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Structural Engineering Research Frontiers

2007 ASCE

Dynamic Collapse Simulation of 3-Bay RC Frame under Extreme Earthquake Loadings

Authors: Chiun-lin Wu, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei 106, Taiwan, clwu@ncree.org.tw Wu-Wei Kuo, Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan Univeristy of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, d9105301@mail.ntust.edu.tw Yuan-Sen Yang, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ysyang@ncree.org.tw Shyh-Jiann Hwang, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan Univeristy, and National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei 106, Taiwan, sjhwang@ncree.org.tw Chin-Hsiung Loh, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan Univeristy, Taipei 106, Taiwan, lohc@ncree.org.tw

ABSTRACT
Collapse experiments are found very helpful in facilitating collapse analysis of new buildings and identification of older buildings that are at high risk of structural collapse during severe earthquake events. Experimental observations from dynamic global collapse of a single story 3-bay RC frame are presented in this paper. The frame is composed of shear-critical columns and ductile columns to allow for load redistribution. A near-fault record from the September 21 (local time) 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake was employed. Preliminary investigation shows that existing empirical equations are able to predict hysteretic backbone until the point of structural collapse with satisfaction.

INTRODUCTION
During the past two decades, several severe earthquake attacks caused tremendous damage to populated urban cities, such as the 1985 Mexico, the 1989 Lomo Prieta (USA), the 1994 Northridge (USA), the 1995 Kobe (Japan), and the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquakes. The past experience showed that buildings were vulnerable to extreme earthquake events and did not demonstrate satisfactory seimsic performance as originally expected. To respond to the observed shortcomings, improved detailing schemes were introduced for new buildings and retrofitting schemes were proposed for older existing buildings, especially those in the category of essential facilties, to ensure acceptable resilience in probable future earthquake attacks. These measures need to be done early because of an increase in the required seismic lateral force in the new code documents revised based on the most recently known facts about seismicity or because of insufficient ductility and/or strength capability observed of building performance during past extreme earthquake events. As such, performance-based design framework was proposed and collapse analysis is one of the key components to realize such innovative

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concepts. Collapse simulation in both experimental and analytical aspects is getting much more attention than before worldwide to facilitate introduction of perforamnce-based design in view of the following important facts: To ensure energy dissipation capacity and collapse prevention: Previous seismic design code documents considered only 10%/50yrs. earthquakes (i.e. an average return period of some 500 years) and a performance objective of life safety was set accordingly, which imposed a single control point over the structural nonlinear skeleton curve. This arrangement considerably lessened computational efforts and effectively simplified seismic design procedures, but as a tradeoff it could not ensure sufficient structural ductility during extreme earthquake events. To eliminate this drawback, performance-based design adds an extra control point at 2%/50yrs. earthquake level to ensure the ultimate performance objective of collapse prevention shall be satisfied. Collapse analysis, therefore, should provide the designer and client with the guarantee that, during such extreme events, local collapse (or, component failure) may take place, but system collapse should be avoided with confidence. To offer house owners an option for custom-made buildings: Performance-based design framework enables a building structure performs according to owner-specified objectives under 10%/50yrs. and 2%/50yrs intensity levels. An enterpriser may specify a higher seismic standard for his/her headquarter to alleviate earthquakeinduced loss due to interrupted operation. To reduce probability of casualties: A return period of 2500 years earthquake indicates an occurrence rate of 2% in 50 years. If collapse prevention can not be guaranteed at this hazard level, then it means a 2% probability in 50 years that residents could lose their lives in extreme earthquake attacks. To distinguish unique characteristics of innovative structural systems from conventional systems: In current engineering practice, the seismic performance of a building is evaluated through its strength capacity and maximum interstory drift under design earthquakes. These years, innovative structural systems adopt smart material and advanced design concept to be equipped with cutting edge self-centering devices to reach the goal of seismic isolation and/or energy dissipation to minimize residual deformation. These structural systems may have comparable maximum drift as traditional buildings, but permanent deformation is significantly reduced. To classify substantial difference from conventional structural systems in seismic performance, a combined consideration of permanent deformation together with maximum drift may be preferential in the future evaluation framework. In this regard, consideration of collapse or post-peak behavior will help advance accurate prediction of these indices. Retrofit of older essential facilities such as schools, fire and police stations, etc.: During the September 21 (local time) 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake, a large number of older buildings built before 1982 sustained severe damage and many others suffered from complete failure. Older structures are prone to shear type of failure in a low ductility manner. A large portion of the elementary and high school buildings falls into this category. The Chi-Chi earthquake hit the central part of Taiwan at 1:47am, so these collapsed school buildings did not cause tremendous tragedy of students death. However, it becomes main concerns of Taiwans government how to retrofit old school buildings that are identified as high risk of

