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QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

IN SRI VINAYAKA BAJAJ Submitted by R. PRASHANT KUMAR (Ht.No: 86 -06-112) Under the guidance of Mr. A. R. VIJAYA CHANDRAN

Project submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMMENT

TKR institute of management & science


(AFFILIATED TO OSMANIA UNIVERSITY)
MEERPET, R.R.DIST, HYD. (2006-08)

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS Chapter-1

Pg.no

Introduction

Chapter-2

Company Profile

Chapter-3

Brief study on Quality Of Work life QWL-INDIA-ABROAD Techniques used to improve QWL

17 19 26

Chapter-4 Methodology Limitations Annexure Analysis & interpretation

35 36 37 39 54 55 56 57

Chapter-5 Findings Suggestions Conclusion Bibliography


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INTRODUCTION
The term quality of work life refers to the favorableness or unfavourableness of a job environment for the people. J.Richard and J.Loy define Quality of Work Life as The degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organization. Quality of work is not only important for growth and, employment of individuals but also for sustainable and competitive economy. The definition of Quality of work life involves three major parts: occupational health care, suitable working time and appropriate salary. The sate work environment provides the basis for the person to enjoy working. The work should not pose a health hazard for the person. The employer and employee, aware of their risks and rights, could achieve a lot in their mutually beneficial dialogue. Quality of work life improvements are defined as any activity which takes place at every level of an organization, which seeks greater organizational effectiveness. The stockholders in the organization management, unions and employees learn how to work together to determine for themselves what actions, changes and goals of an improved quality of life at work for all members of the organization and greater effectiveness for both the company and the unions. The term Quality of work life appeared in research journals only in 1970s. it is not only monetary aspects that a modern employee concerns himself with. This is also concerned with the conditions of employment, interpersonal conflicts, job pressure, lack of freedom and absence of challenging work etc. as the style of management has changed from paternalistic to democratic. So as the expectations of employees with an impending need to achieve more and more productivity efficiently, employees look forward to the conductive and congenial working conditions and favorable terms of employment. As such productivity and efficiency of an organization largely depends upon the quality of work life provided by the organization.

What ever may be the interpretation, QWL is most debated topic both by employers and employees. One of the reasons for its growing importance could be realization on the part of employees about their mercy of management for their existence. Most of the lower level workers also have at least primary some union or the other for his own protection and well being. Unions putting all their efforts to educate contribute. Though still monetary benefits occupy the first place in the list of elements of QW, other elements like physical working conditions, job restructuring and redesign, career development, promotional opportunities etc., are gaining importance rapidly. As such the workers expect management to improve QWL by providing all these facilities. The management on the other hand, ceased to adopt paternalistic approach as it used earlier they do not take care of the employee as a parent takes care of his child. There is no more understanding between employer and employee, except constant struggle for their own end. Employer always sees the employees as a factor of production just like other factors. He always tries to extract as much production as possible from this factor where as the employees always expect more facilities add comforts from employer in return to what they contribute. This situation has resulted in constant struggle between employees and employers. Apart from the above problems, there are other serious problems cropping up, like job dissatisfaction due to meaningless repetitive or irrelevant jobs or authoritarian behavior of the boss. As a result counter productive behavior like absenteeism, idling while on work and lack of concentration takes place. Because of poor design of socio-technical system, employees also experience alienation. Alienation is a feeling of powerlessness, lack of meaning, loneliness, and boredom, lack of involvement and lack of attachment to job. This job content and job pressures may in turn affect employees health giving way to general unhappiness. Hence it is viewed that QWL was mainly in 3 phases- scientific management movement, human relations movement and finally social-technical movement.

Introduction of the company

The Bajaj group is amongst the top 10 business houses in the India its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries. Spanning Automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers) and as well as n home appliances, lighting, iron and steel, and insurance, travel and finances and home needs. The groups flagship company. Bajaj auto, is ranked as the worlds fourth larges two and three-wheeler manufacturer and the bajaj brand is well-known in over a dozen countries like Europe, Latin, America, and the us and Asia. Founded in 1926, at the height of Indias movement for independence from the British, the group has in illustrious history. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which characteristics of the group today, are often traced back to its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Jamnalal bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confident and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In fact, Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave jamnalal bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture His son, kamalnayan bajaj, then 27, took over the reins of the business in 1942. He too was close to gandhiji and it was only after independence in 1947, that he was able to give his full attention to the business. Kamalnayan bajaj not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities. The present chairman and managing director of the group, Rahul bajaj, took charge of the business in 1965. under his leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has gone up from Rs.72 million to Rs.46.16 billion (US$ 936 million), its product portfolio has expanded from one to and the brand has found a Global market.

He is one of Indias most distinguished business leaders and internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit.

