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# KARPAGA VINAGA COLLEGE OF ENGINERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING EC1351- DIGITAL COMMUNICATION QUESTION

## BANK SEM/YEAR/SEC: VI/III/B STAFF I/C: A.JOTHIMANI

UNIT-I
PULSE MODULATION

Part A 1. Give the mathematical form of sampling process 2. List out uses of sampling theorem 3. Define instantaneous sampling 4. What is anti aliasing effect 5. What is PWM 6. List out the types of Quantization 7. What is nd A law a 8. Transfer 01101001 in to Manchester code 9. What is noise consideration in PCM 10. Define processing gain. 11. What are the two limitations of Delta Modulation? (Apr/May-04) 12. What you understand by the term aliasing ? (Nov/Dec05) 13. A band pass signal has the spectral range that extends from 20 KHz to82 KHz. Find the acceptable range of sampling frequency fs . (Nov/Dec05) 14. State Sampling Theroem ( May/June -07) 15. Define Quantization error ( May/June -07) 16. What is SNR of PCM system if the number of quantization levels? (Apr/May-06) 17. State band pass sampling theorem. (Apr/May-06) 18. Plot the magnitude spectrum of the ideally sampled version of the signal M(t)=2cos(200t)+40sin(290t).Assuming that the sampling rate is 1khz. (Apr/May - 08) 19.Define position modulation scheme with a suitable diagram (Apr/May -08) 20.State band pass sampling theorem. (Apr/May-04)

Part B 1. Drive the expression for the sampling process in time domain. (16) 2. What are all the types of sampling technique and explain about any two. (16) 3. a. Explain the generation of PPM and PWM with neat circuit diagram. (8) b. Explain the quantization process with PCM block diagram. (8) 4. Write brief notes on 1) TDMA (8 ) 2) FDMA (8) 5. Compare DM with ADM and explain linear prediction filter. (16)

What is meant by a compander?What are the two types of compression?(8) (ii) Explain the frame format and signaling scheme used in T1 carrier system?(8) (Apr/May-04) 6..(i) Derive expressions quantization noise and signal-to-noise in a PCM system using a Uniform quantiser.(10). (ii) A sinusoidal signal is transmitted using PCM.An output SNR of 55.8dB is required Find the number of representation levels required to achieve this performance. ( Nov/Dec-05) 7. (i) Explain with a neat diagram, the direct sequence spread binary PSK system?(8) (ii) Obtain the expression for the processing gain(PG) in this system. (8) (Apr/May-06) 8.. (i) Derive the expression for SNR in PCM system and compare it with Delta modulation. Explain how can the SNR be improved in a PCM system.(10) (ii) Show that prediction error variance is less than the variance of the predictor input Of the predictor of order one. (Apr/May-06) 9. (i) With supporting derivation, prove that if a signal contains no frequencies higher than W Hertz,it may be reconstructed from its samples at a sequence of points spaced W seconds apart. (8) (ii) Explain the principle of Delta modulation and derive an expression for average output noise power in delta modulation.(8) (Apr/May-06) 10. Explain the process of quantization, encoding and decoding in pulse code Modulation?In what way differential PCM is better than PCM?(16) ( May/June 07) 11. Describe the following systems by presenting appropriate diagrams. (i) Time Division Multiplexing(8) (ii) Delta Modulation.(8) ( May/June -07) 12.(a) (i) Give the block diagram of differential pulse code modulation scheme and explain the principles in detail(9) (ii) Obtain an expression for the processing gain of a DPCM system.(4) (iii)Suppose an existing standard PCM system for the voice signal is replaced by a DPCM processing gain 6dB,while maintaining the (SNR)Q. What will be the reduction in the bit rate achieved by DPCM?(3) (Apr/May -08) 13.(i) For a Uniform quantizer,discuss the way in which the number of quantization Levels (L) influence the bandwidth and the Quantization noise.(3) (ii) Discuss the need for Non-uniform Quantization of speech signal (2). (iii) Outline the principles of compander used for speech signal.(4) (iv) Give the bit rate of a Delta modulator fed with samples at a rate of 40ksamples/sec.(2) (v)How does adaptive delta modulation help in alleviating the problems associated with Delta modulation scheme.(5) (Apr/May -08) 14. Explain the principle,operation ,signals ,constellation diagram transmitter and receiver of a MSK system.(16) (May/June-07)

