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Expected Mid Term Optimal Operational Planning of the Venezuelan Interconnected Power System
A. Freitez, E. Alcal, Student Member, IEEE, J. Toledo and J. D. Jimnez

Abstract- The Venezuelan power system has enough instaled generation and transmission recourses to supply the power demand all around the country. The power system is interconnected by means of a high voltage transmission network known as the RTT. The electric energy is highly dependent of hydro generation located in Caronis river. The optimal operational planning that guaranties demand supply, at least cost and preserve the important hydro resource which depends of weather conditions, are important issues to study, considering electricity demand has experience a high rate growth in the last years. This paper presents the simulation for the optimal dispatch of Venezuelan Interconnected power system generation for period 2006-2010. Index Terms--Average demand marginal cost, Energy planning, expected least cost operation, optimal generation dispatch, planned generation RTT, SDDP, Venezuelan power system.

example the Mid and Long Term planning are related to the energy balance an reservoir manage of the system taking into account system demand growth and systems changes in future time. Nowadays a Varity of mathematical models in the forms of software applications are available to assist the planner in the analysis of the system operation. This paper presents the expected energy planning of the Venezuelan Interconnected power for the period 2006-2010. The simulation of the system takes into account the planned expansion of the generation and transmission systems expected to occur in the study period. The operational planning of the Venezuelan system was made with SDDP as the simulation model. Results like energy balance, marginal cost of the energy, expected energy not served, and so on are used to show the expected behavior of the system under hydrological uncertainties and demand growth.

III. THE VENEZUELAN POWER SYSTEM I. NOMENCLATURE RTT: transmission main network SDDP: stochastic dynamic dual programming The Venezuelan power system is composed by the generation and transmission recourses needed to supply the power demand all around the country. The power system is interconnected by means of a high voltage transmission network knew as the RTT. Table I shows the generation installed capacity of the system and the composition of the main generation resources. As showed in Table I the power generation is composed basically by hydro generation located in Guayana in the Caroni river. This makes the demand supply highly dependent of the hydrological behavior of the river and the optimal operation of the power plants. The river is repressed by the dam in the power station Guri. This dam regulates the water flow to the other power stations downstream. Fig. 1 shows the location of each power station in the Caroni River. Fig. 2 shows the main power plants in Venezuela. The energy produced in EDELCAs power plants is transmitted to the eastern, central and western regions of the country by means of a high voltage transmission grid composed basically by 765kV lines that also provides the interconnections links between the main subsystems. This grid is the backbone of the transmissions system. Fig.3 shows over the country map the main corridors.

II. INTRODUCTION

HE Venezuelan power system (VPS) is composed by hydro generation (70% of total) and thermal generation (30% of total). The system is strongly dependent of hydrological uncertainties moreover, that the system demand has been growing at unexpected rates last two years. These conditions make energy planning of the system a crucial task in order to anticipate problems in demand supply for next years. The energy planning of an electrical generation power system is related basically with defining the generation production schedule in order to meet the system electrical demand following least cost criteria. Least cost operating is achieved thanks to a optimization criteria that assign the generation according to its direct variable cost or opportunity cost in case of hydro plants. Operational planning has different implications according to the planning period, for

A. Freitez, J. Toledo and J.D. Jimenez are with CVG EDELCA, Caracasjtoledo@edelca.com.ve; Venezuela (e-mail: afreitez@edelca.com.ve; jujimenez@edelca.com.ve). E. Alcala (student) with Universidad Simon Bolvar, Caracas-Venezuela (e-mail: ealcala@ieee.org).

2 TABLE I INSTALLED GENERATION CAPACITY OF VENEZUELAN POWER SYSTEM


El Isiro Isla de Margarita Yaracuy Manzano Barquisimeto Cabudare Pta. Centro Carabobo Tinaquillo Tacoa Convent Mcaro Boyaca o C. de Azcar La Junquito Pedrera Papeln Valencia Tiara Barbacoa Aragua OMZ La Jos San Santa Cdad. ArenosaDiego| e Teresa Losada San Juan de los La Morro Horqueta s Cuestecitas Cuatricentenario PeonasPta. Palma El Tablazo Trinidad Cabimas Rincn Morochas

TRANSMISION
VENEZUELAN RTT VENEZUELAN RTT
L. Cceres Chacopat a Casanay

MAR CARIBE

Buena Vista El Viga II Mrida Pta. Uribante Pez San Agatn San Mateo El Corozo

Acarigua II

San Gernimo

El Furrial El Tigre Palital

C O L O M B I A

La Canoa

Guayana A Cdad. Bolvar

Macagua II Guayana B Caruachi

Malena

Guayana Guri El Callao Las Claritas

ZONA EN RECLAMACIO N

Santa Elena

BRASIL 765 kV 2.083 Kms 400 kV 4.188 Kms


Febrero 2002
Boa Vista

230 kV 5.703 Kms

Fig. 3. Main Transmission System

Elevation msnm
mt s EL E V A CI O

300 250 200 150 100 50 0

GURI II EL. 270


EL. 215

TOCOMA EL. 128

CARUACHI EL. 91

MACAGUA I-II Y III EL. 54,5

RIO ORINOCO

NISea LevelMAR VEL DEL

110

100

90

80

70

Distance in Kms

DISTANCIA Kmts.