Board of directors
Rahul Bajaj Madhur Bajaj Rajiv Bajaj Sanjiv Bajaj Kantikumar R.Podar Shekhar Bajaj D.J.Balaji Rao D.S.Mehta J.N.Godrej S.H.Khan Mrs. Suman Kirloskar Naresh Chandra Nanoo Pamnani Tarun Das Manish Kejriwal chairman Vice chairman & while-time Director Managing Director Executive Director Director Director Director Whole-Time Director Director Director Director Director Director Director Director

Committees of the board Audit committee


S.H.Khan J.N.Godrej Nanoo pamnani D.J.Balaji Rao Naresh Chandra

Shareholders & Investors Grievance Committee


D.J.Balaji Rao J.N.Godrej Naresh Chandra

Remuneration committee
D.J.Balaji Rao S.H.Khan Naresh Chandra

Registered under the Indian companies act, VII of 1913


REGISTERED OFFICE: Akurdi, pune 411035 Bajaj nagar, Waluj Aurangabad 431 136 Chakan Industrial Area, Chakan, Pune 411 501

Personnel details of the Board of Directors & staff


Rahul Bajaj Chairman Rahul Bajaj is an Honors Graduate in Economics and Law and a Business Graduate from the Harvard Business School. He was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Bajaj Auto in 1968 and took over Madhur Bajaj Vice Chairman After graduating in commerce, Mr. Bajaj did his MBA from Lausanne, Switzerland. Joined as DGM in March 1983, took over as General Manager Aurangabad Division in June 1986, as its Chief Executive in October 1988, he became president of Bajaj Auto in September 1994, Executive Director in May 2000 and is Vice Chairman since July 2001. Later as head of the Bajaj Group of companies. Rajiv Bajaj Managing Director Rajiv Bajaj, who took charge as Managing Director on 1st April 2005, is a Mechanical Engineer from Pune University. He later did his Masters in manufacturing systems engineering from the University of Warwick. Joined as Officer on special duty in

1990, took over as General Manager (products) in February 1993, as vice president (products) in June 1995, President in May 2000. President & Whole Time Director in march 2002, joint managing director in march 2003. Sanjiv Bajaj Executive Director Mr. Sanjiv Bajaj, who took charge as the Executive Director in April 2004, is a mechanical engineer from Pune University. He obtained a masters degree in manufacturing systems from the University of Warwick and an MBA degree from Harvad business school. Mr.Sanjiv Bajaj joined as an officer on special Duty in 1994, took over as the General Manager (CF) in 1997 and as vice president (Finance) in April 2001.

Ranjit Gupta Vice president (Insurance) Mr.Ranjit Gupta started in Bajaj as the General Manager (co-ordination) in 1988, and moved on to become the vice president (Materials) in 1995, then Vice President (HRD) in 2000 and is now vice president (Insurance). Mr. Gupta did his Masters Degree in Mechanical & Electrical Engineers. He was honored with a fellowship from the Institute of Mechanical Engineers (London).

C P Tripathi Vice president (operations) Mr. C.P. Tripathi started in Bajaj as the Vice President (Waluj plant) in January 1996 and is now the vice president (operations). A science Graduate from Agra University, Mr. Tripathi also holds a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian institute of technology, kharagpur.

N H Hingorani Vice president (Materials) Mr. N.H Hingorani joined Bajaj in 1997 as the general manager (materials) and took over as the vice president (materials) in 1998. Mr. Hingorani holds Engineering College, Jaipur.

Kevin P DSa Vice president (Finance) Mr. Kevin DSa began his career with Bajaj in September 1978 and is presently the vice president (finance). After acquiring a Bachelors degree in commerce, he completed his CA in 1978 and ICWA in 19881.

Pradeep Shrivastava Vice President (Engineering) Mr. Pradeep Shrivastava joined Bajaj in April 1986 and is currently the vice President (Engineering). After receiving a degree in Mechanical Engineering, Mr.Shrivastava obtained a graduate diploma in production and Finance in 1986

S Sridhar Vice President (Marketing & Sales) Mr. Sridhar joined Bajaj in March 2001 and is now the vice president (Marketing & sales) for two wheelers. He holds an Engineering Graduate degree in Agriculture.

V Sankara Raghavan Vice Presiden (Corporate Finance) Mr. Raghavan joined Bajaj in March 1984 and is currently the Vice President (corporate Finance). A science graduate, Mr . Raghavan comleted his CA in 197

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S Ravi kumar Vice President (Business Development) Mr. Ravikumar joined Bajaj in June 1984 as an Accounts officer and is now the Vice President (Business Development). He is an active member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

K Srinivas Vice President (Human Resources) Mr . Srinivas joined Bajaj in January 2000 as the DGM (HRD) and is now the Vice President (HRD). He holds a Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering from VJTI, Mumbai.

Abraham Joseph General Manager (Research & Development) Mr.Joseph started his tenure in Bajaj in July 1989 as a graduate trainee engineer and is currently the General Manager (Research and Development). He is a Mechanical Engineer from the National Institute

J.Sridhar Company Secretary Mr.J.Sridhar is the company Secretary since July 2001. A graduate in Commerce and Law. Mr.Sridhar also did his FCA, FCS and MMS. Prior to joining Bajaj, he was the controller of Finance and company Secretary, Maharashta Scooters Ltd., a Bajaj Auto joint venture of Technology, Bhopal.

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BAJAJ AUTO MILESTONES 2007


April Bajaj Auto Commissions New Plant at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand February 200 cc Pulsar DTS-I launched January Bajaj Platina launched

2006
April Bajaj Platina launched

2005
December Bajaj Discover launched June Bajaj Avenger DTS-I launched February Bajaj Wave DTS-I launched

2004
October Bajaj Discover DTS-I launcher August New Bajaj Chetak 4 stroke with Wonder gear launcher May Bajaj CT100 launched 12

January Bajaj unveils new brand identity, dons new symbol, logo and brand line

2003
October Pulsar DTS-I is launched 107,115 Motorcycles sold in a month. July Bajaj wind 125, the world Bike, is launched in India. February Bajaj Auto launched its Caliber 115 Hoodibabaa in the executive motorcycle segment.

2001
November Bajaj auto launches its latest offering in the premium bike segment pulsar. January The eliminator is launched.

