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FeaturesandBenefitsofIEC61850 Features and Benefits of IEC 61850

ErichGunther ChairmanandCTO,EnerNex

GrantGilchrist PrincipalConsultant,EnerNex
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BrianSmith PrincipalConsultant,EnerNex

Agenda g
Whatisitandhowdidwegethere? What is it and how did we get here? TheroleofIEC61850intheUtilityBigPicture TherelationshipbetweenIEC61850andDNP3 The relationship between IEC 61850 and DNP3 Whatssogreataboutit? OverviewofthevariousIEC61850features Overview of the various IEC 61850 features Thingstoconsidermovingforward WhatIEC61850meanstostakeholders What IEC 61850 means to stakeholders

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IEC61850

Whatisit?
Notjustacommunicationsprotocol A Acomprehensivestandardforthedesignof h i d df h d i f substationautomationsystemsandapplications Acollectionofmultipleprotocols,concepts A collection of multiple protocols, concepts andcomponentstandards Aplatformfordesigning,implementing, andoperatingutilityautomationsystems d l Amethodforaddingneededcontextandstructure aroundwhathistoricallywassimple,unformatteddata around what historically was simple, unformatted data Awayoflifeforutilityautomation

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SCOPEANDHISTORY

History y
SponsoredbyElectricalPowerResearchInstitute(EPRI) UCA1.0in1992 toovague,noTCP/IP Manypilotprojects,noconsensus A AmericanElectricPowerinitiativebroughtfocus i El t i P i iti ti b ht f BecameanInternationalStandardin2004/2005viaIEEETR1550 EPRIconsideredthatUCAincludedpopularInterControlCenter p p Protocol(ICCP) ICCPisaseparatestandard:Telecontrol ApplicationService Element(TASE.2),IEC608706 Element (TASE 2) IEC 608706

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SCOPEANDHISTORY

UtilityFieldProtocolEvolution y
100s of Proprietary Protocols MMS ISO9506 1988 Mfg. Auto. Protocol-MAP Protocol MAP 1984 EPRI UCA Architecture 1991 UCA2.0 IEEE TR1550 1999

ICCP IEC60870-6 1996

IEC61850 2003

100s of Proprietary Protocols

IEC60870-5 IEC TC57 1994

Common Object Models and Security ( (Future) )

DNP3 Serial Links 1993

DNP3 Ethernet ~2000

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IEC61850

IEC61850sroleintheBigPicture g
Identified in the first batch of interoperability Identifiedinthefirstbatchofinteroperability standardskeytoSmartGriddeploymentbyNIST Focusedonautomationsystemsutilizedinthe y electricutilitytransmissionanddistributiondomains p pp Providesnetworkoptionsforapplicationssuchas:
TraditionalSCADAapplications Highspeedprotection Analogwaveformdata DigitalPTsandCTs Ph Phasor M Measurement
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IEC61850: Substations andmore

IEC61850andDNP3
Issue RecognizedinNIST InteroperabilityFramework Distribution Feeder Automation SubstationAutomation SubstationtoControlCenter High SpeedPeertopeer Structured Data and Naming DataandNaming SelfDescription XML ConfigurationFile IEC 61850 Yes Noprofilecurrently existsforlow bandwidthnetworks Yes Underdevelopment Yes Yes Yes Yes DNP3(IEEE1815) Yes Designedforit

Yes Yes No Limited. Numbered Points. NumberedPoints. Limited Yes

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IEC61850andDNP3Evolution
IEC61850hasmoreadvancedfeatures DNP3isinuseinover75%ofNorthAmericanutilities Canusegatewaysasanupgradepath Canuse6185074namingtodocumentDNP3pointslists IEEE1815.1gatewaystandardunderdevelopment Howtomapdata Howtomapservices Use case descriptions Usecasedescriptions

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SCOPEANDHISTORY

IECViewofaSubstation
DiagramfromIEC61850Part1
Three levels Threelevels Numberedinterfaces

Europeanconcepts,butadaptable toNorthAmerica IEC61850isintendedtoaddress ALL of these interfaces except: oftheseinterfacesexcept:


Controlcenter Remoteprotection

Somemovementrecentlytohave italsoincludethesetwo

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SCOPEANDHISTORY

Purpose:toVisualizeaSubstation p

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IEC61850

SoWhatsSoGreatAboutIt?
FeaturesnootherSCADAprotocolhashadbefore... SelfDescriptionandBrowsers StructuredData DeviceModels,notDataPoints CapabilityforAccessSecurity FastPeertoPeerCommunications PowerfulReportingFeatures AWideChoiceofLowerLayers Basedonmoderninformationtechnologyconcepts
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APPLICATIONLAYER APPLICATIONLAYER
Services: WhatcanyoudowithIEC61850? N i Naming Read/Write SelfDescription Reporting Controls Logging Files ObjectModel: Whatdatacanyouoperateon? LogicalNodes CommonDataClasses
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APPLICATIONLAYER

