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ABSTRACT

X-Y BED USING ARDUINO

Group no: 16

Members 1. Vinu V nair 2. Suhail yousuf 3. Arun L R 4. Bibith S mani

Aim:
To design an x-y bed controlled by an Arduino .

Arduino
Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform, designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. The hardware consists of a simple open hardware design for the Arduino board with an Atmel AVR processor and on-board I/O support. The software consists of a standard programming language and the boot loader that runs on the board. Arduino hardware is programmed using a Wiring-based language (syntax + libraries), similar to C++ with some simplifications and modifications, and a Processing-based IDE.
Hardware

An official Arduino Duemilanove (rev 2009b).

An Arduino board consists of an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller with complementary components to facilitate programming and incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is the standard way that connectors are exposed, allowing the CPU board to be connected to a variety of interchangeable addon modules (known as shields). Official Arduinos have used the mega AVR series of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, and ATmega1280. A handful of other processors have been used by Arduino clones. Most boards include a 5 volt linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants), although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. An Arduino's microcontroller is also preprogrammed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external chip programmer. Components required:

1. An Arduino board (The Arduino Duemilanove ("2009"), using the ATmega168 (ATmega328 for newer version) and powered via USB/DC power, switching automatically). 2. Two stepper motors (one for each axis) 3. Two h bridges 4. X-Y bed mechanical assembly

1. Arduino duemilanove

Overview

The Arduino Duemilanove ("2009") is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega168 or ATmega328. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. "Duemilanove" means 2009 in Italian and is named after the year of its release. The Duemilanove is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards;
Summary Microcontroller

ATmega168

Operating Voltage 5V Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V Input Voltage (limits) Digital I/O Pins Analog Input Pins DC Current per I/O Pin DC Current for 3.3V Pin Flash Memory SRAM EEPROM Clock Speed 6-20V 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) 6 40 mA 50 mA 16 KB (ATmega168) or 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 2 KB used by boot loader 1 KB (ATmega168) or 2 KB (ATmega328) 512 bytes (ATmega168) or 1 KB (ATmega328) 16 MHz

2. Stepper motor
Two bi-polar two phase stepper motors are used.One for producing linier motion along x axis another one for y axis

3. H bridge L293d h bridge chips are used for driving the stepper motors. The L293D contains two H-bridges for driving small DC motor

Block diagram: interfacing stepper motor with l293d

5. X-Y bed mechanichal assembly

Stepper motor 1

Steeper 2

Block diagram

H bridge

Working
The x-y coordinates are sent to the Arduino board using software that can communicate over the serial port.(eg processing). Arduino reads this serial data and drives the stepper motors accordingly.