2000
The bajaj saffire is introduced.

1999
Caliber motorcycle notches up 100,000 sales in recorded time of 12 months. Production commences at chakan plant.

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1998
June 7th Kawasaki bajaj caliber rolls out of waluj. July 25th Legend, indias first four- stroke scooter rolls out of Akurdi. October Spirit launched.

1997
The Kawasaki bajaj boxer and the re diesel autorichshaw are introduced.

1995
November 25th Bajaj auto is 59 Agreements signed with Kubota of japan for the development of diesel engines for three- wheelers and with Tokyo R& D for unguarded scooter and moped development. The bajaj super excel is introduced while bajaj celebrate its ten millionth vehicle. One million vehicles were produced and sold in this financial year.

1994
The bajaj classic is introduced.

1991
The Kawasaki bajaj 4S champion in introduced.

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1990
The bajaj sunny is introduced

1986
The bajaj m-80 and the Kawasaki bajaj kb100 motorcycles are introduced. 500,000 vehicles produced and sold in a single financial year.

1985
November 5th The waluj plant inaugurated by the erstwhile president of India, shri giani zail singh. Production commences at waluj, auranga bad in a record time of 16 months.

1984
January 19 Foundation stone laid for the new plant a t waluj, Aurangabad.

1981
The bajaj m-50 is introduced.

1977
The rear engine autorichshaw is introduced. Bajaj auto achieves production and sales of 10,000 vehicles in a single financial year.

1976
The bajaj super is introduced.

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1975
The bajaj chetak is introduced.

1971
the three-wheeler goods carrier is introduced.

1970
bajaj auto rolls out its 100,000th vehicle.

1960
bajaj auto becomes a public limited company. Bhoomi poojan of Akurdi plant.

1959
Bajaj auto obtains license from the government of India to manufacture two and three-wheelers.

1948
Sales in India commence by importing two and three-wheelers.

1945
November 29th Bajaj auto comes into existence as M/S Bachraj Trading corporation private limited.

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BAJAJ DEALER PROFILE SRI VINAYAKA AUTOMOBILES LTD INTRODUCTION:


Sri Vinayaka Automobiles Ltd is established in June 1996, the firm was Awarded the exclusive motorcycles dealership of Bajaj Auto Ltd, and their showroom at Kachiguda started its operations on July 5, 1996. In appreciation of its performance and recognition of their effects, Sri Vinayaka Automobiles Ltd was awarded Full range Dealership by Bajaj Auto Ltd and their Dilshuknagar showroom was inaugurated on 6 December 1997, under the title Sri Vinayaka Automobilies. To be able to cater to the needs of a wide range of customers opened another state of the art showroom with the facilities at Bahadurpur, opp: Nehru Zoological Park was opened.

GROWTH AND PERFORMANCE:


Right from the day one Sri Vinayaka Automobiles Ltd has been A.Ps and South Indias no.1 in the sale of bajaj motorcycles. From an average of about 100 motorcycles sales per month during 1996-97, Sri Vinayaka Automobiles have grown to an average of over 1500 motorcycles per month during 2005-06. Under the dynamic leadership of Sri K.V.Babul Reddy, Sri Siddi Vinayaka Automobiles Ltd have many Firsts to its credit. Sri Vinayaka Automobilies Ltd showroom at Kachiguda is no.1 Bajaj Motorcycles sales, not only in the twin cities and the state of Andhra Pradesh but also in the whole of south India, right from the date of its starting operations in July 1996. Sri Vinayaka Automobilies showroom at Kachiguda has a frontage of over 120 ft, which is the largest frontage of any automobiles showroom in India.

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Sri Vinayaka Automobilies showroom at Dilshuknagar is the first standardized showroom of Bajaj in Andhra Pradesh, after fulfilling stringent norms prescribe by Bajaj Auto Ltd.

The work shops at Kachiguda, Dilshuknagar and Bahadurpur showroom rendering excellent after sales service to Bajaj 2 Wheeler Owners.

Sri Vinayaka Automobiles are providing many facilities to their customers.


1. Break down service 2. Facilities for choosing a 2 wheeler for any family member under one roof. 3. Easy Finance facilities to customers 4. Exchange of old 2 wheeler 5. Quick repair cell where minor repairs can be attended to immediately. .

Sri Vinayaka Automobilies Ltd Acheivements


1. All Indias no.1 is sales of Bajaj Motorcycles for the years 2004-06 & 200506 2. No.1 Bajaj Auto service stations in A.P. 3. Biggest Bajaj showroom in A.P. 4. First Standardized Bajaj showroom in A.P. 5. First Bajaj IDEAL + WORK SHOPS in A.P. 6. Only showroom where full range of Bajaj vehicles are available under one roof.

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QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


The term quality of work life refers to the favorableness or unfavourableness of a job environment for the people. J.Richard and J.Loy define Quality of Work Life as The degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organization. Quality of work is not only important for growth and, employment of individuals but also for sustainable and competitive economy. The definition of Quality of work life involves three major parts: occupational health care, suitable working time and appropriate salary. The sate work environment provides the basis for the person to enjoy working. The work should not pose a health hazard for the person. The employer and employee, aware of their risks and rights, could achieve a lot in their mutually beneficial dialogue. Quality of work life improvements are defined as any activity which takes place at every level of an organization, which seeks greater organizational effectiveness. The stockholders in the organization management, unions and employees learn how to work together to determine for themselves what actions, changes and goals of an improved quality of life at work for all members of the organization and greater effectiveness for both the company and the unions. The term Quality of work life appeared in research journals only in 1970s. it is not only monetary aspects that a modern employee concerns himself with. This is also concerned with the conditions of employment, interpersonal conflicts, job pressure, lack of freedom and absence of challenging work etc. as the style of management has changed from paternalistic to democratic. So as the expectations of employees with an impending need to achieve more and more productivity efficiently, employees look forward to the conductive and congenial working conditions and favorable terms of employment. As such productivity and efficiency of an organization largely depends upon the quality of work life provided by the organization.