AbstractCommunicationServiceInterface
Whydefineabstractservices? Isolates the data from the specifics of communications Isolatesthedatafromthespecificsofcommunications Canbemappedtomanyprotocols Future proofing allows adoption of future technologies Futureproofing allowsadoptionoffuturetechnologies AllofthesearefundamentalqualitiesdefinedintheNIST RoadmapArchitecturechapter
Server (physical device) Logical Device Logical Node Control Substitution Settings Data Object Data Set Reporting & Logging GOOSE Sampled Values File Transfer

Wh t d WhatdoestheACSIdefine? th ACSI d fi ? Functionsandparametersforeachservice How to build logical devices out of logical nodes Howtobuildlogicaldevicesoutoflogicalnodes Howtoorganizedataobjectsderivedfromlogicalnodes
Association Time Synchronization

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APPLICATIONLAYER SERVICES APPLICATIONLAYER

Self SelfDescription p
Adevicecantell itsmasterwhatdataitwillreport Mastercouldautomatically configure itselfforthedevice! Attheveryleast,provideachooserofwhatdatatomap. Includesforeachpoint: I l d f h i
Datatype Datastructure Humanreadablename

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APPLICATIONLAYER SERVICES APPLICATIONLAYER

WhatSelfDescriptionCouldMean... WhatSelf p
Asavingsof75% ormoreinconfigurationtime Majorreductionsinconfigurationerrors Itnowtakesthreeweeks toconfigureasubstation,beforefinalacceptancetesting! PlugandPlaydevices SCADAbrowsersthatdontneedaconfig!
Hours Power-Assisted IEC 61850-6 Traditional Protocol - Typical Traditional Protocol -M Max Manual ObjectOriented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

ThiscouldcauseaRevolution! Thi ld R l i !

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APPLICATIONLAYER OBJECTMODELS APPLICATIONLAYER

StructuredData WhyWeNeedIt StructuredData y


Concentratorscurrently loseinformation:
Thenameofthesource d i Th f h device Thephysicalandelectricallocation Thepath takentoacquirethedata Relationships betweenpoints(e.g.phases) Units ofmeasurement

Onlythetype ofdataisretained(e.g.analog) Mustbeaddedbackinlater asdescription Forces system engineer to keep it all in mind Forcessystemengineertokeepitallinmind

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APPLICATIONLAYER OBJECTMODELS APPLICATIONLAYER

StructuredDatainIEC61850
Informationisnotlost! Embedded aspartofthename Forwarded upthechainbyselfdescription Visible without configuration via browsers withoutconfigurationviabrowsers Reduces current dependence on: Reducescurrentdependenceon: spreadsheets tables wiringdiagrams systemdocumentation

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APPLICATIONLAYER OBJECTMODELS APPLICATIONLAYER

Device DeviceBasedObjectModels j
V, PhsPhsV, A

Nowwecanstandardizedata names forcommondevice functions,e.g.:


kWhr kVAr

Rs

Polyphase Electric Meter (MMTR)

EnergyMeter DistanceRelay CapacitorBankController TransformerTapChanger

Vendorsarepermittedto
Useonlyasubset Add superset valueadded features Addsuperset value addedfeatures Mixandmatch functionsinadevice

Called Logical Nodes Called Logical Nodes


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APPLICATIONLAYER OBJECTMODELS APPLICATIONLAYER

LogicalNodes g
Arelayusedtoperformonlyoneprotectionfunction N it Nowitmayperformseveralprotectionfunctions,e.g. f l t ti f ti
PTOC:TimeOvercurrent PDIS:DistanceProtection

Mayalsoprovidenonprotectionfunctionse.g.
MMXU:MeasurementUnit MMTR:EnergyMeter GGIO:GenericInput/Output

Thefunctionsofthisrealdevicearebuiltfromthoseofidealizedimaginary devices PDIS PTOC


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MMTR MMXU GGIO


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APPLICATIONLAYER

Self SelfDescriptionandStructuredData
Onlyaddresswas configured y Layersofstructure:
Device Domain NamedVariables Measurements MeterCircuit1 M Ci i 1 Voltage PhaseA IntegerValue

