliary or modal verb or lexical verb be + subject pronoun. The subject pronoun repeats the subject of the main clause to which it refers, and agrees in number, person and gender with the subject of the main clause. Where the main clause contains an auxiliary or modal verb or lexical verb be, it is repeated in the tag. Where there is no auxiliary or modal verb in the main clause, auxiliary do/does/did is used in the tag. Negative tags are normally contracted in informal styles (doesnt he?, dont they?, werent we?, isnt it?, etc.). In more formal styles, uncontracted not may occur. Am, may, used to and ought to do not follow the normal pattern of obligatory repetition in the question tag. declarative clause subject am may used to ought to oughtn't we? I'm crazy to even think about it, I? Jim may be able to help, he? He used to work with you, he? We ought to ring her now, tag auxiliary/modal aren't mightn't did* shouldn't or (less frequent)

When the indefinite pronouns someone/somebody, anyone/anybody, no one/ nobody, everyone/everybody are used as subjects, the tag pronoun is normally they: Someone gets your breakfast, dont they? Tag questions with there is/are have there as subject: Theres a lake near the house, isnt there? There were more younger people in the caf, werent there? With reporting structures, the question tag usually refers to the reporting clause: I told you he would be there, didnt I? She mentioned that Joe was not well, didnt she?

However, with verbs such as believe, guess, know, reckon, suppose, think, when used with I, the question tag normally refers to the reported clause. This is because expressions such as I guess, I suppose, I think are acting more like phrasal discourse markers than main clauses: I think its going to rain, isnt it? I suppose you think thats clever, do you? Although question tags normally occur after the main clause, they may sometimes interrupt the clause, especially in clauses with anticipatory it: Its odd, isnt it, that he should say that? It was perhaps your team, was it, that was round there? Affirmative imperatives may be followed by tags involving will/would/can/could you. Such clauses typically function to issue directives: Stop arguing, will you. Hold this rope, would you. Be back by five, please, could you. Negative imperatives may be followed by will you: Dont forget my CD, will you. Imperative clauses, in more formal styles, sometimes occur with the tag wont you. This softens a directive and the utterance may be heard more as a polite request: Give Emma whatever she needs, wont you, Hal. First person plural imperatives with lets typically have shall we as a tag: Lets go home, shall we. Lets not discuss it now, shall we. Declarative clauses may be followed by a tag with the same polarity and subject verb word order. These are called statement tags or copy tags. Such sentences typically make emphatic statements, frequently in evaluative contexts: affirmative affirmative She's lovely, she is. negative It's not very good, negative that one isn't.

They were pathetic-looking things, they were. Im fed up with it, I am.

Both it and that may occur as subjects in tags following main clauses with it. Main clauses with that normally have that as the subject of the tag: Its about this big, it is. Ah, it was beautiful, that was. That was the second time, that was. Wh-exclamative clauses may be followed by negative tags with interrogative word order: How strange, isnt it! What a coincidence, wasnt it! 4) Types of clause: Your task will be to determine the exact type of a given clause. A clause is a grammatical unit smaller than a sentence but larger than a phrase. It consists of a single predication. Types of clauses are: 1) Finite (with the verb in a finite form) and non-finite clause: Mary goes shopping whenever she can. Finite clause Not knowing what to do, I phoned my sister. Non-finite Finite clauses may be: a) Declarative She works in publishing. b) Interrogative Has Katie arrived yet? c) Imperative Sign here, please. d) Exclamative What a lovely dress youre wearing! 2) Main (may form a sentence on its own) and subordinate (represents a part of a complex sentence): Mary sings well and her husband plays the piano. Two main clauses Mary was singing because she was happy. Subordinate clause 3) Nominal clause: Nominal clauses function as nouns and are subordinated by one of the following subordinating conjunctions: how, that, what, when, where, whether, which, who, why. Nominal clauses may be replaced with a pronoun.

That he should say such a thing is rather strange. I dont know where she would like to go. 4) Adverbial clause: These are clauses of time, place, manner, concession, condition, result, cause and purpose. If I have money, I will travel around the world He found the love of his life where he had least expected. You cant go out because it is cold. 5) Adjectival clause: Adjectival clause functions as an adjective and closely determines the subject. The girl, who was wearing a red dress, was a party queen. 6) Canonical & non-canonical clauses: Your task will be to determine which clauses are which, and to write the reason for your decision. Canonical clauses are: positive, finite, declarative and main. Non- canonical clauses are: negative, non-finite, verbless, imperatives, questions, subordinates and passive. She works in a big company. Canonical (positive, finite, declarative and main) She just wanted to be loved. non-canonical (non-finite, passive) Her deepest fears were never uncovered. non-canonical (negative, passive) If I dont find the key, we wont be able to go inside. non-canonical (negative, subordinate) Close the window, please. non-canonical (imperative) Are we there yet? non-canonical (question) Although rich and beautiful, she couldnt marry. non-canonical (verbless)