19

What ever may be the interpretation, QWL is most debated topic both by employers and employees. One of the reasons for its growing importance could be realization on the part of employees about their mercy of management for their existence. Most of the lower level workers also have at least primary some union or the other for his own protection and well being. Unions putting all their efforts to educate contribute. Though still monetary benefits occupy the first place in the list of elements of QW, other elements like physical working conditions, job restructuring and redesign, career development, promotional opportunities etc., are gaining importance rapidly. As such the workers expect management to improve QWL by providing all these facilities. The management on the other hand, ceased to adopt paternalistic approach as it used earlier they do not take care of the employee as a parent takes care of his child. There is no more understanding between employer and employee, except constant struggle for their own end. Employer always sees the employees as a factor of production just like other factors. He always tries to extract as much production as possible from this factor where as the employees always expect more facilities add comforts from employer in return to what they contribute. This situation has resulted in constant struggle between employees and employers. Apart from the above problems, there are other serious problems cropping up, like job dissatisfaction due to meaningless repetitive or irrelevant jobs or authoritarian behavior of the boss. As a result counter productive behavior like absenteeism, idling while on work and lack of concentration takes place. Because of poor design of socio-technical system, employees also experience alienation. Alienation is a feeling of powerlessness, lack of meaning, loneliness, and boredom, lack of involvement and lack of attachment to job. This job content and job pressures may in turn affect employees health giving way to general unhappiness. Hence it is viewed that QWL was mainly in 3 phases- scientific management movement, human relations movement and finally social-technical movement.

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QWL-INDIA-ABROAD
Experiments are being conducted industrially advanced countries to find out cause of general frustration among employees and resulting misunderstandings between management and employees and the ultimate industrial sickness and unrest. The famous Tavistock studies from which socio-technical system emerged provided answers to most of these questions. In brief, this system advocated industrial democracy, participative management, minimum involvement of management in the tasks of employees and improved interpersonal relations to overcome the labor problems. Managements, especially in industrially developed countries were quick overcome the labor problems. Managements especially in industrially developed countries were quick to react to these suggestions. As such they had taken up research and experimental studies in their organizations. With good results showing up in no time, these organizations started practicing the same. The employees also being more educated and more informed through unions grew more logical and demanded for increased involvement in the management. However, India is slow in adopting socio-technical system and improving QWL. The reasons are 1. The people in India generally are non-adoptive to anything that is new. Initial resistance is evident in adopting anything new, no matter how much it improves the ability of the organization. The management tends to stick on to the traditional methods of getting work done from the employees. As such they did not take any measures to improve QWL for a long time. 2. The employees of the workers in India are also not educated in general. They do not have much logical power. There is also a tendency as said earlier to stick on to the old rather than adopt something new. Some of the unions even felt the measures for improving quality of work life by the management is nothing but getting more work done by the workers with now major costs.

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3. Improving quality of work life also involves considerable amount to be spent by the management. The employers were initially hesitant to spend. This has given negative attitude to employees. But the scene has changed. Now both management and workers are realizing the importance of QWL in fact, QWL has become a buzzword in the industries these days and even laymen talk about it.

MEASURING QWL
Various criteria are evolved in past two decades to measure quality of work life. Various researchers who carried on studies in this area came up with various criteria, which are not entirely different from each other. As cited earlier, though many criteria evolved, Waltons eight factors are considered as a most comprehensive criteria for measurement of QWL. Waltons 8 factor criteria. 1. Adequate and fair compensation. 2. Safe, healthful working conditions. 3. Opportunity to develop human capacities. 4. Opportunity for carrier growth. 5. Social integration in the work place. 6. Constitutionalism. 7. Work and quality of life. 8. Social relevance. Now well look at all these factors separately: 1. Adequate and fair compensation: In spite of the importance gained by the other factors during last two decades, compensation plays a greater role in employees satisfaction. Especially in a country like India, where the employee welfare programs take 22

back seat, compensation is the main source to satisfaction of the employee. Compensation package includes all other fringe benefits and social welfare programs. Fringe benefits give employee a feeling of gaining something extra. Recently the concepts of fringe benefits and social security measures are gaining importance in Indian industrial scene. Free transportation or transportation at minimum cost, hospital facility, group insurance programs, retirement benefits are some of the important welfare programs. What is adequate and fair is another question for discussion. What is adequate at one place may not be same in the other. The urban based organizations usually compensate the extra cost of living, through higher dearness allowances, keeping basic the same. 2. Safe and healthy working conditions: Physical working conditions are the second most important aspect in measuring QWL as Walton rightly categorized. Employees who spend a lot of time at work place consider the physical working conditions an important factor. Especially chemical industries, engineering industries, fertilizer industries etc. where potential possibility of danger exists the management has to take extra care to protect its employees. But most of such industries are covered by factories act, which prescribes norms and conditions to be adopted in such industries to protect its employees. But apart from above mentioned industries, others also have to take steps to maintain proper physical conditions. Proper seating arrangement, water facility, fresh air and good sanitary conditions are important to the employees who engage themselves in deskwork. Absence of such good conditions may result in ailments like back pain and rheumatic pains which in turn frustrates the employees who may develop stress. A physical condition at work places, which is second home for employees, is thus an important factor in measuring QWL.