TextNamesforData DataGrouped:
Timestamp Quality ScalingParameters

DeviceModels
RTU Metering

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APPLICATIONLAYER SERVICES APPLICATIONLAYER

AnatomyofanObjectName y j
V
MX

A
MX

Functional Constraint

Logical Nodes
MMXU1 MMXU2

Logical Device g (e.g. Relay1)

Physical Device
(network address)

MMXU2$MX$A = $ $
Feeder #2 Current Measurements

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IEC61850Security IEC61850Security y
BasedonIEC62351technicalspecifications Based on IEC 62351 technical specifications DigitalSignaturesattheapplication(MMS)layer Encryptionatthetransport(TLS/TCP)layer Encryption at the transport (TLS/TCP) layer SpecializedauthenticationforGOOSEmessages Softwareavailableandinusetoday Software available and in use today Newworkunderwayforsynchrophasors

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FastPeerto FastPeertoPeerCommunication
GenericObjectOrientedSubstationEvent(GOOSE) Intendedtoreplacerelaytorelaywiring d d l l l ii Eachdevicemulticastsaselectedsetofdata Assumesthemessagewillnotgetthrough Retransmitsimmediately,exponentialbackoff Periodicretransmission

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PEERTO PEERTOPEERCOMMUNICATIONS

HighSpeedorReliable? High p g
GOOSEisintendedtoreplacedirectrelay torelaywiring to relay wiring Needboth:
Veryhighspeed(<4msintransit) Veryhighreliability
Timer Data Ack

Traditionalprotocolsuse acknowledgements
Senderstartstimer Waitsforresponse Retransmitsiftimeoutoccurs
Timer

Data D

Inprotectionapplications,thisisTOO LATE!
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Retry Data

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PEERTO PEERTOPEERCOMMUNICATIONS

HighSpeedANDReliable! High p g
GOOSEusesadifferentapproach:
A Assume th t th fi t thatthefirstmessagewillnotgetthrough! ill t t th h! Always retransmitthemessage Dependonthereceivertodetectduplicates
Data

Onlyonewaytrafficneeded
Exponentialbackoff Eventually transmits about once every 2 minutes Eventuallytransmitsaboutonceevery2minutes

BasedonIEEE802multicastaddressing Hardwarefiltersoutwhatsnotneeded

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PEERTO PEERTOPEERCOMMUNICATIONS

LANInterlockingandTripping g pp g
GOOSEisidealforinterlocking
M lti ti Multicastingeliminatesmultiple li i t lti l connectionsbetweendevices Solvesthenx(n1) problem Several simple logic programs replaces Severalsimplelogicprogramsreplaces onecomplexone

LANtrippingismorecontroversial
Hasbeenimplementedsucessfully H b i l t d f ll Performanceisakeyissue Nothoroughstudiesdoneyet Someproblemsnotyetsolved,e.g. S bl l d breakerfailuremustdetectabsence ofa signalintime. Devicesmayhavetobecertified Devices may have to be certified
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PEERTO PEERTOPEERCOMMUNICATIONS

SampledValuesontheLAN p
Takesdecentralizationonestepfurther S Separatessamplingphysicallyfrom li h i ll f
Measurement Metering Calculation

SynchronizingbreakerclosureoverLAN More flexibility in measurement Moreflexibilityinmeasurement


Anydevicemaymeasureanycircuit SmartCTsandPTs

Some performance measurements done Someperformancemeasurementsdone Estimatesindicateitwillrequireatleast GigabitEthernetinthenetwork backboneforlargescaledeployment


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CONFIGURATION

WhatisSubstationConfigurationLanguage?

Standardizedfileformatforsubstationconfiguration BasedonExtensibleMarkupLanguage(XML) Exchangesfilesbetweenproprietaryengineeringtools FilemaydescribeoneIED,orwholesubstation E EveryIEC61850vendormustsupplyanSCLfile IEC 61850 d t l SCL fil Format,orschemadefinedinIEC61850Part6

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CONFIGURATION

DifferentLevelsofConfiguration g
Substation Configuration Language
System Configuration Tool

`
Substation GUI

Data Concentrator ` IED Config Tool Vendor A ` IED Config Tool Vendor B Proprietary Configuration Files

IED Vendor A

IED Vendor B

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CONFIGURATION

UsingSCLAlone g
1. Vendor 1 V d supplies li SCL File for IED

2. Tool downloads configuration to Client

3. Client can talk to IED

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CONFIGURATION

Power PowerAssistedConfiguration g
3. User edits configuration 2. Tool produces SCL file