60

50

40

30

20

10

GURI

CARUACHI TOCOMA MACAGUA

Fig. 1. Location of EDELCAs Power Plants in Caroni River

The Interconnected power system is composed basically for grids and generation plants owned by four main utilities (EDELCA, EDC, ENELVEN and CADAFE) that signed in 1988 the interconnection contract to establish the rules to operate the interconnection. For Thermal generation the main fossil fuel burned is natural gas for gas turbines and steam turbines. Natural gas is not available all over the country for electricity generation so in this case gas turbines burns diesel and steam plants burns Fuel oil. These fuels are also used as backup fuel in power plants where gas is available. One import issue about fossil fuel is that prices are highly subsided by government so in most cases prices makes inefficient plants highly competitive in terms of variable cost. This distorts the signals for efficiencies. The demand have experience a high rate growth last three years with a average rate of 7% and a 8% growth expected for year 2006. Table II shows the energy balance of the Venezuelan power system for year 2005.

T
T
Planta Tachira 235 MW
Planta Centro 2000 MW

CRZ y OAM 2.316 MW

Luisa Caceres 250 MW

TABLE II ENERGY BALANCE FOR YEAR 2005

R.Laguna, Urdaneta Termzulia 1359 MW

T H H
S.Agaton PPaez 540 MW

P.Larga 80 MW

H
Plant Type

Guri Macagua Caruachi 12.565 MW

Utility
CADAFE EDC ENELBAR ENELVEN EDELCA

Hydro

Therm

Fig. 2. Location of main Power plants

From Table II hydro represents 74% of total generation. For thermal units 50% of total energy produce was based on natural gas at an average efficiency of 337 m3/MWh (11,900 BTU/kWh). We can resume the basic features of the Venezuelan power system as:

Highly dependent of hydro generation located in the Caroni River. It makes the power supply highly dependent of weather and hydrological behavior; A mean transmission network (RTT) that transmit the generation produced by plants in Caroni River to all over the country; Natural gas as main fossil fuel for power generation in thermal plants, but not available in all plants so diesel and bunker must be used in those plants; Fossil fuel prices with high government subside. Important bottle necks in regional transmission systems especially in the eastern and western part of the country. High rate of demand growth in last two years.

TABLE IV PLANNED GENERATION

TABLE V AVERAGE FUEL PRICES IN US$/MMBTU

IV. OPTIMAL DISPATCH SIMULATION OF THE VENEZUELAN


POWER SYSTEM

The optimal dispatch simulation of the Venezuelan power system for years 2006 to 2010 was carried out by means of a software for least cost optimization of hydrothermal system knew as SDDP of which EDELCA owns an user license. The main objective of the study was to calculate the expected generation dispatch in order to: Supply demand at least cost; Determinate the expected fuel consumption in thermal plants; Determinate the expected operation of hydro plants in the Caroni River; Determinate the expected energy not served; Determinate the economical signals in the system as demand marginal cost; The SDDP database was fed with the data available by December 2005 including the expected new generation and transmission facilities to enter in service during the study period. The demand scenario simulated was one of the highest growth. Tables III to V show some of the basic data took into account for the simulation.
TABLE III DEMAND GROWTH SCENARIO

The operation of the power system was simulated for fifty five (55) different hydrological series, all of them were took from the data available form the river history. SDDP simulates and calculates an optimal dispatch for each hydrological series but for simplicity the results showed in this document are the average values from the 55 series simulated. The system dispatch was calculated with and without the transmission grid constraints. This was in order to estimate how much impacts transmission constraints the operating cost of the system and the energy not served. The simulation without transmissions constrains was carried out for two different fuel scenarios, one with the prices approved by Venezuelan Government and the other for average international prices just to see how much the operating cost of the system and merit dispatch of units are affected for fuel prices. The results are presented and compared in Fig. 4 to 11.

86000.00

84000.00

82000.00
A v e r a g e H y d r o g e n e r a tio n (G W h )

80000.00

78000.00

76000.00

74000.00

72000.00

70000.00

68000.00 2006 2007 2008 Year 2009 2010

Without grid constrains

With grid constrains

Fig. 4. Yearly average hydro generation

55000.00

1400.00

A v e r a g e d ie s e l c o n s u m p tio n (m illio n s o f L tr)

50000.00

1200.00

45000.00
Average Hydro generation (GWh)

1000.00

40000.00

35000.00

800.00

30000.00

600.00

25000.00

400.00

20000.00

200.00
15000.00

10000.00 2006 2007 2008


Year

0.00
2009 2010

2006

2007

2008 Year

2009

2010

Without grid constrains

With grid constrains

Without grid constrains

With grid constrains

Fig. 5. Yearly average thermal generation

Fig. 7. Yearly average diesel consumption

16000.00

2500.00

14000.00
N a tu r a l g a s c o n s u m p tio n ( m illio n s o f m 3 )

Average Fuel Oil consumption (millions of Ltr)