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3. Opportunity to develop human capacities: An employee is most satisfied given an opportunity to use and develop his capabilities. According to Maslow people want to satisfy their higher order needs once they satisfy their basic needs like fair pay and good physical conditions. These higher orders needs include recognition and social status more regulations and control mechanism by the management may dissatisfy the employee. This was the very reason why Taylor was criticized. An employee provided optimum degree of freedom in work can improve himself on the job which gives him immense satisfaction. Periodic discussions with the employees, calling for his suggestions, and framing work groups like quality circles help employee in improving his capabilities on job. Proper training through various methods not only at the beginning but from time to time also helps an employee to improve his capabilities, which in turn satisfy him. 4. Opportunity for career growth: The employees seek career growth more and more recently. Job security ceased to satisfy employees. Employee tends to drift from jobs, which do not promise career growth. More and more organizations are helping employees in this direction by helping them draw their career paths. The organizations have a counselor for this purpose that helps the employees. Not only drawing career paths, but the organizations also help employer achieve next position through training. Organizational chart is so prepared to accommodate employees in next higher position. Internal promotion system is gaining importance. The employee is prepared to take up a higher position where there is a possibility. Prolonged employment in the same position may cause employee develop stress. Care is to be taken to chart proper career charts for employees at some level so as balance of human resource in the organization is maintained.

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5. Social Integration in the work force:

According to Walton, a satisfying identity and self-esteem are influenced by five characteristics of the work place: freedom from prejudice, egalitarianism, upward mobility, supportive work groups and community of feelings and interpersonal openness. Freedom from prejudice, egalitarianism and upward mobility are the steps to be necessarily taken by the management where as supportive work groups and committees of feelings and interpersonal openness are the result of effort from both management and employees. The employees should also give their complete support and cooperation to make the efforts of management a success. In other words, industrial democracy through establishing work committees which intend to promote measures for securing and preserving amity between employer and workmen and to that end to comment upon matter of their common interest or concern and endeavor to settle any material differences of opinion in respect of such matters. Another step in this direction could be setting up of Joint Management Councils. These were first setup by Industrial Disputes Act 1947. In 1958 Joint Management Councils were meant to

a) Improve working condition, productivity and communication. b) Assist in the administration of law and collective agreements. c) Encourage suggestion from workers and d) Create a sense of participation.

Encouraging participative management schemes help in establishing industrial democracy in the organization, which in turn encourages social integration in the organization. 25

6. Constitutionalism: Bias on part of management, lack of privacy, improper process of discipline etc. tamper the constitutionalism of an organization. The constitutionalism can be considered as hygiene factor i.e. though it may not satisfy or motivate the employees considerably. The absence of it is definitely felt by the employees and may have adverse effects. Though employees consider work place their second home they may not want to disclose or discuss their private lives at work place. As such management should take steps to maintain its employees privacy unless; he himself comes out with his problems, where the management can offer some counseling or any other help. So as in case of bias, it is most dissatisfying to an employee to find out that his colleague is being treated differently from him, which will have an adverse effect on his QWL.

7. Work and quality of life: The very purpose of worker being at work place is his work. As such work itself is or great importance. Satisfactory work can influence the employees QWL immensely. A challenging work, which utilizes the capabilities of employees plays role in QWL. The motto right person for the right job is gaining importance. Emery and thorsurd(1969) identified six psychological requirements of working people. a) The need for variety in the content of a job. b) The need for being able to learn on the job and go on teaming. c) The need for some minimal area of decision-making that the individual can call his own. d) The need for some minimal degree of social support and recognition in the work place. e) The need for the individual to be able to relate what he does and what he produces to his social life. f) The need to feel that the job leads to some sort of desirable future.

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8. Social relevance of work:

The employees feel a need to relate their work socially. For example, those in service-oriented organizations who directly relate their jobs socially and can gain immediate recognition in a group are most satisfied. stress and is frustrated. As such social relevance of the work of each employee is very important in measuring his QWL. If his organization is appreciated/criticized by the government or public on any aspect, the employee develops

PRINCIPLES OF QWL

1. THE PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY: Quality of work life cannot be improved until employees are relived of the anxiety fear and loss of future employment. The working conditions must be safe and fear of economic want should be eliminated. Job security and safety against occupation hazards is an essential precondition of humanization of work.

2. THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUILTY: There should be a direct and positive relation between effort and reward. All types of discrimination between people doing similar work and with same level of performance must be eliminated. Equity also requires sharing the profits of the organization.

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3. THE PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALISM:

Employees differ in terms of their attributes, skills, potential, etc. Therefore, every individual should be providing the opportunity for development of his personality and potential. Humanization of work requires that employees are allowed to decide their own pace of activity and design of work operations.

4. THE PRINCIPLE OF DEMOCRACY: This means greater authority and responsibility to employees. Meaningful participation in the decision making process improves the quality of work life.

TECHNIQUES USED TO IMPROVE QWL

1. JOB REDESIGN: Narrow jobs need to be combined into large units of accomplishment. Jobs should be redesigned to enrich them. Job enrichment helps to satisfy higher order needs by providing interesting, stimulating and challenging work

2. CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Opportunity for career advancement and growth personality improves commitment. Career planning, counseling second careers, etc. help to meet expectations of achievement-oriented employees.