4. Downloads configuration to Client

1. 1 IED self describes self-describes to engineering tool

5. Client can now talk to several of the same IED

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CONFIGURATION

RemotePowerAssistedConfig RemotePowerAssistedConfig g
2. Vendor sends SCL file to integrator g 3. Integrator edits and g 4. downloads configuration

1. Vendor gets selfdescription from IED

5. Client talks to Servers

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PowerfulReportingFeatures PowerfulReportingFeatures p g
Notbasedonpolling Remote device does the work Remotedevicedoesthework GroupdataintoDataSets configured clientdefined Spontaneousreporton: datachange periodicreportbyexception i t it integrityreport t freezing Journals for longterm storage Journalsforlong termstorage Filesforbulkdata
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STRUCTURE

ASuiteofProtocols,NotJustOne

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STRUCTURE

IEC61850ReferenceModel

Application Process Abstract Communication Service Interface (ACSI) SCSM 1 SCSM 1 Stack 1 Stack 1 SCSM 1 Stack 1

Common Applications Specific Communication Stacks

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STRUCTURE

IEC61850Architecture
SCADA Substation Host Station Bus IED1 IED2 Process Bus IED3

CT

VT

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STRUCTURE

StationBusProtocols
SCADA Substation Host Station Mappings (8-1) Client/Server (TCP/IP) GOOSE/GSSE (Link) Time Sync (SNTP) Time Station Bus IED1 IED2 Process Bus IED3

CT

VT

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STRUCTURE

ProcessBusProtocols
SCADA Substation Host Process Bus Mappings (9-2) Sampled Values Protocol (Link) Sampled GOOSE/GSSE (Link) Time Sync ( y (SNTP) ) Station Bus IED1 IED2 Process Bus IED3

CT

VT

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STRUCTURE

DocumentSet
Basic principles Glossary Gl General Requirements System and project management Communication requirements Substation Automation System Configuration C fi ti Basic Communication Structure Part 8 Mapping to MMS and Ethernet Sampled Measured Values
Mapping to Ethernet

Part 1 Part P t2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 9

Conformance testing

Part 10

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STRUCTURE

MostCommonlyUsedProfiles y
Object Models IEC 61850-7-3, 7-4 Abstract Services GOOSE IEC 61850-7-2 8-1 IEC 61850-8-1 MMS/ACSE ISO Pres./ ASN.1 ISO Session
RFC 1006

SMV

9-1 9-2 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

TCP
Ethertype

IP Ethernet Physical

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SubstationAutomationafterIEC61850 SubstationAutomationafterIEC61850
To Legacy Masters HMI with Power-Assisted Configuration Self-Configuring Web Server To WAN

Browser p p Laptop HMI

Gateway/ Coordinator

Firewall/ Router

Client/ Server S Interlocking/ Tripping pp g Sampled Values

Bay Controller

CTs

PTs

CTs

PTs

Primary Equipment E i t Monitors

Bay y Controller CTs PTs


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IEC61850

ThingstoConsiderMovingForward g g
SupportingTechnologies Supporting Technologies
Ethernet,TCP/IP,TimeSynchronization

OrganizationalandProcess g
Employeeskillsets Networkingandcybersecurityfundamentals Organizationalinterfacesandresponsibilities Documentation EngineeringandMaintenanceTools

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IEC61850

WhatItMeanstoStakeholders
UtilityDecisionMaker
Improved engineering efficiency Improvedengineeringefficiency Benefitsofdatamodelingextendintotheutility enterprise

UtilityEngineer
Newtoolsandoptionsfordesigningsystemstomeetthe evolvingrequirementsofasmartgridworld

Regulator
Highbenefitcostratio(BCR)

Vendor
Narrowerfocusonproductcommunicationfeatures f d f morefocusoninnovation,features,benefits,cost
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Summary WhatsNew? Summary y


Newhardware: independentVTsandPTs,integratedprimaryeqpt. Newinstallation: automaticandpower assistedconfiguration New installation: automatic and powerassisted configuration Newapplications: LANbasedbreakersynchronization,interlocking Newinterfaces: casualbrowserHMIs Newflexibility: thedevicenearesttheproblemdoesthejob New flexibility: the device nearest the problem does the job Newphilosophy: integratedprotection,telecontrol,assetmgmt.

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ForMoreInformation ForMoreInformation
ErichGunther erich@enernex.com BrianSmith b ith@ bsmith@enernex.com GrantGilchrist grant@enernex.com g @ http://www.enernex.com/ ComingSoon morewebinarsandmultidaytraining seminarsatourconferencefacilityandlabsinKnoxville i t f f ilit dl b i K ill Tennessee StayTuned!
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