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2007 ASCE

structural collapse in future earthquakes. To reach this goal, dynamic nonlinear behaviors of these low ductility columns must be first thoroughly understood. Strictly speaking, the idea of collapse tests is not new as it has been widely adopted in many industrial products, especially in car industry. A new car model always goes through various types of collision tests before mass production for market sale to ensure life safety of its driver and passengers. On the other hand, buildings are usually customdesigned and built such that individual collapse tests are infeasible. The major technical difficulties in building design would be to incorporate the same concept into code documents through a uniform and simplified standard procedure.

Shear Failure STRENGTH


STRENGTH

Shear Failure

Gravity Collapse

Gravity Collapse DRIFT


DRIFT

40
15.9s

N. Column Shear (kN)

20 0 -20 -40 18.3s


18.2s

-5

10

15

Interstory Drift Ratio (%)

/L
Source: Elwood [1] (b) with Sufficient System Redundancy

Source: Wu et al. [2] (a) without System Redundancy

FIGURE 1
IDEALIZED BACKBONE CURVE (UPPER ROW) AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA (LOWER ROW) OF SHEAR-CRITICAL COLUMNS.

To illustrate the general progress of collapse, Figure 1 gives the idealized backbone curves of shear-critical columns. Figure 1(a) illustrates that a shear-critical column will go through the progress of flexural yield (i.e., the 1st yield point of the idealized backbone curve), and then its lateral drift at shear failure and finally the envelope starts to descend toward the limit-sate of gravity collapse at which its lateral strength is completely lost. Figure 1(b) illustrates that a shear-critical column will keep a certain level of residual strength if system redundancy provides an alternative path for gravity load redistribution. This residual strength may result from dowel action from longitudinal reinforcement bars

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restrained by concrete above and below the failure planes, and/or frictional resistance between concrete fracture surfaces. Columns with different types of failure modes (e.g., pure flexural failure, pure shear failure) may show a similar tendency if system redundancy can provide an alternative path for load redistribution. A superposition of individual backbone curves constitutes the system backbone as shown in Figure 2. The system failure can be defined as a significant loss of its lateral seismic resistance capacity (say, 50%) such that the repair cost is larger than its initial construction cost. Elwood [1] tested 3-column frames with perfect redundancy. The side columns at both ends provide a perfect alternative path for gravity load redistribution after the central shear-critical column completely failed. Residual strength was observed on lateral and axial load carrying capacity even though the local tangent stiffness almost reached zero. To the contrary, 2-column portal frames tested by Wu et al. [2] had no redundancy at all and the time instant of component failure coincides with tha of system failure, in which system collapse can be fully determined from component failure. According to solid mechanics theory, development of negative structural stiffness may stem from P- effects and/or material fractures. Although in the literature there are plenty of studies on how to incorporate P- effects in response analysis, few are capable of successfully simulating fracture-induced collapse, especially in brittle shear failure. Accurate fracture-based numerical approach is technically sophisticated and might be economically unaffordable to most design firms. As such, collection of experimental data on structural collapse, in global and local manner, becomes very informative in developing computationally affordable macroscopic models. This study, by performing shake table tests on typical building columns designed according to past Taiwanese practice, expects to validate a reliable phenomenon-based hysteretic model with consideration of material post-peak behavior. This model, when combined with P- effects, will be capable of predicting structural dynamic response under code-defined maximum considered earthquakes.

STRENGTH

System Collapse

DRIFT

FIGURE 2
IDEALIZED BACKBONE CURVE OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

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FIGURE 3
TYPICAL COMMERCIAL-RESIDENT COMPLEX WITH OPEN-FRONT PEDESTRIAN CORRIDOR IN TAIWAN

DESIGN OF SHAKE TABLE TEST

FIGURE 4
REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF SPECIMEN FRAME, DUCTILE COLUMNS C1, C2 AND NON-DUCTILE COLUMNS C3, C4.