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3. AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUPS: In an autonomous work group, employees are given the freedom of decision-making. In such a group the workers themselves plan, coordinate and control their activities. The group as whole is accountable for success or failure. It is also called a self-managed work team.

4. FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES: Flexible working hours (flextime), staggered hours, reduced work, job sharing, part-time employment and other types of alternative work schedules provide freedom to employees in scheduling their work.

5.

PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT: Employees want to participate in


deciding maters which affect their lives. Therefore, quality circles, management by objectives, suggestion system and other forms of employees participation in management help to improve QWL.

6. JOB SECURITY: Adequate security of job is a high priority of employees and should be provided.

7. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE: The principles of justice, fair and equity should be applied in disciplinary procedure, grievance procedures, promotions, transfers, work assignment, leave, etc.

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HOW TO IMPROVE QWL


1. Fair and equitable remuneration. 2. Reasonable stability of employment. 3. Employee health and safety programs. 4. Alternative work schedules. 5. Participative management or self-managed teams. 6. Recognition of employees as human beings. 7. Congenial worker supervisor relations. 8. Grievance procedures and effective leadership. 9. Sound promotion policy and career development. 10. Management of employee stress. 11. Job redesign and enrichment.

SPECIFIC ISSUES OF QWL


While the management and unions claim any improvement in facilities and financial benefits, the personnel managers task is to identify other specific issues of QWL pertaining in his own organization and work on them. The American authors Klatt, Mudrick and Schuster had identified 11 specific issues in general which we can also adopt. They are, 1. Pay and stability of employment: Pay without stability of employment cannot satisfy the employee. Though stability of employment is not a serious problem in India, the management should ensure its employees stability to make them part of the organizations in its real sense. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index, increase in levels and rates of income tax and profession tax. Stability to a greater extent can be provided by enhancing the facilities for HRD. 30

2. Occupational stress: Stress is a condition of strain on ones emotions, though process and physical condition. Preferring all types of jobs inevitably cause stress, though the intensity may vary from job to job. As such job performance depends upon effective management of stress in addition to the other factors, which in turn depends upon identification as sources of stress. Stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, pause in the work schedule, workers abilitys and nature and match with the job requirements. Stress is caused due to irritability, hyper excitation or depression, unstable behavior, fatigue, stuttering, trembling psychometric pains, heavy smoking and drug abuse. Stress adversely affects employees productivity. The HR manager, in order to minimize the stress, has to identify, prevent and tackle the problem. He may arrange the treatment of the problem with the health unit of the company.

3. Organizational Health Programs: The idea behind such health centers is to develop mental health by maintaining good physical health. This can be done through encouraging employee take up physical exercises, games and sports. Occupational health programs aim at educating employees about health problems means of maintaining and improving of health etc. These programs cover drinking and smoking cessation, hypertension control other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization, disability, excessive job turn over and premature death. This program should also cover relaxation, physical exercise, diet control etc.

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4. Alternative work schedules: Alternative work schedules including work at home, flexible working hours, staggered hours, reduced work week, part time employment which may be introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers as the work schedule which offers the individual the leisure time, flexible hours of work is preferred. 5. Participative Management and Control of work: Trade unions and workers believe that workers participation in management and decision-making improves QWL. Workers also feel that they have control over their work, use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed to anticipate in creative and decisions making process. 6. Recognition: Recognizing the employee as a human being rather than as a laborer increases the QWL. Participative management, awarding the rewarding systems, congratulating the employees for their achievement, job enrichment, offering prestigious designations to the job, providing well furnished and decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association, providing vehicles, offering vacation trips are some means to recognize the employees. 7. Congenial worker-supervisor relations: Harmonious supervisor-worker relations give the worker a sense of social association, belongingness, achievement of work results etc. This in turn leads to better QWL.

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8. Grievance procedure: Workers have a sense of fair treatment when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily.

9. Adequacy of Resources: Resources should match with stated objects otherwise employees will not able to attain the objectives. This results in employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL. 10. Seniority and Merit in promotions: Seniority is generally taken as the basis for promotion in case of operating employees. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people where as seniority cum merit is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure higher QWL.

11. Employment on permanent basis: Employment of workers on casual, temporary or probationary basis gives them a sense of insecurity. On the other hand employment on permanent basis gives them security and leads to higher order QWL

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QWL AND FRINGE BENEFITS:


HR manager has to build and maintain QWL providing a wide range of fringe benefits. Fringe benefits and social security benefits result in improvement in productivity, reduction in absenteeism, turnover, sick leave, alienation etc. These benefits or maintenance activities include medical and health benefits, safety measures, legal and financial services, consumer services, retirements benefits, conveyance, canteen facilities, recreational services, career counseling, employee information reports etc.

QWL AND PRODUCTIVITY:

The general perception is that improvements in QWL. Cost much to the organization. But it is not so, as improvement over the existing salary, working conditions and benefits will not cost much. However, the rate of increase in productivity is higher than that of cost of QWL. Thus, increase in QWL results in increase in productivity. Improved QWL leads to improved performance. Performance should mean not only solving job related problems, accepting orders with enthusiasm, promoting a positive team spirit and accepting temporary unfavorable work conditions with out complaint.

Barriers to QWL:
Quality of work life suffers from barriers like any other new scheme. Management, employees and unions fear the effect of unknown change. All these parties feel that the benefits of this concept are few though they are convinced about its effect on personnel management as a whole and on the individual parties separately, management should develop strategies to improve quality of work life in view of the barriers.