5) Progressive / Perfective aspect: Your task will either be to write the progressive and perfective aspects of a single given verb (full paradigm) or to write the aspect of a verb(s) in a sentence. Progressive aspect is basically any tense which requires an ing suffix. These are:

Present progressive aux. BE + Lexical verb ing (I am doing my homework now.) Past progressive BE (preterite) + pres. participle (I was doing my homework a minute ago.) Perfect aspect is made up of the past tenses, respectively: Present perfect have/has + past participle (I have done my homework.) Past Perfect had + past participle (I had done my homework before she came.) Present perfect progressive have/has + been + pres. participle (I have been doing my homework for ages.) Past perfect progressive had been + pres. participle (I had been doing my homework when I heard it.) 6) Parts-of-speech categories: Your task will be to assign each word from a sentence to one of the parts-of-speech categories. There are 8 part-of-speech categories in total, and they all have their subdivisions. When you assign a word to one category, you must also notice the subcategory it reflects (if any). a) Nouns Variable words which belong to open word class. Their types are: 1) Proper nouns (Mary, Peter, Jason, McDonalds) 2) Common nouns (house, boat, book, building) 3) Mass nouns (milk, water, sand, bread) 4) Abstract nouns (love, hate, freedom, joy) 5) Collective nouns (cattle, choir, audience) 6) Countable nouns (marbles, dice) 7) Uncountable nouns (water, advice) b) Verbs Variable words which belong to open word class. We distinguish: 1) 2) 3) Lexical verbs (monotransitive, ditransitive or intransitive) Copulative verbs (all verbs of perception and linking verbs) Auxiliary verbs (be, do, have)

c) Adjectives Adjectives have no further classification so to speak, but rather a set of criteria that distinguishes them.

1) 2) 3) -

Morphological criterion simple (sad, happy, nice) derived (lovely, hopeless) complex (user-friendly, homesick) Syntactic criterion attributive (blue sky, important meeting) predicative (she appears sad.) Semantic criterion classifying (nice, friendly, sad) qualifying (free, political, total)

d) Adverbs Adverbs can be simple (ago, then, there) or derived (all ly adverbs). Semantically, we distinguish: 1) 2) 3) Adverbs of manner (slowly, quietly) Adverbs of place (here, there, from school) Adverbs of time (now, then, five times)

e) Pronouns Only personal pronouns are variable words, all other categories are not. We distinguish: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Personal pronouns (me, you, he, she it) Reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, themselves) Possessive pronouns (mine, yours his) Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, another) Relative pronouns (who, which, what) Interrogative pronouns (who? What? Which?) Universal pronouns (everybody, everyone) Indefinite pronouns (anybody, anyone) Negative pronouns (nobody, nowhere)

f) Numerals Numerals are an invariable word class, and they consist of ordinal numbers (first, second, third) g) Determiners

Determiners are, in fact, articles or any other words which determine the word they are related to but which dont fall into other categories. These are a, the, some, any, etc. h) Prepositions Invariable, closed word class. We distinguish: 1) 2) 3) Monosyllabic (at, in, out, up) Polysyllabic (behind, under, above) and Complex prepositions (independent of, out of)

i) Conjunctions Invariable, closed word class. We distinguish: 1) 2) Conjunctions of coordination (and, but, or) and Conjunctions of subordination (where, who, so, if).

7) Grammatical categories: Your task will be to write which words from a sentence reflect which grammatical categories. Grammatical categories are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Number (singular or plural) Person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd) Gender (male, female or neutral) Case (nominative, genitive or objective) Tense (present, past, future) Mood (indicative, imperative or subjunctive) Aspect (perfective or progressive) Voice (active or passive) Degree (positive, comparative or superlative)

These grammatical categories are related to the following part-of-speech categories: VERBS Tense, mood, aspect, voice, person NOUNS number, gender, person, case ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS degree. Ad 3) You only need to note gender for the nouns which are feminine because they have feminine suffixes such as -ess or -ell. For example: Lioness, Duchess, etc.

Ad 4) You only need to note the nouns clearly marked for genitive, as nominative and objective require no special treatment. a) b) Ad 6) You need to note the imperative most of all. It is highly unlikely that subjunctive will be on the test. 8) Tenses Your task will either be to recognize a tense used in the sentence, or to comment on the use of a tense expressed by a sentence. The English language has two present tenses, six past tenses and five future tenses: 1) Simple present Verb (+ -(e)s 3rd p. sg.) I go to work every day. Mary stays at home and cooks lunch. Usage: a) b) c) Repeated actions I go to work. Universal truths Water boils at 100 degrees. Scheduled events in the near future The train leaves at 6 p.m. Saxon genitive My fathers newspaper. Norman genitive The story of my life.

2) Present progressive (continuous) am/is/are + present participle Usage: a) b) c) Actions happening at time of speech I am writing right now. Longer actions in progress now You are learning English now. Near future I am meeting some friends after work.