The single-story 4-column frame tested in this study contains 2 ductile columns and 2 non-ductile columns. This frame can serve as an example for demonstrating progressive collapse in case that limited redundancy is found in the structural system. It can be foreseen that due to the limited redundancy there would be trivial time lag between the first local failure of non-ductile columns and the subsequent failure of ductile columns when global collapse occurred. This type of structures does exist in Taiwan as commercial-resident complex with open-front pedestrian corridor (Figure 3) which

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imposes a shortcoming of soft 1st story onto the structural system. The commercialresident complex is comprised of individual town houses joined by common sidewalls. These town houses oftentimes belong to different owners and were usually built in different years, and therefore incorporated different versions of seismic design codes that had different seismic requirements and detailing schemes. This can be easily seen from different appearance of the faade in Figure 3. Specimen Specifications The test specimen was composed of four columns (Figure 4). They were fixed at their bases and interconnected by a beam at the upper level. The columns were constructed at 1/3 scale. Columns C1 and C2 were designed and detailed to satisfy most current design codes for a high seismic zone, with a transverse reinforcement ratio of =1.5% in the plastic hinge zone. In contrast, Columns C3 and C4, with =0.2%, were typical of columns designed without seismic considerations, and hence were considered vulnerable to shear failure and subsequent axial load failure during testing. The connecting beam and footings were made relatively stiff and strong to remain elastic during testing. Through 30gal white noise excitation before the collapse test, the natural period of the frame was identified as 0.41sec and 3% damping critical.

FIGURE 5
PHOTOGRAPHICAL VIEW OF THE SINGLE-STORY 4-COLUMN SPECIMEN FRAME. Lead Packet Stacks Weight (metric tons) 17 Beam 5.72 Columns 0.22 Footings 1.12 Total 24.06

TABLE 1
WEIGHT OF SPECIMEN FRAME AND ITS PAYLOAD

Loadings A total weight of 17 metric ton lead ballast was added to reproduce axial loads ( 0.1 Ag f c ' ) at columns as shown in Figure 5. The weights of beam, columns and footings are listed in Table 1.

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Material Properties

The frame specimen was constructed in two steps. The first step was to construct 4 subassemblages that contained columns and footings in a lay-down position to have uniform concrete strength over the entire height of the column. The second step was to place these 4 sub-assemblages in an upright position and then build the connecting beam. The frame specimen was then moved into NCREE laboratory for storage 6 weeks after construction job was complete. The concrete mix was cast in two lifts, footings and columns, and then beams with a 1-week interval in between. After the construction was complete, wet curing was continued for another 2 weeks. Standard concrete cylinders (15cm diameter by 30cm high) were cast at the days of concrete pour, and then cured in the same condition as the frame specimen. Compressive strength tests of concrete cylinders were conducted at the same day of the test. The average concrete compressive strength at test date was 329 kgf/cm2. Tensile strength test results of longitudinal bars (#2, #3) and transverse reinforcement (D5 & D3.2 steel wire) are also shown in Table 2. D5 and D3.2 steel wires were made through cold-rolling operation on bars of a slightly larger diameter, with a consequence of an increase in its yield strength and a significant ductility loss because appropriate heat treatment (anealing) was not performed. The stress strain curves of longitudinal bars are shown in Figure 6. Concrete Column & Footing Age Age f 'c f 'c
Day kgf/cm
2

Beam
Age
2

'

#2 f y , fu
kgf/cm2

Steel #3 5 mm f y , fu f y , fu
kgf/cm2 kgf/cm2

3.2 mm f y , fu
kgf/cm2

Day

kgf/cm

Day

kgf/cm2

7 28

198 303

89 147

329 345

54

361

2363 2891

4803 7220

6755 7058

5594 5897

TABLE 2
PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE AND STEEL FROM MATERIAL TESTS
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

FIGURE 6
STRESS STRAIN CURVES OF LONGITUDINAL REBARS

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Instrumentation

Figure 5 shows the experimental setup of the specimen frame on the shake table. A supporting steel frame system was provided inside the table to prevent unfavorable outof-plane movement of the frame specimen. In addition, a protective system was installed outside the table to catch the frame from hitting the shake table when global collapse occurred. The experimental setup aims for instrumented observation of global dynamic collapse of RC columns. To do so, load cells, accelerometers, Temposonics linear displacement transducers (LDTs), inclinometers, and strain gages were employed to collect experimental data of engineering interest, which were helpful in finding how negative stiffness took place and how specimen was capable of remaining in stability when negative stiffness did occur. All these observations are very helpful in finding numerical solution methods related to dynamic stability problems to solicit the introduction of performance-based earthquake engineering.