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Strategies for improving QWL:


The strategies for improvement in quality of work life include self-managed work teams, job redesign and enrichment, effective leadership and supervisory behavior, career development, alternative work schedules, job security, administrative or organizational and participating management.

1. Self-managed work teams: These are also called autonomous work groups or integrated work teams. These work teams are formed with 10 to 20 employees who plan, co-ordinate and control the activities of the team with the help of a team leader who is one among them. Each team performs all activities of the team with the help of a team leader who is one among them. Each team performs all activities including selecting their people. Each team has authority to make decisions and regulate the activities. The group as a whole is accountable for the success or failure. Salaries are fixed both on the basis of individual and group achievement.

2. Job redesign and enrichment: Narrow jobs can be combined into larger units of accomplishment. Jobs are redesigned with a view to enriching them to satisfy higher order human needs.

3. Effective leadership and supervisory behavior: for effective leadership and supervisory heavier of managerial grid is suitable.

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4. Career development: provision for career planning, communicating and counseling the employees about the career opportunities, career path, education and development and for second careers should be made.

5. Alternative work schedules: provision for flexible working hours, part time employments, job sharing and reduced work week should be made.

6. Job security: this tops the employees list of priorities. It should be adequately taken care of.

7. Administrative or organizational justice: the principles of justice, fair and equity should be taken care of in disciplinary procedure, grievance procedures, promotions, transfers, demotion, work assignment, leave etc.

8. Participative management: Employees should be allowed to participate in management participative schemes, which may be of several types. The most implementation of these strategies ensures higher level of quality of work life.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Need of the study: The study has been under taken to find out the employees perception regarding Quality Of Work Life at Sri Vinayaka Bajaj and what changes they would like to have.

Objective of the study:


To identify the potential area of improvement in Quality Of Work Life for the effective performance of employees. Scope: scope of the study is restricted to Sri Vinayaka Bajaj only. The sample date is 45 covering Work shop, Show room and Direct marketing.

Primary Data: The main method used for collection of data was questionnaires. The
questionnaires has been designed with respect to the various competencies identified from the books and from experts.

Secondary Data: The secondary data is collected from books, journals of Bajaj and
from Bajaj web site.

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LIMITATIONS

The limitations of this project are

1. As the period for the study is limited for only 45 days the data collected is very limited.

2. As the data is collected in the working hours of the employees, they are busy they could not give the complete response.

3. There may be translation problem and the interpretation of question in their own language may differ from English. This may have change the respondents reply

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ANNEXURE
I am R. Prashant kumar (TKRIMS,HYD) currently pursuing MBA(HR) final semester. As part of my course curriculum. I am doing my project work on quality of work life. The main objective is to study the quality of work life in Sri Vinayaka Bajaj. I request you to spare your valuable time & fill the questionnaire. _____________________________________________________________

SRI VINAYAK BAJAJ Questionnaire On Quality Of Work Life


Name : ___________________

Department: ___________________ Designation: ___________________ Qualification: ___________________ Kindly read each statement mark ( ) your response on the given data
1. Do you get support from superiors?

(yes / no) (yes / no)

2. Do you get a chance to participate in management decision

making?

3. Do you have any job enrichment?

(yes / no) (yes / no)

4. Do you have any job enlargement?

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5. Do you have any job rotation?

(yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no)

6. Does your work get recognition? 7. Do you have adequate and fair compensation? 8. Do you have safe and healthy working conditions?

9. Do you have work life balance?

10. Do you have fair opportunity for continuous growth in personal and

professional life?

11. Do you have training programs for improving quality of work

life?
12. Does

(yes / no)

the organization provide health benefits and medical facilities? (yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no)

13. Do you get freedom to work in the organization? 14. Are you comfortable and satisfied with your job?

15.Do you have good working relation with your colleagues?

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1. Do you get support from superiors?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 10 5 67% 33% Show room 15 12 3 80% 20% Direct Marketing 15 12 3 80% 20%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no

Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

67% respondents of work shop, 80% respondents of both Show room and Direct Marketing said that they get support from superiors. Remaining respondents said that they not getting support from superiors.

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1. Do you get chance to participate in management decision making?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 5 10 33% 67% Show room 15 14 1 93% 7% Direct Marketing 15 12 3 80% 20%

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% yes no Show room Direct Marketing Work shop

33% respondents of work shop, 93% respondents of Show room and 80% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they get chance to participate in management decision. Remaining respondents said that they dont get chance to participate in management decision

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2. Do you have any job enrichment?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 7 8 46% 54% Show room 15 10 5 67% 33% Direct Marketing 15 12 3 80% 20%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

46% respondents of work shop, 67% respondents of Show room and 80% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have job enrichment. Remaining respondents said that they dont have job enrichment.

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3. Do you have any job enlargement?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 10 5 67% 33% Show room 15 12 3 80% 20% Direct Marketing 15 9 6 60% 40%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

33% respondents of work shop, 80% respondents of Show room and 60% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have job enlargement Remaining respondents said that they dont have job enlargement.

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4. Do you have any job rotation?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 6 9 40% 60% Show room 15 10 5 67% 33% Direct Marketing 15 12 3 80% 20%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

40% respondents of work shop, 67% respondents of Show room and 80% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have job rotation. Remaining respondents said that they dont have job rotation.

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5. Does your work get recognition?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 12 3 80% 20% Show room 15 14 1 93% 7% Direct Marketing 15 13 2 87% 13%

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% yes no Show room Direct Marketing Work shop

80% respondents of work shop, 93% respondents of Show room and 87% respondents of Direct Marketing said that their work gets recognized. Remaining respondents said that their work wont get recognized..