UNIT -2 BASEBAND PULSE TRANSMISSION Part A 1. Define matched filter 2. What is decision device 3. Draw the block diagram of base band binary data transmission system 4. What is Nyquist channel 5. Draw the frequency and time response of raised cosine spectrum 6. What you mean by correlative level coding 7. Define LMSA 8. What is DFE 9. List out the use of eye patterns 10. Define zero crossing effect 11.. How is the eye pattern obtained on the CRO? (Apr/May-04) 12. What is the condition for zeros Inter symbol Interference? (Apr/May-04) 13.What is the purpose of using an eye pattern? (Nov/Dec05) 14. Why do you need adaptive equalization in switched telephone network? (Nov/Dec05) 15.What is an ideal Nyquist channel? (Apr/May-06) 16. What is meant by intersymbol interference? (Apr/May-06) 17. Why do we need equalization in base band pulse transmission? ( May/June -07) 18. A message has zero mean value and a peak value of 10V. It is to be quantized using a Step size of 0.1V with one level coinciding to 0 V. Find number of bits required for encoding the quantized signal. ( May/June -07) 19. Give the Nyquist criterion for zero ISI.Plot the impulse response of an ideal Nyquist channel. (Apr/May -08) 20.Draw an eye pattern and respresent the ways in which it could be used to evaluate the performance a baseband pulse transmission system. (Apr/May -08)

Part B 1. Derive the expression for the matched filter and prove any one property. (16) 2. Prove the effect ISI using necessary block diagram and design. (16) 3. Write brief notes on Nyquists criterion for distortion less base band binary transmission. (16) 4. Explain the six array PAL transmission. (16) 5. a) (i) Explain the cross talk produced due to high frequency cutoff of the channel in PAM. What is the effect of pulse width on the cross talk factor?(8) (ii) Compare the power spectra of different binary formats.(8) (Apr/May-06) 6. (i) With neat sketches, explain the duo binary signaling scheme.(8) (ii) Write briefly about eye pattern and adaptive equalization for data transmission. (8) (Apr/May-06)

7. a) (i) Generate the code words for (7,4) Hamming code.(8) (ii) State and prove the properties of syndrome decoding. (8) (Apr/May-06) 8. (i) Explain briefly about linear block codes.(4) (ii) Evaluate the syndrome S for all five probable single error patterns in (5,1) Repetition code.(6) (iii) Briefly explain the Viterbi decoding algorithm .(6) (Apr/May-06) 9. Why do we adoptive equalizer and design any one type of adoptive equalizer. (16) 10..Find the optimum filter frequency response How that maximizes the output SNR When the input noise is not a white noise.(16) ( May/June -07) 11. Discuss the following: (i) Adaptive Equalization(8) (ii) Base band M-ary PAM transmission. (8) ( May/June -07) 12. (a) (i) What are the special features of correlative coding?(2) (ii) Draw the block diagram of a Duobinary encoder and obtain an expression for the frequency response of the same.(6) (iii) What is the need for precoder.(1) (iv) For the binary sequence 011010100110 give the output of a Duobinary encoder (in the absence of a precoder).(3) (v) For the binary sequence 011010100110 give the output of a Duobinary Encoder with a precoder. (4) (Apr/May-08) (vi) (i) Obtain the expression for the average probability of symbol error assuming NRZ signaling,if the noise is modeled as AWGN.(10) (ii) Compare a baseband binary PAM system with that of M-ary PAM system.(6) (Apr/May -08) 13. (i) Sketch the time response and frequency response of signal with raised cosine pulse spectrum.(8) (ii) Why is the precoding used with duobinary signaling scheme?Draw the block diagram of precoderand explain its operation (8) (Apr/May-04) 14. (i) Draw the block diagram of an adaptive filter and explain the LMS algorithm.(10) (ii) Explain how eye pattern is used to study the performance of a data transmission system. (6) (Apr/May-04). 15. What do you understand by the term Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)?Discuss in detail the Nyquist criterion for minimizing ISI.Explain the difficulties in implementing it in a practical system.(16). (Nov/Dec05) 16.(i)Discuss the merits and demerits of Duobinary Signalling.(6) (ii)The binary data(0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 ) are applied to the input of a duobinary encoder.Construct the duobinary encoder output and corresponding receiver output,without a precoder .Suppose due to error during transmission ,the level produced by the third digit is reduced to zero,construct the new receiver output(10). (Nov/Dec05)