FIGURE 7
LOCATION OF LOAD CELLS, ACCELEROMETERS AND TEMPOSONICS LDTS.

Input Table Motions

Because a 1:3 geometric scale factor was taken for the test specimen, input ground motions should then be adjusted using a time compression factor of 1/ 3 on the basis of keeping unchanged acceleration scale factor (= 1). In the test, the EW component of TCU082 accelerogram from the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake was applied as the input ground motion based on the following considerations: Representative of main characteristics of near-fault earthquake motions in Taiwan. In particular, Station TCU082 is located in central Taiwan, and is close to typical buildings studied herein. Frequency content of the record consists of dynamic velocity pulses; however, its waveforms do not contain static fling step pulses, which are not in the consideration of this study. In addition to intermediate-period velocity pulses, the frequency content also consists of short period strong motions as shown in Figure 8. This non-stationary evolution of frequency contents as observed in ordinary earthquake motions could be then put into consideration.

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6 Spectral Acceleration (g) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Period (sec) 2.0 2.5 3.0

2007 ASCE

1st Table Motion (Pre-collapse) 2nd Table Motion (Collapse)

FIGURE 8
RESPONSE SPECTRUM OF 1ST & 2ND INPUT MOTIONS AFTER TIME COMPRESSION FACTOR

1/ 3 .

The response spectra of achieved table motions are shown in Figure 8. The spectral values of selected ground motions have to meet the capacity limitation of the shake table. The selected ground motion, after modulated with a trapezoidal frequency domain filter from 0.2Hz to 20Hz, was scaled to 1.57g and 1.87g PGA levels for the 1st and 2nd table input motions, respectively.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND COMPARISON WITH PREDICTIVE MODEL


Figure 9 shows the damage of column ends after the 1st table motion. There was minor flexural cracking in ductile columns, and severe shear cracking in non-ductile columns. Minor cover concrete crushing at column ends was also found. The final shots of Columns C3, C4 and frame collapse were given in Figure 10, which demonstrates severe shear fractures of non-ductile columns during progressive collapse. Relationship between axial load, shear force, vertical displacement, and lateral interstory drift of Columns C3 and C4 are plotted in Figures 11-12. A low axial load ratio of 0.1 Ag f c was applied to columns, and due to dynamic effect of overturning moment, the axial forces in columns fluctuated about their initial values during the progress of system collapse. Same observation was obtained of vertical displacement at the top of columns. Black dots in Figures 11-12 indicate failure points of columns. A failure point is taken herein as the last initiation of negative slopes in a shear-critical column and the column was unable to remain in stability. It should be noted that the failure point herein is defined in a dynamic sense and may get slightly different if another earthquake record is applied as the input table motion. Tremendous loss of shear capacity was observed of non-ductile columns C3 and C4 at collapse. Same observation was made of the loss of gravity load carrying capacity of Column C3, but the same could not be said of Column C4. This is most likely because X-shaped shear fractures were formed at Column C3, but frictional force along the fracture surface of Column C4 still took effect at the instant of collapse such that the loss of axial load capacity in Column C4 is trivial. However, this only lasted for less than 1sec. An 8mm vertical displacement at the column top of Column C4 was observed at failure. Figure 13 indicates that there was significant redistribution of gravity load (18sec

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19sec) in columns at the initiation of failure even though the total gravity load carrying capacity of the specimen frame was basically kept unchanged.

C2 top

C3 top

C4 top

C2 bottom

C3 bottom

C4 bottom

FIGURE 9
DAMAGE OF DUCTILE COLUMN C2, AND NON-DUCTILE COLUMNS C3 & C4 AFTER 1ST GROUND EXCITATION.

Column C3 top

Column C4 top

Frame Collapse

FIGURE 10
SNAPSHOTS OF COLUMNS C3 & C4 AT FAILURE AND FINAL STATUS OF FRAME COLLAPSE.