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6. Do you have adequate and fair compensation?

Departments Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % 15 4 1 27% 73% 15 15 13 12 1 2 3 87% 80% 13% 20%

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no

Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

27% respondents of work shop, 87% respondents of Show room and 80% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have adequate and fair compensation. Remaining respondents said that they dont have adequate and fair compensation.

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7. Do you have safe and healthy working condition?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 3 12 20% 80% Show room 15 12 3 80% 20% Direct Marketing 15 6 9 40% 60%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

20%% respondents of work shop, 80% respondents of Show room and 40% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have safe and healthy working condition. Remaining respondents said that they dont have safe and healthy working condition.

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8. Do you have work life balance?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 5 10 33% 67% Show room 15 12 3 80% 20% Direct Marketing 15 4 11 27% 73%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

33% respondents of work shop, 80% respondents of Show room and 27% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have work life balance. Remaining respondents said that they dont have work life balance.

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9. Do you have fair opportunity for continuous growth in personal and professional life?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 2 13 13% 87% Show room 15 8 7 53% 47% Direct Marketing 15 12 3 80% 20%

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no

Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

13% respondents of work shop, 53% respondents of Show room and 80% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have fair opportunity for continuous growth in personal and professional life. Remaining respondents said that they dont have fair opportunity for continuous growth in personal and professional life.

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10.Do you have training programs for improving quality of work life?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 4 11 27% 73% Show room 15 9 6 60% 40% Direct Marketing 15 2 13 13% 87%

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no

Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

27% respondents of work shop, 60% respondents of Show room and 13% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they have training programs for improving Quality of work life. Remaining respondents said that dont have training programs for improving Quality of work life.

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11.Does the organization provide health benefits and medical facilities?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 15 0 100% 0% Show room 15 15 0 100% 0% Direct Marketing 15 15 0 100% 0%

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% yes no Show room Direct Marketing Work shop

100% respondents of work shop, Show room and Direct Marketing said that they get health benefits and medical facilities.

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12.Do you get freedom to work in the organization?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 12 3 80% 20% Show room 15 13 2 87% 13% Direct Marketing 15 12 3 80% 20%

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes no

Work shop Show room Direct Marketing

80% respondents of work shop, 87% respondents of Show room and 80% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they get freedom to work in the organization. Remaining respondents said that they not getting freedom to work in the organization.

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13. Are you comfortable and satisfied with your job?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 12 3 80% 20% Show room 15 14 1 93% 7% Direct Marketing 15 10 5 67% 33%

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% yes no Show room Direct Marketing Work shop

80% respondents of work shop, 93% respondents of Show room and 67% respondents of Direct Marketing said that they are comfortable and satisfied with their job. Remaining respondents said that they not comfortable and satisfied with their job.

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14.Do you have good working relation with your colleagues?

Departments No. Of Employees Yes No Yes % No % Work shop 15 15 0 100% 0% Show room 15 15 0 100% 0% Direct Marketing 15 15 0 100% 0%

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% yes no Show room Direct Marketing Work shop

100% respondents of work shop, Show room and Direct Marketing said that they have good working relation with their colleagues.

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FINDINGS

Most of the respondents of the organization responded that they get support from superiors. Respondents of the show room and direct marketing responded that they get chance to participate in management decision. 80% respondents of work shop, 93% respondents of show room and 87% respondents of direct marketing said that their work gets recognized. Most of the employees of the show room responded that they have safe and healthy working condition. Most of the employees of the work shop responded that they dont have safe and healthy working condition All respondents of the organization responded that they get health benefits and medical facilities. 93% respondents of the organization responded that they are satisfied with their job. All respondents of the organization responded that they have good working relation with their colleagues.

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SUGESSTIONS

Employees participation has to be increased in the organization not only has the participation, an environment has to be enable when the employees feel that their voices are being heard and that they have a say in decision making. In order to motivate the employees, job rotation needs to be encouraged. Better safety & healthy working condition should provide to the work shop employees. Organization should provide flexible working hours for the employees. Work pressures to the employees must be kept in control to maintain work life balance.

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CONCLUSION

QWL plays an important role in the organization: it helps in changing the entire organizational climate by humanizing work, individualizing organization and changing the structural and managerial systems. QWL denotes improvements in the psychological aspect of work to improve productivity. It also refers to the quality of relationship between employees and total working environment. Much importance is given to the QWL because of following reasons: Fair compensation, safe & healthy working conditions, work and personal life balance. Absence of QWL leads to several disadvantages for an organization. The psychological & physical needs of the workers are not taken care, and this leads to lower productivity. The performance of the employees decrease as the work environment will not be conducive. QWL at SRI VINAYAKA BAJAJ is satisfactory to the employees. Work environment in Sri Vinayaka Bajaj is very effective and the performances of the employees are high. Employees are very much satisfied with the QWL and are benefited in all aspects of their physical and psychological needs. The work culture and the environment are very conducive to work. People feel like family, while doing the wok, as a QWL brings them to work collectively and be responsible to each other. However, some employees are not aware of QWL training programs.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
1. HRM by GARY DESSLER (Addition 10, published on 2005 page no.150-192) 2. Personal & HRM by P.SUBBA RAO (Addition 9, published on 2005 page no.128-135) 3. HRM by A. M. SHARMA (Addition 9, published on 2006 page no.81-105) 4. HRM by BISWAJEET PATNAYAK (Addition 10, published on 2006 page no.81-90)

Websites
www.bajajauto.com www.questia.com

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