UNIT - 3 PASSBAND DATA TRANSMISSION Part - A 1. Define FSK 2. Draw the Basic block diagram of FSK 3. Define MFSK 4. Draw the wave form of the MPSK 5. What is MSK 6. Define Non-coherent FSK 7. Differentiate coherent FSK from Non-coherent FSK 8. What do you mean by Probability error. 9. Define Passband transmission. 10 Draw the baseband signal. 11. How is the transfer function of the Matched Filter related to the spectrum of the signal? (Apr/May-04) 12. In minimum shift keying what is the relation between the signal frequencies and bit rate? (Apr/May-04) 13. Draw an illustrative figure to show the operation of a correlation receiver? (Nov/Dec05) 14.Highlight the major difference between a QPSK signal and aMSK signal. (Nov/Dec05) 15. Compare the probability of error of PSK with that of FSK. (Apr/May-06) 16. State the difference between coherent and non coherent binary modulation schemes. (Apr/May-06) 17. Differentiate coherent and non coherent receivers. ( May/June -07) 18. What do you understand by continuous phase frequency shift keying? ( May/June -07) 19.Plot the power spectrum of a BPSK signal operated with a carrier frequency of 140MHz,modulated by data bits at a rate of 2400 bits/sec.What is the bandwidth requirement? (Apr/May -08) 20.Give the signal space representations of QPSK.How is the performance of the system related to the distances between the symbols in the signal space ? (Apr/May -08)

Part B 1. Derive the expression for the BPSK technique. (16) 2. Explain the MFSK and derive the pe. (16) 3. Draw the space diagram of MSK and explain about the same. (16) 4. Derive the error probability expression for the MPSK. (16) 5. Compare the all types of Passband transmission. (16) 6. (i) Discuss briefly about Minimum Shift Keying for a Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying(CPFSK) signal.(8) (ii)With necessary equations and signal space diagram, explain briefly about FSK system.(8) (Apr/May-06)

7 (i) Explain the Quadriphase Shift keying (QPSK) modulation(8) (ii) Obtain probability of error interms of Eb and No (Apr/May-06) 8.(i) In a PSK system, the received waveforms S1(t)=A Coswt,S2(t)=-A Coswt are Coherently detected with a matched filter. The value of A is 20 mV, and the bit Rate is 1 Mbps. Assume that the noise power spectral density h/2=10-11 W/Hz. Find the proability of error Pe.(6) (ii) Enumerate on carrier and symbol synchronization(5+5) ( May/June -07) 9. (i) Give the block diagram for the generation and detection of BFSK signal and Give a brief explanation of the same.(8) (ii)What are the special properties of MSK scheme?(4) (iii) Compare the performance of BPSK with that of BFSK.(4) (Apr/May -08) 10. (i) Discuss the generation and detection of QPSK with suitable block Diagrams (10) . Write a note on DPSK.(6) (Apr/May -08) 11. Explain the direct sequence spread spectrum modulation with coherent binary Phase shift keying.(16) (May/June-07) 12. Describe the following: (i) Signal space dimensionality and processing gain. (8) (ii). Maximum length and Gold codes. (8) (May/June-07) 13. (i) Explain the technique used for generating N orthonormal basis functions.(8) (ii) What do you understand by coherent detection?(2) (iii)Discuss a method for bit synchronization.(6) (Apr/May-04) 14.(i) Draw the block diagram of QPISIC transmitter and coherent QPSK receriver and explain their operation.(10) (ii)Compare the BER of coherent PSK coherent QPSK and coherent FSK. (6) (Apr/May-04) Unit- 4 ERROR CONTROL CODING Part A 1. Define the Channel coding 2. List out the uses of the Channel Coding 3. Differentiate Sourced coding from the Channel coding. 4. Prove any two properties of Block Codes. 5. What is syndrome? 6. Define Code rate. 7. What is BSC? 8. Draw the channel diagram of the BPSK system 9. What is turbo codes 10. Define CRC. 11. What is meant by syndrome of a linear block code?

(Apr/May-04)