Shown in Figure 14 is the experimentally obtained hysteretic loop of the specimen frame, which imposes important implications on engineering practice; especially the segment with negative slope will help in determining failure point of structural components and system. Plotted against the experimental curve is the phenomenon-based drift capacity model developed by Elwood [1] and Zhu [3]. The lateral resisting strength was taken from the smaller value of base shear strength converted from nominal moment capacity following ACI procedures and shear strength calculated according to Sezen [4]. In Figure 14, the plateau stands for the ACI nominal moment capacity because of flexural-shear type of failure. The lateral drift at the first yield of longitudinal reinforcement can be considered as the sum of displacements due to flexure, shear and bar lip at the bottom of the column. Secondly, median values were used to predict their drifts at shear and axial failure for non-ductile columns; P- effect was appropriately

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accounted for in the calculation of backbone curves of ductile columns. These individually calculated backbone curves were then added up to stand for the resultant backbone curve of the whole frame. The comparison shows that Elwood and Zhu proposed a reasonable backbone curve prediction, which at the current stage is very helpful in promoting collapse consideration among engineering community. As for rational numerical simulation using nonlinear dynamic analyses, further details can be referred to the paper by Yavari et al. [5], in which the finite element program OpenSees, developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, was employed to conduct the analyses with Limit State Material models for shear and axial failure.
100 80 60 40 20 0 -40 -20 0 20
100 80 60 40 20 0 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05

60
60

40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -40 -20 0 20

40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05

FIGURE 11
RELATIONS BETWEEN AXIAL LOAD, VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT, SHEAR FORCE, LATERAL DRIFT OF COLUMN C3.

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120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -40 -20 0 20

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -0.15 40


Column Shear (kN)

-0.1

-0.05

0.05

40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -40 -20 0 20

20 0

No Collapse Collapse

-20 -40 -60

t =18.725sec

-0.15

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 Interstory Drift Ratio (%)

FIGURE 12
RELATIONS BETWEEN AXIAL LOAD, VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT, SHEAR FORCE, LATERAL DRIFT OF COLUMN C4.

CONCLUSIONS
Global and local collapse and dynamic structural post-peak behaviors were presented in this study using a single-story-3-bay frame containing both non-ductile and ductile RC columns as the test specimen. Near-fault record TCU082ew from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake was used as the input motion. It is observed that a combination of lateral drift and shear strength reduction should be promising in serving as performance indices for predicting initial system collapse. Test results obtained herein provide a great database for calibrating existing numerical simulation methods to account for post-peak behaviors. This type of shake table tests may be used as benchmark problems for developing advanced numerical simulation methods. Comparison shows that Elwoods drift capacity models predicted the experimental backbone curve with satisfactory accuracy.

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350 300
Axial Load (kN)

total

250 200 150 100 50 0 14 16 18 20 Time (sec) 22 24

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 14 16 18 20 22 24

200 150 100 50 0 -50 14 16 18 20 22 24

FIGURE 13
AXIAL LOAD TIME HISTORIES OF: (A) WHOLE FRAME, (B) DUCTILE COLUMNS, (C) NON-DUCTILE COLUMNS.

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150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100

2007 ASCE

FIGURE 14
EXPERIMENTALLY OBTAINED STRUCTURAL HYSTEREIS OF TOTAL BASE SHEAR VS. ROOF DRIFT RATIO IN COMPARISON WITH IDEALIZED BACKBONE CURVE.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This research is funded in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under grant number NSC94-2625-Z-492-005. This financial support is gratefully acknowledged. Experimental facilities and technical support from NCREE are much appreciated. Special thanks are given to Cheng-Piao Cheng, Lu-Sheng Lee and Shin-Yuan Yu for their assistance in conducting the shake table tests. All opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors, and, therefore, do not necessarily represent the views of the sponsor.

REFERENCES
[1] Elwood K., Shake Table Tests and Analytical Studies on the Gravity Load Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Frames, PhD dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (adviser: J.P. Moehle), 2002. [2] Wu C.L., Yang Y.S., Loh C.H., Dynamic Gravity Load Collapse of Non-ductile RC Frames I : Experimental Approach, the 100th Anniversary Earthquake Conference Commemorating the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, San Francisco, Moscone Center, April 18-22 2006. [3] Zhu L., Probabilistic Drift Capacity Models for Reinforced concrete frames, Masters Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Canada (adviser: K. Elwood), 2005. [4] Sezen, H., Seismic Behavior and Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Building Columns, PhD dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (adviser: J.P. Moehle), 2000. [5] Yavari S., Kuo W.W., Elwood K.J., Wu C.L., Hwang S.J., and Loh C.H., Analysis of Shake Table Collapse Tests for RC Frames, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 12-13, 2006, Paper No. 280. [6] OpenSees, Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation,opensees.berkeley.edu, Berkeley, California: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, University of California, 2005.

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