3) Simple past Verb -ed or irregular 2nd column Usage: a) Completed action in the past I saw a movie yesterday. b) A series of completed actions Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

c) d) e)

Duration in the past Mary lived in Brazil for two years. Habits in the past He played the violin when he was a child. Past facts or generalizations He didnt like tomatoes before, but now he does.

4) Past progressive (continuous) was/were + past participle Usage: a) Interrupted actions in the past I was watching TV when she called. b) Specific time as an interruption At midnight, we were still driving through the desert. c) Parallel actions in the past While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching TV. d) Atmosphere Sequence of past progressive actions: When I walked in the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions and customers were waiting to be helped. e) Repetition and irritation with always She was always coming to class late! 5) Present perfect have/has + past participle Usage: a) Unspecified time before now I have seen that movie twenty times. b) Duration from the past until now (for non-progressive verbs) Have you been to Mexico in the last year? 6) Present perfect progressive (continuous) have/has + been + present participle Usage: a) b) Duration from the past until now We have been waiting here for two hours. Recently, lately Have you been exercising lately?

7) Past perfect had + past participle Usage: a) Completed action before another in the past I didnt have money, because I had lost my wallet. b) Duration before another action in the past (for non-progressive verbs) We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. 8) Past perfect progressive (continuous) had been + present participle Usage:

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a) Duration before another action in the past They had been talking for over an hour before Peter arrived. b) Cause of some action in the past Jason was tired because he had been jogging. 9) Simple future Will + verb inf. OR am/is/are going to + Verb inf. Usage: a) Will to express a voluntary action I will send you the info when I get it. b) Will to express a promise I promise I will call you back. c) Be going to to express a plan We are going to spend our vacation in Hawaii. d) Will or be going to to express prediction The year 2222 will/is going to be very interesting. 10) Future progressive (continuous) will be + pres. participle OR am/is/are going to be + pres. participle. Usage: a) Interrupted actions in the future I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. b) Specific time as an interruption in the future At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert. c) Parallel actions in the future Ellen will be reading tonight, and Tom will be watching TV. d) Atmosphere in the future a series of progressive future tenses. See usage d) for past progressive. 11) Future perfect will have + past participle OR am/is/are going to have + past participle Usage: a) Completed action before another in the future By next November, I will have received my promotion. b) Duration before another action in the future (for non-continuous verbs) By the time I leave, I will have spent three months in London. 12) Future perfect progressive (continuous) will have been + pres. participle OR am/is/are going to have been + pres. participle Usage: a) Duration before another action in the future You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. b) Cause of some action in the future Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.

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9) Non-finite forms: Your task will either be to find all non-finite forms in a short text, underline and name them, or to give a full paradigm for a given verb. Non-finite forms are Participles (past and present), gerund and infinitives: 1) Participle Participle paradigm: (you must know this by heart!)

Present active playing Present passive being played Past active played Past passive - / Perfect active having played Perfect participle progressive having been playing Perfect passive having been played Present participle suffix -ing Past participle suffix -ed Perfect participle combination of the two main forms: Having + past participle

a) b) c)

2) Gerund Gerund paradigm: (you must know this by heart!)


Present active writing Present passive being written Perfect active having written Perfect passive having been written and aspect

marked for voice marked for aspect marked for both voice

a) Gerund as a noun may take plural forms, be marked for genitive, take determinatives, function as a part of a compound noun (adjectival function), or be coordinated with other gerunds and nouns. b) Gerund as a verb may take subjects, adverbials, or objects, may be preceded by either nominative or genitive case of the noun phrase which functions as a subject of the gerund. Phrases and forms followed by a gerund: Verbs expressing likes and dislikes (like, hate, love, mind, dislike, enjoy, detest), verbs expressing beginning or the end of an action (end, start, cease, begin, continue,

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keep), verbs denoting mental actions and performative verbs (remember, admit, confess, recollect, tolerate, consider, anticipate) Phrasal verbs and verb phrases Verb + preposition, always after the preposition. After despite, in spite of, as well as, in addition to After go in idiomatic expressions Differences between gerund and present participle: When used as adjectivals, participles may be paraphrased with a relative clause (dancing girl dancing shoes) Participle always denotes activity Participle may not be used as a noun, and may not be used after prepositions. 3) Infinitive Infinitive paradigm: (you must know this by heart!)

Present active (to) play Present passive (to) be played Present progressive active (to) be playing Perfect active (to) have played Perfect passive (to) have been played Perfect progressive (to) have been playing

There are two classes of infinitive: to-infinitive and bare infinitive. 1) to-infinitive is used: a) with modal ought and used b) after verbs need, dare do when regarded as lexical verbs c) after the combination verb + object + infinitive d) In absolute constructions where the infinitive isnt related to any part of the sentence e) After adjectives and adjectival participles glad, lucky, afraid 2) bare infinitive is used: a) b) c) d) e) f) with all modals (except the aforementioned) after aux. do in emphatic function after let and make (only in active voice) with private verbs see, hear, feel with help in AmE and colloq. BrE In elliptic constructions where modals are omitted

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