2000.00

12000.00

10000.00

1500.00

8000.00

6000.00

1000.00

4000.00
500.00

2000.00

0.00 2006 2007 2008 Year


Without grid constrains
With grid constrains

0.00

2009

2010

2006

2007

2008
Year

2009

2010

Without grid constrains

With grid constrains

Fig. 6. Yearly average natural gas consumption

Fig. 8. Yearly average fuel oil consumption

1800.00

120.00

Average thermal production cost (Millions of US$)

1600.00

100.00
1400.00

1200.00

Average demand margial cost ($/MWh)


2006 2007 2008 2009
Without grid constrains

80.00

1000.00

60.00

800.00

600.00

40.00

400.00

20.00
200.00

0.00 2010
With grid constrains

0.00 2006 2007 2008


Year

2009

2010

Without grid constrains and national fuel prices

Without grid constrains

With grid constrains

Fig. 9. Yearly average thermal operating cost

Fig. 11. Yearly average demand marginal cost

1800.00

1600.00

Average Energy Not Served (GWh)

1400.00

1200.00

1000.00

800.00

600.00

400.00

200.00

0.00 2006 2007 2008


Without grid constrains

2009
With grid constrains

2010

Fig. 10. Yearly average energy not served

From the results the following analysis arises: Between years 2006 and 2008 a reduction in hydro generation is expected with the entrance of almost 2000 MW of new efficient thermal generation; Some deficit is expected by year 2008 due to insufficient generation. The average deficit expected represents 0,03% of the year demand. The maximum deficit expected for this year represents 2.11% of the year demand with a probability of 0.02; Constrains in transmission network are responsible for any deficit due to insufficient transmission capacity. The amount of deficit due to transmission represents 0.6% of total demand; Transmission constrains force to dispatch inefficient units where hydro generation cant reach. Most of the units dispatched are those operated with diesel; The average demand marginal cost of the system reflects the effect of transmission constrains. This cost is higher when transmissions constrains are taken into account; The high subside that government maintains over fossil fuels distorts the signal for efficient. The thermal operation cost at national prices represent 50% of the cost with international prices;

V. CONCLUSIONS The expected optimal dispatch of the Venezuelan Interconnected Power system by means of the optimization tool (SDDP) reflects that the entrance in operation of 2000 MW or more of efficient thermal generation will help to attend the demand growth, permitting a better balance between hydro and thermal generation in order to preserved the hydro resources and reduce the risk and expected quantity of deficit. Transmissions constrains that existed n the system force to dispatch inefficient units in order to prevent deficit but deficit is and will be present in the system especially due to subsystems transmission constrains. The subside of fossil fuels makes in terms of variable cost competitive some units that are inefficient, this is a wrong signal to improve efficiency. We must keep in mind that the benefits of healthy signals are less fuel consumption in electrical plants and more opportunities to use or sell these fuels in other markets. From the simulations the gas consumption for case where national prices fossil fuels were used was 1040 millions m3 of natural gas more than the case with international prices, and additional 27 millions Lt of Diesel are expected to be burned. VI. REFERENCES .Technical Reports:
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] OPSIS, Boletin mensual Diciembre 200, www.opsis.org.ve; OPSIS, Informe anual 2004, www.opsis.org.ve; MEP, Plan de desarrollo del Servicio Elctrico Nacional (PDSEN) 20052024; Rojas Ana M. y Rodriguez, F. Plan de expansin de generacin periodo 2005-2020 VI Jornadas profesionales CVG EDELCA, mayo 2005; Dias, J y Palacios, C. Plan de ampliaciones de transmisor CVG EDELCA 2004-2009 VI Jornadas profesionales CVG EDELCA, mayo 2005;

optimal resource planning and management.

Juan Toledo (SM-89,M-01) was born in CaracasVenezuela, on March18, 1961. He graduated from Universidad Simon Bolivar, and MsC from Universidad Central de Venezuela. All his employment experience in CVG EDELCA in Department of Electrical Engineering in Carucahi power Plant. His fields of interest are power plants design and operation.

Elayne Alcala was born in Caracas-Venezuela, on August 7, 1980. She is studying electrical engineering at the USB. Her special field of interest is power markets operation and regulation and sustentable energy.

Manuals:
[6] [7] [8] PSR, Manual de Usuario del modelo SDDP V 8.03, www.psr-inc.com Gaceta Oficial de la Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela Ao CXXXIII, mes V 13 de febrero 2006, No. 38.378 Gaceta Oficial de la Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela Ao CXXXIII, mes V 23 de febrero 2000 No. 38.386

VII. BIOGRAPHIES
Alberto Freitez was born in Ciudad Venezuela, on December 25, 1965. He from Universidad Central de Venezuela . All his employment experience EDELCA since 1995. His special field of business and power transactions. Guayanagraduated in CVG interest is

Juan D. Jimenez was born in Caracas-Venezuela, on June 25, 1967. He graduated from Universidad Metropolitana, and MSc form Universidad Central de Venezuela. His employment experience included debarr C.A. a consulting firm, Universidad Central de Venezuela as professor and CVG EDELCA. His special fields of interest are power system generation and transmission planning and simulation models for