12. The minimum transmitter power requirement in the absence of channel coding of a communication System is 2W. If a channel coding scheme of 3 dB is incorporated in the system give the minimum required transmitter power. (Apr/May-04) 13.Explain the fundamental difference between block codes and convolutional codes. (Nov/Dec05) 14.How will you define coding gain with reference to error control codes ? (Nov/Dec05) 15. List t7. What is meant by BCH code? (Apr/May-06) 16. What is a convolution code? (Apr/May-06) he advantages of Turbo codes ( May/June -07) 17. Define Minimum distance. ( May/June -07) Part B 1. Explain the channel coding technique used in the Block codes. (16) 2. What are all the message vectors can be extracted from the code vector that was generated by 1+X+X3. (16) 3. Explain the Viterbi algorithm for the detection of any two message vectors (One Word) from the code vectors that were generated by (111), (101) and (011). (16) 4. Explain the construction of Block Code and Explain how error syndrome is calculated. (16) 5. Explain in detail about Orthogonal codes, Biorthogonal codes and Transorthogonal codes. (16) 6. Consider a (7,4) linear block code with the parity-check matrix give by (i)Construct code words for this (7,4) code (ii)Show that this code is Hamming code. (iii)Illustrate the relation between the minimum distance and the structure of the parity-check matrix H by considering the word 0101100. (May/June-07) 7.Let g(x) be the generator polynomial of a cyclic code C.Find a scheme in Encoding the data sequence (d0,d1dk-1) into an (n,k) system code C. (16) (May/June-07) 8.(a) (i) Give the properties of cyclic codes.(3) (ii) Give the details of implementation of cyclic encoder and decoder based on Linear feedback shift registers.(9) (iii) A communication system operates at a bit rate of 10kbps with a transmitter power of 50Watts with a BER of 10^-7 using BPSK.If a channel coder of coding gain 3 dB is incorporated into the system,calculate the transmitter power required to maintain the same BER.(assume the modulation scheme remains the same).State the disadvantage of including the channel coder,if there is any.(4) (Apr/May -08) 9. (i) Draw the block diagram of a convolutional encoder of constraint length 3 And code rate .(3) (ii) Draw the state diagram for the encoder you have given in.(5) (iii) Discuss the decoder algorithm in detail for the encoder given by you.(8) (iv) Define Hamming distance between linear block codes.Give the error correction and error detection capability in terms of Hamming distance. (Apr/May -08) (v) Give the special features of Trellis codes. (Apr/May -08) 10.(i)Write the generator matrix and parity check matrix of a (7,4) Hamming code.(6)

(ii)Describe a decoding procedure for linear block code.(6) (iii)Explain the features of RS code (4) (Apr/May-04) 11.(i)Draw the diagram of a rate -1/2 convolutional encoder with constraint length 12.What is the generator polynomial of the encoder? Find the encoded sequence you have drawn ,corresponding to the message sequence(10011).(12) (ii)obtain the Trellis diagram of the encoder that you have drawn.(4). (Apr/May-04) UNIT- 5 SPREAD SPECTRUM MODULATION Part A 1 What are all the types of SSM 2 What is the use of PN sequence 3 List out the prosperities of PN sequence 4 What is the processing gain of SSM. 5 Define jamming margin 6 Define FHSSM 7 Define SFHSS. 8 Define FFHSM. 9 Draw the PN sequence generator for [6,4,2,1] 10 What you mean by runs in PN sequence 11 State the Gold Theorem 12. When is the PN sequence called as maximal length sequence? 13. What is meant by processing gain of DS spread spectrum system? (Apr/May-04) 14. Write down the properties of PN sequences. (Nov/Dec05) 15How do you define processing gain for aDS-CDMA system? (Nov/Dec05) 16.fine frequency hopping? April/may-06) 17 What are the applications of Spread spectrum modulation? April/may-06 18 What do you mean by Jamming? ( May/June -07) 19List any two applications of spread spectrum modulation. ( May/June -07) Part B 1. Generate the PN sequence for [5, 4, 3, 1] and prove the all properties of the same. (16) 2. List out and prove the Properties of the PN sequence. (16) 3. Explain the concept of DS/BPSK. (16) 4. List out the uses of the FH. Explain the FH techniques with the frequency spectrum. (16) 5. Write shorts notes on 1. Probability Error. (4) 2. Jamming Margin (4) 3. (S/N) of the DS System. (8) 6.(i). Discuss the configuration of a Direct Sequence spread spectrum system with BPSK in detail.(13) (ii) In a direct sequence spread spectrum system with BPSK,the information bit Duration is 4.095 ms and the PN chip duration is 1us.Calculate the processing Gain of the system and the feedback shift length used for the PN sequence. (3) (Apr/May -08) 7. With suitable block diagrams ,discuss the structure of the transmitter and

Receiver of frequency hopping spread spectrum systems.(10). (ii)What is the difference between slow FH and fast FH systems?(2) Assume that a slow FH system employs M-FSK data modulation with N hop bands and operates with a binary input data rate of R bits/sec.What is the minimum bandwidth requirement of the system?(4) (Apr/May -08) 8 give the properties of maximal length sequence(PN sequence). (Apr/May -08) 9List any two applications of spread spectrum. (Apr/May -08) 10State and explain the properties of maximal length sequences.(6) (ii)Draw the block diagram of DS- spread spectrum system transmitter and receiver and explain the function performed by each block in brief.(10) (Apr/May-04) 11Explain the principle of operation of frequency hopped M-ary FSK spread spectrum system(10) (ii)Discuss the ways in which fast hopping scheme and slow frequency hopping (spread spectrum) schemes could be used to mitigate multipath effect.(6) (Apr/May-04)